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Electrical

MODULE E-01

ELECT.FUNDAMENTALS-1

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

CHAPTER 1

1.1 MAGNETISM

Long ago, in the Middle Ages, it was found that a mineral called 'lodestone', which

is in fact an iron ore attracted small iron objects. So 'magnetism', which is a natural

phenomenon, was discovered. It got its name from a district in Asia Minor called

'Magnesia' where lodestone was found.

It was found too that an iron bar or needle, if rubbed with lodestone, could also be

made to attract small pieces of iron - that is, the magnetism could be imparted from

the lodestone to the iron. Such a needle, if placed on a wooden raft and left to float

in a bowl of water, always tended to lie in a rough North to South direction. So we

had the first primitive compass.

At this stage it never occurred to anybody that there was any connection whatever

between magnetism and electricity, and it was left to Faraday to bring these two

together in 'electromagnetism '.

1.2 ELECTROMAGNETISM ,

In 1820 Oersted discovered that an electric current flowing in a wire caused a

magnetic field around it. This can easily be detected by placing a small compass

near the wire and observing the movement 07 the needle when current is switched

on. This is shown in Figure 1.1

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

The effect can be intensified by bending the wire into a loop. The magnetic fields

from each bit of the wire are brought together inside the loop, where the magnetic

field is concentrated and intensified.

If now the wire is bent into several loops, or a 'helix', as shown in Figure. 1.2, the

magnetic fields of each ‘turn' are superimposed, and the field down the middle is still

further intensified.

The result is a ‘coil' which, when current flows in it, produces an artificial magnet, called

an 'electromagnet'. Unlike a natural magnet, whose magnetism is always present, an

electromagnet can be switched on or off at will.

If iron is introduced inside the coil, the magnetic strength is still further increased, and

'permanent' magnets can be made this way. Very powerful electromagnets can be built,

which are widely used: they' can actuate solenoids or valves directly; they can drive any

device needing a fore-and-aft motion; and they are used with cranes in scrap-yards for

picking up large weights of scrap-iron. On a smaller scale they are used to operate relays

and switching devices.

Although it may not at first seem so, solenoids and other electromagnets operate just as

well with alternating as with direct current.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

CHAPTER-- 2

in an equivalent water circuit, the pump delivers a pressure (measured in psi,

kgf/cm2 or bars). and the water flow is measured in gal/min, or m3fs or other unit.

50 for an electric circuit. Pressure is measured in VOLTS (after Volta, the early

Italian experimenter) and current in AMPERES (after an early French pioneer).

Instruments are made which indicate pressures in volts and currents in amperes -

all switchboards have voltmeters and ammeters.

On platforms and large installations pressures tend to be very high, involving

thousands or tens of thousands of volts. In those cases the 'kilovolt' (equals one

thousand volts) is usually taken as the unit of pressure. Thus on most Shell

platforms the main generation pressure is 6.6kv, or 6.6 thousand volts, For

domestic appliances and small services 440 or 250 volts is usual on platforms and

415 or 240 volts ashore.

Once the units of pressure and current flow were established, a German

experimenter named Georg Simon Ohm discovered a very important relationship

between them.

It has already been seen that some materials (mainly metals) allow electrons to

move freely but not as freely as each other), whereas others do not do so and tend

to resist such movement :- again some more so than others.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Ohm discovered that, for a given sample of material, the current flowing / (in

amperes) was directly proportional to the pressure applied V (in volts). In other

words, for that given sample. The ratio of voltage to current was constant:

v

= const.

T

This was true for anyone sample, but the constant itself differed from sample to

sample. The ratio is called the 'resistance' of that sample, symbol R. it can be

considered as opposition to the flow of electrons - like friction.

Ohm's Law can then be stated:

V

=R

I

Or V = IR

Where R is the resistance of the sample and differs from sample to sample. If V is

measured in volts and 1 in amperes, R is measured in 'ohms'.

2.3 HEATING

An important result stems from this. Since the resistance R of a conductor is akin

to friction in the mechanical equivalent. it might be expected that loss of energy by

heating might result from a current flow.

This indeed is so. Whenever current is forced by pressure of voltage to flow

through a conductor which has resistance and all conductors do, even metals),

heat is generated in that, conductor. The rate of heat generation is proportional to

the resistance (in ohms) and to the square of the current in amperes scuared).

That is to say, the heat generated is L2 R, and. since it represents continuing loss

07 energy, it is expressed in the energy-rate unit 'watts' (W).

It is important to remember that current flowing in any conductor, be it cable,

generator, motor or transformer, gives rise to heat. Which must be conducted away

if the temperature is not to rise to a level witch can damage the insulation and

possibly lead to flashover or breakdown and severe damage, or even danger to

life.

To reduce heJt generation either the current (I) or the resistance (R) must be

reduced (for example, b,' increasing the cross-section or the conductor).

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

CHAPTER. 3

3.1 SERIES CIRCUITS

The term 'in series' means that two or more circuits are supplied one after the other

in any single circuit, as shown diagrammatically in Figure 3.1.

Since there is only one single path from the power source through the circuits and

back again, the same current flows through all. The voltage, or 'pressure', is

reduced by resistance according to Ohm's Law: each circuit element causes a

'voltage drop' across it, very similar to the 'loss of head' due to fluid flow in a

hydraulic system. Also the sum of the individual volt-drops is equal to the applied

voltage.

By Ohm's Law the volt-drop V1 across the load R1 is

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

That is to say, the total resistance of a series circuit is equal to the sum of all the

individual resistances.

