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# Formulas and Theorems for Reference

I. Tbigonometric Formulas
l . s i n2d+c , c i s 2d: 1
sec2 d
l * c ot 20: <: s c : 20
I
+. s i n( - d)
:
- s i t t 0
t , r s ( - / / )
=
t r 1 s l /
: - t a l l H
7.
8.
si n( A * B)
: s i t r Ac os B* s i l Bc os A
:
si ri A cos B
-
si u B <:os ,;l
9. cos(A + B)
-
cos, 4 cos B
-
si u A si ri B
10. cos(A
-
B)
:
cos A cos B + si l r A si rr B
2 si rr d t:os d
12. <' os20
-
coS2
( i -
si u2 0
:
2<' os2 o
-
I
-
1
-
2si n20
11.
15.
13. t an d
:
14. <:ol 0
:
I
<. r f t 0
I
t at t H
:
si t t d
(:os
t/
si rr d
1
(:OS
I/
1
ri" 6i
- el
- 01
16. csc d
-
/ F
I t l
r ( . c os [
^
\ l
18.
:
COSA
215
216 Formulas and Theorems
II. Differentiation Formulas
! ( r " )
-
t r r : " - 1
Q,:I'
] t r a- f g' +gf '
-
gJ' - , f g'
-
,l'
, I
, i ; . [ t yt . r t )
-
l ' '
( t t ( . r
) ) 9' ( . , ' )
d, \
.7,
(sttt rrJ
.* ('oq
I'
t J , \
.
dr.
l (' os
./
J
stl l l r
{ 1a,,,t,
:r)
-
"11' 2
.,'
o. t
1(<, ot
. r' )
- (, . (, 2
. r'
Q: T
rl ,
,7,
(sc' c:.r' J
: sPl '
.r tal l 11
d,
-
(<:s<t .r,;
- (l s(]
.]' (rot;.r
, t
fr("')
-.
''
, 1
f r ( u" )
-
o, ' l t r c
, l
, ,
1
' t l l l
r i
-
( l . t ' . f
d, ^ I
- i A l ' C S l l L l ' l
- - :
t ! . r '
J1
-
r z
1(Arcsi '
r)
:
oT
*
(i)
I l 12
Formulas and Theorems 2I7
III. Integration Formulas
1.
, f
" or : ar t C
2.
[ \ 0, - t r r l r l
* ( '
.t "r
3. [ , ' , t . , : r ^x |
( '
,I
4. In' a,,
:
l L , ,'
.l
111 Q
5. I n. , a. r : . r hr . r ' . r
r ( '
,l
f
6.
. /
si r r . r d. r '
- (
os. r '
- t
C
7. / . , , . r ' dr
:
s i t r . i ' |
( '
.t
8.
, f ' r ^r r
t l : r
: hr
sec, r l + C or l n
Jccr sr l
+ C
f
9.
. l
cot . r t l t l r r si r r . ,
l
*
C
10.
[ , nr ' . ,
, 1. , l r r
1s c r ' . i
* I ar r . r f C
.J
1i .
. [ r , r r , r dr : ] nl c s cr
cot r ] +C
12.
|
,"r' r d,r
-
tan r: * C
13. / * " . r t ar r . r ' dr
-
sr ' <' . r |
( '
.l
14.
l
n" " ' r dr
: - cot r : * Cl
15. / . ' r . ' ' t . ot r r / l '
: , ' sr ' . r
r C
.t
16. [ , ur r ' r cl . r
-
l ar r . r
-
. r +
( '
J
t T. [ - - - ! !
- : l Ar ct an( { ) +c
. l
o' 1t " a \ a/
f ) -
18
Jf f i : Arcsi n(i )-.
2t8 Formulas and Theorems
IV. Formulas and Theorems
1. Li rni ts ancl Cl onti nui tv
A f ur r ct i or r y: . f ( r ) i s c' ont i nuous a, t . r
-
c i f :
i )
l ' (a)
i s cl efi rrecl (exi sts)
i i )
Ji t l , / ( . r ' )
exi st s. and
i i i ) hr u
. l ( . r )
:
. / ( r r )
Ot hel rvi se.
