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GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 1
2004 DYNALCO
Basic Reciprocating Engine &
Compressor Analysis
Techniques
DYNALCO
Ben Boutin, P. Eng.
Bob Webber, Director SAM Solutions
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 2
Focus of this course
In this course, we illustrate engine and
compressor behavior using data taken from
running machinery
The data were recorded by analysts running
their own predictive maintenance programs
We show faults that are seen in recip
equipment and present techniques to detect
them
2
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 3
Short Course Outline
Analysis Programs
Characterizing engines and compressors
Data types
Testpoint Locations
Sequence of events
2-stroke engines
4-stroke engines
Compressors
Analyzing engine faults
Analyzing compressor faults
Analyzing auxiliary equipment faults
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 4
2004 DYNALCO
Analysis Programs
Objectives
Types of analysis
Analysis process
3
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 5
Analysis Programs
Objectives of analysis programs
Eliminate expensive, unnecessary maintenance
Decrease maintenance costs
Increase machine availability
Decrease down time
Improve performance
Reduce emissions
You cant improve what you dont measure
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 6
Analysis Programs
Analysis
Webster:
a separation or breaking up of
any whole into its parts, with an
examination of these parts to
find out their nature, proportion,
function, interrelationship etc.
4
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 7
Analysis Programs
Program Structure
Top to bottom.
The lead and vision must come from the top of the
organization
The analyst should report within the program
The program must require managers to act upon the
information generated by the program
Measures of program performance must be instituted
to ensure success
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 8
Analysis Programs
Make It a Career
If you design your
program in such a way
that the analysts
position is a dead end
then so it will be with
the program.
5
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 9
Analysis Programs
Org. Chart
Analysis Program
Analyst Analyst
Sr. Analyst
Regional Manager
Type title here
Analyst Analyst
Sr Analyst
Regional Manager
Type title here
Analyst Analyst
Sr Analyst
Regional Manager
Type title here
Director
Type title here
Corporate level
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 10
Analysis Programs
Corporate Culture
Evaluating and understanding the culture within
your organization
Analysis programs are many times the victims
of the culture within an organization
Culture change will be necessary for program
success
Culture change is not easy or quick to occur
6
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 11
Analysis Programs
Program Issues
Machinery analysis programs can and do provide
large returns on investment
The program must be measured and accountable
Management must realize this is NOT a trivial
exercise
Training and dedicated personnel are absolutely
necessary
Communication and cooperation at all levels is a
must
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 12
Analysis Programs
Types of machinery analysis
Maintenance Analysis
Identifies incipient failure so that you can turn unscheduled
maintenance into scheduled maintenance
Helps avoid in-service failures
Goal is to reduce maintenance cost
Performance Analysis
Characterizes the engine/compressor operating potential
Efficiency
Fuel consumption
Horsepower
Throughput
7
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 13
Analysis Programs
Make Measures With Buoyancy!
Data is NOT information!
Reporting technical data upward in the
organization will frustrate both parties
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 14
Analysis Programs
The Gap!
Technicians and
engineers must build
the bridge that
traverses the GAP!
8
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 15
Analysis Programs
A Business Process
Analysis programs must be seen as a critical
business process
Organizations are top to bottom, inside out
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 16
Analysis Programs
D.R.I.P
Organizations are generally data rich and
information poor
Too many programs try to push data up the
organization
This usually fails
Turning data into information must be a
program staple
9
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 17
Analysis Programs
The Fleet
Population based comparisons are a must if
management is to make the best decisions
The best and the worst
Cumulative impact of maintenance operational
issues
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 18
Analysis Programs
The analysis process
Gather data from the machine
Reduce the data to measures of performance
and condition
Organize and present the reduced data
Infer performance and condition
Report findings
Take action
Follow up
10
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 19
Analysis Programs
Troubleshooting and fire fighting
Necessary even with the best predictive
maintenance program
What can we fix now?
Analysis for a turnaround or overhaul
Predictive or knowledge based program
Relies on rate of change and amount of data
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 20
Analysis Programs
Predictive Maintenance
To be successful the data must have enough
resolution to identify the failure
The technology necessary for predictive
maintenance to be successful exists
For the most part organizations have been
unwilling to allow predictive programs to
succeed
11
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 21
Analysis Programs
Asset Management
An analysis program that provides
information that allows managers to make
business decisions in machinery intensive
organizations
Makes quantitative risk measures
Makes machinery performance and
mechanical condition measures in economic
terms
Measures machinery integrity and reports it in
simple terms
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 22
2004 DYNALCO
Characterizing Engines and
Compressors
Data Types
Testpoint Locations
12
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 23
Characterizing Engines and Compressors
Special data types
Process data
Tell about the process
Examples: suction temperature and pressure
Phase-marked data
Data is referenced to the flywheel
Example: pressure versus time data
Non-phased data
Sampling is a function of time only
Example: acceleration data from a
turbocharger bearing
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 24
Characterizing Engines and Compressors
Measuring flywheel position
Once-per-degree
Shaft encoder
360 pulses per
revolution
Better accuracy
Once-per-turn
Magnetic, active or
optical pickups are
common
1 pulse per revolution
Usually permanently
mounted
13
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 25
Characterizing Engines and Compressors
Example of phase-marked pressure (PT)
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
C402 - C cylinder 2 09/09/1998 12:02:53 PM HE Period 5, CE Period 5
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
Head and
crank end
pressure
traces on a
compressor
cylinder
Engine Data
Cylinder exhaust temperatures
Infrared temperature wand
pyrometer
Cylinder pressure
Pressure transducer
Time domain data phased to
crankshaft position
Peak pressure statistics
Cylinder, valve, wrist pin
and bearing vibration
Ultrasonic microphone
Standard accelerometer
Time domain data phased to
crankshaft position
Frame vibration (displacement)
Tri-axial accelerometer (H, V, A)
taken at opposite corners of
engine frame
Frequency domain data
Ignition secondary
Inductive connection to unshielded
spark plug cable
Multi-period sampling statistics
Ignition secondary patterns
Ignition primary (not shown)
Connection to primary box
Ignition primary firing patterns
Turbocharger/blower
Standard accelerometer
mounted on bearings and near
turbine and compressor wheels
Frequency domain vibration
TDC Reference
Shaft encoder
Magnetic pickup
Phased data
RPM
2004 DYNALCO
14
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 27
Characterizing Engines and Compressors
Typical 2-stroke engine signature
223 Intake 137
242 Exhaust 118
273 Fuel 213
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 2.4
P5 VT4
20905-E Cylinder P5 3/27/2002 8:57:46 AM Period 0
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Angle (deg)
PT
VT
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 28
Characterizing Engines and Compressors
Typical 4-stroke engine signature
620 Intake 281
391 Exhaust 140
583 Fuel 315
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 5.0
2L VT4
5302-E Cylinder 2L 12/3/2001 9:15:58 AM Period 1
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Angle (deg)
PT
VT
15
TDC Reference
Shaft encoder
Magnetic pickup
Phased data
RPM
Suction/discharge temperatures
Infrared temperature wand
thermocouples, RTDs
Head/crank end pressure
Pressure transducer
Time domain data phased to
crankshaft position
Multi-period sampling statistics
Suction/discharge valve vibration
Compressor ring leak vibration
Liner scoring
Ultrasonic microphone
Standard accelerometer
Time domain data phased to
crankshaft position
Frame vibration (displacement)
Tri-axial accelerometer (H, V, A)
taken at opposite corners of
engine frame
Frequency domain data
Rod Motion
Proximity probes
Time-domain data phased to
crankshaft position
Rod displacement trends
Suction/discharge nozzle pressure
Pressure transducer
Time domain data phased to crankshaft
position (valve/passage loss calculations)
Frequency domain (pulsation spectrum)
Multi-period sampling statistics
Valve cap temperatures
Infrared temperature wand
Crosshead Vibration
Standard accelerometer
Time domain data phased to
crankshaft position
Relate to rod load
Compressor Data
2004 DYNALCO
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 30
Characterizing Engines and Compressors
Typical HE compressor signature
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 3.0
84 DGF
- Scale 3.0
84 DGF
- Scale 3.0
146 DGF
- Scale 3.0
145 DGF
4HS2 VT1
4HS1 VT1
4HD2 VT1
4HD1 VT1
K200 - C cylinder 4 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 7
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
HE PT
HE VT
CE PT
16
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 31
Characterizing Engines and Compressors
Free-running, non-phased data
Data is recorded independent of crankshaft position
Returns
Overall vibration level
Spectrum showing frequency components
Common applications:
Structural vibration
Supports, foundations
Turbochargers
Oil and water pumps
Pressure pulsation
Testpoint Locations Pump and Motor
Inboard, outboard bearings
Gearboxes, impellers
Triaxial (H,V,A) accelerometer
Displacement, velocity, acceleration
Free running frequency domain data
Bearing defect energy
Overall vibration levels (comparison to
previous)
Foundations and supports
Triaxial (H,V,A) accelerometer
Displacement readings only
Opposite corners of support
Free running frequency domain data
Overall vibration levels (comparison to
previous)
Pressure pulsation in recip compressors
DC nozzle pressure
Free running frequency domain data
Piping vibration, bottles, scrubbers
Standard accelerometer
Frequency domain data
2004 DYNALCO
17
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 33
Characterizing Engines and Compressors
Example of free-running, non-phased, spectrum data
Spectrum from
engine frame
near anchor
bolts. Mils peak-
peak, oil pump
end, horizontal
direction.
Engine speed
323 RPM
Testpoint : OPEH VIB
No. Of Lines : 400
No. Of Averages : 5
Calc Overall : N/A
Trap Overall : 1.325
Peak At Frequency
1.020 at 322.5
0.507 at 1305.0
0.122 at 652.5
0.110 at 487.5
0.098 at 1627.5
0.079 at 2932.5
0.073 at 1357.5
0.061 at 1140.0
0.061 at 1020.0
0.061 at 975.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
UNIT #4-E Testpoint OPEH 7/17/2002 10:51:55 AM
m
i
l