It is evident that the failure of any single component in a series circuit interrupts the

supply to all; also that each element of load must work at a reduced voltage. For

these reasons the series arrangement of loads is seldom used in power circuits.

The term 'in parallel' means that the circuits are so arranged that there is a

separate path through each, as shown in Figure 3.2

The voltage applied to every circuit element is the same throughout. The total current divides

between the circuits according to the resistance of each element, so that the current flowing through

each individual circuit is less than the total, and the sum of the currents flowing through the

individual elements is equal to the total available current.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

That is to say, the inverse of the equivalent resistance of a set of parallel circuits is

equal to the sum of the inverses of each individual resistance.

It is evident that for the' power engineer the parallel circuit has two important

practical advantages. First, the failure of any element of load has no effect on the

rest; they continue to receive a supply at the correct voltage and to draw the

current which each individually requires. Second, all apparatus is supplied at the

same voltage. Consequently, the parallel circuit is used almost exclusively for

power supply in industrial plant.

It should be observed in passing that the characteristic of the series circuit, in

which resistances in series have the effect of reducing the voltage at different

points of the circuit, finds wide practical application in electronic apparatus such as

radio, control, and 'solid-state' measuring equipment,

3.3 SUMMARY

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

R2, R3… then

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

CHAPTER 4

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

One day in 1837 Michael Faraday was working in his laboratory when by accident

he dropped a magnet into a coil of wire which happened to be connected to a

galvanometer. He noticed, to his surprise, that the galvanometer needle gave a

kick when this happened. He was even more surprised to see, when he took the

magnet out, that the needle kicked the other way. .

This started a train of thought, which finally led to a monumental discovery, which

was to become the whole basis of modern electrical engineering: it was the theory'

of ‘Electromagnetic Induction'. .

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

These are heavy words, but in short they mean that, if a conductor is moved in a

magnetic field, then an 'electromotive force' (emf) - that is, a voltage - is induced in

that conductor. This is shown in Figure 4.1. It follows that, if the ends of the

conductor are connected to a load, then an electric current, driven by that voltage,

will flow from the conductor, through the load and back again.

Whereas Oersted had shown that an electric current moving in a wire gives rise to

an artificial magnetic field, Faraday showed the opposite - that if a wire moves in a

magnetic field an artificial charge, or voltage, will be created in that wire. Electricity

and magnetism were now firmly tied together by these two great discoveries.

Here then is the basis of electrical power generation. We start with a magnetic

field, either a natural magnet or an artificial electromagnet of Oersted's type, and

cause a conductor or a number of conductors to move past it. from which the

current can be extracted as they are moving.

Figure 4.1 shows 'Fleming's Right-hand Rule for Generators'. If the right hand is

held with the thumb, forefinger and centre finger extended mutually at right angles

as shown in the figure, then, with the magnetic field in the direction (North to

South) pointed by the forefinger and the motion of the, conductor in the direction

indicated by the thumb, the centre finger will point in the direction in which the emf

(i.e. voltage) is induced in that conductor (and in which current will flow when

connected to a load).

The magnitude of the voltage induced in the moving conductor depends on the

strength of the magnetic field and the speed of movement, and on nothing else.

Use is made of these laws and rules when considering the Principles of

Generation.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

CHAPTER 5

FORCES ON A CONDUCTOR

Figure 5.1 is similar to Figure 4.1 in that it shows a conductor in a magnetic field,

but in this case there is a current from an external source being passed through

that conductor.

The reaction between the current and the magnetic field through which it is passing

causes a mechanical sideways force on the conductor. If the conductor is free to

move, it will move sideways in the direction of the force. This is the basis of

operation of all electric motors.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Rule for generators. If the left hand is held with the thumb, forefinger and centre

finger extended mutually at right angles, then, with the magnetic field in the

direction (North to South) pointed by the forefinger and the direction of current in

the direction indicated by the centre finger I the thumb will point in the direction of

the mechanical force on the conductor (or of its motion if it is free to move).

The magnitude of the force on the conductor depends on the strength of the

magnetic field and the strength of the current, and on nothing else.

Use is made of these laws and rules when considering the Principle of Operation

of Motors,

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

C HAPTE R. 6

INDUCTANCE

Wherever a magnetic field is produced by an electric current passing through a

circuit, that circuit displays the phenomenon of 'inductance'.

Before looking at the effects of inductance on a D.C. circuit, it will be useful to see

what is its nature by looking at a mechanical analogy.

Suppose there is a large grindstone with a turning handle (Figure 6.1). It is old, and

its bearings are stiff and rusty, giving a lot of friction. If we try to turn the handle,

even slowly, we must overcome this friction, causing heat and loss of energy at the

bearings and making ourselves hot with the effort expended.

But there is another type of opposition to our attempts to turn the wheel - its inertia.

It is heavy, and in order to accelerate it we must not only overcome friction but also

provide it with an accelerating force in order that it shall gather speed. The greater

the weight or inertia, the greater the force needed to accelerate. Also, the greater

the acceleration desired, the greater the force we must apply. (This is Newton's

Second Law of Motion.)

An electric circuit exhibits the same effects. It has resistance, and, in order for a

current to flow, a pressure in the form of a voltage is needed to overcome it.

But an electrical circuit has inertia too. It opposes, like the grindstone, any attempt

to speed up the current or to cause it to grow. And the faster it has to grow, the

greater the voltage needed to be applied, quite apart from that needed to

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

due to the fact that any electric current causes magnetisation, and that effect is

greatly increased by the presence of iron (which magnetises easily).