. f
i s <l i sr: ont i nrrorrs at . r'
-
rr.
Ti re l i ni i t l i rrr
l (r )
exi sl s i f ancl orrh' i l i rot h corresporrci i rrg one-si <l e<l l i nri t s exi st a, ncl a, r' e
etl rtrl tl rtrt i s.
l rgr, , l ' (. r)
:
L
. : . . =
, l i rn,
. l ' (. r )
-
I '
-
, l i rl
. / (. r )
2. Intemrccl i atc
-
\rahre Theroettt
A func' ti on
l t
,
.l
(r) that i s r' orrti nrrt.rrrs r-rrr a t:krserl i nten' a,l
fo.
b] takes on every val ue
bct ' uveerr
. / (rr )
arrd
. / (6).
Notc: If
,f
i s corrti ri uorl s orr
l rr.l r]
an<1
.l ' (a)
ancl
.l ' (1r)
di fl er i n si grr. then the ecl uati ou
. l ' (. , )-
0 has at l eu, st ot t e soi rt t i ot r i t r t he opet r i t rt erval (4. b).
3. Li rrri t s of I l at i ori al Frui <' t i orrs as . r + +: r;
i f the <l egree of
./(.r' )
< thc cl cgl ee of rt(r' )
, . 2 ) , .
l ' . x ; r t r r 1, l , ' : l i t , r
'
, .
' , '
-
{ l
. r ' +r . . 1" ' ] . )
/ / , \
' 2.
l i r r r
' ,
:
i s i r r l i r r i t e i l t l r e , l egl ee ol
. / { . r ' )
'
t l r e r l egl ee of 17( r )
. ,
- t r
9 \ . 1 /
l i r r r
/ ( ' ]
- o
. r ' +i \ l / \ . t
J
/ ' / , )
3. l i t l
#
i t
. r ' +f - r / ( . uJ
Notc: The l i mi t
, , .
. r r + 2l l '
r . xi ul l l ) l ( ' : nl i l
L
) c
. r ' ++x. J' '
-
ai
fi ui te i f the rl egtee of
./(.r:)
-
the degree of
.q(.r)
u,i l l be the rtrti o of the l eacl i ng c' ci effi ci ent of
.f(r;)
to.q(r).
' 2. r 2
- i J. r - 2
2
r - x a l l r l ) l c : l l l l r
: -
t ( ) , r '
-
5r 2 5
Formulas and Theorems 2I9
4. Hori zontal ancl \rt' rti r:al As)' rnptotes
1. AI i neg- bi s nl ur r i z ont al as v ni pt ot t ' <- r f t hegr aphof q: . / ( . r ' ) i f ei t her l i r r r
l ( . r ' ;
=l ;
,,r
.Itlt_
.f
(r) :
b
2. A l i r i e . t
-
e i s a vcr t i <' al as) ' r r r pt ot c of t l i e gr aph of
t t
-
. f
( . r ) i f ei t i r el
. , . hr ,
. l ( . , , )
=
* r c ur .
, \ )
. / ( . r ' )
-
+x.
5. Avcr agc t r r r r l I r r st ar r t i l l l ( - ol l s I l at <' of
( ' l r ar r gt '
1. Avt ' r agt ' Rat c of
( ' l r at r gc: I f
( . r ' 9. yr r ) at t r i ( . r ' l . ql
)
i r l e
l r oi t r t s
or r t he gl ai r l t <f t q -
. l ' ( t ) .
t l t er t t l t e a, vel i r g( ) r i t t e of c' har r ge of i l u- i t h r er spect t o . r ' ovcl t l r c i t r t cl r - al
l r ' 11. . r t ;
i s
l!_r1'_l!,,) lr
!1,
ly
. l ' 1 . l ' 9 . r ' l , r ' ( ) l . r
'
2. I t t st at r t nr i t ' or r s Rat c o1
( 1- l ' , l t r g, ' ,
I 1 ( , r ' 1y. . r / 9) i s a
l r oi r r t
or r t he gr al r l r oI r l
, - , . l ' ( . r ) .
t i ur r r
t he i t r st aut Ar r eoLl s r at e of chi r r i gt , of i 7 n' i t h r t , spt , r ' t t o. r ' at , r ' 11 i s
. f ' ' ( . r ' 1; ) .
