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DECLARATION

I Henry Egyeyu hereby declare that this research report entitled is entirely
my original work, except where acknowledged, and that it has never been
submitted before to any other university or any other institution of higher
learning for the award of a Degree.
Signature.
Henry Egyeyu
(Researcher)

i
APPROVAL
This research report has been submitted for examination with my approval
as the university supervisor.
Signature:
REV. ONYANO !ILLIA"
(Su#er$is%r)

ii
DEDICATION
This dissertation is dedicated to my Dad and um for their love and sacri!ce.
To my uncles peter "amuel #ichard and all their wives y beloved friend
$erald %mal, &amunu 'lice, and 'tim (arol

AC&NO!LEDE"ENT
iii
I thank the 'lmighty $od the provider of knowledge and wisdom for seeing
me throughout my studies and for enabling me to undertake my research
successfully, I extend my deep appreciation to my supervisor #ev. %nyango
)illiam for the guidance and advice provided during the study that made it
possible for me to successfully complete this report. 'm greatly indebted to
the sta*s and customers of +itgum Town (ouncil for their valuable help and
cooperation in providing the needed information "pecial thanks go to my
parents ,okonani %wit %bol and "amali %wit for their parental love, sacri!ce,
and support may $od bless you abundantly.
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to all those who made tremendous
contributions to this study my brothers, sisters and friends $erald, -ancy,
'lice, (arol, .rances, &oyula, Damus, Daphine, $race, /enny, "covia,
.lorence, David, $eo*rey, Emmy, #achael and ike I appreciate your
encouragement and moral support.
ay 'lmighty &ord, bless you abundantly.

TA'LE O( CONTENTS
iv
DE(&'#'TI%-...................................................................................................i
'//#%0'&........................................................................................................ii
DEDI('TI%-....................................................................................................iii
'(+-%)&ED$EE-T......................................................................................iv
T'1&E %. (%-TE-T".......................................................................................v
&I"T %. '(#%-,".......................................................................................viii
&ists of tables and !gures...............................................................................ix
'1"T#'(T........................................................................................................x
(H'/TE# %-E 2I-T#%D3(TI%- '-D 1'(+$#%3-D4......................................5
5.6 Introduction.............................................................................................5
5.5 1ackground of the "tudy...........................................................................5
5.7 /roblem "tatement....................................................................................7
5.8 /urpose of the study..................................................................................7
5.9 %b:ectives of the study..............................................................................7
5. ; #esearch <uestions..................................................................................7
5.= The scope of the study..............................................................................7
5.> "igni!cant of the study..............................................................................8
5.? &imitations of the "tudy.............................................................................8
(H'/TE# T)% 2&ITE#'T3#E #E0IE)4.............................................................9
7.6 Introduction...............................................................................................9
7.5 "ituational 'nalysis.................................................................................;
v
7.7 (auses of the high youth unemployment rate at a glance.....................>
7.8 (onse@uences of youth unemployment..................................................?
7.9 #ecent DevelopmentsA The 7%55B7%57 1udget.....................................C
7.; &egal .ramework...................................................................................56
7.= Types of unemployment........................................................................57
7.> Existing Employment /olicies...............................................................5;
7.? ,outh attitude towards education.........................................................76
7.C (onclusion............................................................................................77
(H'/TE# TH#EE 2ETH%D%&%$,4................................................................78
8.6 Introduction.............................................................................................78
8.5 #esearch design.......................................................................................78
8.7 "tudy population......................................................................................78
8.8 "ampling design......................................................................................79
8.9 "ampling methods...................................................................................79
8.; "ample siDe..............................................................................................79
8.= "ource of data.........................................................................................79
8.=.5 /rimary source...................................................................................7;
8.= .7 "econdary source.............................................................................7;
8. > Data collection instruments....................................................................7;
8.> .5 <uestionnaires..................................................................................7;
8.? Data collection methods..........................................................................7;
vi
8.? .5 %bservation......................................................................................7;
8.? .7 "urvey...............................................................................................7=
8.C Data /rocessing, /resentation and 'nalysis............................................7=
8.C .5 Data /rocessing................................................................................7=
(H'/TE# .%3# 2/#E"E-T'TI%-, I-TE#/#ET'TI%- '-D DI"(3""I%- %. THE
.I-DI-$"4......................................................................................................7>
9.6 Introduction.............................................................................................7>
9.5 Demographic Data...................................................................................7>
9.5.5E #espondentFs gender........................................................................7>
9.7.7E #espondentsF marital status.............................................................7?
9.7.8 G&evel of education of respondents...................................................86
9.7.9E Time taken in present position.........................................................85
9.8E .indings relating to ob:ectives................................................................87
(H'/TE# .I0E 2DI"(3""I%-", (%-(&3"I%-" '-D #E(%E-D'TI%-"4....9;
;.6 Introduction.............................................................................................9;
;.5 Discussion of !ndings..............................................................................9;
;.7 (onclusions..............................................................................................9=
;.8 #ecommendations...................................................................................9>
;.9 'reas for .uture #esearch........................................................................;7
#eference.......................................................................................................;8
'ppendix IA 21udgetBExpenditure, 0ariance 'nalysis4....................................;;
vii
'ppendix IIA 2Time "chedule4.........................................................................;=
'ppendix III 2<uestionnaire4..........................................................................;>
'ppendix I0A 2Introduction &etter4..................................................................=6

LIST O( ACRONY"S
'ID"A 'c@uired Immune De!ciency "yndrome
('#I(%A (aribbean (ommunity
(D(EDA (aribbean $roup for (ooperation and Economic Development
(ID'A (anadian International Development 'gency
(%"H"%DA (ommission for Human and "ocial Development
(,/A (ommonwealth ,outh /rogramme
viii
D.IDA Department for International Development
E(&'(A Economic (ommission for &atin 'merica and the (aribbean
HI0A Human Immunode!ciency "yndrome
I&%A International &abour (ouncil
&'(A &atin 'merica and the (aribbean
-$%A -onE$overnmental (ouncil
-,(A -ational ,outh (ouncil
%E("A (ouncil of Eastern (aribbean "tates
3-A 3nited -ations
3/EA 3niversal /rimary Education
3-D/A 3nited -ations Development /rogramme
3-./'A 3nited .und for /opulation 'ctivities
Lists %) ta*+es an, -gures
Table 5A Targeted sample siDe........................................................................79
Table 7A "howing the gender of the respondents...........................................7>
Table 8A "howing respondentsH marital status...............................................7C
Table 9A "howing respondentsH education level.............................................86
ix
Table ;A "howing duration of stay at current location....................................85
Table =A 'ttitudes of youths towards Employment transition after leaving
school............................................................................................................88
Table >A )hether political instability is the main cause of unemploymentI. .89
Table ?A "howing whether educational system is responsible for high
unemployment rate.......................................................................................8;
Table CA "howing whether compulsory education is part of legislationI........8>
Table 56A "howing whether age, gender, religion and education are factors
associated with unemploymentI...................................................................8?
Table 55A showing whether there is relationship between unemployment and
youth attitudes towards educationI..............................................................96
Table 57A "howing whether institutional interventions are suitable to facilitate
the creation of employment opportunities....................................................95
Table 58A "howing whether youths attitudes towards education were
negative or positiveI.....................................................................................97
Table 59A "howing whether unemployment leads to corruption, dishonesty,
crimes and sinsI............................................................................................98

x
A'STRACT
The purpose of this paper is to examine the e*ects of unemployment to the
attitude of youths towards education in +itgum town council. It examines
!ndings from a number of areaEwide surveys of +itgum town council youth to
investigate the educational and labor market conditions +itgum town council
youth face amidst economic and social changes.
The study summariDes numerous areaEwide surveys conducted by +itgum
town council and -$%s concerning the employment and educational
opportunities of +itgum town council youth and their attitudes to their future
opportunities and other social and economic issues.
The study !nds that class gender and regional background signi!cantly
impact the educational and employment opportunities available to +itgum
town council youth. It also !nds that +itgum town council youth express real
concerns about their living conditions and future opportunities.
The study argues that future research on +itgum town council youth must
disaggregate !ndings by background and demographic characteristics. It
also argues that more research is needed to understand how youth perceive
recent economic and employment changes, including an emphasis on
identifying risk factors for marginaliDation and social and economic exclusion.
xi
C.APTER ONE
INTROD/CTION AND 'AC&RO/ND
5.6 Intr%,ucti%n
This chapter focuses on the background of the study, statement of the
problems purpose of the study, ob:ectives of the study, research @uestions,
scope of the study, and the signi!cance of the study.
0.0 'ac1gr%un, %) the Stu,2
+itgum Town is located in (hua (ounty and is bordered by &abongo &ayamo
to the west and north and &abongo 'mida to the east and south. The town is
steadily recovering from the long civil war and its growth is mainly as a result
of its close proximity to "udan which has enabled a lot of cross border
business. The neighbouring districts of /ader, &ira and $ulu also contribute
to +itgumFs steady growth. +itgum houses the district head@uarters and is
the ma:or commercial hub of +itgum district. The topography of the town is
best described by its gentle slopping plains and hills. It lies at an altitude of
C8> meters above sea level 2at the bank of /ager #iver4. The main problems
a*ecting the town include over population, unemployment, lack of basic
urban services, poor waste management, and urban poverty. 'nother ma:or
problem a*ecting +itgum town is haphaDard development due to lack of a
physical development plan.
-evertheless +itgum Town (ouncilFs mission is to provide and facilitate
@uality service delivery and economic empowerment of the urban poor, and
to ensure orderly infrastructure development of the town. The Town (ouncil
is the highest and most supreme political, legislative and planning authority
5
in +itgum, and is responsible for policy formulation and supervision of the
implementation of policies and decisions it has made 2secJ7> &ocal
$overnment 'ct of 5CC>4. The town has councillors who represent wards and
special interest groups such as women, youth, the elderly, and people with
disabilities.
+itgum Town (ouncil is divided into 55 lower local government administrative
units commonly referred to as /arishes. These are Town /arish, )estland ',
)estland 1, /andwong, 'longo, $uu ', $uu 1, /age ', /age 1, /ondwong,
and /andwong. %n the political side, the Town (ouncil is governed by the
council that consists of 79 councillors and is headed by the &ocal (ouncil III
(hairperson. They are assisted by the technical sta* headed by the town
clerk. %ther employers in +itgum includeK donors, -onE$overnmental
(ouncils 2-$%s4 such as save the children in 3ganda, world vision and )ar
child amongst others, community based councils 2(1%s4 such as ).%, )H%,
3-D/ and #ed (ross, the private sector, and other stakeholders. +itgum
Town (ouncil is in line with stipulated guidelines that foster development and
moving steadily towards ful!lling its vision for development
0.3 Pr%*+e4 State4ent
"ince +itgum embraced 3niversal /rimary Education 23/E4 by removing
primary school fees in 5CC=, enrollment has drastically increased, but many
classrooms now have 766 students in one room with one teacher. Teachers
are often forced to hold classes outdoors because of the lack of suLcient
facilities, and many observers are skeptical about the relative @uality of the
education. .urthermore, there is still a large discrepancy in the education
received by girls and boys. There are also a large number of orphaned
childrenMusually due to HI0B'ID"Mbeing cared for by other relatives, thus
putting strain on the pocketbooks of extended family to support childrenHs
learning and care. In addition to 3/E, the government of 3ganda was
7
committed to improving secondary education opportunities. Increased
numbers of secondary schools combined with their expansion into more rural
areas helped improve access and was thought to raise attendance
exponentially. However, secondary schools in kitgum re@uire fees for books
and stationary. 'lthough some bursaries exist for poor children, these costs
remain an insurmountable hurdle for poor families who must already pay the
opportunity cost of allowing their child to study rather than work. oreover
those who have completed studies talk ill of the positive aspects of
education as being rigid towards the colonial rule and as such they are not
willing to further their studies in education. The result is that many children
never receive secondary education and are therefore stuck in the poverty
trap of basic labor. Therefore the study is intended to investigate the attitude
of the youths towards education and how they conceive the concept of work
0.5 Pur#%se %) the stu,2
The purpose of this study was to examine the e*ects of rampant
unemployment on the attitude of the youth towards education in +itgum
Town (ouncil

0.6 O*7ecti$es %) the stu,2
254 To discover the causes of unemployment among the youth in +itgum
Town (ouncil
274 To list the e*ects of unemployment among the youth in +itgum Town
(ouncil
28 4 To explain the relationship between unemployment and attitude of the
youth towards education .