Some circuits especially those without coils and without iron, have resistance but

very little inductance. They are referred to as 'resistive circuits'. Others, which have

coils, and especially those with iron such as generators, motors and transformers,

have both resistance and considerable inductance. They are referred to as

'inductive circuits'. In the fairly rare cases where the resistance is so small that it

can be neglected compared with the inductance (say the grindstone with ball

bearings) the circuit is called 'purely inductive'.

How inductance arises in a circuit due to its magnetisation and causes it to display

electrical inertia, or 'sluggishness', is explained in the following paragraphs.

Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction, as explained in Chapter 4 states that,

if a conductor moves in a magnetic field, an emf (or voltage) is induced in it. Such

movement need only be relative; it is equally true if the magnetic field moves past

a stationary conductor.

Movement implies change - that is to say, Faraday's Law applies also to any

conductor around which the field is changing, that is, growing or decreasing.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Suppose there were a coil of wire through which a current is flowing, as in Figure

6.2. Then, by Oersted's principle, there is a magnetic field concentrated along its

axis. If now the current started to change - say to increase - the magnetic field

through all the turns of the coil would also be increasing. This is then a changing

field which, by Faraday's Law, induces in each turn an emf (or voltage), and its

direction would be such as to oppose the change - that is, to try to prevent the

current in this case increasing.

What happens is shown diagrammatically in Figure 6.2. A voltage V is applied

through a variable resistance R to the coil. For any given setting of R the current L

through the coil (assumed to have no resistance of its own) is given by Ohm's Law:

V

I =

R

If now R is decreased to R' with a view to increasing the current in the coil, the

increasing current gives rise to an induced voltage E in the coil in a direction

opposed to V. This induced voltage E is called the 'back-emf' of the coil.

Consequently the net voltage appearing across R' is no longer V but is now (V - E),

and, by Ohm's Law:

V-E

I =

Ŕ

Although R has been reduced to R', 1 is not proportionately higher because E

reduces the effective voltage. In other words, Ohm's Law does not seem to apply

in this case.

The back-emf E depends on the rate of change of current (~) through the coil and

on the physical construction, including the number of turns, of the coil. It is written:

di

E =

dt

As stated di / dt is the rate of change of current (positive if increasing), and L is a

property of the coil. The minus sign indicates that its direction opposes the

increasing current, so that E is then negative.

L is called the 'inductance' of the coil; for any given coil it is a fixed quantity, but it

differs From coil to coil. The presence of iron in the core increases L considerably.

Inductance is measured in the unit 'henry' (H).

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

A coil carrying electric current, especially one with an iron core, becomes thereby

magnetised, and an electromagnet is a store of energy. The energy stored in a coil

of inductance L (in henrys) and carrying a current L (in amperes) is:

1/2 L /2 (joules)

ever the current in the coil is stopped, this energy has to be given up, in one form

or another.

A special case arises when a voltage is suddenly switched on to a circuit

containing resistance R and an inductance L (assumed to have no resistance of its

own). Before the switching no current at all was flowing. When the switch is closed

the current starts to flow and tries to build up, but this change is opposed by a

back-emf proportional to the rate of build-up and which reduces the effective

voltage to (V - E).

As the current increases, its rate of rise slows down; so therefore does the back-

emf E, and the net voltage (V - E) approaches nearer and nearer to V. Eventually

the current levels off, and, since there is now no change, there is no back-emf, and

the full voltage V appears across the resistance R, giving the steady current by

Ohm's Law

V

I =

R

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

This type of current rise, shown in Figure 6.3, is known as 'exponential' and. is

found in all branches of physics where the rate of change depends on the amount

already present. In this case, where a voltage is suddenly applied to a circuit

containing inductance and resistance, the current rises, not suddenly, but at a

reduced rate, or 'sluggishly', the rate falling off 'exponentially' until it finally settles

down at a value given by Ohm's Law, namely I = V/R.

In the discussion so far the coil has been assumed to be inductive but to have no

resistance of its own (L but no R). In practice of course, all coils must have some

resistance, but it is convenient to regard that resistance as separate from the

purely inductive coil.

One aspect of this treatment should be realised. Since the back-emf depends on

the rate of change of current di/dt, any attempt to stop the current suddenly by

opening the switch causes the rate di/dt to rise steeply towards infinity, and

therefore a very large back-emf would be induced to oppose the change - it would

be many times greater than the applied voltage V. This greatly increased voltage

would appear across the open switch contacts (which could be regarded as a

resistance of very high ohmic value) and would cause severe sparking or arcing at

the switch contacts and possibly voltages dangerous to personnel.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Therefore a d.c. inductive circuit of any size must never be simply broken by a

switch. Special precautions must be taken, one of which is shown in Figure 6.4

The inductive coil, which in practice has some resistance of its own (R1), is shunted

by another resistance (R2). In normal use the switch is closed and current flows in

parallel through both the coil and the shunt resistance, the I2 R2 energy in the latter

being wasted as heat.

When the switch is opened, the current already flowing in the coil, instead of being

stopped, finds a backward path through R2 and continues to circulate round the coil

and the shunt resistance. Eventually the stored energy in the coil will be dissipated

in heat loss in both R2 and R1 (= I2 R2 + I2 R2), and the current will fall exponentially

to zero. The rate of change, even at the beginning, is therefore quite slow, so the

back-emf is also low, and the voltage appearing across the switch contacts is quite

small and causes little sparking - it is in fact only equal to the volt-drop IR2 across

the shunt resistance at the start. The slow decay of current in the coil may however

delay the release of whatever mechanism the coil is driving, such as the opening of

a solenoid-operated valve.