6. Dcfi rri ti orr of t,l rc l )r.ri r-ati vt'
.f'
(.,) -lll lEP,r'
t'
(,,)
11,1,
!y)--ll:' J
Tl r t ' l a, t t <' r cl cf i r r i t i ot r ol t l r t ' <k' t i r ' ; r t i vt . i s t l r t ' i r r st ar r t i r l r ( ' ( ) us r i r t t , of char r gt ' of '
. l
( . r )
u- i t l r
resl tec:t to .t at .r
-. (t.
Geor r l et r i t ' al i r ' . t ht r <l er i r ' : r t i veo1 a f i t t l t ' t i 9l t at a
l r , i l t t
i s t l r t ' sl ' 1r e, f t 1e' t at r g<' t t t l i t r t ' t ,
t ho gr aph of t he f i r nc' t i on at t l t at
l i oi r r t .
7.
' f hc
Nr r r r r l r cr
( '
: l s a l i r r r i t
2. l i ni ( 1
+ r r
) ;
(
n - \ )
8. Rol l er' s Theorerrr
I f
. l ' i s
c' t -rnt i t uu. rt t s on
l n. 0]
arrrl ci i f f ' el ent i abl t ' on (a. b) srrt ' h t hat . l ' (rr). . ,
l ' (1, ).
t ht ' n t hcl e'
i s at l ei rst ot t e t t ut t t ber c i t r t he opet r i nt el val (o. b) srrc' h t hat . l / (r' )
-
0.
9. Nl can Val uc Thcorcrrr
I f
/
i s cot r t i t nr or t s ot t
l n. l i l
aucl cl i f f el ent i abl e on ( o. f ) . t hen t her e i s at 1t : ast out ' nur r i l r er
l / 1 . \ I t ^ r
l i t i
( n. b;
. t t t l r t l t ; t t
' / " ' t
- J) l ! l -
-
f ' 1,
I
t t
-
t I
- (
1. l i ' r
( r
+
1) "
n + + a \ f l /
1i)
220 Formulas and Theorems
Extreme
-
Vai ue Tl i eorem
I f
/
i s cont i rmous on a cl osecl i nt erval
l o. l . , ] .
t hen. / (. r) has bot h a t naxi nrum aurl a
mi ni r num on
l a. b] .
11. To f i ri d t he rnaxi mrrrn and nri rri nuru val ues of a f urrc' t i <)\ t t
=, / (. r' ).
l oc' at e
1. the poi nt(s) r,r' hcl c
.f' (.r)
c' harrges si gn. To fi rrri the c' atrcl i cl ates fi rst fi ncl l vhcre
,f
' (.r:)
-
0 or i s i nfi ni te rl r cl tters trot t:xi st.
2. t hc t : t r r l poi t t t s. i f : r t n' . or t t l t t ' r l ot t t ai t r <l f
, / ( . r ' ) .
Corrrpal c' thc frurcti orr va,l ues at trl l of thcsc poi nts l i r fi rrrl the tnaxi ruuul s an(l nti rti tttttttts.
Let
. /
l i c' cl i f f cl cnt i al r i t ' f i r r r r <. 1' < 1. , t t t t <l t or t t i nt r ot r s f or r r { . r
<.
l t .
l . I f
, f ' ' ( . r )
> 0 f or
( ' v( ' l ' \ ' . r ' i r r ( r r . L) . t her r . f i s i t r ct ' t ' asi ng or r
f r r . 1l ] .
2. I f
. / ' ( . r ' )
{ 0 f or evel v. r ' i r r ( o. L) . t ht ' t t . f i s cl t ' t ' r t ' asr t r g or r
[ 4. 1l ] .
Sri ppr-,se th:rt
.f' "(;r)
t' xi sts ort tl te i trtel va,l (rr. l r).
1. I f
, f " ( t ' )
) 0 i r r ( a. b) . t l r cn. f i s <' or r cr , ve upu, r r r ' <l i r r
( a. / r ) .
' ).