0. 8 Research 9uesti%ns
254 )hat are the causes of unemployment among the youth in +itgum town
councilI
8
274)hat is the e*ects unemployment among the youth in +itgum town
councilI
284what is the relationship between unemployment and attitude of the youth
towards educationI
0.: The sc%#e %) the stu,2
It was centred on the following catergories of employers civil servants
political oLcers casual support sta* in the council
The data were collected from within the council geographical area and not
from outside.
0isitors to the council were not contacted for data
0.; Signi-cant %) the stu,2
The study was of great importance to me as a researcher because it enriched
me with knowledge and skills of doing research.
The study will be a source of literature to other scholars who will be
researching on a related topic. The study provides insights into the
phenomenon of graduate unemployment in 3ganda and suggestions for
resolving the challenges. It also generates new ideas for developing
interventions to link education, industry and the employment sectors of the
countryFs development policy agenda
0.< Li4itati%ns %) the Stu,2
Li4ite, ti4e= time scope was limited because the researcher had to attend
lectures, do tests, prepare for end of semester exams and also do school
practice. To solve the limitation of time the researcher programmed herself
within the time frame available and avoided procrastination so that all was
done on time.
(inancia+ c%nstraints E The research re@uired substantial amount of money
for travelling, printing @uestionnaires among others. To solve this problem
9
the researcher solicited funds from family members and friends and also
looked for cheaper service providers.


C.APTER T!O
LITERAT/RE REVIE!
3.> Intr%,ucti%n
This chapter contains a review of the existing theoretical literature on the
research variables that is to say the e*ects of unemployment on the attitude
of the youths towards education. The review was based on the study
ob:ectives.
3nemployment as de!ned by the International &abour (ouncil 2I&%4 occurs
when people are without :obs and they have actively looked for work within
the past four weeks. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence
of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the
number of unemployed individual s by all individuals currently in the labor
force.
;
In the year 7656, 3ganda registered a $D/ growth of about ;.7N but this has
not been rapid enough to create the :obs needed to keep pace with its
population growth which according to the /opulation #eference 1ureau, a
)ashington D.( based research and advocacy group, is way ahead of the
worldHs, which is at 5.7N leading to a persistent high rate of unemployment.
The policy conclusion drawn is that we need faster growth to increase the
demand for workers and reduce unemployment which is one of the most
pressing social economic challenges facing $overnment today. There are
three primary causes of unemploymentK structural causes 2changes in
market conditions often turn many skills obsolete4K frictional causes
2transaction cost of trying to !nd a new :ob4K and cyclical unemployment
2economic contraction4. There are arguments that a large share of current
high youth unemployment is Ostructural,Pin a sense that most of the
unemployed youth have skills which are not compatible with the :obs
becoming available. It is further argued that many of the unemployed youth
either possess inade@uate skills or possess skills that have greatly
deteriorated or are not applicable to the available industries
3.0 Situati%na+ Ana+2sis
3gandaFs demographic pro!le is one of the countryFs most salient
development challenges. Driven by a very high fertility rate of nearly seven
children per woman, 3gandaFs population nearly doubled in the past 76
years to 7C million in 766;. The high rate of population growth creates
strains on the countryFs natural resources, including arable land, which in
turn drives up the poverty rate and threatens future gains in agricultural
production and food security. /lots of land are divided among children, and
due to large family siDes, per capita access to arable land is shrinking with
each successive generation. In 7668, 8? percent of the population lived
below the national poverty line, and the number of people living in poverty
grew by 7? percent in !ve years. 5, 7 Together with a growing poverty
=
headcount, unemployment and underemployment are serious concerns in
3ganda, despite relatively high access to education.
3ganda has faced signi!cant political upheaval in the second half of the
twentieth century. 'fter gaining independence from 1ritain in 5C=7, the
country experienced two decades of dictatorship accompanied by extreme
civil violence. "ince 5C?=, the presidency of ,oweri +aguta useveni has
brought relative stability and economic growth to the country, but 3ganda
has also remained involved internal and regional conQicts. In this decade,
conQict has spilled over the countryFs borders with the Democratic #epublic
of the (ongo, +enya and "udan. Despite recent 3nited "tatesEsupported
military operations, the civil war between useveniFs government and the
&ordFs #esistance
'rmy 2&#'4 in northern 3ganda continues and is among the longest in
3ganda.
In 766>, /opulation 'ction International 2/'I4 published The Shape of Things
to Come: Why Age Structure Matters to a Safer, More Equitable World. In a
86Eyear historical analysis, the report found that countries with very young
and youthful age structures those in which =6 percent or more of the
population is younger than age 86 are the most likely to face outbreaks of
civil conQict and autocratic governance.8 )hile the relationship between age
structure and instability is not one of simple cause and e*ect, demographics
play an important role in mitigating or exacerbating a countryFs prospects for
development and the wellEbeing of its people. The Shape of Things to Come
makes the case that because of this interplay of factors, demographic issues
and the policies and programs that inQuence them namely, family planning
and reproductive health, education and economic outlets for women, and
opportunities for growing cohorts of young people must be fully integrated
into development strategies by country governments and international
partners.
>
'ccording to the International &abour (ouncil, the number of unemployed
youth worldwide increased by 56.7 million in 766C compared to 766>, the
largest hike since 5CC5.
The 766CB7656 3ganda -ational Household "urvey revealed that the
unemployment rate was at 9.7 percent in 766CB7656 compared to 5.C
percent in 766;B766=. The survey also showed that the general proportion of
youth 2International de!nition, 5;E79 years4 rose from 7> percent in
766;B766= to 7?N in 766CB7656. %n the other hand, the proportion of the
youth 2national de!nition, 5?E86 years4 rose from 99 percent in 766;B766= to
9? percent in 766CB7656. 'ccording to a 766? )orld 1ank #eport, 3ganda is
among the countries with the youngest population and the highest youth
unemployment rate of ?8N. To further lend credibility to these !ndings, in
the 7655B7657 budget of 3ganda, the inister of .inance recogniDed that
because of the high levels of unemployment, the 3gandan economy can only
absorb 76N of its youth.
This same survey revealed that the labor force in the country was
approximately at 55.; million persons reQecting an increase of 7 million from
C.; million in 766;B766=K an annual growth rate of 9.> percent. This is above
the national population of 8.7 percent per year. 'ccording to the survey, the
high growth rate of the labor force poses a challenge to the country since it
re@uires that :obs should be secured to match the increasing labor force.
The survey also used the &abour .orce /articipation #ate to assess the
employment situation in 3ganda. &abour .orce /articipation #ate means the
number of persons in the labor force expressed as a percentage of the
workingEage population. The labour force participation rate for youth
2International de!nition, 5;E79 years4 rose from 99 percent in 766;B766= to
=6 percent in 766CB7656. The &abour .orce /articipation #ate for the youth
as nationally de!ned, 5?E86 years increased from >> percent in 766;B6= to
?= percent in 766CB56. (onse@uently 3ganda re@uired about 5;.= million
:obs for her active population aged 5;E=9 years by 7656. 1ut due to the
current unemployment rate of over 8.;N and whopping youth
?
unemployment rate of over 87.7N then about 9.8> million people have
remained :obless.
'ccording to a 7655 statistical abstract, the total labor force in 3ganda
increased from 56.? million persons in 766;B6= to 58.9 million persons in
766CB56, an increase of 78 percentK by industry, agriculture employed ==
percent of the working population, while by occupation, =6 percent of the
working population were agriculture and !shery )orkersK by employment
status >C percent were selfE employed in 766CB56.
3.3 Causes %) the high 2%uth une4#+%24ent rate at a g+ance
arcus and #achel 276694 noted that the -ational ,outh policy recogniDes
that the ma:or causes of a high youth unemployment rate are lack of
employable skills, lack of access to resources like land and capital, lack of
focus by the existing programs on the informal sector and agriculture,
overemphasis on experience, lack of apprenticeship schemes, negative
attitudes by the youth towards work especially in agriculture, lack of a
comprehensive employment policy and negative cultural attitudes such as
gender discrimination et cetera.
%FHiggins R -iall 25CC>4 buttresses that the high youth unemployment rate
in 3ganda and 3ganda at large can be attributed to the slow economic
growth and small formal labour markets, high population growth rate, lack of
suLcient experience and skills, lack of decent work, the rigid education
system, ruralEurban migration, limited social networks, youthFs limited access
to capital support systems et cetera.
urray R "arah 2Sanuary, 76694 analyses that the poor $overnment policies
are partly to blame for these youth problems, in recent times the
$overnment has come up with a number of solutions to youth problems and
C
these are embedded in policies such as the -ational ,outh /olicy,
Employment policy et cetera. The poor attitude towards certain :obs that
both young people in employment and unemployed ones exhibit is also
partly responsible for the youth problems. $asper bowa, T- Fs company
youth segment manager says that on average, about >6 percent of the
young people the company employs to man their call centers show
commitment to the work but 86 percent will care less about their output at
work since this is not a permanent placing for them in the company. 7 The 86
percent will therefore be slow and strictly work within the speci!ed working
hours 2?am to ;pm4. He also attributes the problem to the education system
which is largely theoretical and therefore does not @uite prepare young
people for the working environment.
"cha*ner, Sulie 'nderson 276654 stresses that another cause of the high
unemployment rate in 3ganda is the societal and cultural aspect that
generally encourages young people, particularly the girl child to continue
depending on parental support even at an old age. The end result is that
many of 3gandaFs youth do not have the capacity to think for themselves or
let alone !nd creative ways of earning a living.
3.5 C%nse?uences %) 2%uth une4#+%24ent
#ichard 276654 buttress that unemployment has social as well as economic
conse@uences for young people, unemployed young people are forced to !nd
alternatives to generate income, including activities in the survivalEtype
informal sector and, in extreme cases, criminal activity. 3rban
unemployment is further exacerbated by ruralEurban migration. #ural
migrants believe that more :obs and social opportunities are available in
urban areas, but once in the cities they !nd themselves without a :ob and
with limited social networks.
56
Trapped and discouraged by bleak :ob prospects, some turn to the sex,
criminality and drug industries to survive.
almbergEHeimonen, I. 25CCC4 contends that youth :oblessness also implies
missed opportunities in the human resources to produce goods and services.
In addition, smaller tax revenues result from a smaller tax base for income
tax and indirect taxes such as the value added tax. ' further implication is
related to security. 'n increase of one percentage point in the ratio of people
ages 5;E7C to people ages 86E;9 increases the likelihood of conQict such as
civil unrest or war by > per cent. Higher crime rates al so have a direct
economic cost in terms of loss of foreign direct investment.