(
p
k
-
p
k
)
cpm
1 times
run speed
2 times
run speed
4 times
run speed
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 34
2004 DYNALCO
Sequence of events
2-stroke, spark-ignited engine
4-stroke, spark-ignited engine
Double-acting, reciprocating compressor
18
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 35
Understanding Machine Faults
To recognize faults in compressors and engines, we must
understand how they behave in normal operation
Do the mechanical events you expect to see actually happen?
Do the events appear to be normal?
when do they occur?
what is the relative magnitude?
do they look the same as they did last time?
do they look the same as the next machine?
What is the performance of the machine?
what is the engine heat rate (BTU/BHP-Hr)?
is compressor suction capacity ~ discharge capacity?
what is the compressor BHP/MMSCFD?
is the compressor on curve?
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 36
2004 DYNALCO
Sequence of events
for a 2 stroke engine
Pressure versus crank angle (PT)
Pressure-Volume (PV)
Vibration versus crank angle (VT)
19
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 37
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: start of cycle
180 270 360 90
0
Crank Angle (Deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Mixture is superheated air and fuel
Ignition has occurred
Flame front travel has begun
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 38
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: combustion
Flame travels through chamber
Heat is released, pressure rises
Temperature at flame front is
about 3500F
Peak occurs 15-20 deg ATDC
Speed of propagation is critical
Too fast, detonation
Too slow, soft fire
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
90 180 270 360
Crank Angle (deg)
20
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 39
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: power
Pressure drives piston down
Combustion is complete
As volume increases, pressure decreases
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
90 180 270 360
Crank Angle (deg)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 40
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: exhaust blowdown
Piston uncovers exhaust port
Pressure drops more rapidly (blowdown)
Temperature is now about 800F
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
90 180 270 360
Crank Angle (deg)
21
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 41
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: air intake
Intake port is uncovered
Cylinder pressure intake pressure
Fresh air under pressure sweeps and cools
180 270 360 90
0
Crank Angle (Deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 42
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: scavenging
Scavenging continues until intake closes
Cylinder cooling continues
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
90 180 270 360
Crank Angle (deg)
22
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 43
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: fuel intake
Scavenging continues until intake closes
This is the lowest pressure in the cylinder
Fuel is injected just prior to exhaust closure
Open exhaust port drags fuel down
Port closes before any fuel escapes
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
90 180 270 360
Crank Angle (deg)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 44
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: compression
Fuel injection ceases, ports are closed
Pressure begins to rise
Air-fuel charge is turbulent
Turbulence mixes the air-fuel charge
Temperature rises
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
90 180 270 360
Crank Angle (deg)
23
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 45
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: ignition
Ignition occurs 5-10 degrees BTDC
Advance gives time to initiate combustion
and for flame front travel
Air-fuel charge is superheated
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
90 180 270 360
Crank Angle (deg)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 46
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PT: end of cycle
Flame front begins propagating
through chamber
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
90 180 270 360
Crank Angle (deg)
24
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 47
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: start of cycle (TDC)
Ignition has occurred
Flame front travel has begun
Mixture is superheated air and fuel
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
25 50 75 100
Swept Volume (%)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 48
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: combustion
Flame travels through chamber
Heat is released, pressure rises
Temperature at flame front is
about 3500F
Peak occurs 15-20 deg ATDC
Speed of propagation is critical
Too fast, detonation
Too slow, soft fire
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
25 50 75 100
Swept Volume (%)
25
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 49
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: power
Combustion is complete
Pressure drives piston down
As volume increases, pressure decreases
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
25 50 75 100
Swept Volume (%)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 50
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: exhaust blowdown
Piston uncovers exhaust port
Pressure drops more rapidly (blowdown)
Temperature is now about 800F
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
25 50 75 100
Swept Volume (%)
26
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 51
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: air intake
Intake port is uncovered
Cylinder pressure intake pressure
Fresh air under pressure sweeps and cools
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
25 50 75 100
Swept Volume (%)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 52
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: scavenging
Scavenging continues until intake closes
Cylinder cooling continues
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
25 50 75 100
Swept Volume (%)
27
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 53
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: fuel intake
Scavenging continues until intake closes
This is the lowest pressure in the cylinder
Fuel is injected just prior to exhaust closure
Open exhaust port drags fuel down
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
25 50 75 100
Swept Volume (%)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 54
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: compression
Fuel injection ceases, ports are closed
Pressure begins to rise
Air-fuel charge is turbulent
Turbulence mixes the air-fuel charge
Temperature rises
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
25 50 75 100
Swept Volume (%)
28
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 55
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: ignition
Ignition occurs 5-10 degrees BTDC
Advance gives time to initiate combustion
and for flame front travel
Air-fuel charge is superheated
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
25 50 75 100
Swept Volume (%)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 56
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
PV: end of cycle
Flame front begins propagating
through chamber
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
25 50 75 100
Swept Volume (%)
29
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 57
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
Cylinder vibration: start of cycle
223 Intake 137
242 Exhaust 118
273 Fuel 213
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 58
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
Cylinder vibration: combustion
223 Intake 137
242 Exhaust 118
273 Fuel 213
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Angle (deg)
Rings become fully loaded by gas
pressure
May see some vibration resulting
from combustion
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
30
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 59
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine
Cylinder vibration: power
223 Intake 137
242 Exhaust 118
273 Fuel 213
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Ring noise
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 60
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT
Cylinder vibration: exhaust blowdown
Exhaust
Blowdown
223 Intake 137
242 Exhaust 118
273 Fuel 213
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
31
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 61
223 Intake 137
242 Exhaust 118
273 Fuel 213
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT
Cylinder vibration: air intake and scavenging
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 62
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT
Cylinder vibration: fuel intake
223 Intake 137
242 Exhaust 118
273 Fuel 213
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
32
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 63
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT
Cylinder vibration: compression
223 Intake 137
242 Exhaust 118
273 Fuel 213
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Fuel Valve
Closure
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 64
223 Intake 137
242 Exhaust 118
273 Fuel 213
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT
Cylinder vibration: ignition
Ignition 5-10
degrees BTDC
33
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 65
Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT
Cylinder vibration: end of cycle
223 Intake 137
242 Exhaust 118
273 Fuel 213
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 66
2004 DYNALCO
Sequence of events
for a 4 stroke engine
Pressure and vibration (PT/VT)
Pressure-Volume (PV)
34
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 67
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PT/VT: top dead center
Ignition has occurred
Flame front propagation has begun
Mixture is superheated air and fuel
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
180 360 540 720
Fuel 502
565 Intake 300
137 417 Exhaust
611
1 2
1 2 3 4 Combustion Exhaust Intake Compression
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 68
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PT/VT: peak firing pressure
Pressure
Flame front propagation through cylinder
Pressure and temperature rise
Too fast, detonation
Too slow, soft fire
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
180 360 540 720
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
180 360 540 720
1 2
1 2 3 4 Combustion Exhaust Intake Compression
Fuel 502
565 Intake 300
137 417 Exhaust
611
35
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 69
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PT/VT: power stroke
Fuel 502
565 Intake 300
137 417 Exhaust
611
Combustion is complete
Pressure drives the piston down
Pressure drops as volume increases
This is when the work is done
Pressure
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
180 360 540 720
1 2
1 2 3 4 Combustion Exhaust Intake Compression
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 70
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PT/VT: exhaust blowdown
Fuel 502
565 Intake 300
137 417 Exhaust
611
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
180 360 540 720
1 2
1 2 3 4 Combustion Exhaust Intake Compression
Exhaust gases leave through exhaust
valve port to exhaust header and
then to the turbocharger
Blowdown
36
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 71
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PT/VT: air intake
Exhaust valve
closure
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
180 360 540 720
3 4
1 2 3 4 Combustion Exhaust Intake Compression
Fuel 502
565 Intake 300
137 417 Exhaust
611
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 72
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PT/VT: fuel intake
Intake valve
closure
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
180 360 540 720
3 4
1 2 3 4 Combustion Exhaust Intake Compression
Fuel 502
565 Intake 300
137 417 Exhaust
611
37
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 73
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PT/VT: compression and ignition
Fuel valve
closure
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
180 360 540 720
3 4
1 2 3 4 Combustion Exhaust Intake Compression
Fuel 502
565 Intake 300
137 417 Exhaust
611
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 74
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PT/VT: end of cycle
Pressure
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0
0
180 360 540 720
1 2
1 2 3 4 Combustion Exhaust Intake Compression
Fuel 502
565 Intake 300
137 417 Exhaust
611
Whats
this?
38
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 75
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
VT: crosstalk (KVS 412)
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
K200 - E 9/10/1995 6:51:46 AM
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
This engine has solid lifters 312
672
192
432
72
552
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 76
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: top dead center
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION
1 2
0 25 50 75 100
0
39
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 77
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: air intake
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION
Fresh air enters cylinder
0
1 2
0 25 50 75 100
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 78
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: fuel intake & compression
0 25 50 75 100
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION
1 2
Fuel intake starts BBDC
Turbulence stirs mixture
0
40
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 79
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: ignition
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION
0
Mixture is compressed and
superheated
Ignition occurs 10-20 deg BTDC
1 2
0 25 50 75 100
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 80
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: top dead center
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION
0
Ignition has occurred
Flame front travel has begun
3 4
0 25 50 75 100
41
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 81
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: peak firing pressure
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION
0
Flame travels through chamber
Heat is released, pressure rises
Peak occurs 15-20 deg ATDC
If pressure increase is
Too fast, detonation
Too slow, soft fire
3 4
0 25 50 75 100
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 82
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: power stroke
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION
0
Combustion is complete
Pressure drives piston down
As volume increases, pressure decreases
3 4
0 25 50 75 100
42
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 83
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: bottom dead center
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION
0
Exhaust valve opens just before BDC
3 4
0 25 50 75 100
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 84
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: exhaust
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION
Pressure drops rapidly
(blowdown)
0
4 3
0 25 50 75 100
43
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 85
Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine
PV: end of cycle
3 COMBUSTION 4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION
0 25 50 75 100
3 4
0 25 50 75 100
3 4
0
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 86
2004 DYNALCO
Sequence of events
in a double acting
reciprocating compressor
Head End (HE) compression cycle (PV)
Crank End (CE) compression cycle (PV)
HE valve events
HE and CE pressure-time (PT)
HE and CE vibration-time (VT)
44
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 87
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
HE compression cycle
Pressure
ClearanceVolume
C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e

V
o
l
u
m
e
Ps
Pd
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Volume
Swept Volume
Compression
2
1
HE
Compression
1-2
HE
Discharge
2-3
Discharge
3
Suction
HE
Suction
4-1
4
Expansion
HE
Expansion
3-4
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 88
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
CE compression cycle
C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e

V
o
l
u
m
e
Ps
Pd
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Volume
CE
Compression
1-2
1
Compression
2
Discharge
CE
Discharge
2-3
3
Expansion
CE
Expansion
3-4
4 Suction
CE
Suction
4-1
Swept Volume
45
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 89
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
PV: HE compression event
C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e

V
o
l
u
m
e
Ps
Pd
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Volume
AD
AP
Discharge Line Pressure (Pd)
Discharge
closed
AS
AP
Suction Line Pressure (Ps)
Cylinder Pressure (Pcyl)
is above Ps and increasing to Pd.
Discharge valve opens when Pcyl
is greater than Pd (2).
Suction
closed
Compression
1
2
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 90
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
PV: HE discharge event
Piston Stroke Volume
C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e

V
o
l
u
m
e
Ps
Pd
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Volume
2
1
Compression
AS
AP
Suction Line Pressure (Ps)
Cylinder Pressure (Pcyl)
is above Pd and decreasing to Pd.
Discharge valves closes when Pcyl
equals Pd (3) at TDC.
AP
Discharge Line Pressure (Pd)
Discharge
open
Suction
closed
3
Discharge
46
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 91
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
PV: HE expansion event
C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e

V
o
l
u
m
e
Ps
Pd
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Volume
2
1
Compression
3
4
Expansion
AD
AP
Discharge Line Pressure (Pd)
AS
AP
Suction Line Pressure (Ps)
Cylinder Pressure (Pcyl)
is below Pd and decreasing to Ps.
Suction valve opens when Pcyl is
less than Ps (4).
Piston Stroke Volume
Discharge
closed
Suction
closed
Discharge
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 92
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
PV: HE suction event
C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e

V
o
l
u
m
e
Ps
Pd
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Volume
2
1
Compression
3
Discharge
4
Expansion
Suction
AD
AP
Discharge Line Pressure (Pd)
Cylinder Pressure (Pcyl)
is below Ps and increasing to Ps.
Suction valve closes when Pcyl is
equal to Ps (1) at BDC.
AS
Suction Line Pressure (Ps)
Piston Stroke Volume
Discharge
closed
Suction
open
47
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 93
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
Example: HE and CE PV
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
0 25 50 75 100
K200 - C cylinder 4 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 7
Percent swept volume
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 94
A
1
Discharge (D-A)
Suction (4-1)
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
PT: HE and CE
HE PT
CE PT
Discharge
Pressure
Suction
Pressure
A
1
2
B
Expansion (A-B)
Compression (1-2)
Head End:
Crank End:
Crank Angle (Deg)
360 0 180
3
C
Suction (B-C)
Discharge (2-3)
4
D
Compression (C-D)
Expansion (3-4)
48
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 95
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
HE valve vibration
0 180 360
HE Suction
HE Discharge
Gas blowing noise is loudest at valve
opening and gradually diminishes as
gas velocity through the valve decreases.
2
Suction gas fills the cylinder. 2
3
Suction valve is lowered gently
onto the seat at BDC closing
event is not always visible.
3
1
Suction valve opens
(depends on clearance volume)
1
5
5 High pressure gas is
discharged into discharge
line.
6
6 Discharge valve is gently
lowered onto the seat at
TDC not always visible.
4 Discharge valve opens
(typically the loudest)
4
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 96
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
CE valve vibration
0 180 360
CE Suction
CE Discharge
49
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 97
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
HE and CE valve crosstalk
0 180 360
HE Suction
HE Discharge
CE Suction
CE Discharge
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 98
Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor
Typical HE PT/VT signature
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 3.0
84 DGF
- Scale 3.0
84 DGF
- Scale 3.0
146 DGF
- Scale 3.0
145 DGF
4HS2 VT1
4HS1 VT1
4HD2 VT1
4HD1 VT1
K200 - C cylinder 4 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 7
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
50
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 99
Quick Recap
So far, weve talked about the normal
behavior of:
2-stroke, spark-ignited recip engine
4-stroke, spark-ignited recip engine
double-acting, reciprocating compressor
Now we know what they are supposed to look
like, we can look at faults
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 100
2004 DYNALCO
Analyzing Engine Faults
Combustion
Mechanical
51
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 101
Engine faults we can monitor
Port/bridge wear Excessive Emissions
Leaking valves Unbalance
Ignition problems Efficiency
Leaking rings Detonation
Valve train (cam, guides, lifters, linkage) Misfire
Worn, scored liner and piston Pre-ignition
Frame, foundation vibration Fuel consumption
Oil Pump, water pump problems Fuel cost
Turbocharger faults Economic Performance
Main bearings, crank pins Torque
Wrist pin Indicated horsepower
Carbon in ports Operating Performance
Mechanical Condition Combustion Quality
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 102
Combustion
Many of the problems we face with engines
are due to variable combustion
Engines do not fire the same way each cycle
52
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 103
Combustion
Chemical equation of combustion
Engines convert chemical energy to heat
Take a simple gas such as Methane (CH
4
)
Combine it with oxygen and start the reaction
Produces carbon dioxide plus water vapor
and releases heat of about 1000 BTU/ft
3
of
methane consumed
O H CO O CH
2 2 2 4
2 2 + +
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 104
Combustion
If only it was that simple
Air is primarily O
2
(23%) and N
2
(77%)
Both are involved in the chemical reaction
The combustion process is neither complete
nor instantaneous
Many intermediate steps and reactions occur
This leads to other exhaust products such as
NOx, HC, CO and particulates (smoke)
53
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 105
Combustion
Why is combustion so variable?
incomplete mixing in the cylinder
difficulty burning lean air/fuel mixtures
inconsistent air/fuel charge in each cycle
poor fuel quality
ignition faults
incorrect valve timing
varying ambient conditions
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 106
Combustion
Results of poor combustion
Firing in each becomes inconsistent, high
fires followed by low fires
Stress the engine thermally and mechanically
Reduce the life of engine components
Waste fuel
Increase emissions
This costs a great deal of money
54
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 107
Combustion
Typical faults
Unbalance
Dead cylinders
Early firing
Soft firing
Detonation
Pre-ignition
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 108
Engine balance
The manufacturer designed the engine to
handle specific cylinder pressures and
temperatures
Cylinders with high peak pressures develop
much greater mechanical and thermal stress
Engine balancing distributes this mechanical
and thermal stress across the engine to
maximize component life
55
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 109
Engine Balance
Cylinder pressures (balanced HBA)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
+2%
-2%
+10%
-10%
Unit2 4/15/2002 9:21:55 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order
Crank Angle (deg)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 110
Engine Balance
Pressure rise rate (balanced HBA)
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