A shunt resistance used in this way is often called a 'discharge resistance' because

it discharges and dissipates the energy stored in the coil and reduces contact

sparking. The greater its ohmic value the quicker the discharge of energy (i2 R2),

but the greater the 'spark voltage' (IR2) appearing across the switch contacts. It is

always necessary to make a compromise, taking into account also the time delay

for the coil's discharge.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

CHAPTER 7

CAPACITANCE

electrostatic energy. In the early days, when the only sources of electricity were the

electrostatic machines such as the Van der Graaf and Wimshurst, electrical energy

so created was stored in 'Leyden Jars' for future use (Figure.7.1). For many years

the property of capacitance was measured in the unit 'jar'.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

The modern condenser or capacitor is the direct descendent of the Leyden jar, and

the modern unit of measurement is the 'farad' (F). The farad is however an

extremely large unit, much too large for practical use, so the unit one-millionth of a

farad, or one microfarad (µ F), is in general use. One jar is equal to about one-

thousandth of a microfarad (0.001 µ For 10-9 F).

Care is needed to distinguish between the following:

Capacitor: the actual device for storing the energy.

Capacitance: the ability to store the energy, measured in µ F

The word 'capacity' should not be used in this connection.

capacitor. It consists of several parallel metal plates, in flat or cylindrical form,

separated from a similar set of metal plates by a thin insulating substance such as

glass, mica or paraffin-waxed paper. These insulating layers are called the

'dielectric'. When a potential difference (or voltage) is applied across each set of

plates, a strong electric field is set up between them through the thin dielectric. The

closer the plates are together, the stronger the electric field. This field causes

electric strain in the material of the dielectric, causing it to behave like a spring,

which has been squeezed in a vice. When an external circuit is provided between

the two sets of plates - say by a wire connecting them - this electric spring is

released and gives up its energy.

Although the property of capacitance is the principal reason for providing a

capacitor, capacitance is found in many other places, often where it is not wanted.

When it exists in this way it is called 'self-capacitance'. It is particularly noticeable

in cables and overhead power lines, but it is also to be found in machine windings

and transformers - in fact anywhere where conductors are arranged close to one

another with a thin layer of insulation between. Self-capacitance exists not only

between adjacent conductors but also between conductors and earth or cable

-sheath.

The mechanism of charge can best be understood by considering the mechanical

analogy of Figure 7.2. .

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Down the middle is a flexible elastic membrane. One side of the tank is connected

through a valve to a water supply under pressure, and the other to suction.

Initially the valve is closed. Both sides of the membrane are at equal pressure and

the membrane is undistorted. If now the valve is opened and water admitted under

pressure, it will flow into the right side of the t4nk and out from the left side. The

water movement through the tank itself, being over a wide cross-section, will be

small compared with the movement of water in the pipes. As the water in the tank

is displaced from right to left, so the membrane becomes distorted to the left and

stretches, imposing increasing pressure on the right-hand side. Eventually, when

the distortion is such as to produce a pressure equal to that of the incoming water,

the water flow will cease. A definite volume of water will have entered the tank on

the right-hand side, and an equal amount will have departed from the left. The

stretched membrane will be in a state of elastic strain.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

The valve can now be closed, leaving the membrane in the position shown. The

right side of the tank is under pressure and the static energy is stored in the

stretched elastic membrane. Although the water can move in either direction

through the external piping, in considerable quantity in the case of a large tank,

there is no transfer of water within the tank across the membrane.

An electric capacitor (Figure 7.3) behaves in much the same way A d.c. Voltage is

applied across the two plates of a capacitor by closing battery switch' A', so that

one plate is at a higher potential than the other. The dielectric, which can be

regarded as .an 'electrically compressible' substance, is subject to a strong electric

field which puts it into a state of electric strain, just as the stretched membrane was

in a state of mechanical strain.

If the battery switch' A' is now opened, the capacitor will be left in that state of

strain - it is said to be 'charged' - and it will remain so until discharged or until it

discharges itself by internal leakage. Some large oil-filled capacitors have been

known to hold their full charge for many months.

The current entering one side and leading the other side of the capacitor is the

'charging current', exactly akin to the water entering one side and leaving the other

side of the tank.

If switch 'B' is now closed, the two plates are short-circuited together, and the

charge on the positive plate is conveyed back to the negative, driven by the

dielectric 'spring' unwinding. The stored energy has been released, and the

dielectric has relaxed.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

The amount of energy that could be stored in the water tank analogy depended on

the volume of water and the elastic properties of the membrane. In the case of a

capacitor the amount of energy that can be stored depends on the total plate area,

on their distance apart and on the electrical properties of the dielectric used.

Taking these into account, the ability of any given capacitor to store electric energy

is called its 'capacitance', symbol C.

If the given capacitor has a capacitance of C farads, and a voltage V is applied

across it, the amount of electrostatic energy stored is

1/2CV2 joules

(This should be compared with the magnetic energy 1/2LI2 stored in an inductance

(see Chapter 6), or with the kinetic energy 1/2mv2 stored in a moving mass.)

The water analogy showed that passing the water in and out through pipes and

under pressure caused the tank to store energy, and on reversal to allow the

stretched membrane to relax. Similarly passing a current into a capacitor 'charges'

it and causes it to store electric energy; reversing that current discharges it and

recovers the energy (Figure 7.4-).