I f
. f "(. r)
{ 0 i rr (rr. L). t l rerr
. f
i s corrc' t r, ve
(l o\$: l rwf rl cl
i rr (rr. / r).
To l ot ' t rt e t he poi nt s of i rrf krc' t i r. rrt t f i t t
-. 1' (. r' ).
f i rxl t he proi t rt s r' vhere
. l ' "(r' )
- ()
or u' l t t ' r' t :
. f "(. r' )
f ai l s t o cxi st . l ' i rest , ' are t he orrh' r' ucl i rl ' r1, ' t ; l yl l ere
. f
(. r' ) rnar. hal ' t ' a poi rrt of i ri l l ect i t xt .
' I l t en
t est t l rese poi nt s t o uri rkc sure t ha, t
, l ' "(. , ). -
0 on ont ' si t l t ' arrt l
, f "(. r)
> 0 <. rt t t l u' ot her' .
1.1 Di ffcrerrti al rrl i tv i rnpl i es r' onti uui tt' : If a frrnr:ti orr i s cl i fl erel ti al rl t' a,t a poi rrt .r' - rr. i t i s
t' <.i rrti nuous at that
1.l oi rrt.
' I' he
convcrst' i s fal st' . i .e. c' onti ntri tv rkrcs not i urpl l ' cl i ffert' nti abi l i tr..
15 Lor r t r l Li r r <' ar i t r - ar r <1 Li t r cal Appr oxi t t r at i or r
' l ' i i e
l i r i ear t r ppr oxi t nzr t i ot t of
. / ( . r ' )
r r ear . t ' - . t 0 i s gi ver r l x' 4: . / ( . , ' e) * . 1' ( . l ' 1) ( . r ' . r e) .
Ti r esti uratc the sl ope of a gral rh at a poi rrt rha,n a trrngerrt l i rx-' to tl tc graph at tl i at poi nt.
Arrother rva\. i s (l x' usi ng u grtrphi t s cak' nl a,tor' ) to
"zoonr
i n" aroLtn<l the poi nt i tt cl uesti orr
urrti l the gl aph "kroks' '
strai ght.' fhi s rrretl i ocl al nrost ahva' "s \i l )r' ks. If u' c' "zot.rttt i n" att<l ther
gl aph Lr , r ks st l ai gl r t at a poi nt . sa) ' . r ' : o. t hen t he f unr : t i or r i s l oca, l l ) ' l i ncar at t hat poi nt .
fl re graph of u
:
].r:l
has a sharp
(:ol ner'
.rt :f
:0.
Thi s col ' l l rr c' arl l l ot l re stl rot-rthecl out l te
"zc.ronri ng i n" r' epeatecl l v. Consecl uetrtl l ' . the cl eri vati ve of
l .r'
ci oes not exi st at .r'
:
0. henc' e. i s
not l ocal l r' Ii near at .r'
:
0.
12
l ' )
_t , ) .
l
Formulas and Theorems 221
Tl r t ' t ' xpot r et r t i : r l f unc' t i r ) u
! :
c' gt ' <l u' s ver v l api r l h. AS. r ' - + t c u, h. i l e t he f t t gar i t hmi c, f ul r . t i on
l /
..
l rr.r' gl o\\' s vt' r' r' skx.r,i -u' a.s .r'
-)
)c.
Er pot r er t t i al f r r uc' t i or r s l i ke u
- .
2' r t r
! /
:
r , , ' l l r . ( ) \ \ - nt ol . e r : r pi cl l y as. r +: r t har r an) , posi t i ve
l )()\\' (' 1
<i f .r.
' 1.' ht' fi tttt' ti ott
i /
-
hr.r' gr' o\\' s sl <l u' er as .t
-+
x tl ti i l a1\r l otx,orrstarrt
l t1;l vrr<1ni ai .
\ \ i ' sar ' . t hat as . r '
- +
) c:
l .
I t . t
t gl ' ) \ \ ' : l ; r - 1 1, 1. l l r i r r r , / i , r
I i l l i r r r
l ( r \
-
\ , r ' i l l i r r r
l t | ' )
{ t .
r . r
z / { , r ' ) . r
. \ . l ( . r ' )
f i . l ( r ' ) gl t xl s f hst er t hat r
a( . r ' ) as. r ' - + ) c. t her r q( , r ' ) gr ' ows sl ol r , t r t l u. r n. l ' ( . r . ) AS. r . + r c.