R
i
s
e

R
a
t
e

(
d
p
/
d

)
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Unit2 4/15/2002 9:21:55 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order
Crank Angle (deg)
P8
56
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 111
Engine Balance
Cylinder pressures (unbalanced HLA)
C2B-E 6/6/2001 7:22:02 AM
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
+2%
-2%
+10%
-10%
All cylinders - In Bank Order
Crank Angle (deg)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 112
Engine Balance
Pressure rise rate (unbalanced HLA)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

R
i
s
e

R
a
t
e

(
d
p
/
d

)
1
3
4 5
6
7
8
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
C2B-E 6/6/2001 7:22:02 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order
Crank Angle (deg)
2
Highly variable
57
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 113
Detonation
Detonation is rapid and uncontrolled combustion.
Detonation can lead to rapid failure due to high thermal and
mechanical stress.
Causes of detonation:
Mixture too rich
Clogged/dirty air intake (air inlet filters, aftercoolers or
blowers)
Incomplete scavenging
inconsistent fuel composition
Overloaded engine
Ignition timing too advanced
Highly loaded cylinders in an unbalanced engine are more
susceptible to detonation.
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 114
P1
P2
P4
Detonation
Engine PT parade (Ajax DPC-720-LE-H-2)
P3 Detonating
Cylinder
+2%
-2%
+10%
-10%
K203 - E 11/21/1996 2:13:03 PM
All cylinders - In Bank Order
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
58
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 115
Detonation
Multiple PT cycles for a power cylinder (P3)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
K203 - E - P3 PT3 11/21/1996 2:13:03 PM
Samples
Misfire
Misfire
Detonation Detonation Detonation
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 116
Soft Firing
Soft Firing occurs when the pressure in the cylinder
rises too late (also called late firing).
The PFP is usually low and late.
Causes of soft fires:
incomplete scavenging
air/fuel ratio too lean causing slow flame front
air/fuel ratio too rich for proper combustion
late ignition timing
poor fuel composition
59
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 117
Soft Firing
Engine pressure signature comparisons
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
P1R
P2R
P3R
P4R
P5R
P1L
P2L
P3L
P4L
P5L
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
1A - E 5/22/1997 10:34:26 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order
Crank Angle (deg)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 118
Normal
Soft Firing
PT: comparison to normal (HBA)
0
Soft (Late)
Fire
223 Intake 137
242 Exhaust 118
273 Fuel 213
20905-E Cylinder P8 7/14/1999 6:46:53 AM Period 3
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
60
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 119
Soft Firing
PV: comparison to normal (HBA)
% swept volume
20905-E cylinder P8 7/14/1999 6:46:53 AM Period 3
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
0 25 50 75 100
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Normal
Soft (Late)
Fire
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 120
Soft Firing
Another example comparing engine PTs (CB QUAD)
P2L
P3L
P4L
P5L
P6L
P1R
P2R
P3R
P4R
P5R P6R
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
+2%
-2%
+10%
-10%
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM
All cylinders - In Bank Order - CRC is corrected
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
61
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 121
Early Firing
Early firing occurs when the pressure in the cylinder
rises too early.
The PFP is usually high and close to TDC.
Causes of early firing:
air/fuel ratio too rich
early ignition timing
warm air temperature
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 122
Early Firing
engine pressure comparison
P1R
P2R
P3R
P4R P5R P1L
P2L
P3L
P4L
P5L
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
1A - E 5/22/1997 10:34:26 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
62
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 123
Dead Cylinders
Dead cylinders have no discernable
combustion.
Causes of dead cylinders:
ignition problem
improper air/fuel charge
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 124
Dead Cylinders
Cylinder comparisons of peak pressures (QUAD)
P2L
P3L
P4L
P5L
P6L
P1R
P2R
P3R
P4R
P5R P6R
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
+2%
-2%
+10%
-10%
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM
All cylinders - In Bank Order - CRC is corrected
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
P1L
63
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 125
P2L soft fire
Dead Cylinders
Cylinder comparisons of pressure shape & timing
-180
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
-135 -90 -45 0 45 90 135 180
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM
All cylinders - To Center of Plot - CRC is corrected
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
P1L
Dead Cylinder
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 126
Other cylinders
P2L Soft Fire
Dead Cylinders
Cylinder comparisons of pressure rise rate
-20
-180
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
-135 -90 -45 0 45 90 135 180
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM
All cylinders - To Center of Plot - CRC is corrected
Crank Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

R
i
s
e

R
a
t
e

(
d
P
/
d

)
Normal
P1L Dead Cylinder
64
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 127
Normal PT
Dead Cylinders
Pressure and pressure rise rate relationship
Crank Angle (deg)
900
1000
C402 - E Cylinder P1L 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM Period 4
CRC is corrected
-103 EXHAUST PORT 100
-123 INTAKE PORT 119
-65 FUEL VALVE -125
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
-180 -135 -90 -45 0 45 90 135 180
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)

P
PT
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 128
Dead Cylinders
PV comparison to normal
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 25 50 75 100
C402 - E cylinder P1L 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM Period 4
CRC is corrected
% swept volume
Normal
Dead Cylinder
65
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 129
Pre-ignition
Pre-ignition is the premature combustion of the air/fuel
mixture before the normal ignition event (auto-
combustion).
PFP may occur before TDC causing excessive force on
the piston, wrist pin, connecting rod and bearings.
The mechanical and thermal stress resulting from pre-
ignition can cause cracked heads, torched or seized
pistons.
Causes of pre-ignition
hot spots in the cylinder caused by ash or carbon
build up
hot spots created by detonation
early ignition timing is not normally considered pre-
ignition.
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 130
Pre-ignition
PT comparison to normal (Clark TLA6)
-130 Intake 130
-110 Exhaust 110
-77 Fuel -145
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
-180 -135 -90 -45 0 45 90 135 180
5E Cylinder P4 8/15/2002 4:39:48 PM Period 5
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Angle (deg)
Normal
66
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 131
Pre-ignition
PV showing 2 crank revolutions
Negative work
Positive work
Positive work
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 132
Combustion
Analysis summary
Uneven average peak firing pressures
High deviation in PFP for cylinder
Uneven exhaust temperatures
Usually accompanied by higher NOx and HC
Unbalanced
Often audible
High PFP with early PFP angle
Very high pressure rise rate compared to other cylinders
Often develops a shock wave that is seen in the PT
Combustion may make more noise than normal
Detonation
All cylinder average PFPs fall within 10-15% of the engine
average PFP
Low cycle-to-cycle deviation in cylinder PFP
PFP angle consistent and at expected location
Similar exhaust temperatures among power cylinders
Normal
Characteristics Observation
67
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 133
Combustion
Analysis summary (cont.)
PFP angle earlier than normal
Average PFP higher than normal
Higher pressure rise rate when compared to other cylinders (or
history)
Lower exhaust temperature
Early Firing
Type of misfire
Average PFP lower than normal
PFP angle later than normal
Low pressure rise rate when compared to other cylinders (or
history)
May be followed by detonation
Increased exhaust temperature
Soft Firing
Characteristics Observation
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 134
Combustion
Analysis summary (cont.)
Auto-combustion occurring before normal ignition
PFP angle may occur before TDC
Causes mechanical and thermal stress on piston, wrist pin,
connecting rod and bearings
Pre-ignition
Average PFP at running compression exhibits no cycle
variation, low PFP deviation
Maximum pressure = running compression pressure
Low pressure rise rate when compared to other cylinders (or
history)
Consumes horsepower
Wastes fuel ($100-$200/day/cyl)
Fuel in exhaust manifold is a backfire risk
Low exhaust temperature
Dead Cylinder
Characteristics Observation
68
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 135
Combustion
PT for a dead cylinder, soft fire, and detonation
251 EXHAUST VALVE 109
234 INTAKE VALVE 126
307 FUEL VALVE 206
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
K203 - E Cylinder P3 11/21/1996 2:13:03 PM Period 1
Crank Angle (deg)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Dead
Cylinder
Soft (Late) Fire
Detonation
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 136
Combustion
PV for a dead cylinder, soft fire, and detonation
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
K203 - E cylinder P3 11/21/1996 2:13:03 PM Period 1
0
0 25 50 75 100
% swept volume
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Detonation
Soft (Late) Fire
Dead Cylinder
69
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 137
2004 DYNALCO
Analyzing the mechanical
condition of engines
Valves
Liners
Rods and wrist pins
Rings
Ignition systems
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 138
Valve Train
Valve Seat
Exhaust Port
Valve Stem
Valve Springs
Valve Lifter
Rocker Arm
Cam Follower
Cam Lobe
Push Rod
70
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 139
Valve Train
Common problems
Mechanical
Loose/worn rocker arm
Improper lifter clearance
Broken springs
Incorrect spring tension
Worn valve guide
Worn or mis-timed cam
Excessive cam gear lash
Leakage
Burnt valves
Deposits on valve seat
Damaged seat
Bent valve stem
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 140
Valve Train
Incorrect clearance
May cause the valve to
open and close at the
wrong time
Valve opening event
can be noisy the
clearance is taken up
on the leading edge of
the cam lobe
Can cause noisy valve
closure if the valve is
dropped onto the seat
Crank Angle
L
i
f
t
V
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
Excessive
Lash
Valve opens
late & sharp
Valve closes
early & drops
on seat
Normal
Lift
71
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 141
Valve Train
Hydraulic lifters
Hydraulic lifters maintain correct valve timing
and minimize valve train wear over a wide
range of operating conditions
Oil pressure within the lifter maintains correct
clearances in the valve train
If the lifter collapses
The valve may open late and close early
The vibration pattern shows impacts at
opening and closure
2004 DYNALCO
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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 142
Valve Train
Excessive EV clearance (KVGR with solid lifters)
P1
P2
P3
P
4
P5
P6
K1F - E 12/13/1994 11:19:43 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
72
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 143
Valve Train
Vibration comparison for a leaking EV (KVGR)
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 144
Normal Normal
Valve Train
PT and PV: leaking exhaust valves (KVGR)
580 Intake 294
390 Exhaust 150
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0 25 50 75 100
% swept volume
2 low PFP
2
2
3
3
3 low expansion
1
1
1 low compression
High exhaust temp
73
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 145
Valve Train
Worn rocker arms (KVGR)
K1D - E 2/3/1997 10:52:37 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
P1
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
-2.5
0.0
2.5
0
P2
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 146
Valve Train
Worn cam gear (KVS)
NO-4 - E 2/28/1995 1:38:59 PM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
P10
P7
P8
P9
P11
P12
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0
2
-2
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0
2
-2
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
74
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 147
Valve Train
Worn cam gear (KVS)
410 EXHAUST VALVE 161
575 INTAKE VALVE 325
621 FUEL VALVE 536
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
NO-4 - E Cylinder P12 2/28/1995 1:38:59 PM
Angle (deg)
410 EXHAUST VALVE 161
575 INTAKE VALVE 325
621 FUEL VALVE 536
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 2.0
P6 VT4
NO-4 - E Cylinder P6 2/28/1995 1:38:59 PM
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
ig
)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
ig
)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 148
Valve Train
Leaking fuel valve (HLA)
C2A-E 10/10/2001 6:28:53 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Ultrasonic ULT:
360 135 180 225 270 45 90 315
-5
0
5
-5
0
5
-5
0
5
-5
0
5
0
1F
2F
3F
4F
-5
360
-5
0
5
-5
0
5
-5
0
5
0
5
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315
5F
6F
7F
8F
Hard closures
Leakage
75
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 149
Valve Train
Leaking fuel valve (HLA)
45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 2.0
- Scale 4.0
- Scale 4.0
8 VT4
8 ULT
8FV ULT
230 Intake 130
250 Exhaust 110
283 Fuel 213
C2A-E Cylinder 8 10/10/2001 6:28:53 AM Period 9
Angle (deg)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Leak as
P rises
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 150
Valve Train
Analysis summary
Multiple impact following normal valve closure
Excessive noise on opening or closure
Worn rocker
bushing
Valve opens late and closes early
Impact noises on valve closure
Sometimes see impact on opening
Early closing exhaust valves may raise the PV toe
Excessive
lifter
clearance
Valve opening events are quiet or absent
Valve events are similar across the entire engine
Closing events are at expected crank angle, single
impact of short duration
No leakage occurs after valve closure
Normal
Characteristics Fault
76
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 151
Valve Train
Analysis summary (cont.)
Roughness seen in vibration pattern as valve opens
and closes
Valve may hang up in the guide and not close at the
correct time
May see gas leakage if valve does not seat properly
Worn valve
guide
Impacts in the vibration as gear teeth pass each other
May cause excessive wear on the cam lobe leading to
rough vibration pattern
When troubleshooting, be prepared to move the
vibration transducer around
Cam gear
faults
Impact noises on opening and closure
Valve may close late
Broken
valve spring
Characteristics Fault
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 152
Valve Train
Analysis summary (cont.)
Multiple impacts on valve closure as valve finds the
seat
Look for differences in valve closure across the engine
Can be caused by beat-out seat, worn/broken/incorrect
spring, worn guide, loose rocker arm, bent valve stem
May see blowby pattern when pressure is high in the
cylinder
Improper
valve
seating
Blowby pattern appears when pressure rises in the
cylinder
Leaking
valves
Characteristics Fault
77
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 153
Pistons, Rods, Rings and Liners
SOURCE: navsci.berkeley.edu/ ns10/piston.htm
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 154
Piston slap
Piston slap occurs when the piston skirt
impacts the liner
Tends to occur after peak pressure when the
pressure is high and there are side forces on
the piston
Becomes more pronounced when the
clearance in the upper cylinder increases due
to ring wear
78
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 155
Piston Slap
Low frequency vibration showing piston slap (HLA)
-5
0
5
-5
0
5
-5
0
5
-5
0
5
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
C2A-E 6/5/2001 8:23:09 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Acceleration VTL:
-5
0
5
-5
0
5
-5
0
5
-5
0
5
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 156
Piston Slap
Low frequency vibration showing piston slap (HLA)
C2A-E Cylinder 3 6/5/2001 8:23:09 AM Period 6
230 Intake 130
250 Exhaust 110
283 Fuel 213
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 2.0
- Scale 6.0
- Scale 4.0
- Scale 20.0
3 VT4
3 VTL
3 ULT
3FV ULT
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Not always visible
in ultrasonic
79
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 157
Piston Rods
Excessive wrist pin and connecting rod
bearing clearances produce impacts at load
reversal in the piston pin bushing
in 4-stroke engines, vibration spikes occur
near TDC
in 2-stroke engines, vibration spikes occur
near BDC
There is usually cycle-to-cycle variability in
the location of the vibration
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 158
Piston Rods
Wrist pin load for a 2-stroke engine
Wrist pin load in a 2 stroke engine
-50000
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Degrees
F
o
r
c
e