The analogy can be taken a little further. If the water pump were reversed so that

water enters the tank from the left and leaves it from the right, the membrane

would simply stretch to the right until its pressure balanced the incoming pressure

from the left. Similarly, if the charging current is reversed (Figure 7.4), the left plate

of the capacitor would become positive and the right negative. The electric field

across the dielectric would still be present but reversed in direction and would still

be in a state of electric strain.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

store the same amount of energy (depending on the voltage) in either case: this

energy is 1/2CV2.

An exception to this statement applies to electrolytic capacitors, which, for

chemical reasons, may not be reverse-charged. These capacitors consist of a

single spiral aluminum foil coated with a very thin film of aluminum oxide, which

acts as the dielectric. The electrolyte itself (ammonium borate) acts as the second

'plate' and makes contact with the metal case. The very thin dielectric film allows

the 'plates' to come very close to each other and so to increase the capacitance

greatly. In fact the electrolytic capacitor has a far greater capacitance, size for size,

than the conventional type and is now widely used, especially in electronic circuits.

However, any attempt to reverse the polarity will destroy the oxide film, and their

application is therefore limited. The polarity of such capacitors is clearly marked on

them to prevent their reverse connection. One suitable use for them is for

smoothing a rectified a.c. circuit, where the d.c. Polarity is always maintained.

Figure. 7.5 shows a capacitor, capacitance C, charging from a d .c. source V

through a resistance R.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

When the switch is closed (Figure. 7.5(a)) the capacitor is at first without charge,

which means that there is no potential difference, or voltage, across its plates. At

the instant of closing therefore, the full applied voltage V appears across the

resistance only, and, by Ohm's Law, the current I through it is V/R; this flows round

the loop and into the capacitor and is therefore the initial charging current of the

capacitor.

After a short time (Figure, 7.5,fb)) the current has produced some charge in the

capacitor - suppose it has acquired a voltage E. This must be in a direction to

oppose the applied voltage V and to reduce its effectiveness; it is very similar to

the back-emf in an inductance when the current is rising (see Chapter 8).

The effective voltage trying to charge the capacitor is now reduced to (V - E), with

E growing all the time. This is the voltage appearing across the resistor, so the

charging current I is falling steadily. This is once again the classic case of the rate

of charge depending on the amount present, which, as in the inductive case, gives

an exponential voltage/time curve, as shown in Figure 7.5(c).

The voltage-charge (E) on the capacitor rises exponentially until it eventually

equals the applied voltage, at which point E = V, the charging current stops and

the charge voltage remains steady at the value V.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

the voltage would decay exponentially towards zero, and the discharge current

would follow the same pattern (Figure--7.6).

The behaviour of capacitors when placed in parallel or series is best explained by

considering how the energy is disposed between them.

Parallel

If a voltage V is applied to, say, three parallel capacitors each of capacitance C,

then the full voltage is applied to each, and the energy stored by each. is !/2CV2

(Figure 7.71). The total energy stored by the three is therefore three times this,

namely 3/2CV2 .

If C' is the capacitance of the equivalent capacitor which stores the same total

energy, then this energy will be 1/2C'V2

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

times that of each individual capacitor, assuming that they are of equal value.

Series

If a voltage V is applied to, say, three series capacitors each of capacitance C,

then one-third of the applied voltage will appear across each (Figure 7.81).

Therefore the energy stored by each is

If C' is the capacitance of the equivalent capacitor which stores the same total

energy, then this energy will be 1/2C'V2

To generalise, the reciprocal capacitance of a single capacitor equivalent to n in

that they are of equal value. It should be noted that the equivalent capacitance of

series capacitors is smaller than that of the individual elements.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Summary

The total capacitance of capacitors in parallel add directly:

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

CHAPTER 8

D.C. POWER

Power is defined as the rate of using (or providing) energy and, in the electrical

world, is measured in the unit 'watt' (W).

In the mechanical world of hydraulics, power is the product of pressure and volume

flow. In modern SI units pressure is measured in Newton’s per square metre

(N/m2) and volume flow in cubic metres per second. The product of these two

The electrical equivalent- of pressure is the volt, and the electrical equivalent of

hydraulic flow is the ampere, so that the power in watts is the product of voltage

and current - that is

These are two alternative forms for power when only I and R, or when only V and

R, are known.

In earlier years the power output of electric motors was measured in 'horsepower'

to align them with mechanical engine practice. Many motor nameplates are still

marked in 'hp', but more and more are now being marked in kilowatts (kW).

The kilowatt used in this case is the equivalent of the mechanical power output of

the motor. Horsepower and kilowatts are directly related:

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

use a slightly different unit, known as the 'metric horsepower', which is equivalent

to 0. 735kW, a difference of about 1 1/2%.)

Special care is needed when referring to the power of motors. Motors are rated by

their mechanical output (hp or kW), but, because no motor is 100% efficient, its

electrical power input, also measured in kW, is always greater than its mechanical

power output. Because both may be measured in kilowatts. Confusion can easily

arise. When it is desired to distinguish between mechanical output and electrical

input, suffixes 'm' and 'e' are often used: thus output is kWm- and input kWe. Their

ratio is the efficiency of the motor, thus:

Power - that is, the rate of producing, absorbing or transmitting energy - is in the SI

system always measured in watts or, more usually, kilowatts. It occurs in fields

other than electricity and mechanics. For example energy can be produced

thermally in boilers or reactors, or chemically in batteries or by burning fuel. The

power being developed is still measured in kilowatts and would be distinguished by

suffixes 'kWth ' or 'kWch '.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

CHAPTER 9

USEFUL FORMULAE

INDUCTANCE

CAPACITANCE

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

D.C. POWER

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

INTRODUCTION

The aim of this unit is to explain the operation of a capacitor and an inductor when

supplied with A.C. both individually and in combination with resistors.

