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CHSP

HUNGARIAN STUDIES SERIES


NO. 18

EDITORS
Peter Pastor
Ivan Sanders

A Joint Publication with the


Institute of Habsburg History, Budapest

The
Kingdom of Hungary
and the
Habsburg Monarchy
in the Sixteenth
Century
The
Kingdom of Hungary
and the
Habsburg Monarchy
in the Sixteenth
Century
z

Gza Plffy
Translated from the Hungarian by
THOMAS J. and HELEN D. DEKORNFELD

Social Science Monographs, Boulder, Colorado


Center for Hungarian Studies and Publications, Inc.
Wayne, New Jersey
Distributed by Columbia University Press, New York
2009

EAST EUROPEAN MONOGRAPHS


NO. DCCXXXV

.
2009 Gza Plffy
2009 by the Center for Hungarian Studies and
Publications, Inc.
47 Cecilia Drive, Wayne, New Jersey
074704649
E-mail: pastorp@mail.montclair.edu
This book is a joint publication with the
Institute of Habsburg History, Budapest
www.Habsburg.org.hu

Library of Congress Control Number 2008936732


ISBN 9780880336338
Printed in the United States of America

In loving memory of Pl Engel (19382001) and


Ferenc Szakly (19421999)

CONTENTS
List of Illustrations
Acknowledgments
1. INTRODUCTION: HUNGARY AND THE HABSBURGS
IN THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD
Prejudices and Debatable Interpretations
Turning Points in the History of the Kingdom of Hungary
and of the Habsburg Monarchy
The Fateful but Little Known Sixteenth Century
The Fallacy of the Projection of the Nation-State
Concept onto the Early Modern Era
On Sources and New Researches

xi
xv
1
1
6
8
10
13

2. BETWEEN OTTOMANS AND HABSBURGS


A Small Composite State: The Kingdom of Hungary
in the Late Middle Ages
A Country to be Conquered: The Ottomans and Hungary
A Much Coveted Throne: The Habsburgs and the
Kingdom of Hungary

17

3. MOHCS AND PARTITION


The Battle that Determined Central Europes Fate
Two Kings on the Throne of Hungary
Civil War and Partition
A Very Important but Dangerous Bulwark

35
35
37
41
48

4. VIENNA, THE NEW ADMINISTRATIVE CENTER


OF HUNGARY
The Composite Monarchy of the Habsburgs
in Central Europe

17
23
27

53
53

viii

CONTENTS

The Political and Centralization Program of Ferdinand I


Vienna: Fortress, Residence, and Center of Political
Decision Making
5. HUNGARIAN ARISTOCRACY AND THE HABSBURG
COURT
The Joint Habsburg Court and the Virtual Royal
Hungarian One
Difficulties with the Viennese and Prague Integration
The Options of the Hungarian Political Elite after
Integration
Beginnings of a Supranational Aristocracy
6. DEFENDING THE COMPOSITE STATE
Hungary, an Important but Largely Unknown Bulwark
The Protective Bastion of the Monarchy: The New
Border-Defense System
The Price of Foreign Assistance
The Importance of a Military Career
The Sixteenth Century Military Revolution
7. HUNGARYS FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE
MONARCHY
Hungary, a Dangerous but Wealthy Country
Financial Administration Reforms in Hungary
An Important Source of Revenues for the Monarchy:
The Revenues of the Kingdom of Hungary
The Beginning of Administrative Careers in Hungary
8. FEEDING CENTRAL EUROPE
In the Economic Mainstream of Europe
A Fragmented CountryClose Economic Ties
The Larder of the Habsburg CourtThe MilitaryIndustrial Market of the Monarchy
The Flowering of Hungarian Enterprises in the
Sixteenth Century

59
65
71
71
76
82
86
89
89
94
104
109
112
119
119
121
129
134
139
140
145
149
153