(
l
b
s
)
Vibration occurs
around BDC
where load is minimal
Inertia
Gas force
Total force
80
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 159
Piston Rods
Wrist pin load for a 4-stroke engine
Wrist pin load in a 4 stroke engine
-50000
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Degrees
F
o
r
c
e

(
l
b
s
)
Vibration occurs
around TDC
where load reverses
Inertia
Gas force
Total force
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 160
Piston Rods
Excessive wrist pin clearance (KVS)
417 EXHAUST VALVE 137
565 INTAKE VALVE 300
611 FUEL VALVE 502
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 2.0
P6 VT4
K200 - E Cylinder P6 1/16/1996 9:39:11 AM Period 6
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
81
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 161
Piston Rings
Worn or improperly loaded rings
The presence of gas passing noise when
cylinder pressures are high indicates blowby
Be careful though, it could be leakage around
rings or valves
A damaged liner will prevent rings from
sealing properly
Even moderate blowby may be sufficient to
cause a significant rise in the engine
crankcase pressure
Ring fouling prevents pressure from getting
behind the rings to load them properly
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 162
Liners
Scuffing and scoring
Liner scuffing or scoring is often seen as symmetric
vibration spikes around TDC
For a 2-stroke engine, piston rings pass the same point
twice in one cycle
For a 4-stroke engine, piston rings pass the same point
4 times in one cycle
Ring loading affects the degree that each event is seen
Wear is usually faster in the upper liner due to high
PFP
Crankcase pressure may increase due to blowby
resulting from the liner wear
82
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 163
Liners
Liner groove (KVS, P2, 10 rotations)
NO-6 - E 12/21/1995 8:14:16 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0
90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
P2 (MMM)
P2 (1)
P2 (Med 2)
P2 (3)
P2 (4)
P2 (5)
P2 (6)
P2 (7)
P2 (8)
P2 (9)
P2 (10)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 164
Liners
Liner groove (KVS)
FUEL VALVE 504
403 EXHAUST VALVE
560
0 720
NO-6 - E Cylinder P2 12/21/1995 8:14:16 AM Period 2
Symmetric angle cursors
reveal liner groove
151
INTAKE VALVE 345
610
20 340 380 700
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 2.0
P2 VT4
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
83
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 165
Liners
Liner groove (KVS)
NO-6 - E 12/21/1995 8:14:16 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0
90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
P2 (MMM)
P2 (1)
P2 (Med 2)
P2 (3)
P2 (4)
P2 (5)
P2 (6)
P2 (7)
P2 (8)
P2 (9)
P2 (10)
Crosstalk from P3 exhaust blowdown
Crosstalk from P1
exhaust blowdown
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 166
Liners
Crosstalk from exhaust event on P3 (KVS)
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
NO-6 - E 12/21/1995 8:14:16 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
422
662
182
542
302
62
17
257
497
137
617
377
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
Unphased cursor indicates
crosstalk from other cylinders
84
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 167
Liners
Liner wear (KVS)
90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
-2
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
NO-6 - E 3/19/1996 1:28:36 PM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
-2
0
2
0
2
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
Chatter as loaded
rings pass over wear
NO-6 - E 3/19/1996 1:28:36 PM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 168
Liners
Liner wear (KVS)
403 EXHAUST VALVE 151
560 INTAKE VALVE 345
610 FUEL VALVE 504
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 2.0
P7 VT4
NO-6 - E Cylinder P7 3/19/1996 1:28:36 PM Period 2
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
85
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 169
Liners
Liner wear confirmed by symmetric cursor (KVS)
NO-3 - E Cylinder P5 5/1/1995 8:06:19 AM Period 2
410 EXHAUST VALVE
575
621 FUEL VALVE 536
405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 2.0
P5 VT4
Angle (deg)
161
INTAKE VALVE 325
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
128 232 488 592
Symmetric cursor indicates
the liner is worn.
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 170
Liners
Liner wear (KVS)
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
NO-3 - E 5/1/1995 8:06:19 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
-1
0
1
-1
0
1
-1
0
1
-1
0
1
-1
0
1
-1
0
1
0
-1
0
1
-1
0
1
-1
0
1
-1
0
1
-1
0
1
-1
0
1
90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
86
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 171
Liners
Port bridge wear (HLA)
-10
0
10
-10
0
10
-10
0
10
-10
0
10
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
-10
0
10
-10
0
10
-10
0
10
-10
0
10
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
C2A-E 10/10/2001 6:28:53 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Ultrasonic ULT:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 172
230 Intake 130
250 Exhaust 110
283 Fuel 213
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 2.0
- Scale 10.0
- Scale 10.0
4 VT4
4 ULT
4FV ULT
C2A-E Cylinder 4 10/10/2001 6:28:53 AM Period 6
Angle (deg)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Liners
Port bridge (HLA)
Excessive
ring noise
87
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 173
Ignition Systems
Provide the energy to begin the chain
reaction in the air/fuel mixture and consists
of
Power supply
Timing circuit
Distribution mechanism
Transformer
Spark plug
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 174
Ignition Systems
Ignition Primaries
P1L P2L P3L P4L P5L P6L
P1R P2R P3R P4R P5R P6R
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
C402 - E Cylinder P1L 07/03/1997 8:07:43 AM
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
Crank Angle (deg)
TDC
Voltages should
be similar
Zener
Gates
88
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 175
Ignition Systems
Ignition secondaries
0 1 2 3 4 5
S
e
c
o
n
d
a
r
y
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
Time (ms)
Capacitor
Discharges
Indication of
ionization voltage
Coil ring down
Arc Duration
Plug Stops Firing
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 176
Ignition Systems
Typical ignition secondary patterns
C402 - E 09/09/1998 12:02:53 PM
Ignition timing angle = 5.7
Ignition timing angle = 5.9
Ignition timing angle = 6.3
0
0
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
P4LL
(Med 1)
P4LR
(Med 1)
P5LL
(Med 1)
Ignition timing angle = 5.9
Ignition timing angle = 5.9
Ignition timing angle = 6.1
0
0
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
P5LR
(Med 1)
P6LL
(Med 1)
P6LR
(Med 1)
89
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 177
Ignition Faults
Timing
Advanced timing can cause
early combustion
early and increased PFP
detonation
lower exhaust temps
Retarded timing can cause
delayed combustion
late and low PFP
misfires/soft fires
higher exhaust temperatures
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 178
Ignition Faults
Typical spark plug problems
Excessive gap ionization voltage increases,
strong spark
Insufficient gap ionization voltage
decreases, weak spark
Fouling build up of contaminants decreases
gap and causes ionization voltage to
decrease
Plug wear or metal flaking increases gap
therefore increases ionization voltage
90
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 179
Ignition Faults
Cables
Corrosion build up reduces ionization voltage
Damaged or loose cables can cause ground
faults and arcing to cylinder head
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 180
Ignition Faults
Coils
Check for correct polarity
Look at coil ring down to assess coil winding
condition
91
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 181
Ignition Faults
Two bad coils plug did not fire
Ignition timing angle = 5.5
Ignition timing angle = 6.4
Ignition timing angle = 5.4
Ignition timing angle = 5.1
Ignition timing angle = 5.7
Ignition timing angle = 5.9
-250
0
-250
0
-250
0
-250
0
-250
0
-250
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM Secondary Ignition (Y Axis: mV -- X Axis: ms)
P1LL
P1LR
P2LL
P2LR
P3LL
P3LR
Ignition timing angle = 5.7
Ignition timing angle = 5.9
Ignition timing angle = 5.6
Ignition timing angle = 5.5
Ignition timing angle = 5.9
Ignition timing angle = 5.4
-250
0
-250
0
-250
0
-250
0
-250
0
-250
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
P1RL
P1RR
P2RL
P2RR
P3RL
P3RR
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 182
Ignition Faults
Reversed coil
-100
0
100
200
-100
0
100
200
-100
0
100
200
-100
0
100
200
0 1 2 3 4 5
10JVGE-E 4/24/2001 7:34:26 AM
Secondary Ignition (Y Axis: mV -- X Axis: ms)
-200
-0
200
-200
-0
200
-200
-0
200
-200
-0
200
0 1 2 3 4 5
10JVGW-E 4/24/2001 10:55:35 AM
Secondary Ignition (Y Axis: mV -- X Axis: ms)
P1C
P2C
P3C
P4C
P1C
P2C
P3C
P4C
92
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 183
2004 DYNALCO
Analyzing Compressor Faults
What faults can we detect?
Characterizing the normal compressor
Identifying faults
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 184
Compressor faults we can detect
excess rod load and lack of
reversal
foundation and grout horsepower
piping and vessels capacity
Auxiliary equipment Performance
main bearings broken springs
cylinder stretch valve flutter
crosshead knocks excessive lift
rider band wear slamming
liner or piston wear discharge valve leaks
ring leaks suction valve leaks
Cylinder and rod condition Valve condition
93
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 185
Characterizing the machine
Analysts use all of these:
Operating data
Pressure and vibration versus time (PT/VT)
Pressure versus volume (PV)
Log P versus Log V
Historical data, maintenance logs
Population comparison
Calculation results
Normalized parameters
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 186
Characterizing the compressor
Normal PT/VT
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 8.7
91 DGF
- Scale 7.9
91 DGF
- Scale 8.3
152 DGF
- Scale 7.0
150 DGF
4HS2 VT1
4HS1 VT1
4HD2 VT1
4HD1 VT1
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
94
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 187
Characterizing the compressor
Leaking HE discharge valve: PT/VT
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 8.7
91 DGF
- Scale 7.9
91 DGF
- Scale 8.3
152 DGF
- Scale 7.0
150 DGF
4HS2 VT1
4HS1 VT1
4HD2 VT1
4HD1 VT1
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 188
Characterizing the compressor
Leaking HE suction valve: PT/VT
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 7.9
91 DGF
- Scale 8.3
152 DGF
- Scale 7.0
150 DGF
4HS1 VT1
4HD2 VT1
4HD1 VT1
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 8.7
91 DGF
4HS2 VT1
95
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 189
Characterizing the compressor
Leaking Rings: PT/VT
45 90 135 180 225 270 315
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
Crank Angle (deg)
--------------
--------------
--------------
- Scale 7.9
91 DGF
- Scale 8.3
152 DGF
- Scale 7.0
150 DGF
4HS1 VT1
4HD2 VT1
4HD1 VT1
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 8.7
91 DGF
4HS2 VT1
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
0 360
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 190
Characterizing the compressor
Normal PV
VEs
VEd
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
0 25 50 75 100
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
Actual
PV
Theoretical
PV
96
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 191
Characterizing the compressor
Leaking HE suction valve: PV
VEs
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
0 25 50 75 100
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
VEd
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 192
Characterizing the compressor
Leaking HE discharge valve: PV
VEd
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
0 25 50 75 100
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
VEs
97
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 193
Characterizing the compressor
Leaking rings
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
0 25 50 75 100
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 194
Characterizing the compressor
Normal LogP-LogV
ne = 1.26 nc = 1.26
n ratio = 1.00
End 4H Step 1 = 28.8%
ne = 1.24
nc = 1.25
n ratio = 1.00
End 4C Step 1 = 31.2%
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM
HE ratios calculated using geometry. CE ratios calculated using geometry.
H
e
a
d