2.
. / ( . r )
ar r <l r 7( . r ' ) gr ou, at t he sar nt ' r at t , as . r ' + r i f l i r , r
' 19
L
l 0
( t r i s f i r r i t e ancl
, . , \
q( . r , )
rrouzt' r' o
).
Fol t ' xanr l l l t ' .
1. r ' gt r xl s l ; r st cr t l r ar r . r . : i i l s. r , + r c si r r r . r , l i r r r
{
- .
: r ,
. t
'
' 2.
. r ' l gr ' , , 1' s l i r st cl t l r ar r hr . r ' : r s . r . : r c si r r <. e 1i , , , -
, ' 1
x
3. . r ' : + 2. r ' gl ( ) \ \ ' s i r t t l l , si r l r r t ' r ' r r t r ' , r s . , , 1 as . r . )
' r 2 l 2
>c sirr<.r'
,]11 ,i{
I
Ti r f i r l <l sot t t t ' of t he' st ' l i t r r i t s i r s , r '
,
\ . \ ' ( ) l l nr i r v l r s( ' t he gr aphi ng t al r . r r l at . , r ' . \ I ake su. c, t l at
al r al ) l ) l ( ) l ) l i at c r . i t ' u- i r r g r . l - i t r r l or i - i s r r scr l .
17 . I r r r - t ' r ' sc F r r r u' t i or r s
1Li . Courl rari ng Rat cs of C' hat rgc
i . I f
. /
l r r r l 17 i r l t ' t u, o f r r r r <. t i ous sr r <. h t hat
. l ' ( q( . r . ) )
-
. r f or e- , \ ( ) 1. \ . . 1, i n t i u, r l or r r ai r r ol q.
ar r t L. q( . 1' ( . r ' ) )
. r ' . l i r r i r r t hc' r l ol r ai r r of
. f
. t her r .
. f '
ar r d 17 ar e i r r vel st ' f i ur r . t i ons
t i l ei r ch ot l r cr .
' 2.
A f t l r r r ' 1i or r
. f
ht l s r t t t i t r vt ' r sr ' l i r t t t t i ou i f ar r r l onh. i f r i o l r or i zor r t al l i ue i r r t cr ser r , t s i t s
gr al r l r ur ol t ' t l r i r r r or r <' ( r .
3. If
.l
i s t' i tl rt' t i ttt t' ei l si l g or' <i t' t reasi rrg i n arr i ntt:r' val . tfi en
f'
| as a1 i 1.,r' r.se fi l rc:ti ,'
or . t ' t t hr r t i r r t t ' r ' t ' al .
l . h
I
i s t l i l f i ' r t ' r r t i a] r l t ' at t ' vt ' t ' r -
l r oi r r t
or i ar r i r r t er val I . ar r cl
, f ' ( . , t ) I 0
or r I . t 1e1
! l
' -
l
r ( . ,
I i s t l i f Tt ' r <' ut i t r l r l t ' at ever r ' l r oi nt of t he i nt er i or of t he i nt er val
l ' ( I )
ar r r l
, t ' l l l . r I )
l
|
'
r . t t
'
222 Formulas and Theorems
I x Pr r r r r l t t i l s r , 1 r
' '
' _ - l - ' - _
1' I' htr t' xl l orl t' uti al futtcti t.rti
!/
-
t' ' i s the i rl verse functi on of t7:111
.1' '
2. I ' l r t ' cl or nai t t i s t hc set r l f al l r t ' al r l t l r l l l ) el ' s.
- ) c
<. l r < DC.
3.
' l ' l u' r i t ngt ' i s
t l r t ' set of al l
l l osi t i ve
nt t nt l l el s.
!
> 0.
, l
- 1.
- l ( ,
' )
,
'
.
( L t '
5.
l l
. , r '
i s <' ont i r t l r or r s. i nc' r ' er r si r r g. at t d
( on( ' i r ve
r t l t f bl al l . r : .
t t .
