Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

CEWB222
Hydraulics Engineering
PROJECT
Green Roof



Section (no) : 2
Group members : Vivien Lai Mei Yen (CE093314)
Veronica Kelly A/P David (CE093814)
NurFatin Binti Abdul Rahaman (CE093472)
Siti Nur Ilyana Ahmad Safari (CE093734)
Date of report
submission :
14/8/2014
Lecturer : Dr. Mohd Hafiz Bin Zawawi
Table of Content
1. Introduction 1
2. Literature Review 2
3. Green Roof Concept 3
4. Green Roof Model 4-5
5. Advantages 6
6. Disadvantages 6
7. Green Roof Scenario in Malaysia 7
8. Stormwater Management 8-9
9. Design Concept of Stormwater
using MSMA
9-10
10. Conclusion 11
References 12

















1. Introduction
Depleting natural resources has appealed to sustainable developments. Green
technology or green innovation is the common term for a particular method which can
improve quality of natural resources such as water and air by inducing no or minimal
pollutants to the nature. Malaysia is a developing country and it is inevitable that more
natural resources are sacrificed for purpose of development and commercial activities.
One of the prominent depleting natural resource in densely built urban areas is green
spaces. It is a norm that green spaces in urban areas are replaced with impervious
surfaces like concrete and roadways and phenomenon like Urban Heat Island (UHI) and
flash flood are pertinent to excessive impervious surfaces. Green Building Index (GBI)
aims to evaluate the design and performance of local buildings with responses to degree
of damages to environment and energy consumption. Green roof is suggested as one of
the environmental friendly innovation under category of sustainable site planning and
management. In fact, Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA)
was firstly introduced in 2001 as a guideline to adopt and design Best Management
Practices (BMPs) in controlling stormwater in term of quantity and quality to achieve
least impacts of post-development hydrologically [7]. Recently, MSMA second edition
was released in 2012 whereby additional BMPs like bioretention was compiled and
revised into the manual. However, green roof was not compiled under MSMA yet
though it is one of the BMPs as well. As other stormwater manuals applied at overseas
like SUDs (UK), LID [ Lower Impact Development] (USA), and WSUD[Water
Sensitive Urban Design] (Australia) have been suggesting that green roofs can be used
as a practice for stormwater quantity and quality controls, thus there is a urge to study
the performances of green roof under local tropical climate. The scientific data obtained
can be applied to develop design guideline of green roof system for Malaysia in future.








2. Literature Review on Green Roof Performances
Numerous studies and researches conducted overseas have proven that extensive green
roof gives positive effects on peak discharge reduction and thermal reduction. Green
roofs reduce runoff by delaying the initial time of runoff due to absorption of water in
the green roof, reducing the total runoff by retaining part of the rainfall, and spreading
the residual runoff over a long time period through a relatively slow release of the excess
water that is stored in the substrate layer [2]. Two extensive green roofs installed at
North Carolina of America indicated that both of these roofs retained 64% of the total
precipitation recorded and each green roof showed reduction in average peak flow by
more than 75% [3]. Water storage capacity or stormwater retention ability has close
relationship with rainfall intensity [4][5], the ability decreases during heavy storm events
Green Roof contributes to building insulation and energy efficiency by trapping air layer
within the plant mass so that the building surface is cooled in summer and warmed in
water[5]. Vegetation of green roof act as a cooling agent by dissipating portion of city
heat via evapotraspiration, thus green roof is applied as a way to combat urban heat
island effect and to conserve more energy which is initially used to cool the buildings.
Green roof were able to reduce solar energy hained up to 90% when compared with non-
greened top buildings, indoor temperature for green roofs building was reported to have
reduction of 3-4C as outdoor temperature ranges between 25 to 30C[4].
Performance of green roof in enhancing water quality is debatable since it sometimes
can be a source of nutrients/pollutants to the outflow. Green roofs did remove
phosphorus concentration during moderate storms but not the efficient filter for pH,
BOD, and COD [5]. However, higher concentration of TN and TP were observed in the
green roof outflow during the first two years of green roofs life and its media was the
origin of the nutrients [3].







3. Green Roof Concept
Green roofs are made of a system of manufactured layers deliberately placed over
roofing structures which support growing medium and vegetation. Green roof systems
can be generally divided into extensive green roof (Eco-roofs) and intensive green roof
(Podium Garden & Sky Gardens) [1][6]. Extensive green roof is low-weighted and
requires only minimal maintenance. On contrary, intensive green roof is much heavier
and requires higher construction cost and constant maintenance. Its substrate layer over
150mm is a common. The basic components of a green roof system regardless of
extensive or intensive are vegetation, growth media, drainage layer, filter layer, water
proofing layer and protection layer. The type of vegetation selected for the green roof
system in HTC is Zoysia Japonica (Japan Grass). Figure 1 shows the configuration of
green roof components in HTC(Humid Tropics Center) Kuala Lumpur, while Figure 2
shows the retrofitted green roof system for surau located in HTC.










4. Green Roof Model

Figure 3: The layer of a green roof system from the roof to the plants
Source: Spala et al, 2008.