E
n
d
C
r
a
n
k

E
n
d
98
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 195
Characterizing the compressor
Leaking HE suction valve: LogP-LogV
ne = 1.35 nc = 1.10
n ratio = 1.23
End 4H Step 1 = 28.8%
ne = 1.24
nc = 1.25
n ratio = 1.00
End 4C Step 1 = 31.2%
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM
HE ratios calculated using geometry. CE ratios calculated using geometry.
H
e
a
d

E
n
d
C
r
a
n
k

E
n
d
Normal n ratio = 1
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 196
Characterizing the compressor
Leaking HE discharge valve: LogP-LogV
ne = 1.35 nc = 1.23
n ratio = 0.85
End 4H Step 1 = 28.8%
ne = 1.24
nc = 1.25
n ratio = 1.00
End 4C Step 1 = 31.2%
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM
HE ratios calculated using geometry. CE ratios calculated using geometry.
H
e
a
d

E
n
d
C
r
a
n
k

E
n
d
Normal n ratio = 1
99
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 197
Characterizing the compressor
Leaking rings: LogP-LogV
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM
HE ratios calculated using geometry. CE ratios calculated using geometry.
H
e
a
d

E
n
d
C
r
a
n
k

E
n
d
ne = 1.26 nc = 1.26
n ratio = 1.00
End 4H Step 1 = 28.8%
ne = 1.24
nc = 1.25
n ratio = 1.00
End 4C Step 1 = 31.2%
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 198
Characterizing the compressor
Flow balance
Flow balance is the ratio of suction capacity to
discharge capacity.
Ideally, this ratio should be 1.00.
Valve and ring leaks can change VEs and VEd and
cause flow balance to deviate from 1.00.
Flow balance is a Normalized Parameter because it
is relatively independent of operating conditions.
VEd Capacity e arg Disch
VEs Capacity Suction
Capacity e arg Disch
Capacity Suction
Balance Flow

=
100
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 199
Characterizing the compressor
Discharge temperature delta (DTD)
DTD is the difference between the actual and theoretical
discharge temperatures.
The actual discharge temperature is measured in the discharge
nozzle.
The theoretical discharge temperature is calculated from the gas
properties, Ts, Pd and Pd.
A high DTD indicates that the discharge gas is hotter than
expected.
This is often caused by friction as the gas passes through a
restriction such as a leaking valve or ring.
l theoretica d, actual d,
T T DTD =
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 200
Characterizing the compressor
Normal valve cap temperatures
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
Suction
Discharge
S2 S1 D2 D1 S2 S1 D2 D1
K200 - C Cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
F
)
Head End (Stage# 1) Crank End (Stage# 1)
Usually less
than Td
Usually warmer
than Ts
101
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 201
2004 DYNALCO
Compressor Faults
Pressure Leaks
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 202
Pressure Leaks
Sources of leaks and analysis tools
Examples
Suction valves
Discharge valves
Packing
Rings
Analysis tools
PV card
Vibration patterns
Temperatures
Flow Balance
LogP-LogV
102
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 203
Pressure Leaks
CE suction valve leak: PT/VT
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 30.0
78 DGF
- Scale 30.0
86 DGF
- Scale 30.0
148 DGF
- Scale 30.0
126 DGF
3CS1 ULT
3CS2 ULT
3CD3 ULT
3CD4 ULT
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 204
Pressure Leaks
HE Suction valve leak: PT/VT
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 8.0
73 DGF
- Scale 8.0
61 DGF
- Scale 8.0
94 DGF
- Scale 8.0
95 DGF
4HS2 VT1
4HS1 VT1
4HD4 VT1
4HD3 VT1
Unit1-C cylinder 4 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM HE Period 4, CE Period 7
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
103
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 205
Pressure Leaks
HE Suction valve leak: PV
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
0 25 50 75 100
Unit1-C cylinder 4 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM HE Period 4, CE Period 7
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
HE PT
HE
theoretical
PT
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 206
Pressure Leaks
HE Suction valve leak: LogP-LogV
ne = 1.14 nc = 0.73
n ratio = 1.55
End 4H Step 9 = 61.1%
ne = 1.36
nc = 1.34
n ratio = 1.02
End 4C Step 9 = 66.3%
Unit1-C cylinder 4 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM
H
e
a
d

E
n
d
C
r
a
n
k

E
n
d
104
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 207
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Suction
Discharge
S1 S2 D3 D4 S1 S2 D3 D4
Unit1-C Cylinder 4 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
F
)
Head End (Stage# 1) Crank End (Stage# 1)
Pressure Leaks
HE Suction valve leak: Valve Cap Temps
High
temperature
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 208
Pressure Leaks
HE suction valve leak: Health Report
1C 10.500 3.000 45.000 712 953 54F 81F 1.33 15.56 185.9 -1.7 2.5 0.99 -12 33T 84 67 1 67
2H 10.500 N/A 45.000 719 941 53F 81F 1.30 15.18 182.7 5.3 11.8 0.98 -7 40C 75 62 1 61
2C 10.500 3.000 45.000 715 957 53F 81F 1.33 15.62 187.3 2.5 -1.7 0.97 -11 33T 84 69 1 67
3H 10.500 N/A 45.000 723 940 53F 81F 1.29 15.57 193.6 11.6 15.7 0.97 -6 40C 76 64 1 61
3C 10.500 3.000 45.000 726 948 53F 81F 1.30 15.16 182.2 13.5 6.5 0.99 -6 32T 80 65 1 67
4H 10.500 N/A 45.000 724 929 52F 88F 1.28 13.16 185.6 13.4 15.6 1.34 9 39C 85 54 1 61
4C 10.500 3.000 45.000 727 952 52F 88F 1.30 16.13 194.6 12.6 6.3 1.01 5 33T 86 70 1 67
Compressor Health Report
Unit Name:
Location:
Model:
UnitMfr: Serial No.:
Date: Unit1-C
CLARK Pipeline 1
HBA 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM
302
Mechanical Efficiency, %
Overall Efficiency, % Stroke, (ins)
Marker Correction Angle, deg Periods Collected (PT) 95
85 17.000
156.0 11
Atmospheric Pressure, psia 14.0 Speed, RPM 296 Specific Gravity 0.554
Load Step 9 SPDW, Suction Pressure, psi 722 DPDW, Discharge Pressure, psi 946
DTS, Discharge Temperature, F 86 STS, Suction Temperature, F 41 TAMB, Ambient Temperature, F 46
TORQ, Torque, % 89
Cyl Stg
Clr
Set
(%)
Bore
(ins)
Rod
Diam
(ins)
ConRod
Length
(ins)
Pressure
Ps
(psig)
Pd
Temp.
Ts Td Comp.
Ratio
Calc.
Capacity
(mmscfd)
Power
(ihp)
Suction
Loss
(ihp)
Disch.
Loss
(ihp)
Flow
Balance
Dis T
Delta
(F)
Rod
Load
(%)
SVE
(%)
DVE
(%) End
Indicated
1H 10.500 N/A 45.000 710 939 54F 81F 1.32 14.79 181.9 -0.4 12.6 0.96 -10 41C 74 61 1 61
Total Indicated Power, (ihp)
Gas Power, (ghp)
Auxiliary Power, (bhp)
Rated Power, (bhp)
Derated Power, (bhp)
Percent Torque Load, %
Compressor Total Power, (bhp)
1494 296 @ RPM
1573 296 RPM @
0 @ 300 RPM
1760 @300 RPM
90 %
1573 296 @ RPM
1739 @296 RPM
Compressor Efficiency, % 92 %
105
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 209
Pressure Leaks
Leaking rings
The bulging beyond the expansion
and compression lines indicates a
minor ring leak.
ne = 1.48
nc = 1.45
n ratio = 1.02
End 4H Step 4 = 27.5%
ne = 1.30
nc = 1.51
n ratio = 0.86
End 4C Step 4 = 30.0%
C-140 cylinder 4 07/26/2002 11:55:03 AM
H
e
a
d

E
n
d
C
r
a
n
k

E
n
d
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
0 25 50 75 100
C-140 cylinder 4 07/26/2002 11:55:03 AM
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
Minor ring leak in a hydrogen
compressor.
Iron oxide was coming through the
pipeline wearing the rings down.
Filters were installed in the suction inlet
to solve the problem.
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 210
Pressure Leaks
Severely leaking rings
750
800
850
900
950
1000
0 25 50 75 100
PV curve for a severe ring leak
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
Log P - Log V plot for a severe ring leak
ne = 4.17
nc = 1.62
n ratio = 2.57
End 2H Step 1 = 115.9%
ne = 3.37
nc = 1.73
n ratio = 1.95
End 2C Step 1 = 116.5%
H
e
a
d