The previous unit showed the effect of applying D.C. to an inductor. The back EMF

across the inductor falls from maximum to zero and the current rises from zero to

maximum. A.C. is a form of continuously switching D.C. The diagram and the

graph (see Figure 6-1) show the effect of supplying A.C. to an inductor. The

voltage waveform leads the current waveform by 90°. When the voltage is

maximum the current is zero. When the current is maximum the voltage is zero

and so on. The faster the A.C. changes (the higher the frequency) the greater the

back EMF which is produced. The back EM F reduces the current. The alternating

current resistance provided by the coil is called INDUCTIVE REACTANCE (XL)

and is given by the formula

XL = 2 π f L Ohms.

XL = Inductive reactance (Ohms)

L = Coil inductance in Henrys (H) f = Frequency in Hz

π = Mathematical constant (3.142).

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

The previous unit showed the effect of applying D.C. to a capacitor. The charging

current starts at a maximum and falls to zero and the voltage across the capacitor

starts at zero and rises to a maximum. The effect is the exact opposite to an

inductor. The diagram (see Figure 6-2) shows the effect of supplying A.C. to a

capacitor. This time the graph shows the current leading the voltage by 90°. When

the current is maximum the voltage is zero and so on.

The faster the A.C. changes (the frequency) the less time the capacitor has to

charge so the current through the device increases. The A.C. resistance

(reactance) of a capacitor (Xc) goes down as the frequency goes up and is given

by the formula.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Figure 6-3 shows the series and parallel circuits of an RL combination. Calculating

the unknown values of Vs and Is is difficult because the current and voltage

waveforms through the inductor are 900 apart.

A simple line diagram is used to illustrate the problem. From the diagram we get

the following formulas. These must be remembered.

The total A.C. resistance, IMPEDANCE (Z) for a series circuit is given by the

formula:

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Figure 6-4 shows the series and parallel circuits of an RC combination. The

formulas for the total A.C. resistance (IMPEDANCE) of the above circuits follow the

same principle as for the resistance and inductor circuits to give:

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

RL and C in Combination

Figure 6-5 shows the series and parallel circuits for an RLC combination. In this

case the reactance of the reactive parts oppose each other to give the formulas.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Resonance

When the value of XL equals the value of XC then XL – XC = 0. So the formula for

impedance changes to:

This effect is called RESONANCE. At one frequency the circuit i: only resistive.

At resonance;

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

produces a circuit that is purely resistive.

This circuit is useful because it is used to select one frequency from all others. A

range of these circuits is used to select a television channel or radio station. Each

channel transmits at a different frequency to stop interference.

Let's take as an example the radio guide in the Gulf News. The parallel circuit used

to get Dubai FM 92 will have a resonance frequency of 92 MHz, Capital Radio

100.5 MHz, Abu Dhabi 810kHz etc.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

an insulator (dielectric). When a voltage (V) is applied across the plates the

insulator will take in a charge and produce an electric field between the plates. The

charge (Q) taken in is given by this equation

Q = CV

C is called the CAPACITANCE of the device. The unit of measurement is the

FARAD (F).

Q The total charge stored has a unit called the COULOMB (C). V Is the voltage

applied across the plates. Total charge is also given by the equation

Q = AMPS. SUPPLIED x SECONDS

The electrostatic energy in a capacitor is given by the equation

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS

Kirchhoff's laws are extensions of Ohm's law. You must remember them. They will

be used in the next unit on series and parallel circuits:

First Law

"The sum of electric currents flowing into a point (X) in an electrical circuit equals

the sum of the electric currents flowing out of that point". Thus from Figure

I1 + I2 = I3 + I4

Second Law

"The sum of the voltages around a circuit must equal the supply EMF"

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

OHM'S LAW

V = IR

I=V/R

R=V/I

POWER = I V = I2 R = V2/ R Watts

ENERGY = AMPS x VOLTS x SECONDS Joules

1 kWh = 3.6 MJ

KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS

First Law:

At a point in a circuit: Currents in = Currents out

Second Law:

Supply EMF = Sum 'of voltages around the circuit.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

BASIC ELECTRICITY

AMMETER IN SERIES

CURRENT is the flow of electrons (negative charges). The symbol for current is I.

Current flows from a negative potential to a positive potential but convention states

that it flows from a positive potential to a negative potential. In this course we will

use conventional flow. The unit of current is the ampere and the symbol for ampere

is A. Current flows through a component. You measure the value of current

through a component, by placing an ammeter in line (series) with the component.

VOLTMETER IN PARALLEL

VOLTAGE is the force that drives the current around a circuit. The symbol for

voltage is V. The unit of voltage is the volt and the symbol-for volt is V. If current

flows through a component it creates a volt drop across that component You

measure the voltage across a component by placing a voltmeter across (in parallel

with) the component.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

RESISTANCE is the opposition to current flow around a circuit. The symbol for resistance

is R. the unit of resistance is the ohm and the symbol for ohm is n. to measure resistance

you turn the supply off and remove the component from the circuit. Then, and only then,

can you connect an ohmmeter across the component.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

BASIC ELECTRICITY

OHM'S LAW

This states that the voltage across any resistor is proportional to the current flowing

through that resistor. If you know two of the values the third can easily be found by

using the formula-

V= I x R

Remember that the voltage must be in volts, the current in amperes and the

resistance in ohms. This formula is very important and you will use it often during

this course.