,
i i t ] ' _, '
. ,
i x at r t l
, .
l 1t l t _ r '
- ' 0.
T. , l t t
r
. r . . f i r r ' . r . - > 0l l r r ( r ' )
- . r '
f i r r al l . r ' .
19. Pr ol r t ' r ' t i t ' s o[ ] t t . r '
1.
' l ' l r c
r kr r r r i r i u o1 r 7 l r r , r ' i s t ht : set t of al l
l t osi t i vc
t r ut t t l i er s, . r ' > 0.
' 2.
' [ ' l r t ' r i r r r gt ' of
i 7
.
hr . r ' i s t l i e sct of al l r t ' al l r t r t t t ] r er s. x <
l /
< : r '
:1. r7
.
l rr.r' i s <.orrl i rrrrorts. i tr<' r' e' asi rrg. urrrl corrcavtr cl ou,tt cverYrvl tertl r-rtt i ts tl cl rl tri n.
1. l r r ( r r | )
-
l t r r r I l t r 1i .
1. l t r l , t
f l ,
I l t r , r l r r / ,
( ; .
1 1 1 1 1 l
, . .
1 ' 1 1 v 1 1
7. i 7 hr. r
' -
0 i I 0
. :
. r'
. - I arrrl l rr. r' > 0 i f . r > 1.
E.
, l l l t .
l t r . r ' - * : r t r r t r l
, . l t ] l i
l t t . r ' -
- ) c'
1). l .g,,.r'
i l ;
20. 1- t l pczoi t l i r l I l r r l t '
I f i r f \ urt . t i orr. f i s c' out i uuorrs orr t l rt ' t ' krsecl i nt e' t ' val
[ 4. b]
where
f o. b]
has ] reen part i t i oned
i r r t r r l st t l r i r t t t , r ' r ' t r l s
I . r ' 1. . r ' r j . l , r . i 2] . . . . . [ . r : , ,
r . . t : , , ] .
ent : l t of l engt h ( b- a) l n. t hen
r l t r
I
f t , )
r / . r ' =
- ; ; [ . / ( , 0)
+' 2. f
( . r r )
+ 2/ ( . r z) + . . . + 2J( . r ' , ,
r ) +
. / ( . r " ) ]
.
. t
, ,
Tl rt. T' ral rezoi cl al Rrrl t' i s tl re avel age of the l eft-hancl and ri gl rt-hancl R,i emann sul ns.
Formulas and Theorems 223
Let
,/(.r)
and r7(,r) be c,ci nti rruuous orr
l a.
l l ].
f b r t ,
1.
J, , , , ' . f
( r ) r l , t ' : c, l , , . r r r , r 1. r . r ' i s a uor . zcr o c, onst ant .
f t
2'
.1,,
f
(' ' ) rl' rr
-
0
I ' t t | t '
: l
. 1, , , , ' ) ' l t r
-
. f , ,
l t , t , t ,
[ t ' r '
l t '
+.
. 1, , , r , ) , l r - f , , . 1t . , ) n. , * , 1, . f ' ( . r ) r l . r . .
r , r . her . t '
, f
i s cont i nr r ous on ar r i r r t er . val
r' ort t ai l ri t t g t l t e t rut nl t et ' s rr. 1r. arrrl r' . r' egarrl l t ' ss ol t l rt ' or' <l t ' r. a. | . arrcl r, .
5. I f
l ( . r ' )
i s t r n ot l r l f i ur r . t i on. t h, ' , r
/ . l ( r ' )
r l . t . -
( l
.l
,,
t j . I f
. / (. r )
i s arr even f i ul . t i on. t l ruu
. f
", , . 1' (. t . )
t l r I
, f , , '
. l {. , )
, t , , .
21. Propcrti es of tl i c Dcfi ni tc Il ttcgral
22. Dcf i r i t i . ' . f D<' f i r r i t t ' hr t <' gr : r l t r s t l i . Li ' r i t , f u Sr r r r r
St t l l l r t l st ' t hat a f i r t t t r t i ot t
. l ' ( . r ' )
i s <ont i r ur or r s or r t he r . kr st ' <l i r r t el val
l r r . l i ]
. Di vi r l e t 1e
i r i t t ' r val i r r t o r r ccl r r al sul r i r r t cr val s. ol l engt h A. r .
l :
"
( , h, , , , st , ( , l l ( ,
nl 1l nl ) er . i r r cacl r
st t bi t r t t ' l val i . t ' . . r ' 1 i n t l u' f i l st . . r ' 2 i r r t l r t , st , r ' or r r l . . . . . . r ' A. ' i 1 t l , , ' A. t h. . . . . ^r r r l . r . , , i , t l r . r r t 5.