CONTENTS

ix

9. INSTITUTIONS OF SOVEREIGNTY
Sovereignty in a Composite State
Election of a King or Acceptance of One
The Hungarian Council and the Highest Dignitaries
of the Country
The Principal Arena of Estate Resistance: The Diet
Dispensing Justice, the Legal System, and SelfGovernment of the Nobility

157
157
161

10. SYMBOLS OF SOVEREIGNTY


Preservation of the Unity of St. Stephens Realm
The Titles, Coats of Arms and Banners of the
Hungarian Rulers
Coronations in Pozsony: A Virtual Hungarian
Royal Court
The Kingdom of Hungary in the Dynastic
Representations of the Habsburgs:
Coronations and Funerals in the Monarchy

193
193

11. THE HUNGARIAN ESTATES AND THE BOCSKAI


UPRISING
Hungary in Ruins, Armed Counter-Reformation,
Shaky Political Equilibrium
The Turkish Emigration from Transylvania, the
Transtisza Haiduks and the Estates of Upper Hungary
Uprising, Local and Countrywide Civil War among
the Estates
Rearrangement of Power in 16051608: Strengthening of the Estates and Advances of the Lay Elite
and of the Lesser Nobility

168
177
186

194
200
204
209
209
213
217
221

12. CONCLUSION: CHANGES AFTER 1526 IMPACTING


THE CENTURIES TO FOLLOW

235

Appendix A
List of Rulers and Highest Dignitaries of Hungary

245
247

CONTENTS

Appendix B
Gazetteer
Appendix C
Hungarian Baronial Appointments and
Justifications for the Patents
Abbreviations
Notes
Archival Collections and Published Sources
Figures
Maps
Name Index
Place Index
About the Author
Books Published by CHSP

257
259
267
269
273
279
351
363
375
385
397
407
408

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
TABLES
1. The Kingdom of Hungary, the Austrian Hereditary
Provinces, and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown
at the Beginning of the Sixteenth Century

20

2. The Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary


about 1520

25

3. The Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy


of Ferdinand I at the End of the 1520s

45

4. The Kingdom of Hungary, the Austrian Hereditary


Provinces, and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown
in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century

52

5. The Sequence of Banners at the Funeral Procession


of Ferdinand I in Vienna on August 6, 1565

54

6. The Districts of the Hungarian-Croatian State in


the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

57

7. Pay for the Soldiers in the Hungarian-Croatian Border


Defense System. Annual Revenues of the Kingdom
of Hungary, and Military Expenditure Estimates
(15451593)

91

8. The Number of Border Fortresses and the Prescribed


Number of Soldiers in Hungary and in the CroatianSlavonian Territory in the Second Half of the
Sixteenth Century

99

xii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

9. Annual Revenues of the Kingdom of Hungary by


Chambers in the Middle of the 1570s
10. The Revenues of the Kingdom of Hungary by Source
of Revenue in the Middle of the 1570s

130
131

FIGURES
1. The Family Ties of the Habsburgs at the Turn of the
Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

364

2. The Hungarian Royal Titles of the Habsburgs in the


Second Half of the Sixteenth Century

365

3. The Marital Ties of the Hungarian Aristocracy in the


Habsburg Monarchy in the Second Half of the
Sixteenth Century

366

4. A Steyr Knife from the Bajcsavr Excavations (Last


Third of the Sixteenth Century)

367

5. An Austrian Jug from the Bajcsavr Fortress (Last


Third of the Sixteenth Century)

367

6. A 1573 Nuremberg Pocket Sundial from the Bajcsavr


Excavations

367

7. Lead Seal of a Bale of Cloth from Nuremberg with the


Initial and Coat of Arms of the German Imperial City
(Bajcsavr, Last Third of the Sixteenth Century),

368

8. The Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Hungary in the


Sixteenth Century. The So-Called Hungarian Small
Coat of Arms

368

9. Banner of the Kingdom of Hungary Paraded in the


Funeral Procession of Ferdinand I in August 1565
in Vienna

369

10. Banner of Slavonia Paraded in the Funeral Procession


of Ferdinand I in August 1565 in Vienna

369

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

xiii

11. Common Banner of Bosnia, Serbia, Bulgaria, and


Cumania Paraded in the Funeral Procession of
Ferdinand I in August 1565 in Vienna