E
n
d
C
r
a
n
k

E
n
d
106
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 211
Pressure Leaks
Analysis summary
Gas passing vibration pattern when the differential pressure across the valve
is high. Vibration leak pattern is highest in the leaking valve.
Flow balance < 0.97
n ratio for LogP-LogV < 0.98
Rounded suction toe on the PV
Suction toe pressure rises
Abnormal discharge temperature delta and valve cap temperature.
Expansion through the discharge valve may actually lower the valve cap and
discharge temperature.
Cylinder end capacity drops
Expansion and compression lines on PT and PV above theoretical
Discharge valve
leak
Gas passing vibration pattern when the differential pressure across the valve
is high. Vibration leak pattern is highest in the leaking valve.
Flow balance > 1.05
n ratio for LogP-LogV > 1.03
Elevated discharge temperature delta. Elevated valve cap temperature.
Rounded discharge toe on the PV. Discharge toe pressure drops.
Cylinder end capacity drops
Expansion and compression lines on PT and PV below theoretical
Suction valve leak
Typical characteristics Observation
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 212
Pressure Leaks
Analysis summary (cont.)
Gas passing vibration pattern in all valves when the differential pressure
across the rings is high.
Flow balance generally increases.
Rounded suction and discharge toes on the PV
Suction toe pressure rises and discharge toe pressure falls.
Increase in discharge temperature delta.
Expansion and compression lines on PT and PV do not follow the ideal gas
law: PV
n
=constant.
Ring leak
All packing leaks a small amount. Excessive leakage looks similar to a
leaking suction valve.
Leakage pattern in crank end valves. Move the vibration sensor closer to the
packing to confirm.
Packing temperature increases. Check packing vent flow rate if so equipped.
Expansion and compression lines on PT and PV below theoretical
Gas passing vibration pattern near crank end when the pressure in the crank
end is higher than atmospheric.
Flow balance > 1.05
n ratio for LogP-LogV > 1.03
Packing leak
Typical characteristics Observation
107
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 213
2004 DYNALCO
Compressor Faults
Valve Dynamics
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 214
Valve Dynamics
Some causes of valve failures
Mechanical wear and fatigue
Foreign material in the gas stream
Abnormal action of the valve elements
Excessive valve lift for the application
Multiple opening and closing, valve flutter
Slamming
Resonance and pressure pulsations
Corrosive gases
Liquids in the gas
Deposits on the sealing elements and springs
108
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 215
Valve Dynamics
Approach to analysis
Compare vibration patterns and look for differences
check history
check similar valves
Valve opening event is usually larger than closing
event
Valve closure is usually quiet. The sealing element is
lowered onto seat by the springs as the gas velocity
drops near TDC and BDC
Monitor valve loss since it represents wasted energy
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 216
Compressor Analysis: valve slamming (poppet)
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
- Scale 5.0
73 DGF
- Scale 5.0
73 DGF
- Scale 5.0
105 DGF
- Scale 5.0
106 DGF
1CS2 VT1
1CS1 VT1
1CD4 VT1
1CD3 VT1
Unit2-C cylinder 1 6/5/2001 10:02:42 AM HE Period 1, CE Period 7
Channel Resonance is corrected
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
- Scale 5.0
52 DGF
- Scale 5.0
52 DGF
- Scale 5.0
86 DGF
- Scale 5.0
84 DGF
1CS2 VT1
1CS1 VT1
1CD4 VT1
1CD3 VT1
Unit2-C cylinder 1 1/3/2001 7:55:21 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 2
Channel Resonance is corrected
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
109
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 217
Valve Dynamics
Multiple opening events
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 2.0
85 DGF
- Scale 2.0
86 DGF
- Scale 2.0
177 DGF
- Scale 2.0
172 DGF
2HS2 VT1
2HS1 VT1
2HD4 VT1
2HD3 VT1
RTC10002 - C cylinder 2 8/6/1992 11:27:32 AM HE Period 1, CE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 218
Valve Dynamics
Flutter
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2250
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 10.0
85 DGF
- Scale 10.0
183 DGF
5CS1 ULT
5CD2 ULT
JC1A cylinder 5 1/29/2001 10:18:56 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 6
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
110
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 219
Valve Dynamics
Analysis summary
Excessive spring tension.
Pulsation may cause the pressure differential to decrease suddenly
causing early closure.
Early closure
May be caused by stiction on the seal or backguard. Stiction occurs when
the force required to start motion is greater than the force required to
sustain it.
If slamming occurs at both opening and closing, it is likely that the springs
are too light or that they have been weakened or broken due to excessive
cycling.
High lift valves such as poppet valves may take some time to close. If
closure is too late the drag of the gas in the wrong direction may slam the
valve closed.
Pulsation may cause the pressure differential to increase suddenly
causing hard closure.
Hard opening
Hard closure
Late closure
Broken springs
Typical characteristics Observation
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 220
Valve Dynamics
Analysis summary (cont.)
Occurs when the valve plate oscillates between the seat and the guard. It
occurs because the flow of gas through the valve is insufficient to lift the
plate fully off the guard. On the vibration pattern, you will see multiple
opening and closing impacts.
Very heavy oscillation usually indicates that the springs are too stiff. Light
oscillation usually indicates that the lift is too high. Valve flutter may also
be present if there is excessive pulsation in the suction or discharge lines.
To correct the problem, reduce the valve lift and/or spring tension;
minimize pressure pulsation.
Flutter
If valve lift is too great, the gas velocity will not be sufficient to keep the
valve open. The valve will then open and close multiple times. To correct
the problem, reduce valve lift to increase the pressure drop across the
valve.
Pulsations may cause the pressure differential across the ring to decrease
and increase to the point that the valves close and reopen.
Heavy springs may cause the valve to close early. The cylinder pressure
may cause the valve to reopen late in the stroke.
Multiple opening
Typical characteristics Observation
111
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 221
Valve Dynamics
Analysis summary (cont.)
Valve and passage loss calculated from the PV > 10% (rule of thumb)
Gas passing vibration patterns when the valve is open caused by high
velocity.
Valve lift or flow area insufficient.
Some of the sealing elements in the valve may be stuck reducing the
effective flow area.
PT and PV curve appears rounded during the suction or discharge phase.
Excessive loss
Mechanical vibration during the suction or discharge phase can be caused
when plates or poppets hang up due to stiction or worn guides.
Mechanical vibration
Typical characteristics Observation
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 222
2004 DYNALCO
Compressor Faults
Losses
112
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 223
Compressor Losses
Calculating HP
It takes work to transport gas through a pipe
That work is the area inside the PV curve
The rate of doing work is horsepower
If we plot the PV card as pressure (psi) versus
volume (% stroke), we can use:
33,000
PLAN
IHP =
where:
P : Area inside the PV card
L : Stroke length
A : Area of the piston
N : cycles per minute (RPM)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 224
Compressor Losses
Pressure drop
The actual indicated power consumed compressing
gas is always somewhat larger than the theoretical
IHP
The main power difference is due to pressure drops
as the gas flows through the suction piping, suction
valves, discharge valves, and discharge piping.
To overcome these losses, the cylinder pressure
must drop below the suction pressure pressure
during the effective suction stroke and rise above the
discharge pressure during the effective discharge
stroke.
113
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 225
No-loss indicated
power (IHP).
Minimum IHP
required to move
the gas
Compressor Losses
No-loss IHP
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
0 25 50 75 100
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
Actual
PV
Theoretical
PV
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 226
Total indicated
power (IHP),
including losses.
Actually required
to move the gas.
Total discharge
loss, IHP
Total suction
loss, IHP
Compressor Losses
Total IHP
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
0 25 50 75 100
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
114
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 227
Compressor Losses
Magnitude of losses
Factors affecting the magnitude of losses are:
valve design
suction and discharge pressure
suction and discharge temperature
compressor speed
gas composition
suction and discharge piping design
compressor passage design
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 228
Pulsation
Pressure waves caused by the suction and discharge
events in the compressor ends
Can cause vibration in piping
Vibration may be extreme if the pulsation coincides
with:
the acoustic resonance frequency of the piping
the mechanical natural frequency of the piping
Affects compressor performance
when valves open and close
volumetric efficiency (capacity)
HP consumed moving gas
115
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 229
Pulsation
Nozzle Pressure Trace
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 2.0
74 DGF
- Scale 2.0
50 DGF
- Scale 2.0
76 DGF
- Scale 2.0
91 DGF
- Scale 2.0
92 DGF
- Scale 2.0
91 DGF
1HS3 VT1
1HS2 VT1
1HS1 VT1
1HD3 VT1
1HD2 VT1
1HD1 VT1
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM
Channel Resonance is corrected
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Crank Angle (deg)
Pressure in
discharge
nozzle
Pressure in
suction
nozzle
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 230
Total HE Indicated Power = 514 IHP
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
0 25 50 75 100
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM HE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
Pulsation
Total HE Power
116
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 231
Pulsation
No-loss HE Power
No-loss IHP
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
0 25 50 75 100
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM HE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 232
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
0 25 50 75 100
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM HE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
Pulsation
Total losses
Total Discharge loss = 104 IHP, or 20%
Total Suction loss = -11 IHP, or -3%
117
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 233
Suction valve and passage loss = 31 IHP
Discharge valve and passage loss = 24 IHP
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
0 25 50 75 100
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM HE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
Percent swept volume
Pulsation
Valve and Passage loss
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 234
Pulsation
Effect on HP
Compressor Horsepower And Capacity Report
Unit Name:
Location:
Model:
Unit Mfr: Serial No.:
Date: RTC21000 - C
DRESSER RAND FLL
TCV10 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM
Load Step: 3
Cyl
Indicated
% of Swept
Volume
Clearance Brake Total; Loss
(ihp)
Suction Disch.
Total Loss
(%)
Suction Disch.
Calculated Capacity
(mmscfd)
DVE** SVE*
Flow
Balance
bhp/mmscfd
Calc. Theor. End (ihp) (bhp)
Valve & Pass; Loss
(ihp)
Suction Disch.
Power
Power
1 Stage: New Stage
1H 158 514 541 -10.67 103.52 -2.08 20.13 35.05 32.00 0.913 16.9 14.0 23.79 30.56
1C 92 565 595 14.04 58.39 2.48 10.33 38.49 39.82 1.035 15.5 14.6 30.47 42.59
3H 132 546 575 29.33 28.31 5.37 5.18 35.27 37.00 1.049 16.3 15.5 32.57 36.02
3C 87 587 618 28.89 58.15 4.92 9.91 38.80 40.93 1.055 15.9 14.1 17.08 31.82
5H 127 609 641 27.22 101.62 4.47 16.70 38.90 36.86 0.948 17.4 14.1 38.29 32.76
5C 94 592 623 33.22 51.00 5.61 8.61 38.98 40.72 1.044 16.0 14.6 28.36 33.20
Stage Totals: 3413 3593 122.04 400.99 3.58 11.75 225.49 227.34 16.3 14.5 206.95 170.57
Auxiliary Power
Compressor Total Power
This is equivalent to
Rated driver load to
at RPM
3654 mmscfd and
61
and
330
mmscfd
4200 330 at RPM
Current torque level is % of rated load at rated speed.
3632
bhp
bhp
bhp
bhp
at 332 RPM
at 330 RPM
86.4
225.49
224.14
118
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 235
Horsepower
Cost of horsepower loss
Engine And Compressor Economic Condition Report
Unit Name:
Location:
Model:
Unit Mfr: Serial No.:
Date: RTC21000 - C
DRESSER RAND FLL
TCV10 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM
Load Step: 3
Percent Load: 86.4 %
UNIT COSTS
Fuel Cost:
Brake Power from the load:
Cost of Each BHP:
1673.37
3654.50
0.46
bhp
$/day
$/bhp-day
Deviation From Predicted:
Predicted Fuel Consumption:
Actual Fuel Consumption:
ENGINE COSTS
Cost of Deviation:
8675.17
7434.80
1240.36
239.26
BTU/BHP - hr
BTU/BHP - hr
BTU/BHP - hr
$/day
7282.35
87388.25
$/month
$/year
14.3 %
Percent of Fuel Cost
COMPRESSOR COST OF LOSSES
Valve and Passage Losses:
Pulsation Losses:
Gas Recirculation Losses:
Total Compressor Cost:
397.38
153.18
0.78
245.46
172.86
66.63
5.97
Estimated Cost of Losses
$/day
$/day
$/day
$/day
7471.32 $/month
89655.86 $/year
bhp
bhp
mmscfd
10.3 %
4.0 %
0.4 %
14.7 %
377.51
145.52
bhp
bhp
Total Losses Adjusted Losses (Note 7) Percent of Fuel Cost
TOTAL DEVIATION FROM PREDICTED
29.0 % 484.72
14753.67
177044.11
$/day
$/month
$/year
Unit running 365.25 days per year
Percent of Fuel Cost
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 236
2004 DYNALCO
Compressor Rod Load
Why do we care about rod load?
What are the forces acting on the rod?
119
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 237
Compressor Rods
Compressor piston rods bear all the force that is
applied to the gas
The manufacturer of the rods will specify the
maximum allowable rod load
Depending on the rod material and design, the rod
can bear in excess of 200,000 lbf
The crosshead pin must also bear these forces
Improper rod load can cause:
excessive wear in the crosshead bushing and pin
failure of the crosshead bushing
stress on the piston, piston nut, and other load bearing
components
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 238
Compressor Rods
Forces
Gas force - exerted by pressure on both sides of the
piston
Inertial force - exerted by the mass and acceleration
of the reciprocating components
Total force = Gas force + Inertial force
Compressor rods should alternate from tension to
compression in each cycle. This is important for
lubrication of the crosshead pin and bushing
API 618 (June 1995) says:
the duration of this reversal shall not be less than 15 degrees of
crank angle, and the magnitude of the peak combined reversed
load shall be at least 3 percent of the actual combined load in
the opposite direction.
120
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 239
Compressor Rods
Gas force
Compression
( ) [ ]
2 2
4
) diameter rod piston ( diameter piston
CE
Area
pressure cylinder CE
CE
P
CE
Area
CE
P
CE
Force Gas