Figure 4: The components of green roof systems installed on the conventional roofing
system Source: Liu and Baskaran, 2003.


Figure 5: Cross-section of a typically used layer of extensive green roof system.
Source: Getter and Rowe, 2006.



Figure 6: A roof between 5 and 20 degrees is ideal for a green roof because it allows the
water to drain naturally. [Illustration of courtesy of Bauverlag GmbH, Germany.




5. Advantages
Green roofs can
Filter pollutants in the air.
Contribute to Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) points.
Create a habitat for wildlife.
Extend the lifetime of a roof.
Reduce the heat island effect.
Reduce heating and cooling bills.
Help to insulate a building for sound.
Absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen.
Become healing gardens or herb and vegetable gardens.
Turn an unattractive, unused space into a park-like setting.
Become a source of income, by leasing the space out for events.
Reduce storm water runoff and therefore decrease the size of a water retention
pond.




6. Disadvantages

Initial costs of installing a green roof can be double that of a normal roof.

Some types of green roofs do have more demanding structural standards
especially in seismic regions of the world.

Some existing buildings cannot be retrofitted with certain kinds of green roof
because of the weight load of the substrate and vegetation exceeds
permitted static loading.

Depending on what kind of green roof it is, the maintenance costs could be
higher, but some types of green roof have little or no ongoing cost.

Some kinds of green roofs also place higher demands on
the waterproofing system of the structure, both because water is retained on the
roof and due to the possibility of roots penetrating the waterproof membrane.

Another detractor is that the wildlife they attract may include pest insects which
could easily infiltrate a residential building through open windows.



7. Green Roof in Malaysian Scenario

In Malaysia, the information on green roof technology is still lacking. Until now, it is
hard to get the previous research done by Malaysian researchers regarding to this kind of
technology. However, this technology has been implemented in Singapore by a group of
researchers from National University of Singapore and the result shows the positive
impact. The green roof is said to be able to mitigate the urban heat island effect in the
tropical environment. However, to retrofit the roof with green roof technology is not an
easy job. The physical structural of most existing building might prevent the
establishment of green roof since the green roof requires the roof structure, which can
support heavy loads. According to livingroofs.org, the load values for saturated weight
of extensive green roof are from 60 kg/m
2
to 150 kg/m
2
while for intensive green roof is
200 kg/m
2
to 500 kg/m
2
.

Therefore, most of the existing building only can support
extensive green roof system. This saturated weight was obtained from standards outlined
in German National Standard DIN 1055 Design Loading for Buildings. The initial
cost of green roof also becomes one of the major considerations when thinking of
constructing a green roof. According to previous researches done by well known
researchers, the initial cost of green roof tends to be higher than the conventional roof
system. The cost of green roof is 7% higher than that of conventional roof system. The
net present value of extensive green roof ranges from 10% to 14% more expensive than
the conventional type (Carter & Keeler, 2007 cited Lee, 2004) (see Carter & Keeler,
2007). However, even though the cost of installation of green roof is doubled from the
conventional roof, it is worthy in terms of roof life span and maintenance after several
years of installation.
Currently in Malaysia, the contractors that specialized in green roof construction are
very limited. Therefore the technical information on how to build the green roof is quite
hard to get. In order to encourage the construction of green roof in Malaysia, extensive
research must be carried out. Knowledge and awareness would help to educate the
public so that the implementation of green roof design can be widespread.





8. Stormwater Management
Managing the quantity and quality of stormwater is termed Stormwater
Management(SWM). The term Best Management Practice (BMP) is often used to refer
to both structural or engineered control devices and systems (e.g. retention ponds) to
treat polluted stormwater, as well as operational or procedural practices (Ismail, 2012).
There are many forms of stormwater management and BMPs, including:

I. Manage stormwater to control flooding and erosion
Ii. Manage and control hazardous materials to prevent release of pollutants into the
environment (source control)
Iii. Plan and construct stormwater systems so contaminants are removed before they
pollute surface waters or groundwater resources
Iv. Acquire and protect natural waterways where they still exist or can be rehabilitated.
V. Build "soft" structures such as ponds, swales or wetlands to work with existingor
"hard" drainage structures, such as pipes and concrete channelsvi. Revise current
stormwater regulations to address comprehensive stormwater needs
Vii. Enhance and enforce existing ordinances to make sure property owners consider the
effects of stormwater before, during and after development of their land
Viii. Educate a community about how its actions affect water quality, and about what it
can do to improve water quality
Ix. Proper planning to create solutions before problems become too great.

Wet weather green infrastructure (Green Roof) encompasses approaches and
technologies to infiltrate, evapotranspire, capture, and reuse stormwater to maintain or
restore natural hydrologies.