370

12. Insignia of the Kingdom of Hungary Paraded in the


Funeral Procession of Ferdinand I in August 1565
in Vienna

370

13a. Banners of the Countries of the Realm of St. Stephen


Paraded in the Hungarian Coronation Procession of
Ferdinand II of Habsburg in July 1618 in Pozsony

371

13b. Banners of the Countries of the Realm of St. Stephen


Paraded in the Hungarian Coronation Procession of
Ferdinand II of Habsburg in July 1618 in Pozsony

372

14. Catafalque (castrum doloris) of Ferdinand I in August


1565 in Vienna

368

15. The Administration of the Kingdom of Hungary in the


Last Third of the Sixteenth Century

373

MAPS
1. The Realm of St. Stephen in the Late Middle Ages

376

2. Central Europe, c. 1520

377

3. Ottoman Campaigns in Hungary (15211552)

378

4. Ottoman Campaigns in Hungary (15521606)

379

5. Development of the Principality of Transylvania


between 1541 and 1570

380

6. The Composite Monarchy of the Habsburgs in Central


Europe in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century

381

7. Administration of the Kingdom of Hungary in the


Second Half of the Sixteenth Century

382

xiv

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

8. The Border Defense System in Hungary against the


Ottomans (after 1580)
9. Foreign Trade of Hungary in the Second Half of the
Sixteenth Century

383
384

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This book deals with the Kingdom of Hungary, torn
into three parts after the 1526 Battle of Mohcs. It deals particularly
with the segment which became part of a new central European Habsburg conglomerate of lands and nations and of a new Monarchy but
which remained the direct legal descendant of the five hundred yearold Hungarian Kingdom, the realm of St. Stephen. The book focuses
primarily on the position of Hungary in the Monarchy, its integration
into this new structure and the peculiar sovereignty it assumed in this
framework. The complex system of the relationships and the functioning of the kingdom are emphasized.
The four centuries of Hungarian-Habsburg symbiosis were frequently discussed, after the middle of the nineteenth century, from the
perspective of, and with the myths and prejudices of the contemporary
policies and ideologies. Thus, the Habsburgs were frequently represented as the oppressors of Hungarian independence and the Kingdom
of Hungary was viewed as a colony of the Monarchy and as a buffer
state vis--vis the Ottoman Empire.
It is my intent to examine the sixteenth century relationship
between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Hungary with an
approach different from the previously popular anti-Habsburg or proHabsburg perspective or from the colony versus independence point of
view. I have endeavored to discuss the multilayered system of relationships from the perspective of both sides and on the basis of previously
only poorly understood new documentation. I map out the conflicts, the
debates, the compromises and the resignations in the various areas,
such as administration, the court, military and financial matters and
matters of sovereignty.
I hope that I was able in this volume to do away with most of the still
very active prejudices and myths about the Habsburgs and about the