The youth now lack the capacity to access health services, lack leadership
and management skills, are prone to poverty et cetera because they are
unable to engage in meaningful and gainful employment. any of them have
also resorted to corrupt tendencies in order to @uickly go up the ladder of
success. To them, the meager sums that they earn are a :usti!cation for this
form of behavior which is a vice that 3ganda needs to get rid of. The youth
have also lost faith in the capacity of their country to o*er them the
necessary protection against exploitative employers.
3.6 Recent De$e+%#4ents: The 3O00@3O03 'u,get
The 7655B7657 budget is one of the most recogniDable strategies by the
$overnment to deal with the problems youth face in the employment sector.
The !nancial facilities proposed by the $overnment are pro youth and an
indication that the $overnment is now looking at young people as important
stakeholders in the development process.
In this budget, the inister of .inance mentioned some of the aspects that
continue to constrain development in the country and these include poor
business and entrepreneurial attitudes, the lack of good work ethic, integrity
55
and patriotism in both the public and private sectorsK negative perceptions in
use and appreciation of natural resourcesK limited adoption of science
technology and information and communication technology in business and
social spheres and negative attitude towards work and entrepreneurship in
favor of paid employment and poor time management.
"he further noted that 3gandaFs human resource base is still characteriDed
by the followingA @ualitative and @uantitative de!cits in skilled human
resources especially in technical areasK low school completion rates and
limited capacities in vocational and technical education which ultimately is
reQected in low productivity of 3gandaFs labour forceK inade@uate @uali!ed
persons in some sectors. .or instance, 3ganda has low health personnel to
population ratio with only one doctor for 7;,666 patientsK and one nurse for
5,=86 patientsK and inade@uate social infrastructure and associated low
service delivery with low health facility to population and high student
classroom ratios.
The inister also noted that one of the biggest challenges facing the
economy is the rising unemployment. "he stated that the youth are highly
adaptable and only re@uire attitudinal transformation, together with technical
and business management skills to !t into the existing :ob market and create
avenues for generating their own small scale enterprises. The inister of
.inance highlighted that some of the $overnment priorities are employment
creation especially for the youth, women and in small and medium
enterprises, human resource development, enhancing agricultural production
and productivity et cetera.
' sum of "hs. 99.; billion was therefore allocated towards creating :obs in
this !nancial year and a number of interventions that will be implemented to
address the current employment challenges were highlighted. These include
establishment of a youth entrepreneurship venture capital fund together with
the D.(3 1ank to support youth starting or expanding their business
enterprises. .inances were also allocated to Enterprise 3ganda to undertake
57
a youth entrepreneurial training program to instill business management
skills among the youth, to enable them to :oin the :ob market or create their
own enterprises and also enable it to undertake 1usiness Development "kills
clinics in collaboration with the private sector and 3ganda "mall "cale
Industries 'ssociation 23""I'4, with special focus on imparting technical skills
to youth, using nonEformal vocation al training programmesK establishing
dedicated work spaces in markets in which youth and other small scale
manufacturers under the Sob "timulus programme will undertake
manufacturing and other processing activity.
The inister of .inance also allocated money to the extension of free
3niversal education to 'Elevel and 1usiness, Technical, 0ocational and
Education Training 21T0ET4. "he also pledged that the $overnment would
support private sector vocational institutions with e@uipment, key sta* and
salaries as well as enhanced inspection of schools develop and retain a pool
of national expertise in the emerging mining, oil and gas industries.
3.8 Lega+ (ra4eA%r1
Employment relations in 3ganda are primarily governed by the Employment
'ct of 766=. ' number of its provisions have a direct bearing on the @uestion
of youth unemployment in the country. "ection = 254 of the Employment 'ct
provides that it shall be the duty of all parties including the inister, labour
oLcers and the industrial court to seek to promote e@uality of opportunity
with a view to eliminating any discrimination in employment. In relating this
provision to employment and the youth in 3ganda, the law presupposes that
the youth are entitled to access employment opportunities in the same
manner as senior citiDens in the country.
The Employment 'ct has also established the &abor 'dvisory 1oard. 's per
"ection 77 294 of the 'ct, its role, among others, is to advise the inister
responsible for labour matters on aspects of vocational guidance and
58
counseling, matters concerning the operation of the employment service and
the development of the employment service policy, the formulation and
development of a national policy on vocational rehabilitation. .rom this
provision, it is clear that the &abour 'dvisory 1oardFs role is pivotal to solving
the problem of widespread unemployment in the country.
"ection C> 274 of the Employment 'ct also gives the inister responsible for
labour matters, permission to make rules that limit the range of :obs
available to migrant workers. This same provision is reiterated under "ection
= 2;4 of the Employment 'ct. This paper will review whether this is a viable
provision in light of some speci!c causes of unemployment in the country.
Internationally, 3ganda has been a member of the International &abour
(ouncil since 5C=8. 3ganda rati!ed the #555 Discrimination 2Employment
and %ccupation4 #ecommendation, 5C;? on 7 nd Sune 766;. However, this
convention has not yet been domesticated. 3nder this recommendation,
every member state should formulate a national policy for the prevention of
discrimination in employment and occupation and this policy should have
regard to the following principlesA
'. The promotion of e@uality of opportunity and treatment in employment
and occupation is a matter of public concernK
1. 'll persons should, without discrimination, en:oy e@uality of opportunity
and treatment in respect ofA
i. 'ccess to vocational guidance and placement servicesK
'ccess to training and employment of their own choice on the
basis of individual suitability for such training or employmentK
ii. 'dvancement in accordance with their individual character,
experience, ability and diligenceK
iii. "ecurity of tenure of employment et cetera.
59
3ganda also rati!ed the Employment /olicy (onvention 5C=9 on 78 rd Sune
5C=>. 'ccording to 'rticle 5 of the (onvention, with a view to stimulating
economic growth and development, raising levels of living, meeting
manpower re@uirements and overcoming unemployment and
underemployment, each member shall declare and pursue, as a ma:or goal,
an active policy designed to promote full, productive and freely chosen
employment. The said policy shall aim at ensuring that there is work for all
who are available for and seeking workK such work is as productive as
possibleK there is freedom of choice of employment and the fullest possible
opportunity for each worker to @ualify for, and to use his skills and
endowments in, a :ob for which he is well suited, irrespective of race, color,
sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin. The said
policy shall take due account of the stage and level of economic
development and the mutual relationships between employment ob:ectives
and other economic and social ob:ectives, and shall be pursued by methods
that are appropriate to national conditions and practices.
'ccording to 'rticle 8 of the (onvention, in the application of this
(onvention, representatives of the persons a*ected by the measures to be
taken, and in particular representatives of employers and workers, shall be
consulted concerning employment policies, with a view to taking fully into
account their experience and views and securing their full coEoperation in
formulating and enlisting support for such policies. The mentioned
international instruments contain aspects that can ensure that 3ganda
overcomes the challenge of youth unemployment.
3.: T2#es %) une4#+%24ent
There are always some people who are unemployed in our community. This is
because of the four di*erent types of unemployment. These are frictional,
seasonal, cyclical and structural. This term paper will explore brieQy over
5;
what the di*erent types of unemployment areK then in depth, cyclical and
structural unemployment will be analyDed. This is to give an outline and to
evaluate di*erent policies designed to correct these two types of
unemployment. The term paper is then concluded with the economic e*ects
that unemployment has on the economy.
%ne case of unemployment, knows as frictional unemployment, is voluntary.
.rictionally unemployed workers have chosen to move from one :ob to
another to seek better pay, or to look for better opportunities 20inay, 76674.
The other unemployment categories are involuntary, because people have
been displaced from their :ob. "easonal unemployment a*ects occupations
such as fruit pickers, !shermen and shearers, where they are only employed
during certain times of the year because of the nature of their work. 1oth
frictional and seasonal unemployment are usually shortEterm unemployment
2/anos, 5C??4.
(yclical unemployment occurs in the downswing phases of the trade cycle.
)hen the level of spending in the economy is insuLcient to purchase the
goods and services for sale, !rms will !nd it necessary to put o* some of
their labor. (yclical unemployment rises and falls in line with changed in
economics activity 2ocan, 5CCC4. In periods of high economic activity there
are more :ob vacancies and the unemployment rate decreases and vice
versa. In these periods of low economic activity it tends to be associated with
rapid rises in unemployment, but recovery from recessions tends to take
longer periods of time to feed through into the market for labor 2(hristie,
76684. The fact that cyclical unemployment rises @uickly, but falls slowly,
might have something to do with structural unemployment if employers
replace labor with more productive capital e@uipment to save costs when the
economy is tight 2ocan, 5CCC4.
The recession in 5CC6EC7 has been characterised as an important case of
cyclical unemployment. #ecessions are reduced levels of demand for goods
5=
and services. 3nemployment follows as costs must be reduced. "o from this,
businesses tend to react by employing machinery instead of labor 2/earlman,
76674.
"tructural unemployment is the impact of changes in the framework of the
economy on the demand for labor. "tructural change is caused by
technological change, which usually means that the demands for some types
of workers increase, while others !nd their skills are no longer relevant
2Ehrbar, 5C?84. Examples of these are computer operators replacing typists,
bank tellers replaced by automatic teller machines and driveway attendants
replaced by selfEserve petrol pumps. "tructural change is also caused by
changes in consumer demand. This results in :ob losses in some occupations
and gains in others. 'n example of this is compact discs which replace
records. This lead to workers not needed in the record factories 2Hart, 5CC64.
.or a few people, structural unemployment will be temporary. )orkers willing
and able to be retrained with new skills will !nd that new categories of :obs
emerge. .or example, unemployed typists may !nd new :obs in desktop
publishing. 1ut it is very likely that a large number of those who are unable
or unwilling to retrain may !nd that they will be unemployed for a longer
period of time 2Dennis, 5C?;4.
InQation may also have been a cause of structural unemployment, if it
contributed to business uncertainty and rising costs. Increased costs which
are not matched by higher production make it more diLcult for !rms to
operate pro!tably 2(hristopher, 76664.
These di*erent types of unemployment have serious economic and social
e*ects. 3nemployment represents a waste of productive labour resources.
3nused or idle resources make no contribution to production, leading to a
less income. The economy will produce less goods and services that it
potentially could if resources were fully employed 2-orris and "loman, 76674.
5>
Here unemployment is represented by point 1, which lies inside the
production possibility frontier. 'ny point on the frontier, such as point ',
represents full employment of resources. The distance between ' and 1 is
known as the $ross Domestic /roduct 2$D/4 gap. The gap represents an
economy inside its production possibility curve, foregoing output, income
and welfare as a result 2-orris and "loman, 76674.
High unemployment creates pressure on the government budget.
3nemployment reduces the total taxation receipts the government receives
because people without an income do not pay income tax. This places a
drain on the government funds as the unemployed claim the Sob "earch
'llowance. 's well as this monetary cost, unemployment has a real cost.
)hen more government money is devoted to welfare, there is less available
for other community wants such as education and health 2'nonymous,
76674.
.rom an economic point of view, unemployment may bring some bene!ts, as
well as costs. .rictional unemployment is often a reQection of the fact that
workers want to move to more highly paid :obs. 3nemployment is also a sign
that structural change is taking place. This usually brings bene!ts in the long
run. .or example, employment opportunities may decline in agriculture, but
emerge in other industries. Therefore, the labor market is adapting to
changes in the economy 2-orris and "loman, 76674.
The social costs associated with unemployment are signi!cant. .or the
individual, unemployment may bring about a sense of frustration and failure
2)ilkinson, 76664. .or many people, being unemployed means living in
poverty with a loss in status and self esteem. The social costs of
unemployment can manifest themselves in a variety of ways such as
deteriorating physical health, psychiatric illness, increased death rates and
suicides, decreased stability and increased crime 2)ilkinson, 76664.
5?