POWER is the product of current and. voltage. Different components have different

power ratings. The symbol for power is P. The unit of power is the watt and the

symbol is W. To calculate power you need to know two of the other values.

Remember when doing calculations to use the basic units (amps, volts and ohms).

Question

A 10-kilohm resistor is connected across a 20-volt supply, how much current flows

in the circuit?

Answer By Ohm's law

I=V/R

V = 20 volt

R = 10 000 ohms

I = 20/10000 A I = 0..002 A I=2mA

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Direct Current is the current we get from a battery or cell. Direct current flows only

in one direction. The abbreviation for direct current is dc and so to write six volts

direct current you write 6 Vdc.

direction many times in one second. The rate at which it changes its direction is

called the frequency. The abbreviation for frequency is f. The unit of frequency is

the hertz, abbreviated to Hz. One hertz is the same as one change in direction

every second.

Alternating current is usually in the shape of a sine wave (sinusoidal) but can be

any shape, as long as it goes above and below zero. The waves shown have the

same frequency as they go positive and negative at the same rate.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

It is possible to get pulsating dc. This current will go up and down but as it does not

go through zero it is not ac.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

RESISTOR

Most resistors today are colour coded. They have different colour bands on them that will

tell us the value of resistance, Most have three bands for the value and a fourth band for

their tolerance. The tolerance tells you how near to the nominal value (the value as stated

by the bands) the resistor should be.

Resistors come in different power ratings, 1/8 W, 1/4 Wand 1/2 W being the most

common.

When you connect resistors in series the total resistance increases. The total

resistance of a series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual resistances.

If you connect them in parallel then the resistance will decrease. This is because

there are more paths for the current in a parallel path and so the resistance to

current flow decreases as you put more parallel branches. To find the resistance of

a parallel circuit the reciprocal rule is used.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Before measuring resistance, turn the power off. Take the resistor out of circuit in

case anything is in parallel with it. If there is anything in parallel you will get a low

reading. Always start with your meter on the highest range and work down.

COLOUR BANDING

The diagram shows a colour coded resistor. The colour code is there to show you

the resistance of the resistor. Reading from left to right, the first and seconds

bands indicate a number, (eg. if the first colour band is 4 and the second colour

band is 7 then the number is 47). The third band is the multiplier in power form,

(eg. 103). The fourth band indicates the tolerance of the resistor (eg. ± 5%). The

numbers to match the colors are internationally fixed and are given below.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

WHEATSTONE BRIDGE

The Wheatstone bridge is widely used in instrumentation to measure resistance

accurately. It is also used to show changes in the resistance of sensors used to

measure pressure, level, temperature, etc. The following notes explain the basic

principle of the Wheatstone bridge. Practical applications will be shown later in the

training.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

The Wheatstone bridge circuit consists of two very accurate (standard) resistors

(R1, & R2) called the ratio arms. There is an accurate variable resistor (Decade Box

R3). A very sensitive ammeter which will detect very small currents (called a

Galvanometer (G)) is connected across points D and B. A supply voltage is

connected across points A and C. There are also two terminals to connect an

unknown resistor Rx across the points A and B.

The value of the unknown resistor is given by the equation.

The value of the unknown resistor is found by adjusting the value of the variable

resistor until the galvanometer reads zero. This is called the balanced position so

that at balance when I3 = 0

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

This is the balance equation for a Wheatstone bridge and must be remembered.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Resistors in Series

Rt = R1 + R2 + R3 etc.

Resistors in Parallel

1/ Rt = 1 / R1 + 1/ R2 + 1/ R3 etc.

Wheatstone Bridge

Rx = Ratio Arms x Decade Box Value.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

INTRODUCTION

The aim of this unit is to explain the operation of a capacitor and an inductor when

supplied with A.C. both individually and in combination with resistors.

The previous unit showed the effect of applying D.C. to an inductor. The back EMF

across the inductor falls from maximum to zero and the current rises from zero to

maximum. A.C. is a form of continuously switching D.C. The diagram and the

graph (see Figure 6-1) show the effect of supplying A.C. to an inductor. The

voltage waveform leads the current waveform by 90°. When the voltage is

maximum the current is zero. When the current is maximum the voltage is zero

and so on. The faster the A.C. changes (the higher the frequency) the greater the

back EMF which is produced. The back EMF reduces the current. The alternating

current resistance provided by the coil is called INDUCTIVE REACT At-JCE (XL)

and is given by the formula

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

The previous unit showed the effect of applying D.C. to a capacitor. The charging

current starts at a maximum and falls to zero and the voltage across the capacitor

starts at zero and rises to a maximum. The effect is the exact opposite to an

inductor. The diagram (see Figure 6-2) shows the effect of supplying A.C. to a

capacitor. This time the graph shows the current leading the voltage by 90°. When

the current is maximum the voltage is zero and so on.

The faster the A.C. changes (the frequency) the less time the capacitor has to

charge so the current through the device increases. The A.C. resistance

(reactance) of a capacitor (Xc) goes down as the frequency goes up and is given

by the formula.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Figure 6-3 shows the series and parallel circuits of an RL combination. Calculating

the unknown values of Vs and Is is difficult because the current and voltage

waveforms through the inductor are 900 apart.

A simple line diagram is used to illustrate the problem. From the diagram we get

the following formulas. These must be remembered.