Green roofs can help ease this problem because they absorb and recycle rainwater. The
soil layer and plants soak up water that would otherwise immediately run off into storm
sewer. On average, 75% of water is retained on an extensive green roof, stored in plants
and the soil layer. Only about 25% of water becomes runoff, but this occurs several
hours after the peak flow. When the green roof reaches full saturation, excess water
slowly percolates through the vegetation layer toa drainage outlet. The soil layer traps
sediments, leaves and other particles, treating runoff before it reaches the outlet. Of
course, different soil substrates and vegetation provides different water retention
capacities. On average, a 1-inch deep moss and sedum layer over a 2-inch gravel bed
retains about 58% of water, a 2.5-inch deep sedum and grass layer retains about 67%,
and a 4-inch layer of grass and herbaceous vegetation retains about 71% of water.4 In a
major 2-inch rainstorm, generating about 1.25 gallons of water per square foot, a 2.5-
inch thick extensive green roof would retain approximately 0.5 gallon of water per
square foot, or 40%.5 The greatest cost benefit is provided by the first inch of soil and
vegetation cover. However, it is recommended to install a 2.5 to 3-inch soil cover to
support and maintain a diverse and healthy plant community.

9. Design Concept Of Stormwater Management Using MSMA

Initially, peak discharges is the main variables of hydrology in drainage system design
which related to the highest water surface level during storm event. It can be defined as
the maximum volume flow rate that passes a 2 particular site during a storm event, and it
has units of volume per time, such as cubic meter per second(m3/s) and cubic feet per
second (ft3/s). John Roe carried out the first analysis in1852. He published an
observations record for London sewers. In 1857, Hawksley built analytical expressions
to Roes data to make a correlation between the magnitude of peak discharge and the
drainage area. Over the half century that followed, Hawksleys formula produced a
generation of pseudo empirical equations of peak flow estimation. However, he
particularly did not consider meteorological variables such as rainfall intensity and
frequency of estimated peak discharges. In 1879, Major E.T.C Myers developed the
Myers formula which computes the area of waterway, Ac. The area was independent of
landuse and rainfall, although coefficient Cm corresponded to the rainfall intensity.
Nevertheless, it has limited to small catchment areas.




Where Ac is the area of the waterway in acres, Cm is a coefficient which reflects
the slope of the drainage area, and A is the drainage area in acres. A Swiss Hydraulic
Engineer, A. Burkli-Ziegler introduced The Burkli-Ziegler Formula
in 1880. He computed the unit discharge (ft3/sec/acre), qm using




in which Cb is a runoff coefficient, i is the average rainfall intensity (in/hr) during
heavy rainfall, S is the average ground slope (ft/1000 ft), and A is the drainage area

in acres. Cb depends on the landcover, with special emphasis on the relative
imperviousness.

Professor A.N. Tablot from the University of Illinois carried on the studies on the
determination the drainage areas in 1887. He presented the Talbot Formula which as
generated from the Burkli-Ziegler.



Where a is waterway cross-sectional area in ft2, Ct is a runoff coefficient, and A
is the drainage area in acres.











Ac = CmA0.5

qm = Cbi (S/A)0.25

a = CtA0.75

10. Conclusions
Findings show that the performances of extensive green roof system in HTC (Humid
Tropics Center) are promising under local tropical climate. Simulations in design storms
and actual storm events indicated that it could reduce the peak discharge relative to
impervious brown roof. However, its ability reduced for storms with intense rainfall.
The water quality of the outflow produced by the green roof was generally good and
achieved high WQI.(Water Quality Index)However, it was a source of PO4 and basic
outflow were noticed producing from the green roof during storms. Substrates of the
green roof could be the essential factor in affecting the quality of the outflow.Cooler
environment was created inside the green roof building since reduction of indoor
temperature was noticed after installation of the green roof system
















References
[1] Derek T 2007 Study on Green Roof Application in Hong Kong Final Report 77-
81&100-104
[2] Mentens J, Raes D, Hermy M 2006 Green Roof as a Tool For Solving the Rainwater
Runoff Problem in
The Urbanized 21st Century? J. of Landscape and Urban Planning 77 217-226
[3] Moran A, Hunt B, Jennings G 2005 A Field Study of Green Roof Hydrologic and
Water Quality
Performance American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineer ISSN 0001-
2351
[4] Ni J Y 2009 Green Roof Study: Stormwater Quantity, Quality and Thermal
Performance M.S thesis
(University of Pittsburgh, USA)
[5] Villarreal E L and Bengtsson L 2005 Response of a sedum green-roof to individual
rain events
Ecological Engineering 25 1-7
[6] Kah H K, Lariyah M S, Mohamed Roseli Z A, Hidayah B, Salmia B, Shuhairy N and
Herdayati K 2012
Green Roof as an Option of Green Technology for Urban Stormwater Management
Controls 5th
Engineering Conference (EnCon 201) 10-12 July 2012 (Kuching, Sarawak)
[7] Lariyah M S, Mohd Nor M D , Mohamed Roseli Z A, Zulkefli M, Amirah Hanim M
P 2011
Application of Water Sensitive Urban Design at Local Scale in Kuala Lumpur 12th
International Conference on Urban Drainage (12ICUD) 10- 15 September 2011 (Porto
Alegre, Brazil)

http://www.greenroofs.com/pdfs/archives-katrin.pdf
https://www.academia.edu/4564558/Stormwater_Quality_Management_in_Malaysia