's analyDed, there are four di*erent types of unemployment. These are
frictional, seasonal, cyclical and structural unemployment. 'fter analyDing
the e*ects of these types of unemployment, it can be concluded that cyclical
and structural a*ect many people and can e*ect there status in life. 1eing
unemployed can lead to families being destroyed because of lack of income.
(yclical and structural unemployment is a*ected by economic activity, so for
this reason it is usually preferred to stay in a boom or upswing for maximum
employment to occur.
3.; EBisting E4#+%24ent P%+icies
3ganda currently has come up with a number of policies to address the
various challenges in the employment sector. Those relevant to solving the
problem of youth unemployment in the country are the -ational ,outh /olicy
and the -ational Employment /olicy.
Nati%na+ Y%uth P%+ic2
%ne of the principles underlying the -ational ,outh policy is the promotion of
the principle of e@uity in opportunities and in distribution of programmes,
services and resources. The policy serves to promote e@ual access to socioE
economic and employment opportunities commensurate with ability,
potential and needs of youth 2Hammer, T. 76664. In as much as such a
principle exists on paper, some of the programmes and partnerships that the
$overnment proposes to set up are mainly accessible to the urban youth and
not the rural youth. This will ultimately worsen the problem of ruralEurban
migration which is one of the ma:or causes of youth unemployment in the
country.
The policy also recogniDes the right of youth to seek meaningful employment
without discrimination. In reality, the youth are marginaliDed by various
employers, $overnment inclusive, because they lack the relevant longEterm
experience that such employers re@uire. any youth have therefore been
5C
denied the opportunity to utiliDe the skills that they have ac@uired in school.
The policy does not provide speci!c and meaningful ways in which the
$overnment intends to ensure that the right is not infringed upon by the
various stakeholders in the employment sector. -ovo, ., '. HammarstrTm R
3. Sanlert 25CC?4A
's part of the policy, the youth are under an obligation to contribute to social
economic development at all levels, create gainful employment and take
advantage of available education and training opportunities et cetera. The
capacity of the youth to ful!ll these obligations is continuously curtailed by
the fact that they lack ade@uate !nancial resources. The policy provides t hat
one of its priorities is to advocate for the formulation and implementation of
an appropriate -ational Employment /olicy that addresses and responds to
the concerns of the youth such as the promotion of income generating
activities among the youth by supporting appropriate microEcredit !nancial
institutions that extend credit facilities to the youth, advocate for creation of
a ,outh Trust 1ank et cetera. The inistry of $ender, &abour and "ocial
Development needs to play a more proEactive role in ensuring that such
!nancial measures are actually put in place to address the problem of youth
unemployment. In as much as the policy looks at education, training and
capacity building as one of the strategic areas necessary in order for it to
ful!ll its mission, goal and ob:ectives, the policy does not look into prospects
of amending or reviewing of the current 3gandan curriculum so as to reduce
on the widespread problem of a mismatch between the skills and knowledge
schools are dispensing and the existing needs of the labour market.
The other challenge surrounding the -ational youth policy is that it is a static
document and is therefore not @uickly adopted to cover the trends in the
3gandan economy and plan accordingly. The 7655 budget proposals for
example are not ade@uately included within the policy.
%ne of the priorities of the -ational ,outh /olicy in terms of education,
76
training and capacity building is to support vocational training in order to
enable the youth to ac@uire a range of skills and essential tools. Indeed,
vocational training has the capacity to solve the youth employment
problems. However, the reality on the ground is that the $overnment is
doing very little to support the young people who take up vocational :obs.
There is no policy in place to give them tax subsidies and the $overnment
has also failed to control inQation which negatively a*ects their business
enterprises. The result is that other young people who are not involved in
these kinds of businesses have a negative attitude towards vocational
institutes and businesses of this nature.
The policy also provides for the promotion of functional literacy programmes
and special training for youth who are illiterate and migrants including
pastoralists, the internally displaced persons, refugees, street children and
the disabled. This in itself is a good policy in as far as it ensures that all
young people in the country have employable skills that they can utiliDe to
start up various income generating pro:ects. However, the policy is lacking in
the sense that it does not mention clear available statistics relating to the
real !gures under each category of young people so as to ensure that this
policy strategy is well executed in terms of planning and programming. The
policy makers also neglected to clearly mention the components to be taught
as part of the functional literacy programmes and therefore there is no
guarantee that the programmes taught di*er from the already existing
education system. The -ational ,outh /olicy also provides for the formulation
and implementation of an appropriate -ational Employment /olicy that,
among others, encourages the adoption of modern agriculture knowledgeK
provides youth who are farmers with market information and agricultural
extension services. The recent Employment /olicy however does not mention
this aspect. The policy concentrates on advocating for mechanisms to
increase yield and therefore create employment opportunities without
providing for avenues through which the farmers can access the markets for
their products. .urther, the policy looked at pushing for the formulation of a
75
-ational Employment /olicy that would establish a ,outh Trust 1ank in order
to ensure that young people have access to small interest loans to start up
and also maintain their businesses. It is true many initiatives that give young
people !nancial support exist but these are loosely located and managed by
small scale !rms or :oint partnerships with the $overnment and some other
councils. ' bank of this nature would be a permanent structure and therefore
o*er a longElasting solution to the !nancial challenges that young people in
business and those interested in setting up business pro:ects face.
's a strategy to solve youth employment problems, the -ational ,outh /olicy
plans that the $overnment shall support appropriate micro credit !nancial
institutions that extend credit facilities to the youth. The policy however does
not put in place appropriate guidelines governing arrangements of this
nature and also is devoid of guidelines to ensure that the !nances availed to
such institutions are used for the right purpose. There is also fear that t he
decision on which micro institution to support may be inQuenced by politics
and not capacity to deliver.
The -ational ,outh policy also advocates for career guidance as one of the
mechanisms that are needed in order to deal with youth employment
problems. However, this mechanism has not been widely implemented by
the line ministries who are among the custodians of this youth policy. The
result is that many students are still undertaking studies in courses whose
capacity to yield or create employment opportunities is minima l. Higher
institutions of learning are therefore churning out more graduates than the
market can absorb. .urther, the -ational ,outh /olicy mentions a number of
priority target groups. However it does not speci!cally mention Ograduate
youthPand Oyouths in vocational institutionsP. The argument is that these are
catered for in the Oyouth in schoolsBtraining institutionsP. However, because
of the uni@ue nature of the challenges that these two groups face, each of
them needs to be a priority in itself. The membership of the (ommittee
77
established under the -ational ,outh /olicy should not only be limited to
representatives of youth -$%s but should also spread out to a select number
of -$%s and ("%s involved in community work. 1ecause of their practical
involvement in society, the input of these groups would improve on the
-ational ,outh /olicy since they understand the general society challenges
and would o*er mechanisms in which employment can be used as a strategy
to solve them. In addition, the policy advocates for youth involvement in the
leadership and management at all levels of $overnment and in the civil
society. "ince the youth are facing a number of problems in the employment
sector, young people who are knowledgeable in youth policy matters should
be appointed in key ministries such as the inistry of $ender, &abor and
"ocial Development so as to implement youth programs. The youth /s who
have the mandate to play this role should concentrate on legislative and
monitoring matters and other youth should take on the implementation
mantle. The ,outh /olicy recogniDes that the trend of ruralEurban migration
by the youth is mainly caused by the search for better social services and
amenities like education and health services, search for employment and
andBor business opportunities. However, today many employers in the
country still do not o*er any form of health insurance to their employees.
The salaries received by many workers including young people are too low to
ensure that they access proper social services. .urther, the policy rightly
notes that one of the ma:or causes of unemployment and poverty in the
country is the negative attitude by the ,outh toward s work especially
agricultural work. However, the ,outh /olicy does not put in place a
sustainable number of clear youth programs directed at the agricultural
sector.

Nati%na+ E4#+%24ent P%+ic2
78
This policy was launched this year on ay 5
st
during the commemoration of
)orld &abour day. The policy will stimulate $overnment ob:ectives and
processes for generating :obs and ensuring a better employment
environment for all workers.
In his speech, the /resident noted that the Employment policy addresses
critical challenges facing the country such as the attainment of full
employment, coupled with decent work and e@uitable economic growth. He
added that fast growth in opportunities for permanent employment in the
private sector remains the most e*ective route to sustainable poverty
eradication. The main thrust of the policy is, therefore, in the generation of
productive and decent :obs for 3gandans.
%ne of the main criticisms of this policy is its failure to set a minimum wage
for all workers across the country. In the absence of a mini mum wage, many
youth in employment are getting frustrated and therefore opting to @uit their
:obs because they are incurring high costs but are not paid sums
commensurate to the amount of work that they do in their respective places
of employment. "ome of the youth who are unemployed are discouraged by
the current state of a*airs and are therefore deliberately choosing not to
engage in any form of employment 2Hammer, T. 276664.
Despite the fact that the goals and ob:ectives of this employment policy are
viable and will greatly deal with the existing unemployment challenges in the
country particularly for the youth, there is need for the $overnment of
3ganda to address the current problem of the high population growth rate in
the country 2(aroleo, .. and .. /astore 76664A. 'ccording to the )orld
/opulation /rospects, the oLcial 3- population prospects report, 3ganda is
ranked as one of the highest fertility rate countries. 3gandaFs 8.7 percent
population growth rate is the third highest in the world after ,emen and
-iger. )ith the fast rate at which 3gandaFs population is increasing, the
current employment policy will not become an e*ective tool in reducing on
youth unemployment in the country 2(artmel, .. 5CCC4. The increase in the
population intensi!es the pressure on existing economic resources and
79
conse@uently a*ects the capacity of the economy to employ the large labor
force.
3.< Y%uth attitu,e t%Aar,s e,ucati%n
In a series of studies conducted between5C=CE>8, reporting the
characteristics and attitudes of 3gandan -ative high school dropouts, it was
suggested that the high dropout rate might be due more to the lack of
assistance, guidance and social support in school, rather than a dislike for
school 2Dietrich, H. 76654.. In fact, the dropouts placed high value on
education and expressed interest in school. Even among the 5C=CE>6
dropouts who were more inclined to cite Unot liking schoolU as the reason for
leaving school, they also indicated that they planned to return to school.
These studies revealed that these high school dropouts among 3gandan
-atives valued education, a norm reQected in the dominant society, but
found it diLcult for themselves to ful!ll such expectation in their immediate
socioEcultural environment 2(artmel, .. 5CCC4.
In ertonHs study of social structure and anomie inculcation, he proposes
that educational goals are de!ned by the society and cut across cultural
di*erentiation. 2+uvlesky and 1ealer, 5CC?4, on the other hand, contend that
aspiration is only one factor among the array of factors that relate to goal
attainmentK the orientation toward a goal may vary according to the diLculty
of attainment. Thus, 2+uvlesky and 1ealer, 5CC?4 di*erentiated between
educational aspiration and educational expectation as two separate
concepts. The individualHs educational aspiration refers to the desired goal in
educational attainment, whereas expectation refers to the estimation of
oneHs probable attainment in references to that particular goal. %neHs
expectation and aspiration mayor may not be the same, depending on oneHs
estimated chance of obtaining oneHs aspired goal. The di*erence between
7;
aspiration and expectation is the anticipatory goal deQection, the gap
between what one would like to be and what one can realistically expect to
be 2'lvaro, S.&. R $. $urriedo 76664A.