=
=
=
) Area P ( ) Area P (
CE CE HE HE
>
Tension
) Area P ( ) Area P (
CE CE HE HE
<
( ) [ ]
2 2
4
) diameter tailrod ( diameter piston
HE
Area
pressure cylinder HE
HE
P
HE
Area
HE
P
HE
Force Gas

=
=
=
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 240
Compressor Rods
Gas force
Zero Rodload
Maximum Rodload Tension: 60000
Maximum Rodload Compression: 60000
Gas force
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
-60000
-50000
-40000
-30000
-20000
-10000
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
K200 - C cylinder 1 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 9
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
R
o
d

L
o
a
d

(
l
b
s
)
Crank Angle (deg)
121
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 241
Compressor Rods
Inertial force
Inertial Force = (mass of recip components)
x (instantaneous acceleration)
Differentiate piston displacement (top
graph) with respect to time to derive the
velocity (middle), then the differential of
velocity with respect to time gives
acceleration (bottom)
Rod load due to inertia takes the form of the
acceleration curve
Inertial forces are more significant in:
high mass piston and rod assemblies
high speed compressors
low compression ratio services
90 180 0 270 360
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
Crankshaft Angle (degrees)
90 180 0 270 360
90 180 0 270 360
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 242
Compressor Rods
Inertial force
Zero Rodload
Maximum Rodload Tension: 60000
Maximum Rodload Compression: 60000
Inertia
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
-60000
-50000
-40000
-30000
-20000
-10000
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
K200 - C cylinder 1 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 9
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
R
o
d

L
o
a
d

(
l
b
s
)
Crank Angle (deg)
122
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 243
Compressor Rods
Total rod load force
Zero Rodload
Maximum Rodload Tension: 60000
Maximum Rodload Compression: 60000
Inertia
Gas force
Total
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
-60000
-50000
-40000
-30000
-20000
-10000
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
K200 - C cylinder 1 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 9
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
R
o
d

L
o
a
d

(
l
b
s
)
Crank Angle (deg)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 244
Compressor Rods
Tension only
Zero Rodload
Maximum Rodload Tension: 75000
Maximum Rodload Compression: 75000
Inertia
Gas force
Total
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
-75000
-50000
-25000
0
25000
50000
75000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
301C - C cylinder 4 7/17/1997 8:23:05 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 6
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
R
o
d

L
o
a
d

(
l
b
s
)
Crank Angle (deg)
Rod is in
tension
throughout the
cycle
123
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 245
Compressor Rods
Compression only
Zero Rodload
Maximum Rodload Tension: 50000
Maximum Rodload Compression: 50000
Inertia
Gas force
Total
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
-50000
-40000
-30000
-20000
-10000
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
RTC13003 - C cylinder 2 11/9/1992 8:08:46 AM HE Period 1, CE Period 1
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
R
o
d

L
o
a
d

(
l
b
s
)
Crank Angle (deg)
Unloaded CE
Rod is in
compression
throughout
the cycle
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 246
Compressor Rods
Crosshead pin knock
Knocks near rod
reversal points
Zero Rodload
Maximum Rodload Tension: 60000
Maximum Rodload Compression: 60000
Inertia
Gas force
Total 650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
-60000
-50000
-40000
-30000
-20000
-10000
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 0.5
3T VT1
RTC13002 - C cylinder 3 12/4/1991 7:43:52 AM HE Period 1, CE Period 1
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
R
o
d

L
o
a
d

(
l
b
s
)
Crank Angle (deg)
124
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 247
Compressor Rods
Excess load
Zero Rodload
Maximum Rodload Tension: 11000
Maximum Rodload Compression: 11000
Inertia
Gas force
Total
100
150
200
250
300
350
-10000
-5000
0
5000
10000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 1.0
- Scale 5.0
1XA VT1
1XH VTL
C-47 cylinder 1 07/26/2001 7:24:05 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
R
o
d

L
o
a
d

(
l
b
s
)
Crank Angle (deg)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 248
Compressor Rods
Crosshead knock
Zero Rodload
Maximum Rodload Tension: 11000
Maximum Rodload Compression: 11000
Inertia
Gas force
Total
100
150
200
250
300
350
-10000
-5000
0
5000
10000
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
--------------
--------------
--------------
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Scale 1.0
- Scale 5.0
1XA VT1
1XH VTL
C-47 cylinder 1 07/26/2001 7:24:05 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
g
)
R
o
d

L
o
a
d

(
l
b
s
)
Crank Angle (deg)
Crosshead
Knock
125
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 249
Compressor Rods
Analysis summary
The crosshead pin, crosshead, piston, linkages and rod are stressed above
the manufacturers specified limit.
Adjust the loading on the compressor.
Change the line pressures.
Rod load is above
limit
Check the low frequency vibration reading types. Look for knocks when the
rod load changes from tension to compression and vice versa.
Knock at reversal
API 618 (June 1995) says:
the duration of this reversal shall not be less than 15 degrees of crank
angle, and the magnitude of the peak combined reversed load shall be at
least 3 percent of the actual combined load in the opposite direction.
Unloading crank end suction valves can lead to insufficient reversal.
Adjust the loading on the compressor.
Insufficient rod
load reversal
Typical characteristics Observation
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 250
2004 DYNALCO
Compressor Rod Motion
What is rod motion?
How is rod motion measured?
Analysis tools
126
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 251
Rod Motion
Why is it important?
Ideally, rods should have translational recip motion
only
Motion is more complex due to:
imperfect alignment
flexibility of the rod
Analysis of rod motion is often used to identify:
cylinder alignment problems
rider band wear
cylinder liner wear
wear in the crosshead shoes
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 252
Rod Motion
Cylinder rod runout and history (at 240 degrees)
-2.0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
-0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
2 ROD RODOUT cylinder 2-RR Top Probe Rod Motion 6/4/2002 9:48:02 AM
R
o
d

M
o
t
i
o
n

(
m
i
l
)
6/26/2001 9/18/2001 11/27/2001 2/21/2002 6/4/2002
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Rod Motion History at 240 degrees for the Top Probe.
Current
Previous
127
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 253
Rod Motion
Rod runout
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
2 ROD RODOUT cylinder 2-RR 6/4/2002 9:48:02 AM
P
r
o
b
e

O
v
e
r
l
a
y

R
u
n
o
u
t

(
m
i
l
)

T
o
p

P
r
o
b
e

a
n
d


B
o
t
t
o
m
Crank Angle (deg)
Bottom probe
sees rod
rising
Top probe
sees rod
dropping
Top and bottom
probes indicate
opposite motion
(rod wear)
Top and bottom
probes see
similar motion
(rod movement)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 254
Rod Motion
Analysis summary
The liner is tapered, with most wear occurring in the crank end.
Check for excessive packing wear.
Check cylinder alignment.
The top and bottom probes
form a V shape from 0 to
360 degrees
The probes see the rod dropping most at 90 and 270 degrees
appearing to rise at TDC and BDC. The most common type of liner
wear has a barrel shape, more in the center than at the ends.
The top and bottom probes
follow a W path from 0 to
360 degrees.
The liner is tapered, with most wear occurring in the head end.
Check for excessive packing wear.
Check cylinder alignment.
The top and bottom probes
form an inverted V shape
from 0 to 360 degrees
The rod is worn where the separation occurs. If this is around BDC,
check the rod for wear near the packing.
Patterns for top and bottom
probes separate on the rod
runout plot. Top drops and
bottom rises.
Check for signs of rider band and liner wear.
Examine the PV and LogP-LogV for signs of ring leakage.
It is possible that the crosshead shoes are wearing out. Check
shoes and crosshead lubrication.
Trend of rod motion over
time drops
Typical characteristics Observation
128
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 255
2004 DYNALCO
Frame Faults
Main bearings and crank pins
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 256
Main and crank bearings
Behavior
Journals should ride on an oil film in the
bearing
There should be no metal-to-metal contact
We can often hear impact-type vibration if
the journal hits the bearing
the bearing shell is loose
Sometimes you can even feel it on the frame
This vibration can be detected with an
analyzer
129
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 257
Main and crank bearings
Some causes of abnormal bearing wear
Insufficient oil
on startup
while running
Fatigue
detonation
overload
non-uniform dynamic loading
Contaminated oil
particles
water
Poor alignment
main bearings
bent conrod
Improper installation
excessive or insufficient
clearance
damaged bearing or journal
Cavitation in the oil
Improper oil viscosity
Fretting while stationary
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 258
Main and crank bearings
Measurements
It is difficult to get good data from main and crank
bearings:
The transmission path is long
There is a great deal of noise from other sources
Difficult to distinguish main and crank bearing vibration
Measurement location
Shortest transmission path is near frame cross
members
Measurement types
Low frequency phased acceleration
Unphased (free running) velocity
130
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 259
Main and crank bearings
Phased, low frequency vibration
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
UNIT #4-E 7/17/2002 10:51:55 AM
Engine Vibration: Phased Vibration VT4:
U
N
IT
#
4
-
E
B
R
G
1
(
M
e
d
3
)
U
N
IT
#
4
-
E
B
R
G
2
(
M
e
d
1
)
U
N
IT
#
4
-
E
B
R
G
3
(
M
e
d
1
)
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720
UNIT #4-E 7/17/2002 10:51:55 AM
Engine Vibration: Phased Vibration VT4:
U
N
IT
#
4
-
E
B
R
G
4
(
M
e
d
4
)
U
N
IT
#
4
-
E
B
R
G
5
(
M
e
d
7
)
U
N
IT
#
4
-
E
B
R
G
6
(
M
e
d
1
0
)
Look for vibration like these that
are not caused by crosstalk
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 260
Main and crank bearings
Analysis summary
Vibration is strongest near the source move the transducer around
to find it. This will also help eliminate crosstalk from some other
component.
Always check oil analysis data. Look for babbitt material and dirt
that might contribute to wear.
Low frequency vibration
shows mechanical knock-
type vibration
Typical characteristics Observation
131
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 261
2004 DYNALCO
Conventional vibration
Some concepts
Applications
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 262
Conventional Vibration
Some concepts
Vibration is the response of a machine, structure,
piping, fluid or gas to an excitation
Excitation is the disturbance (dynamic force) that
causes motion in the machine
Imbalance of a rotor
Response is the motion of the system caused by the
application of all combined excitations
Vibration that you feel
To really understand vibration, you must understand:
What the dynamic forcing functions are
What is responding to the force
How to measure the response
132
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 263
Conventional Vibration
Free-running, non-phased data
Vibration is recorded independent of crankshaft
position
Returns
Overall vibration level
Spectrum showing frequency components
Common applications:
Structural vibration
Supports, foundations
Turbochargers
Oil and water pumps
Pressure pulsation
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 264
Conventional Vibration
Overall level
We can use a single number to indicate how
much vibration is present
We call this the overall vibration level
Our industry typically uses the following units:
Displacement: mil (peak-peak)
Velocity: ips (peak)
Acceleration: g (peak)
SINUSOIDAL MOTION
UPPER
NEUTRAL
LOWER
PEAK
TO
PEAK
RMS
PEAK
We use guidelines to
evaluate overall
vibration severity
133
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 265
Conventional Vibration
Spectrum
We can get a sense of the level of vibration
by looking at the overall level
But - to understand vibration, we need to
know what frequencies are in it
All periodic time domain signals can be
represented as the sum of a set of sine
waves
The frequency domain plot, or spectrum, tells
us about these components
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 266
Conventional Vibration
Acceleration, velocity and displacement
Vane/blade passing
Early rolling element bearing wear detection
Gear faults
1 kHz (60 kCPM)
and higher
Acceleration
Imbalance
Misalignment
Vane/blade passing
Oil film bearing faults
Rolling element bearing faults
Pulsation, acoustics
30Hz (1800 CPM)
to 2 kHz (120 kCPM)
Velocity
Mechanical looseness
Imbalance
Misalignment
Oil film bearing faults
up to 30Hz
(1800 CPM)
Displacement
Applications Useful frequency
range
Type
134
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 267
2004 DYNALCO
Frame Faults
Frame vibration
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 268
Frame vibration
Behavior
In relative terms, reciprocating machinery has high
mass and runs at slow speed
Forcing functions:
Mass imbalance
Misaligned bearings
Dynamic loading from the engine and compressor
Mechanical looseness (bolts, clearance)
Response is increased when stiffness is low
Foundation or supports are weak
These responses occur at low frequencies therefore
we are normally interested in displacement
135
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 269
Frame and piping vibration
Trend of frame vibration: broken anchor bolts
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Axial displacement, oil
pump end, mil-p-p
Horizontal displacement,
oil pump end, mil-p-p
Vertical displacement,
oil pump end, mil-p-p
Broken anchor
bolts discovered
After repair
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 270
Frame vibration
Overall levels
The overall level
can be easily
compared with
norms to determine
vibration severity
For frame vibration
this is usually
enough
Low Speed Nomograph
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1
0
0
1
,0
0
0
1
0
,0
0
0
1
0
0
,0
0
0
Shaft Speed (RPM)
D
i
s
p
la
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
il
s
p
k
-
p
k
)
V
E
R
Y
R
O
U
G
H
R
O
U
G
H
S
L
IG
H
T
L
Y
R
O
U
G
H
F
A
IR
G
O
O
D V
E
R
Y
G
O
O
D
S
M
O
O
T
H
V
E
R
Y
S
M
O
O
T
H
E
X
T
R
E
M
E
L
Y
S
M
O
O
T
H
.6
2
8
IN
/S
E
C
.3
1
4
IN
/S
E
C
.1
5
7
IN
/S
E
C
.0
7
8
5
IN
/S
E
C
.0
3
9
2
IN
/S
E
C
.0
1
9
6
IN
/S
E
C
.0
0
9
8
IN
/S
E
C
.0
0
4
9
IN
/S
E
C
V
ib
r
a
t
io
n