The total A.C. resistance, IMPEDANCE (Z) for a series circuit is given by the

formula:

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Figure 6-4 shows the series and parallel circuits of an RC combination. The

formulas for the total A.C. resistance (IMPEDANCE) of the above circuits follow the

same principle as for the resistance and inductor circuits to give:

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

RL and C in Combination

Figure 6-5 shows the series and parallel circuits for an RLC combination. In this

case the reactance of the reactive parts oppose each other to give the formulas.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Resonance

When the value of XL equals the value of XC then XL – XC = 0. So the formula for

impedance changes to:

This effect is called RESONANCE. At one frequency the circuit i: only resistive.

At resonance;

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

produces a circuit that is purely resistive.

This circuit is useful because it is used to select one frequency from all others. A

range of these circuits is used to select a television channel or radio station. Each

channel transmits at a different frequency to stop interference.

Let's take as an example the radio guide in the Gulf News. The parallel circuit used

to get Dubai FM 92 will have a resonance frequency of 92 MHz, Capital Radio

100.5 MHz, Abu Dhabi 810kHz etc.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

When a current is passed through a conductor it will produce a magnetic field, as

shown in the diagram.

The magnetic field around a conductor can be increased by increasing the current.

However, a better method of increasing the magnetic field produced by electricity

is to make a solenoid. A solenoid is made by coiling insulated wire around a

cylinder. The greater the number of turns in the coil, the greater the magnetic field

produced (see Figure 3-1).

When a current is passed through the coil, the magnetic field is concentrated. This

field has a pattern similar to a bar magnet with N and S poles as shown.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

The solenoid valve is an on-off device used to control the flow of liquids and gases

through piping. When the supply voltage is applied to the coil, the solenoid is

energised. It attracts the valve plunger and the valve opens. When the solenoid is

de-energised the return spring closes the valve. A typical solenoid valve is shown

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

SOLENOID APPLICATIONS

The Relay

A typical relay is shown

The relay consists of a solenoid and contacts. When the solenoid is energised it

attracts a piece of iron (the armature) which changes over a set of contacts. The

magnetic core of the solenoid is made of a material, which is magnetic only when

current flows, through the coil (a temporary magnet). When the coil de-energises

the return spring pulls the armature back and the contacts return to their normal

positions. Relays operate using A.C or D.C supplies. The coils have many turns of

small diameter insulated wire. This gives a strong magnetic field from a small

energising current.

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

INTRODUCTION

Explained the rules to be used when dealing with resistive circuits. The

calculations can be carried out using either D.C. values or A.C RMS. Values. The

results will be the same. This is not true when inductors and capacitors are

included in a circuit. This unit will explain what happens when D.C is applied to an

inductor and capacitor.

Figure 5-1 shows D.C applied to an inductor via a switch. The graph below shows

what happens when the. Switch is closed.

At the moment the switch is closed the build up of the magnetic field in the coil

produces a back EMF which opposes the applied EMF. The starting current is

zero. When the magnetic field is steady the back EMF is zero. The current is a

maximum and is limited only by the winding resistance of the coil. The time it takes

to reach maximum current flow depends on the ratio of the coil inductance to its

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

winding resistance. Because of this effect relay coils and the solenoids of

electrically operated valves have increased resistance. This reduces excessive

hold on currents.

If the switch is open the field in the coil collapses and a high voltage is produced.

When the switch is open this high voltage can destroy the switch contacts by

sparking. Therefore special circuits must be used to protect the switch and the

connected supply voltages. These circuits will be explained in Industrial Electronics

II.

Note: -

1. The above principle is used to ignite the fuel of a gasoline engine. The voltage

produced when the circuit of an energised coil is broken is used to make a spark

across the plug fitted in the cylinder.

2. An energised coil stores energy in a magnetic form. The energy stored is given

by the equation

W = 1/2 L I2

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Figure 5-2 shows D.C applied to a capacitor. Switch A closed and switch B open

charges--the capacitor. Switch A open and Switch B closed discharges tt1e

capacitor. The graph below shows what happens when the switches are operated.

Circuit Operation

Charging:

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

When switch A is first closed the current flow into the capacitor is only limited by

the loss resistance of the insulator. As the capacitor charges the current flow will

fall to zero and the voltage across the capacitor will equal the supply voltage. This

means that a charged capacitor is an open circuit to D.C.

Discharging:

When switch 8 is closed the discharge current is in the opposite direction to the

charging current. It will start at maximum and then fall to zero as the capacitor

voltage falls to zero.

The capacitor is often used in electronics as a timing circuit. An explanation of the

basic principle is given in Figure 5-3. We will look at how this circuit can be used

during more advanced work in later units.

Figure 5.3 shows a basic timing circuit using the voltage across the capacitor (C).

The switch is closed and when the voltage (V) rises to a set value the timing unit

operates. It is normal to use what is called the time constant for the circuit. The

time constant is given by the equation.

TIME CONSTANT (T) = RESISTANCE (R) x CAPACITANCE (C)

(SECONDS) (OHMS) (FARADS)

The voltage across the capacitor will be 63.2% of the D.C supply voltage at the

time constant (T = RC).

ADMA OPCO, Basic Training Fundamental-1 (E-01) Electrical

Example

Question:

A 1 MQ resistor is connected in series with a 100 μF capacitor and supplied with

D.C. Find the time taken for the capacitor to reach 63.2% of its maximum value

after the supply is switched on.

Solution:

The time to reach 63.2% of the supply voltage is the time constant of the circuit

RC.

Time Constant = 100 seconds.

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