There have been more that 966 studies which investigated educational
aspiration, expectation, anticipatory goal deQection, and the socioEcultural
factors that may be related to them. ost of these studies found high and
similar aspirations among youth of all ethnic groups, a !nding which supports
ertonHs thesis that aspirations are shaped by common social norms. %n the
other hand, expectations are more likely to be a*ected by the speci!c socioE
cultural conditions as proposed by +uvelsky and 1ealer. .or example, SureD
found that both male and female exican 'merican youth living in low
income rural areas of Texas patterned inculcation of high aspiration which
di*ered little from that of the 'nglo youth. +uvleskyHs study on Texas youth
found exican 'mericans with lower expectations than their 'nglo
counterparts. /elhamFs study of white and black male youth in Texas and
$eorgia demonstrated similar aspirations between races, and inconsistency
in anticipated goals between them. &ever studied socioeconomic status as
another correlate to goal expectation and aspiration. He found that when
socioeconomic status was not statistically controlled, the ma:ority of the
respondents had high expectations and aspirationsK when controlled,
moderate and positive correlations between socioeconomic status, aspiration
and expectation appeared. .ewer studies attempted to examine 'merican
2(anadian4 IndiansH or 3gandan -ativesH goal expectations and aspirations,
and the available results tended to be inconclusive. "tout compared female
and male black, white, and -ava:o Indian youth, and found that -ava:os
compared UfavorablyU with the blacks and whites in terms of educational
expectation, aspiration and anticipatory goal deQection. %ther studies, such
as ones by Elliot and by &arson, were inconclusive in drawing meaningful
comparisons between Indian and non Indian youths. In general, it appears
that although cultural groups di*er in overall levels of goal expectation and
aspiration, the anticipatory goal deQection is much bigger among di*erent
7=
minority youth groups. The harsh climate, the geographic isolation, and the
spread of the sparse population over a vast land make the entire state of
'laska an extremely rural environment, with the exception of a few cities
such as 'nchorage, .airbanks and Suneau. In this rural environment, the
3gandan natives are the ma:or residents who, unfortunately, also experience
a high dropout rate and low educational attainment 2-ovo, ., '.
HammarstrTm R 3. Sanlert 5CC?4A
Despite the diLculty of collecting empirical data in such a rural environment,
the ob:ective knowledge of the nativesH attitudes toward education provides
necessary information for educators to design programs and to assist
students 2Hammer, T. 76664. The present study intends to examine rural
3gandan youthHs educational expectations, aspirations, and the anticipatory
goal deQections.
3.C C%nc+usi%n
In conclusion, the e*ects of unemployment on the attitude of the youths
towards education can be termed as a strong positive correlationK this is
because unemployment variables drive youth attitudes. If the youths ignore
the role played by education in mitigating unemployment then they neglect
a very important aspect o*ered by the relationship.
7>
C.APTER T.REE
"ET.ODOLOY
5.> Intr%,ucti%n
This chapter gives a description of research design, study population, sampling
design and sampling methods, sample siDe, data source, data collection
instruments and data collection methods, data processing, presentation and
data analysis.
5.0 Research ,esign
In order to collect as much data as possible a combination of research designs
were used such as descriptive, crossE sectional and explanatory research design
based on the scope of the study.
Descriptive research design was used in order to ascertain and be able to
describe various characteristics of variables in the study.
(rossE section research design was used in the study, this helped to gather data
re@uired from the sta*s and customers over a month in order to answer the
research @uestions. Explanatory research design was usedK this type aimed at
explaining the variables by associating it with the study and this was used
because the researcher was interested in explaining why and how the variables
behave the way they do.
7?
5.3 Stu,2 #%#u+ati%n
"tudy population refers to an entire group of individuals, events, or ob:ects
having a common observable characteristic. /opulation can also be referred to
as the aggregate of all that conforms to a given speci!cation 2ugenda and
ugenda 76684. The researcher based her study on a team of ;; personnel in
the study area that is, +itgum town council and a sample of 2974 was purposively
selected from 2;;4 team of respondents. 0arious features of this sample were
estimated to achieve good representation of the population under the study.
5.5 Sa4#+ing ,esign
The researcher used sample random where by an element had a known
chance in the population which was selected as a sample sub:ect. This was
used because the sample was of great importance in the interest of wider
generaliDation in the study and to minimiDe biasness.
5.6 Sa4#+ing 4eth%,s
The study used a strati!ed and purposive sampling method. ' strati!ed
method was used because the population was categoriDed as sta*s, then a
representative sample of the respondents was randomly chosen from the
target population to minimiDe biasness. /urposive was used in order to help
locate the respondents with the relevant information that the researcher
needed in the study.
5.8 Sa4#+e siDe
The researcher used a sample siDe of ;; respondents categoriDed as followsK
Table 5A Targeted sample siDe
Type of respondent. Target population "ample population
7C
'ccountants
'dministrators
(ouncilors
%ther sta*s
Total.
8
56
86
57
;;
5
=
78
56
96
S%urce: Pri4ar2 ,ata.
5.: S%urce %) ,ata
The research data was obtained from two sources namelyK primary and
secondary data.
5.:.0 Pri4ar2 s%urce
This is data obtained for the !rst time from respondents. /rimary data was
obtained through personal interviews with respondents, observations and selfE
administered @uestionnaires.
5.: .3 Sec%n,ar2 s%urce
"econdary data was obtained through the council brochures, statistical report
and bulletins, annuals reports on general survey, textbooks, other studentFs
research work,
86
5. ; Data c%++ecti%n instru4ents
5.; .0 9uesti%nnaires
This techni@ue helped to collect primary data through a number of @uestions,
which were given to a cross section of respondents. The @uestions were open
ended and closed ended @uestions with the @uestionnaire mainly based on
predetermined and standardiDed @uestions. They focused on the e*ects of
unemployment on attitude of the youth towards education and were used to
capture what the sta*s of +itgum Town (ouncil thought of the councils program
mitigate unemployment.
5.;.3. Inter$ieA gui,e
"tructured interviews were used to collect data from the sta*s of the council.
This led to face to face interaction and solicitation of pertinent information from
the respondent. "elf administered @uestionnaires were used by the researcher
because they are cheap to distribute and process. They were more Qexible and
helped to save time.
5.< Data c%++ecti%n 4eth%,s
5.< .0 O*ser$ati%n
The researcher used the observation method which enabled her to collect
data from the !eld so as to compile the report. Items observed include the
unemployment variables and facial reactions of the respondents were
observed as they were interviewed and this helped in answering the research
@uestions.
5.< .3 Sur$e2
The researcher used the survey method whereby he followed a drawn
interview guide to ask the selected respondents structured @uestions. This
method was used because some respondents had no time to sit down and
answer the @uestionnaires while others were illiterate.
85
5.C Data Pr%cessingE Presentati%n an, Ana+2sis
5.C .0 Data Pr%cessing
Data processing includes coding and editing all the responses collected from
the !eld which was edited with the view of checking for completeness and
accuracy to ensure that data is accurate and consistent. (oding was done
after editing which was done manually and by the use of computer through
word processing and Excel.
5.C .3 Data Presentati%n
The researcher presented data got from the primary and secondary source
using statistical package for social science 2"/""4 software and the result
was presented in tables for easy interpretation.
5.C.5 Data Ana+2sis
The researcher used statistical analysis of historical data to assess the e*ect
of unemployment. /rimary data analysis involving calculation of fre@uencies
and percentage was tabulated by use of correlation study through coeLcient
of partial correlation then the tabulation was cross tabulated at a 6.6; level
of signi!cance with a view to establish relationship between the variables.
ultiple spatial regression analysis was used to test the strength of
relationship since there is one dependent variable, youth attitude towards
education.
87
C.APTER (O/R
PRESENTATIONE INTERPRETATION AND DISC/SSION O( T.E (INDINS
6.> Intr%,ucti%n
This chapter deals with the analysis of mainly the primary data obtained from
the !eld using interview, @uestionnaires R (ase study analysis amongst other
methods of data collection prescribed in the methodology section of the report.
It embroils elements such as demographic characteristics of the respondents,
and basically the analysis of the relationship between the dependent and the
independent variables stipulated in the topic of study. The !ndings in this
chapter are consistent with the research ob:ectives and research @uestions. Thus
out of the ;; @uestionnaires dispatched out for the study, only 96 which
represents >8N were attempted. This implies that the interpretation and
discussions therein the chapter were based on the 96 !lled @uestionnaires.
These !ndings were as belowK
6.0 De4%gra#hic Data
6.0.0= Res#%n,entFs gen,er
This comprised both male and female respondents. Thus out of 96
respondents who attempted the @uestionnaires, 772;;N4 were female and
5?29;N4 were male as indicated in table 7 and !gure 5 below.
Ta*+e 3: Sh%Aing the gen,er %) the res#%n,ents
$ender .re@uency /ercentage 2N4
ale 5? 9;N
.emale 77 ;;N
Total 96 566N
"ourceA primary data.
88
(igure 0: Chart sh%Aing the gen,er %) res#%n,ents
.rom the table 5 and !gure 7 above, !ndings shows that the number of females
who participated in the survey was more than the males, the researcher found
out that of the overall respondentFs females are more than the malesK This is
because of the few number of males in the district which comprise of only 5?
representing 9;N of the study population.
This !nding is in line with that of the researcher who observed planning,
directing, controlling, organiDing as roles that can be performed by women.
6.3.3= Res#%n,entsF 4arita+ status
The data collected from all the 96 respondents showed that 5527?N4 were
not married, 762;6N4 were married, ;258N4 had divorced and !nally 926CN4
were widowsBwidowers as shown in table 7 and !gure 7 belowK
89
Ta*+e 5: Sh%Aing res#%n,entsG 4arita+ status
arital "tatus .re@uency /ercentage 2N4
-ever married 55 7?N
arried 76 ;6N
"eparated ; 58N
)idowB)idower 9 6CN
Total 96 566N
"ourceA primary data.
(igure 3: Sh%Aing 4arita+ status %) res#%n,ents

.rom table 8 and !gure above, !ndings reveal that the highest numbers of
respondents were married followed by single, separated and lastly the
8;
widowed. 'ccording to the interview carried out by the researcher, the
highest numbers of respondents were married because they were ready to
get themselves involved in marital obligations as a result of the age racket
which they are currently in.
This !nding is in line with that of the researcher through the study that was
carried out at the head oLces of +itgum town council.
6.3.5 HLe$e+ %) e,ucati%n %) res#%n,ents
The researcher categoriDed this under certi!cate, diploma, Degree and
others, as illustrated in table 8 and !gure 8
Ta*+e 6: Sh%Aing res#%n,entsG e,ucati%n +e$e+
#esponse .re@uency /ercentage 2N4
(erti!cate ; 57N
Diploma C 78N
Degree 56 7;N
%thers 5= 96N
Total 96 566N
"ourceK primary data
8=
(igure 5: Sh%Aing res#%n,entsG e,ucati%na+ +e$e+
In the above table and !gure, ;257N4 of the respondents had at least
attained certi!cate, 6C278N4 were diploma holders, 5627;N4 of the
respondents had degrees, and 25=496N respondents had e@uivalent of
certi!cates. This implies that most of the respondents were educated and
were able to give the re@uired information sought by the researcher.
Therefore, the !nding in the table agrees with that of the researcher
according to the study carried out.
6.3.6= Ti4e ta1en in #resent #%siti%n
Ta*+e 8: Sh%Aing ,urati%n %) sta2 at current +%cati%n
#esponse .re@uency /ercentages 2N4
&ess than one year 6= 5;N
5E7 years 7; =8N
7E8 years 9 56N
ore than 8 years ; 57N
8>
Total 96 566N
(igure 6: Res#%n,entsF ,urati%n %) sta2 at #resent +%cati%n
In the above table and !gure, =25;N4 of the respondents had been in the
council for less than one year, 7;2=8N4 for one to two years, 9256N4 of the
respondents had been in the council for two to three years, and ;257N4
respondents had been in the council for more than three years. This implies
that most of the respondents were long time clients and servants of the
council and were able to give the re@uired information sought by the
researcher. Therefore, the !nding in the table agrees with that of the
researcher according to the study carried out
6.5= (in,ings re+ating t% %*7ecti$es.