V
e
lo
c
it
y

(
in
c
h
e
s
/
s
e
c

-

p
e
a
k
)
136
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 271
1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 6C 7C 8C 9C
Frame and piping vibration
Spectrum: Typical frame vibration (IR 412 KVGB)
K102P-V Testpoint OPEV 7/27/2001 6:54:52 AM
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
m
i
l

(
p
k
-
p
k
)
cpm
Testpoint : OPEV VIB
No. Of Lines : 400
No. Of Averages : 4
Calc Overall : 2.200
Trap Overall : 2.200
Peak At Frequency
2.185 at 322.5
0.293 at 645.0
0.119 at 487.5
0.081 at 2595.2
0.044 at 975.1
0.044 at 2272.6
0.044 at 1297.6
0.032 at 1132.6
0.032 at 1942.6
0.032 at 810.1
324.091
Engine speed is
324 RPM. This is
the first order of
run speed.
Watch for
increases in the
overall level and in
low orders of run
speed
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 272
Frame Vibration
Analysis summary
Check anchor bolt torque. Look for cracks in the concrete base.
Check condition of grout that supports the frame.
Eliminate standing oil since it acts as a hydraulic wedge in cracks and
reduces friction on the chocks
Check cylinder alignment and piston runout to ensure that components are
all running true.
Fundamental spectrum component is at one-times run speed.
Excessive vibration (displacement) on
the base of the frame
Check piping supports.
Review vibration spectra to identify frequency components. Perform a
bump test to measure the mechanical natural frequency of the piping.
Determine if the vibration is a result of exciting the MNF.
Measure pressure spectra in the piping to determine if the forcing function
is pulsation or mechanical imbalance.
Excessive piping vibration detected
visually or using displacement
readings
Some cylinder motion is normal (< 5mils).
If axial cylinder motion is excessive or increases, check that distance piece
and cylinder bolts are tight.
Vibration (displacement) indicate axial
motion on the outer end of the
cylinder
Check the cylinder supports for loose bolts or cracked base. Depending
on the mass of the cylinder and speed of crankshaft, the displacement
should be below 5 mils.
Vibration (displacement) readings
indicate vertical motion on the outer
end of the cylinder
Troubleshooting Observation
137
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 273
2004 DYNALCO
Auxiliary Equipment
Turbocharger/Blower
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 274
Turbocharger/blower vibration
Behavior
There may be many forcing functions present
Structural faults
Mechanical looseness (1x-5x engine speed)
Shaft faults
Mass imbalance (1x-5x RPM)
Misaligned rotor (1x-5x RPM)
Bearing faults
Oil film bearing (1x-5x RPM)
Rolling element bearing (10x RPM)
Gear faults
Gear mesh frequency (1x-3x GMF)
GMF = #teeth x RPM
Vane faults
Vane passing frequency (1x-3x VP)
VP = # vanes x RPM
We are likely to use a
combination of displacement,
velocity and acceleration
readings to measure the
response to each of these
forcing functions
138
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 275
1X 2X 3X
Turbocharger
Normal velocity spectrum (Elliott on KVR 512)
Testpoint : PWRH IPP
No. Of Lines : 800
No. Of Averages : 4
Calc Overall : N/A
Trap Overall : 0.140
Peak At Frequency
0.050 at 1050.0
0.040 at 900.0
0.033 at 2475.0
0.029 at 1950.0
0.026 at 3525.0
0.025 at 1425.0
0.020 at 375.0
0.015 at 1575.0
0.013 at 2100.0
0.012 at 3150.0
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 55000
206-T Testpoint PWRH 3/10/2003 11:10:17 AM
i
p
s
(
p
s
e
u
d
o
-
p
k
)
cpm
15277.696 Turbo speed
Small
component at
1X. Slight at
2X and 3X run
speed
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 276
1X 2X 3X 4X 5X 6X 7X 8X 9X 10X
Turbocharger
Normal acceleration spectrum (Elliott on KVR 512)
Testpoint : PWRH GP
No. Of Lines : 800
No. Of Averages : 4
Calc Overall : N/A
Trap Overall : 1.500
Peak At Frequency
0.566 at 109875.0
0.306 at 94875.0
0.260 at 102750.0
0.250 at 97875.0
0.247 at 96750.0
0.208 at 108000.0
0.208 at 118500.0
0.191 at 105750.0
0.188 at 106500.0
0.146 at 85500.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
0 50 100 150 200 250
206-T Testpoint PWRH 3/10/2003 11:10:17 AM
g

(
p
s
e
u
d
o
-
p
k
)
kcpm
This is probably exhaust
turbulence exciting resonance
frequencies in the structure and
transducer
15.278 Turbo speed
Components at
1X, 2X and 3X
are very small
139
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 277
1X 2X 3X 4X 5X 6X 7X 8X 9X 10X
Turbocharger
Rotor Rub (Elliott turbo on KVR 512)
Testpoint : PWRH GP
No. Of Lines : 800
No. Of Averages : 4
Calc Overall : N/A
Trap Overall : 11.900
Peak At Frequency
4.612 at 31875.0
4.418 at 8250.0
4.362 at 40125.0
1.917 at 56250.0
1.806 at 16125.0
1.167 at 49125.0
0.889 at 24000.0
0.861 at 38625.0
0.834 at 48000.0
0.667 at 30750.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
0 50 100 150 200 250
206-T Testpoint PWRH 7/2/2003 3:09:23 PM
g

(
p
s
e
u
d
o
-
p
k
)
kcpm
16.083
Turbo speed
Increased audible noise,
high overall vibration level
Harmonic and subharmonic
components appear with
elevated spectrum floor
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 278
Turbocharger
Rotor Rub (Elliott turbo on KVR 512)
140
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 279
Blower
Acceleration spectrum (GMVA blower shaft)
Testpoint : BRG GP
No. Of Lines : 1601
No. Of Averages : 33
Calc Overall : N/A
Trap Overall : 35.495
Peak At Frequency
12.637 at 178125.0
11.612 at 179625.0
8.669 at 176250.0
4.274 at 181500.0
3.150 at 182625.0
2.759 at 184125.0
2.332 at 185250.0
1.941 at 360000.0
1.722 at 358500.0
1.612 at 186375.0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
219 12A-Blower Testpoint BRG 8/13/2003 8:00:34 AM
g

(
p
s
e
u
d
o
-
p
k
)
kcpm
This blower had been
making high frequency
noise for about a year.
The analyst decided to
perform a conventional
vibration analysis.
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 280
Blower
Forcing functions (GMVA blower shaft)
Shaf t RPM
30 6,000 16
"G"
Shaf t RPM
150 1,200 29
"E"
48
Shaf t RPM
60 240 145
"B"
300 116
Fluid Drive Hub ------->
Blower Driven Gear ---->
34,800
34,800 "A" Mesh Freq.
Crank Shaft RPM =
<---------Bull Gear
<----- Crank Drive Gear
14,400
Blower Wheel RPM
Vane Frequency 180,000
Lay Shaft Drive Gear ------>
"A" Mesh Freq.
300
Blower Drive Gear------>
<------Driven Gear
Mesh Freq. "C"=
Lay Shaft Driven Gear ---->
6,000
96,000
Aux. Layshaft RPM "D"=
Mesh Freq. "F" =
Spectrum was
recorded near
the Blower
Driven Gear
141
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 281
Testpoint : BRG GP
No. Of Lines : 1601
No. Of Averages : 33
Calc Overall : N/A
Trap Overall : 35.495
Peak At Frequency
12.637 at 178125.0
11.612 at 179625.0
8.669 at 176250.0
4.274 at 181500.0
3.150 at 182625.0
2.759 at 184125.0
2.332 at 185250.0
1.941 at 360000.0
1.722 at 358500.0
1.612 at 186375.0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
219 12A-Blower Testpoint BRG 8/13/2003 8:00:34 AM
g

(
p
k
)
kcpm
Blower
Gear fault (GMVA blower shaft)
6.000
Shaft
speed
1FN
Natural
frequency
1GM 2GM 3GM
Gear
mesh
frequency
(3 orders)
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 282
Blower
Gear Inspection (GMVA blower shaft)
Only part of the gear
face was in contact
Blower drive gear
Blower shaft gear
142
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 283
Turbochargers and blowers
Analysis summary
Increases vibration at several low orders of shaft speed often
indicates rotor instability, looseness or rub.
Velocity or acceleration spectra
show increased components at
low orders of run speed
Oil whirl can occur in oil film (hydrodynamic) bearings. This
phenomenon appears near order of shaft speed.
Velocity or acceleration spectra
show increased components at
around shaft speed
On blowers, vibration data is recorded near bearings where the
vibration energy from gears is transmitted. When gear teeth no-
longer mesh properly, they generate vibration at gear mesh
frequency.
Velocity or acceleration spectra
show elevated vibration at gear
mesh frequencies
Check the turbocharger supports for weakness or loose bolts. If
the unit is mounted high off the floor, lower stiffness may
worsen the response.
Displacement readings from the
turbocharger frame increase
Rolling element bearings usually pass through a sequence of
phases before failure. These can be described as:
Early high frequency vibration
Excitation of bearing natural frequencies
Excitation of rolling element faults
Elevated vibration at shaft orders
Vibration from rolling element
bearings follows the
characteristic wear phases
Troubleshooting Observation
2004 DYNALCO
GMRC 2004 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 284
Engine/Compressor Analysis
Some final thoughts
In this whirlwind tour of analysis weve:
characterized the normal behavior of engines and
compressors
listed common failure modes
provided examples of many of them
discussed the physical behavior behind them
This is a well developed subject:
many analysis techniques
various ways of getting the data
community of analysts that can provide support