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Collaboration Orientation:

Collaboration is a working practice whereby individuals work together to a

common purpose to achieve business benefit. Key features of collaboration tools
Synchronous collaboration such as online meetings and instant messaging
Asynchronous collaboration such as shared work spaces and annotations
Many organizations are also looking at Free-form Collaboration tools to improve
collaboration and reduce the number of emails used for collaboration.
Collaboration Orientation relies on openness and knowledge sharing but also
some level of focus and accountability on the part of the business organization.
Governance should be established addressing the creation and closing of team
workspaces with assignment of responsibility for capturing the emergent results
of the collaborative effort for preservation in the repository.

Collaboration and professional learning communities are frequently mentioned
in articles and reports on school improvement. Schools and teachers benefit in a
variety of ways when teachers work together. A small but growing body of
evidence suggests a positive relationship between teacher collaboration and
student achievement. In 2006, RAND researcher Cassandra Guarino and
associates analyzed federal Schools and Staffing Surveys. They found lower
turnover rates among beginning teachers in schools with induction and
mentoring programs that emphasized collegial support. Researcher Ken
Futernick (2007), after surveying 2,000 current and former teachers in
California,concluded that teachers felt greater personal satisfaction when they
believed in their own efficacy, were involved in decision making, and established
strong collegial relationships.

Upon reviewing the literature, researchers Yvonne Goddard, Roger Goddard and
Megan Taschannen-Moran (2007) reported a paucity of research investigating
the extent to which teachers collaborative school improvement practices are
related to student achievement. Most existing research is in the form of surveys
and case studies, which do not provide evidence of cause-and-effect
relationships. To investigate the issue, Goddard and colleagues conducted a
study in a large urban school district in the Midwest. First, the researchers
surveyed 452 teachers in 47 elementary schools to determine the extent to
which they worked collectively to influence decisions related to school
improvement, curriculum and instruction, and professional development. To
determine the relationship between teacher collaboration and student
achievement, the researchers used reading and math achievement scores for
2,536 fourth-graders, controlling for school context and student characteristics
such as prior achievement. They found a positive relationship between teacher
collaboration and differences among schools in mathematics and reading

Collaboration Orientation in context of IMS:
1 Teacher-to-Teacher Collaboration:
Collaboration among educators builds shared responsibility and improves
student learning. Expertise depends on skillfulness in collaboration.
Collaboration leads to building collective responsibility among educators so that
every student, not just some, succeeds. Collaboration is enhanced with
structures, processes, and facilitation. Teacher leaders can bring those into
networks of teachers in schools, districts, and beyond.
2: Collaboration with other HEIs:
Collaboration with other HEIs nation wide and international will facilitate both
the teacher and students as well, teacher in context that they will be able to do
their PHD degree from an international university if it has collaboration with
their institute and positive for the student so that have many choice and less
transaction cost of transferring credit hours. This collaboration can be
beneficiary in other context too like bring different nation together.
3: Collaboration with government:
IMS should focus on improving their relationship collaborating with governing
bodies and other related stakeholders for granting funds, aids for further
construction and acquiring scholarships, grants and other funds.

Futernick, K. (2007). A possible dream: Retaining California teachers so all
students learn. Sacramento: California State University.

Goddard, Y. L., Goddard, R. D., Tschannen-Moran, M. (2007). A theoretical and
empirical investigation of teacher collaboration for school improvement and
student achievement in public elementary schools. Teachers College Record,
109(4), 877-896.