The !ndings of the study were analyDed based on the speci!c ob:ectives.
These !ndings are presented in the tables as below.
8?
Ta*+e :: Attitu,es %) 2%uths t%Aar,s E4#+%24ent transiti%n a)ter
+ea$ing sch%%+
#esponse .re@uency /ercentages 2N4
'gree 56 7;N
"trongly 'gree 86 >;N
Disagree E E
"trongly Disagree E E
Total 96 566N
Source: primary data
.rom the above table, !ndings show that the highest number 862>;N4
strongly agreed and 5627;N4 of the respondents agree that the proportion of
both females and males in each population age group were working in each
month since leaving school, as well as the four months prior to leaving
school . This was because the proportion searching :umps sharply in the !rst
month after leaving school, rising to about 76N for both women and men of
working age. This !nding is in line with that of 2(urtain, 7666K I&%, 5CC94
where they buttress that It is diLcult to provide accurate statistics on youth
unemployment in developing countries, especially 'frica, as available
estimates of employment and unemployment face the conceptual and
design limitations imposed by de!nitional and measurement problems of
VemploymentF and Vyouths.
8C
Ta*+e ;: !hether #%+itica+ insta*i+it2 is the 4ain cause %)
une4#+%24entI
#esponse .re@uency /ercentage 2N4
'gree 7; =8N
"trongly 'gree 56 7;N
Disagree ; 57N
"trongly Disagree E E
Total 96 566N
Source: primary data
96
(igure 8: Res#%nses *2 res#%n,ents
In table = and !gure ; above, !ndings reveal that, 7;2=8N4 and 5627;N4
strongly agreed and 5627;N4 of the respondents strongly agreed that
political instability was the main cause of unemployment among the youths
and to a large extent a*ected youth attitude towards education in +itgum
town council. This was because of the negative e*ects associated with it in
the area leading to displacement of people who in turn neglect domestic
duties thus sub:ecting the people to unemployment. whereas ;257N4
disagreed basing their opinion on the fact that, the political instability has
some positive e*ects such the attraction of -$%s which on the other hand
create employment opportunities, they thus argue that the causes of
unemployment are far beyond human imagination revolving around political
instability.
This !nding is in line with that of the researcher who observed that, the
causes of a high youth unemployment rate are lack of employable skills, lack
of access to resources like land and capital, lack of focus by the existing
programs on the informal sector and agriculture, overemphasis on
experience, lack of apprenticeship schemes, negative attitudes by the youth
95
towards work especially in agriculture, lack of a comprehensive employment
policy and negative cultural attitudes such as gender discrimination.
Ta*+e <: Sh%Aing Ahether e,ucati%na+ s2ste4 is res#%nsi*+e )%r high
une4#+%24ent rate
#eponses .re@uency /ercentage 2N4
'gree 5; 8>N
"trongly 'gree 7; =8N
Disagree E E
"trongly Disagree E E
Total 96 566N
"ourceA primary data
(igure :: Sh%Aing res#%nses *2 the res#%n,ents

.rom table ? and !gure = above, 5;28>N4 of the respondents agreed that the
educational system was responsible for the high unemployment rate among
97
the educated youth and 7;2=8N4 strongly agreed to the same. These was
because of the education system in the country was designed in such a way
that it produces :ob seekers and not :ob creators and as such there is always
a gap in the :ob market in as far as :ob opportunities are concerned hence
making the youths constantly unemployed.
The !nding above is in line with that of the researcher through the study that
was conducted in +itgum town council. This is because individuals that
obtain funding for further studies may opt for earlier entry into the labor
market, even at low pay in mediocre :obs, in order to supplement family
income
Ta*+e C: Sh%Aing Ahether c%4#u+s%r2 e,ucati%n is #art %)
+egis+ati%nI
#esponse .re@uency /ercentages 2N4
'gree 56 7;N
"trongly 'gree 77 ;;N
Disagree ? 76N
"trongly Disagree E E
Total 96 566N
98
Source: primary data
In the above table, 5627;N4 agree and 772;;N4 strongly agree to the same
idea that, compulsory education was part of the legislation or education laws
in the country. This was because of the provision of free education to all the
children who are age going from primary to secondary levels. )hereas,
?276N4 disagreed that compulsory education could not be part of the
legislation or education laws in the country which would help to mitigate the
unemployment problems prevailing among the youths which has changed
their attitude towards the latter. This was because of the poor education
system introduced which produces :ob seekers rather than :ob creators and
as such there is always an imbalance in the :ob market
This !nding is in line with that of the new vision "eptember 766;, where it
was observed that, while the introduction of ./E freed parents from the
burden of school fees, there are still costs that persistA school uniforms,
examination fees and contributions to the schoolFs maintenance and
infrastructure. Extreme poverty can make these costs a high burden to
families, and cash income is scarce in rural farming communities and
Quctuates greatly throughout the year. In some locations, HI0B'ID" and other
diseases already take a high toll on families, both !nancially as well as in
terms of the responsibilities shouldered by children from families that have
been a*ected by disease. (hildren in those cases have to stay at home to
care for sick parents, or take over some of their tasks.
Ta*+e 0>: Sh%Aing Ahether ageE gen,erE re+igi%n an, e,ucati%n are
)act%rs ass%ciate, Aith une4#+%24entI
#esponse .re@uency /ercentage 2N4
'gree 7; =8N
99
"trongly 'gree 56 7;N
Disagree ; 57N
"trongly Disagree E E
Total 96 566N
Source: primary data
(igure ;: Sh%Aing res#%nses *2 the res#%n,ents

.rom table 56 and !gure > above, 7;2=8N4 of the respondents agreed age,
ethnicity, gender, religion and education are some of the factors associated
with unemployment and 5627;N4 strongly agreed to the idea. This was
because from policy perspective, low level of education and employment
performance in literacy and numeracy are critical factors to examine in
relation to unemployment and the e*ects on youth attitude towards
education. )hile, ;257N4 disagreed. This was because they had no idea
whatsoever on the di*erences between the variables.
This view point contends with that of the researcher through the study that
was conducted in +itgum town council
9;
Ta*+e 0>: De!ciencies of the unemployment rate measure in relation to
young peopleI
#esponses .re@uency /ercentages 2N4
'gree E E
"trongly 'gree E E
Disagree 7; =8N
"trongly Disagree 5; 8>N
Total 96 566N
Source: primary data
Table 56 above shows that, the highest numbers of respondents 7;2=8N4
disagreed that the de!ciencies of the unemployment rate measure in
relation to young people was not visible and 5;28>N4 strongly disagreed to
the same idea. This was becauseK the policy goal is to work out ways to
improve young peopleFs transition from education to work. In this regard, the
limitations of relying on the 3E rate as a single measure of unemployment
are most evident in relation to teenagers and young adults aged 76 to 79
years in %E(D countries.
This !nding coincides with 7666 report by the %E(D which o*ers several
fundamental criticisms of the failure of a single measure of unemployment to
reQect the diLculties young people face in their transition from initial
education to working life.5= These limitations applied particularly to the lack
of recognition of the impact of higher level of education participation and
part time working by students
9=
Ta*+e 00: sh%Aing Ahether there is re+ati%nshi# *etAeen
une4#+%24ent an, 2%uth attitu,es t%Aar,s e,ucati%nI
#esponses .re@uency /ercentages 2N4
'gree 77 ;;N
"trongly 'gree 5? 9;N
Disagree E E
"trongly Disagree E E
Total 96 566N
Source: primary data
(igure <: Sh%Aing res#%nses *2 the res#%n,ents
.rom table55 and !gure ? above, 772;;N4 of the respondents agreed that
there is a relationship between unemployment and youth attitude towards
education and5? 29;N4 strongly agreed to the same. This was because
unemployment rate makes sense when most young people leave school in
their mid teenage years and go straight into the labour force
9>
.
The !nding above is in line with that of the researcher. This is because
labour force participation rates were high among 5;E5C yearEolds and
conversely education participation rates were low. In other words, the
teenage unemployment rate is an ade@uate indicator of the transition from
education to the labour force in +itgum town council when the transition is
fairly sharp, with little overlap occurring between an individualFs education
and working life
Ta*+e 03: Sh%Aing Ahether instituti%na+ inter$enti%ns are suita*+e
t% )aci+itate the creati%n %) e4#+%24ent %##%rtunities
#esponses .re@uency /ercentage 2N4
'gree 79 =6N
"trongly 'gree 5= 96N
Disagree E E
"trongly Disagree E E
Total 96 566N
"ourceA /rimary Data
.rom the table above, 792=6N4 of the respondents agreed that institutional
interventions were suitable to facilitate the creation of employment
opportunities and 5=296N4 strongly agreed. This was because of the closer
working collaboration among various institutions working in the area of youth
poverty reduction or livelihood promotion. However the view is that the
foundation of any genuine form of collaboration will need to be found in a
new kind of youthEadult partnership
This !nding is in line with that of 2)hite and +enyon, 76664. )here they
buttress that there is only left little discussion regarding types of institutions
9?
and interventions that are suitable to facilitate the creation of employment
opportunities for youth, oreover, views di*er on whether young people
need specialiDed, youthEoriented, business support services or whether they
should use the same general agencies and programmes as anybody else in
society.
Ta*+e 05: Sh%Aing Ahether 2%uths attitu,es t%Aar,s e,ucati%n Aere
negati$e %r #%siti$eI
#esponse .re@uency /ercentage 2N4
'gree 77 ;;N
"trongly 'gree ? 76N
Disagree 56 7;N
"trongly Disagree E E
Total 96 566N
Source: primary data
(igure C: Sh%Aing res#%nses *2 the res#%n,ents
9C
.rom the table above, 772;;N4 of the respondent agreed that 2%uth
Attitu,es t%Aar,s e,ucati%n Aas #%siti$e and ?276N4 strongly agreed
to the same idea. This was because there was particular appreciation of
teachers, especially those with good interEpersonal skills an empathetic
approach and good teaching ability, and of careers advisers. )hile, 5627;N4
disagreed that 2%uth Attitu,es t%Aar,s e,ucati%n Aas n%t #%siti$e.
This was because of poor relationships with teachers were often associated
with disa*ection, disruption and truancy at school. oreover, they appeared
to have a signi!cant inQuence on negative attitudes to stayingEonEin
education after school.
This !nding is in line with that of the researcher through the study that was
conducted in +itgum town council. This was because, evidence from a range
of studies reveal that young people are coming to increasingly value
training and vocational @uali!cations. )hile ,outh Training had an enduring
poor image amongst many young people, early evaluations of attitudes to
odern 'pprenticeships and -ational Traineeships are far more positive
.
Ta*+e 06: Sh%Aing Ahether une4#+%24ent +ea,s t% c%rru#ti%nE
,ish%nest2E cri4es an, sinsI
#esponse .re@uency /ercentage 2N4
'gree C 78N
"trongly 'gree 55 7>N
Disagree 76 ;6N
"trongly Disagree E E
Total 96 566N
;6
"ourceA primary data.
.rom the table above, 762;6N4 which is the highest number of respondents
disagreed that unemployment leads to corruption, dishonesty, crimes and
sins. This was because more probable cause of unemployment in the +itgum
town council is the unavailability of :obs provided. )ith a growing population
of about a forty thousand, thousands needed :obs and only few can sure
provide one. The lack of investors and businesses that could provide good
:obs for the +itgum people is one key factor in the growing unemployment in
+itgum town council. %n the other hand, 5527>N4 strongly agreed, and
C278N4 also agreed that unemployment leads to corruption, dishonesty,
crimes and sins. This is because (orruption is the crucial tools that cause
employment when the government only enrich themselves. oney set aside
for facilities and the warfare of citiDen is been hi:ack by the so call politician,
it result youth involvement into terrorism.
