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Solution 1

Sources for energy penalty of desalination

Process Operating cost / Acre-Feet (AF)

Reverse Osmosis $3,173.78


Multi stage Flash (MSF) $5,301.20
Multiple Effects (MED) $5,306.54

Total water = (2000 L / day) * (365 days/ year) * 3.359 billion


= 2,452,070 billion liters / year
Total energy = (2,452,070 * 10^9 L / year) * (KWH / L)
= (2,452,070 * 10^9 * KWH) / (365*24 hours)
= 279.9 * 10^12 W
= 279.9 TW

Solution 2

World Irrigated Are

49

47
After projecting the irrigated area per thousand people, we get 42.47 hectares in 2025 and
39.94 hectares in 2050. Therefore, the land productivity should be increased 9.6% in
2025 and 15.02%
in 2050.

Solution 3

25.0
recalculated percapita fish

20.0

15.0
harvest

10.0

5.0

0.0
1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
years

Solution 5

Annual increase in world population

0.1
population in billions

0.09
Increase in world

0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
1950-51
1954-55
1958-59
1962-63
1966-67
1970-71
1974-75
1978-79
1982-83
1986-87
1990-91
1994-95
1998-99
2002-03
2006-07

Years
Though there were fluctuations in the early years, later on the birth rates outnumbered the
death rates. Much of the mortality decline occurred due to modern changes in medical
technology and treatment. Declining death rates in combination with continuing high
birthrates triggered the rapid growth of the population. At some period birth rates
decreased due to decline in fertility rates. There was a stable population growth almost
for a decade from 1994 to 2004 which is due to dramatic changes in economic and social
conditions, ideas about the family and the role of children and women, the availability of
family planning programs, and the acceptance and use of contraception. The decrease in
population in 2004-05 is due to the natural calamities like tsunami and floods around the
world.

Solution 6

Total world population = 6,801,100,000


Population of OECD countries (USA, Canada, Europe, Japan) = 1,200,094, 389
Population of developing countries = 5,601,005,611
Per capita of developed world = 0.176
Per capita of developing world = 0.823
Number of Deaths / people in developed world = 13.4 * 10^6 / 1,200,094,389
= 0.011
= 11 deaths per 1000 people
Number of Deaths / people in developing world = 43.5 * 10^6 / 5,601,005,611
= 0.007
= 7 deaths per 1000 people
Solution 7

Plot showing AIDS deaths, HIV cases and annual change of both cases

100.0
90.0
80.0
70.0 HIV CASES
60.0
50.0
40.0 AIDS DEATHS

30.0
20.0 CHANGE IN
10.0 HIV CASES CHANGE IN
0.0 AIDS CASES

-10.01975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010


Year

The AIDS deaths and HIV cases increased drastically over all the years but the change in
HIV cases and AIDS deaths declined in recent years.