xvi

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Hungarian elite that cooperated with them. If I was successful, it was due
largely to the support of my teachers, my colleagues, and the many
staffers of a number of central European archives. First and foremost I
wish to thank my university professors. I was introduced to the history
of the Ottoman Empire, to the power-struggle between the Ottomans
and the Habsburgs and the basic methods of historical research by
Gbor goston who is presently on the History Department of Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., USA. It was the recently deceased
va H. Balzs who taught me to always think in an international framework and to cooperate actively with colleagues from many lands. The
appreciation of archival research was imparted to me by Lajos Gecsnyi
and by the late Ferenc Szakly who always watched my work with great
interest and a quasi paternal affection. I wish to dedicate this book to the
memory of Ferenc Szakly and Pl Engel. Working with the late Andrs
Kubinyi, I not only learned about the history of the late medieval Kingdom of Hungary and about the often ignored importance of that era but
I have also become acquainted with his masterful survey, The Realm of
St. Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 8951526, which had a
major impact on a number of chapters in this work.
The same can be said about a number of colleagues on the international scene whom I got to know first from their writings and later,
personally, at conferences and during archival research. They include
Robert J. W. Evans from Oxford, Jeroen Duindam from Utrecht, Jean
Brenger, and Olivier Chaline from Paris, Joachim Bahlcke from
Stuttgart, Anton Schindling and Mrta Fata from Tbingen, Mark Hengerer from Konstanz, Meinolf Arens from Munich, Vclav Bek and
some of his pupils (Josef Hrdlika, Pavel Krl, Zdenk Vybral and
Tom Sterneck) from esk Budjovice, Jaroslava Hausenblasov,
Jaroslav Pnek and Petr Mata from Prague, Tom Knoz from Brno,
Milan Kruhek, Hrvoje Petri and Nataa tefanec from Zagreb, Tatiana
Gusarova and Olga Khavanova from Moscow, Michael Hochedlinger,
Katrin Keller, Richard Perger, Peter Rauscher, Karl Vocelka and
Thomas Winkelbauer from Vienna. Winkelbauer acquainted me with
the scholars of the Habsburg Monarchy, supported my first German
language publication and always assisted me most generously. It was
their advice, friendly cooperation, and assistance in providing me with
their frequently hard to find work which made a major contribution

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

xvii

toward enabling me to present the liaison between the Habsburg


Monarchy and the Kingdom of Hungary during the sixteenth century
in a new light.
This work is the summary of my researches performed during the
past fifteen years in Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Germany, and
the Czech Republic. I owe my thanks to the many staff members of the
various state, province and city archives in these countries. I am also
indebted to the owners of the privately held family archives of the
Auerspergs, Erddys, Grafeneggs, Plffys, and Trauttmansdorffs who
gave me access to their collections. Among my colleagues at the
archives I must pay particular tribute to Lajos Gecsnyi, the former and
Istvn Fazekas, the present Hungarian delegate to the Austrian State
Archives. They not only provided daily guidance but also allowed me
access to their private data and works in preparation. Without their help
and the help of my friend H. Istvn Nmeth, and two other archivists
at the Hungarian National Archives, Margit Judk, and Attila Sunk,
this work would not have been possible.
I would also like to extend my thanks to my friends and colleagues
who read and reviewed the individual chapters before their publication
and offered suggestions and corrections. They include Pl cs and
Lajos Gecsnyi in Budapest, Pter Dominkovits in Sopron who reviewed
the entire manuscript. I am also very grateful to Ildik Horn, Istvn
Kenyeres, Balzs Sudr, B. Jnos Szab and Istvn Tringli in Budapest,
Pter Kirly in Kaiserslautern and my students Szabolcs Varga in Pcs
and Pter Andrs Szab in Budapest. Zsuzsa Teke in Budapest helped
me generously in the interpretation of old Italian material while Vera
Zimnyi provided enormous assistance in sharing with me her enormous collection of reprints.
I wish to thank the Institute of History of the Hungarian Academy
of Sciences for its support for fifteen years, and the colleagues at the
institutes Department of Early Modern Era for many years of productive discussions. I am grateful to my wife, Magdolna Friedler, for
always providing me with an ideal environment for my work.
Lastly, but most sincerely, I wish to thank the Institute of Habsburg
History for supporting the publication of this work; the Hungarian
Awards Committee, the National Scientific Research Foundation, the
Bohemian, Croatian, Austrian, and Slovakian Academies of Sciences,

xviii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

and the pro Renovanda Cultura Hungariae Foundation for their consistent support of my researches in Hungary and abroad through grants
such as the Jnos Blyai, Ferenc Dek, and Kun Klebelsberg scholarships. I also wish to thank Dr. Thomas J. and Mrs. Helen D. DeKornfeld for their extensive and constructive work in translating the text into
English.
Budapest, February 2008