This !nding is in line with that of the researcher through the study that was
conducted from +itgum Town council
;5
C.APTER (IVE
DISC/SSIONSE CONCL/SIONS AND RECO""ENDATIONS
8.> Intr%,ucti%n
This chapter discusses the conclusions of the study, results on the !ndings
in chapter four. It gives a summary of !ndings, conclusions and
recommendations made on the study in order to examine the e*ects of
unemployment on the attitude of the youth towards education.
8.0 Discussi%n %) -n,ings
3gandan youth, especially exEcombatants, represent signi!cant challenges
as well as opportunities for social and economic development on the
continent. Development scholars and practitioners are now being forced to
consider the social and economic implications of 3gandaFs youthfulness.
)hile 3gandaFs youth often is portrayed in negative terms G violent,
rebellious, unhealthy and disrespectful of custom G they also represent the
future of the continent, primarily because they are the potential engines of
growth, stability and development in 3ganda. The 'ID" pandemic, wars, and
poverty have left large segments of the continentFs youth to fend for
themselves, and with increasingly important but understated roles in many
;7
spheres of life. The time is especially opportune for governments and other
stakeholders to reQect on the implication ns of 3gandaFs youthfulness for the
development of the continent. .or, as ayor and 1inde 276654 observe, there
is no hope of building peaceful, democratic societies as long as
unemployment, violence and the illegal sources of livelihoods are the only
things that young 3gandan have to look forward to.
Therefore, the development challenges of the continent increasingly must
engage youth in meaningful programmes and policies. In view of the
absence of employment opportunities for young people in the formal sector,
there is need to design e*ective and viable :ob creation schemes for the
youth in both rural and urban areas
8.3 C%nc+usi%ns
$iven the diversity and Quctuation of community and market needs, the
promise of service as a strategy for addressing youth unemployment rests on
its adaptability as a model as well as its ability to provide integrated or
holistic solutions to the challenges both youth and their communities face.
)ell designed and implemented youth service programs that consider local
contexts and engage youth in contributing to their communitiesF
development while building valuable work and life skills can be applied to
nearly any context. In light of the lessons learned from the implementation of
these programs and of :obBskills training schemes, as highlighted here, there
are several key issues that must be considered when developing youth
service programs aimed at combating youth unemployment. "peci!cally, it is
essential to focus on ways to engage multiple stakeholders throughout the
community in the design, implementation and evaluation of any program, to
;8
conduct an assessment to determine the most relevant areas for
employmentEoriented programs in both the forEpro!t and nonEpro!t sectors,
to match participants to program goals, and to invest signi!cant time and
resources in learning from other models to design solid recruiting, training,
management and supervision systems. 1y investing in ade@uate planning
and preparation for youth service programs, and looking to lessons from
other global and local experiences, contextEspeci!c youth service programs
can become an e*ective tool for combating youth unemployment.
1y participating in pro:ects valued by their communities, such as cleaning
parks or building schools, for example, unemployed youth who may be
marginaliDed or at risk of becoming marginaliDed, gain the trust, support, and
gratitude of their service bene!ciaries. 'ssessing community needs,
developing work plans, and cooperating as part of diverse teams, they are
able to accumulate the social and human capital they will need to market
themselves in a competitive workforce. /rograms such as those highlighted
above present a potentially costEe*ective strategy for youth employment,
while also calling on young people to play an important role in the
development of their countries by addressing community needs. Innovations
in (ivic /articipation recogniDes that youth service cannot, on its own,
overcome youth unemploymentK however, when utiliDed at its fullEscale
potential and carried out through wellEstructured and contextEsensitive
programs, youth service presents a promising and valuable addition to
current strategies.
8.5 Rec%44en,ati%ns
TaB incenti$es
Tax incentives for companies that provide internship opportunities and create
:obs for young people
3-(T'D 276684 de!nes an incentive as Oany measurable advantage
;9
accorded to speci!c enterprises or categories of enterprises by 2or at the
direction4 of $overnment. PIncentives can be !scal or nonE !scal, direct or
indirect. .iscal incentives include direct Vcash Fgrants or tax breaks. -onE!scal
incentives can include fastEtrack approval processes or exemptions from
certain regulations. The $overnment of 3ganda should introduce modest tax
incentives for enterprises that avail internship placements and also create
:obs for young people in the country. In 766?, this idea was raised by the
then inister of $ender, &abour and "ocial Development but its
implementation process has been slow.
It is common knowledge that many youth in our country have failed to
become gainfully employed in the formal sector because of their lack of
re@uisite work experience.
any young people at various universities in the country are !nding it
increasingly diLcult to get internship placements with councils or companies
operating in the country. This is because such employers are at liberty to
re:ect or accept their internship applications. "ome of these companies argue
that they do not possess suLcient funds to run such internship programs.
The result is that many young people are denied the opportunity of having
handsEon training in their various !elds of study. The irony however is that
these very employers continue to advertise positions which re@uire
applicants to have long term work experience well knowing that only a few
young people possess such experience. ,oung people are therefore unable to
apply for these :obs and thus end up frustrated and develop a negative
attitude towards work.
It is on this basis that the ,oung &eaders Think Tank for /olicy 'lternatives
recommends that the $overnment of 3ganda through bodies such as the
3ganda #evenue 'uthority 23#'4 introduces tax incentives for enterprises
which create :obs for young people and those that have internship programs
targeting this age group. This move would encourage more employers to be
involved in progressive programs aimed at dealing with the problem of youth
;;
unEemployment and also give young people the opportunity to become
gainfully employed.
Creati%n %) nati%na+ 7%* centers
The ,oung &eaders Think Tank for /olicy 'lternatives further recommends
that the $overnment of 3ganda sets up national :ob centre across the
country.
The initiatives of this nature that currently exist in the country are owned by
private individuals and mainly bene!t young people in +ampala which is
3ganda Fs capital city. In %ctober 7656, the press reported that the
$overnment in partnership with the private sector would be setting up call
centers all over the country where :obs would be outsourced on the internet
to about 7666 3gandans. There is need to have at least one :ob centre that is
solely run by the $overnment of 3ganda and its structures at district level so
as to serve the interests of young people from all parts of the countryK rural
and urban.
In countries like Sapan, /ublic Employment "ecurity %Lces 2the e@uivalent of
national :ob centers4 have been established and these o*er students
information on how to apply for :obs, vocational guidance and training to
young workers and :ob seekers outside school. The other :ob assistance
services that they o*er are :ob search courses, counseling and monitoring
services to unemployed persons et cetera.
The :ob centers in 3ganda would therefore coordinate demand and supply on
the labour marketK give the private sector and $overnment employment
agencies the opportunity to advertise vacanciesK give young :ob seekers
information on available placements et cetera.
The national :ob centers would facilitate forums which would bring together
employers, training institutions, young :ob seekers and employees. "uch
;=
forums would ensure that these key stakeholders maintain close contact and
thus continuously assess the skills possessed by young people and those
needed by potential employers.
NeA ,irecti%ns in the e,ucati%n s2ste4
The high youth unemployment levels in 3ganda are partly because of the
mismatch of courses taught by education institutions and the actual skills
needed by the :ob market.
The 3gandan education system, particularly at secondary school level, has
constantly been criticiDed by di*erent stakeholders because of its
concentration on the theoretical rather than the practical aspects. The Think
Tank therefore recommends that the $overnment of 3ganda through its line
ministries such as the inistry of Education needs to formulate a policy
which would allow for the revision of the education curriculum after certain
de!nitive periods. The secondary school education should particularly entail
practical training on di*erent aspects. If such reforms are made, the
education system would be able to mould young people whose skills are
re@uired by the labor market and thus enhance their employability.
In countries such as +enya, -igeria and "outh 3ganda apprenticeshipG
structured programmes that integrate theoretical learning with working
experience have been introduced. These programmes involve partnerships
between $overnments, service providers and the private sector and are a
good example of the kind of feedback mechanisms needed to address the
skills mismatch in 3ganda. Expanding similar mechanisms to formal schools
is a promising way to enhance the skills match. In addition, there should be a
policy that makes it compulsory for all universities and secondary schools to
o*er their students with career guidance services. 3niversities should also
establish $raduate Development /rogrammes that enhance the
employability of their graduates by providing them with :ob preparation
information, for example, work related life skills, computer literacy,
;>
(urriculum vitae preparation, interview readiness et cetera. 'll these steps
would ensure that students make informed decisions about the courses to
study while at the university and also prepare them for the existing :ob
market.
Pr%$i,e 2%ung #e%#+e Aith -nancia+ )aci+ities
The Think Tank also recommends the formulation of a policy that ensures
that every !nancial institution operating in the country establishes a facility
that can enable youth entrepreneurs to access business loans at low interest
rates.
"ections of youth remain unemployed because despite having the Deal to
start up income generating business pro:ects, they lack suLcient funds to
facilitate these processes. This would encourage e@uitable access of !nances
by young people who seldom have large capital amounts and assets to
!nance loans intended to build their business enterprises. In countries such
as alaysia, it has been realiDed that selfEemployment is a necessary tool in
building sustainable economies with potential to absorb the existing labor
force.
Carr2 %ut an annua+ 4an#%Aer sur$e2
There should be policy that makes it mandatory for the $overnment to carry
out an annual manpower survey in order to inform its programming and
planning processes.
Despite having a number of viable employment plans for the youth as
evidenced in the 7655 budget, the $overnment has not carried out a survey
to establish the number of employees in any given sector or profession and
the number of employers in the country.
The last general manpower survey in 3ganda was do ne in 5C?C. In
-ovember 7656, the press reported that a manpower survey was to be
;?
carried out to enable 3gandan workers compete favorably in the East
3gandan region. ? It is highly unlikely that this exercise has commenced.
This could partly explain the reason why many young people are pursuing
di*erent courses of study without having relevant information on the exact
sector or profession that needs their services. any of them therefore remain
unemployed because they have pursued certain professions that are already
saturated with workers.
' manpower survey would therefore be relevant to both the future and
current young generation by providing them with vital information to make
informed decisions on their career paths.
Esta*+ish strict recruit4ent #%+icies
There should be standard recruitment procedures embedded in a given
$overnment policy. These should be strictly followed by both public and
private entities.
The procedures should ensure that all positions are advertised by employers
and that these are o*ered on merit to the best candidate. #ecruitment
should be done within a reasonable time. The complaint by many young
people today is t hat academic merit and general credibility has now been
shoved to the back in the recruitment process.
The /ublic service has been criticiDed for the delays in its recruitment
processK on average, it takes approximately one year for one to know the
results of any interview conducted by a $overnment 'gency.
These practices have left many young unemployed people frustrated and
denied them the opportunity to engage in meaningful employment.
Esta*+ish g+%*a+ +a*%r eBchange #artnershi#s
This policy should provide for a program in which the $overnment forms
labor exchange partnerships with more developed countries such as 3"',
Sapan, "outh 3ganda, $ermany et cetera. 's part of this partnership, 3ganda
;C
could send some of its unemployed youth to work in these countries for a
speci!c period. This would enable them to learn important work skills that
can make them more marketable in the employment world and also given
them an opportunity to observe the work culture in these countries.
The young people from the developed world who come to work in 3ganda
would also be able to share their skills with the young workers in 3ganda.
The general bene!t of such a process is that it would allow for bene!cial
exchange of skills and provide a learning platform for the youth in 3ganda.
Esta*+ish nati%na+ 2%uth ,e$e+%#4ent gr%u#s
$iven the fact that many $overnment oLces at sub county level are
underutiliDedK youth development groups can be established at village level
in every subEcountry. These can work in liaison with (ommunity
Development %Lcers 2(D%s4, - ''Ds coordinators and youth council leaders
and keep young people constructively preoccupied. These groups can
engage in di*erent pro:ects such as commercial agriculture, agroEprocessing,
!sh farming, value addition, carpentry, metal works and metal fabrication,
tailoring and design, art and crafts and such other pro:ects that promote
skills development and ca n generate income to their young members. These
groups can then form subEcounty youth "avings (redit and (ooperative
society 2"'((%4 where they can save and the $overnment can channel
funds for youth development such as the recent youth stimulus fund. )ith
such in place, Enterprise 3ganda or any other council can then train the
youth in business management skills while other institutions like -''Ds, the
inistry of 'griculture would e@uip them with technical and modern farming
skills as well as vocational skills for development. 'll this would ensure the
e@ual distribution of the youth stimulus fund across the country.
Y%uth attitu,e change #r%gra4s
' comprehensive youth employment policy should include programs that are
aimed at promoting an attitude change among young people. The youth
=6
should be enlightened on a number of things which include the opportunities
presented by vocational institutions in terms of creating employment, the
potential of 3gandaFs informal sector, the reality of ruralEurban migration et
cetera. any youth still hold the view that without there is no future without
university education and therefore have a negative attitude towards
technical and vocational institutions which have helped so many world
economies develop over the years. .red uwema, a city lawyer notes that
attitude is a key performance indicator and it inQuences productivity.
/roductivity on the other hand is a cornerstone for economic growth which
means the $overnment must concern itself with shaping its peopleFs attitude
if they are to be an e*ective tool of development.
"uch programs would enable young people in employment to work hard and
sustain their :obs and therefore earn promotions at work which are usually a
preserve of the older generation. They will also be bene!cial to the
unemployed young people by enabling them to embrace vocational work and
training which is ordinarily looked at as a preserve of the OuneducatedP.
8.6 Areas )%r (uture Research
Due to the limited time and !nancial constraints, the researcher could not
investigate everything aspects related to unemployment R youth attitude
towards education. The researcher therefore suggests that the following areas
could be sub:ected for further research
3nemployment and underdevelopment
The (hallenges %f ,outh 23n4 Employment In 3ganda
.actors inQuencing youth unemployment
=5
RE(ERENCE
5. 'lvaro, S.&. R $. $urriedo 276664A 1ackground #eport "pain. )orking
/aper.
7. 1ragato, ". R #. /agnin 276654. $li esiti di unFindagine sui giovani
veneti. (%"E", 0eneDia, aggio, mimeo.
8. (aroleo, .. and .. /astore 276664A 1ackground #eport on Italy. E3ET"E#
,3"E pro:ect, 1arcelona.
9. (artmel, .. 25CCC4A U,oung /eople 3nemployment and HealthU, paper
presented at $lasgow Health /romotion (onference, $lasgow, "cotland
85st arch 5CCC
;. (artmel, .. 25CCC4A U,oung /eople 3nemployed in 3rban and #ural
"ettingsU, paper presented atmeeting with #ural #esearch 3nit,
&ondon, England 5?th Sune 5CCC
=. (artmel, .. 25CCC4A U,oung /eople 3nemployed in 3rban and #ural
"ettingU, paper presented at meeting with #ural Development 'gency,
,ork, England 7;th Sune 5CCC
>. (artmel, . and '. .urlong 25CCC4A Inclusion and Exclusion in #ural
&abour arkets. /aper presented at European "ociety for #ural
"ociology W0III (ongress &und, "weden, 79E7? 'ugust 5CCC
?. Dietrich, H. 276654. The impact of active labour market measures on
transition process from unemployment to employment or @uali!cations
E the $erman case with respect to the $erman federal immediate
program for reducing unemployment. European "cience .oundation,
Euresco conferenceA (hanging labour market, welfare and citiDenship.
Helsinki, 'pril.
C. .loro, E., .. (aroleo R .. /astore 276654. How !ne targeted are active
labour market policies in ItalyI European "cience .oundation, Euresco
conferenceA (hanging labour market, welfare and citiDenship. Helsinki,
'pril.
=7
56. Hammarstrom,' R 1. %lofsson. Is unemployment correlated with
ill health and drug useI ' comparative analysis in six countries.
55. Hammer, T. 25CCC4A #eturn to education among unemployed
youth. ' comparative study of six countries in northern Europe. /aper
to be presented at the European "ociological 'ssociation 2E"'4 in
'msterdam 5?E77 'ugust 5CCC. "ubmitted European Societies
57. Hammer, T. 276664A ,outh unemployment and social exclusion.
/roceedings, 3nemployment, )ork and )elfare, D$ #esearch,
European (ommission, 1russel
58. Hammer, T. R I. Sulkunen 276654. "urviving unemployment. '
@uestion of money or familiesI ' comparative study of youth
unemployment in Europe. European "cience .oundation, Euresco
conferenceA (hanging labour market, welfare and citiDenship. Helsinki,
'pril.
59. Hammer, T. R I. Sulkunen 276654. (oping and mental wellEbeing
among unemployed youth. /aper presented at the 8rd International
(onference on "ocial )ork and ental Health, 5E; Suly, Tampere.
5;. Sulkunen, I. 25CC?4A U,outh unemployment and processes of
marginalisation E aspects of activationU presented in the international
seminar U(ontemporary arginalisation among ,outhE )hose #eality
(ountsIU in Turku 5>.9.5CC?
5=. Sulkunen, I. 25CC?4A ,outh unemployment and !nancial
marginalisation in the -ordic countries. /aper presented on the
conference of unemployment in the -ordic countries. Sune, %slo 5CC?.
5>. Sulkunen, I.A &ecture U "omething to doI E young unemployed
experiences of labour market programsU. The article will be published
in a forthcoming conference report by the -ordic (ouncil of inisters
5?. Sulkunen, I.A )orkshop paper U(umulative Disadvantages and
/overty among unemployed youth G a -orthern European /erspectiveU.
International conference in Helsinki U1uilding Expertise in )elfareU 58E
5;.=.5CCC
=8
5C. almbergEHeimonen, I. 25CCC4 A ,oung women.s and men.s
labour market experience based on their family situation in six
northern European countries. .innish Institute of %ccupational Health.
Helsinki 5CCC.
76. -ovo, ., '. HammarstrTm R 3. Sanlert 25CC?4A (hanges of
alcohol consumption among unemployed young people during di*erent
states of the labour market. /aper presented at International
(onference on Drugs and ,oung /eople, elbourne 77E79 -ovember
5CC?
75. -ovo, ., '. HammarstrTm R 3. Sanlert 25CCC4. ,outh
unemployment and illEhealth . a comparison between times of
prosperity and recession. InA (onference 'bstracts. International
#esearch (onference Health HaDards and (hallenges in the -ew
)orking &ife, "tockholm, 55E58 Sanuary, 5CCCA=.
77. "igurdardottir, T. 25CCC4A "ocial support and health among
Icelandic unemployed youth.
78. "igurdardottir, T. R T. 1:arnason 25CCC4A )hat kind of support is
relevant for youth that are unemployedI "ubmitted outh ! Society
79. Thorisdottir, #. R T. "igurdardottir 25CCC4A How Icelandic youth
see their own unemployment.
=9
A##en,iB I: ('u,get@EB#en,itureE Variance Ana+2sis)
'(TI0IT, 13D$ETE
D
EW/E-DIT3#E 0'#I'-(E"
/E#"%-'& (%"T" 3$W 3$W 3$W
(onsultation with the sta* of
+itgum Town council
76,666 E 76,666
"tationary 5;,666 E 5;,666
Transport 76,666 E 76,666
(ommunication 86,666 E 86,666
/rinting 96,666 8>,666 8,666
T%ta+ 038E>>> 5;E>>> <<E>>>
=;
A##en,iB II: (Ti4e Sche,u+e)
7655E7657
"B- 'ctivity %c
t
-o
v
De
c
Sa
n
.e
b
a
r
'p
r
ma
y
Su
n
Sul
65 Topic formation
67 "ynopsis writing R
submission
68 Topic approval R
literature review
69 proposal writing R
submission
6; /ilot study
6= Data collection
6> Data analysis R #eport
writing
6? 'pproval R submission
==
A##en,iB III (9uesti%nnaire)
THE E..E(T" %. #'/'-T 3-E/&%,E-T %- THE 'TTIT3DE %. THE
,%3TH" T%)'#D" ED3('TI%- <3E"TI%--'I#E
Dear respondents,
I am a student of 1achelors of Education of $ulu 3niversity carrying out the
above research. The @uestionnaire is intended for research purposes only
and your identi!cation will be kept anonymous depending on your desire. To
ensure con!dentiality of all responses, ethical considerations shall be
guaranteed in gathering and analyDing the data.
,our participation in this survey will provide me with valuable feedback for
the analysis of my data.
Thank you in advance for your participation.
'loyo "arah "haron
/lease tick appropriate answer.
SECTION A: 'IO DATA
$ender
=>
ale .emale
arital status
arried )idowed Divorced single
#eligious aLliation
(hristian uslim others
Education levels
/rimary % level ' &evel Higher
institution
.or how long have you been working in +itgum town councilI
&ess than 7 years 7E8 years 8E9years ore
than ; years
SECTION ': /NE"PLOYE"ENT AND YO/T. ATTIT/DE TO!ARDS
ED/CATION
S@
N
CLAI" SA N D SD
5 ,ou feel con!dent if you have any :obI
7 3nemployment a*ects the "ocioEeconomic
status of the familyI
8 3nemployment a*ects family relationship
negativelyI
9 Employed person have higher status than
unemployedI
; 3nemployment a*ects common peopleFs lifeI
= 3nemployment leads to poor mental healthI
> 3nemployment peoples are usually drug userI
? 3nemployment leads to corruption, dishonesty,
=?
crimes and sinsI
C 3nemployment increases suicide ratesI
56 Is our educational system also responsible for
the high unemployment rate among the
educated youthI
55 Do you want to get only some whiteEcollar :obI
57 #apid mechaniDation and computer technology
are also causing unemploymentI
58 &ack of enough industries in 3ganda is cause of
unemploymentI
59 . The government is not involving in capital
expenditure which creates :obI
5; "ystem of reference so much indulged in our
society to get the :obI
5= ,oung people donFt want to do work on a very
low wage so they remain unemployedI
5> The main reason of unemployment is
government is not keen in providing :obs to the
fresh graduatesI
5? /olitical instability in -orthern 3ganda is reason
of unemploymentI
5C %ur system of education cause of
unemployment because our students are not
getting practically work they are getting
education that is theoretically so when they
come in world market they get fail.
76 There is a relationship between unemployment
and youth attitude towards education
75 Is compulsory education part of the legislation
or education laws in your countryI
77 Is the provision of free education 2i.e. free from
tuition fees4 part of the legislation or education
laws in your districtI
78 Does your district publish education statistics
yearlyI
79 In order to participate in a programme,
=C
students may have to meet certain minimum
criteria. .or example, be = years of age to enter
primary school or to have a secondary diploma
to enroll in a speci!c Teacher Training
/rogramme.
7; 're the educational attainment data available
for analysisI
7= 'ny other comments
SAA "trongly 'gree, NA -either agree nor disagree, DA Disagree, SDA "trongly
Disagree
Thank you
A##en,iB IV: (Intr%,ucti%n Letter)
>6