'
r l ,
' I l i cu, , l i r r r
I
r ,
r ' 1 ) Jr '
-
f , , . f
{ . , )
, t . ,
2: 1. Funr l ar ncnt al
' f l r l ol l r r r
, 1
( ' ak. uhr s
7 b
I
t t . , )
, l . t l : i l t t 1- ' t r i t . n" l u, r . t , F, ( . r ) :
, f
( . . r ' )
. t , ,
7 I I
. l ( . r ) ]
0 on
l r r .
1r ] . r her r
l ' " , , ( , , ,
r / . r , >
0
.t ,,
8. I f
. q( . r ' ) Z. f ( r ) , n
l o. bl .
r l * , u
[ , , " , , { . r ) , 1, r
7
, [ , , " . 1{ . , . 1
, t . ,
o,
+. . f ' , , ' , , , , , , , r i , , ' , ' , r
j ,
f
, "' ' ' , , r r ,
r t t : , f ( q( t . ) ) g, ( . r ) .
Formulas and Theorems
24.
Y"t".lty,
Sp..a,
"t
1. The vclocity of an object tells how fast it is going and in which direction. Velocity is
an instantaneous rate of change.
2. The spcecl of an obi ect i s the absol ute val ue of the vel oci ty,
l r(t)I.
It tel l s how fast
i t i s goi ng di sregardi ng i ts di recti on.
The speecl of a particle irrcrcascs (speeds up) when the velocity and acceleration have
ther sarrre signs. The speed clecreascs (slows down) when the velocity and acceleration
have opposi te si gns.
3. The acr:cier:rtion is thc irrstantarreous rate of change of velocity it is the derivative
c-rf the vel oc:i ty that i s. o(l )
:
r"(t). Negati ve accel erati on (decel erati on) means that
t[e vgloc:ity is dec:r'easirrg. Tlie acceleration gives the rate at which the velocity is
crharrging.
Therefore, i f .r i s the di spl acernent of a rnovi ng obj ec:t and I i s ti me, then:
i ) vel oc: i t Y
:
u(r)
:
t r (t \
:
#
i i ) ac' cr el er at i on
:
o( t )
:
. "' ( t ) : r ' / ( / )
-
#.
:
#
i i i ) i ' ( / )
[ n( t 1, t t
i v) . r ( t )
-
[
, , 31 a,
Notc: T[e av('ragc velclcity of a partir:le over the tirne interval frorn ts to another time f. is
Average vel ;c' i tv:
T#*frH#:
"(r]
-;' i tol .
where s(t) i s the p.si ti on of
the parti c:l e at ti nre t.
25. The avetage val ue of
/(r)
on
[a.
i r] i s
f
(r) d:r .
Arca Bctwtxrri Ctrrvt,s
If
./
ancl g are conti nuous funcrti ons such that
/(:r) 2 s@)
on
[a,b],
then the area between
, . b
I
I l r e cr r r ves i s
/ l /
( " ,
I
-
q( r l ) dr .
J a
+,,,,
1,,'
26
Formulas and Theorems 225
27.
28
Volume of Soiids of R.evolution
Let
/
be nonnegati ve and conti nuous on
[a,.
b]. and l et R be the regi on bounded above
by g:
/ ( r " ) .
bel ow by t he r - axi s, and on t he si des by t he l i nes r : : n and r : b.
When thi s regi on .R i s revol ved about ti re .r' -axi s. i t gerrerates a sol i d (havi ng ci rcul ar
f o
crross sec' ti ons) u' hose vol ume V
-
|
{j ' (.,' l )2
,1., .
/ t t
Vol unrcs of Sol i <l s wi th Knowrr Cross Sccti ons
l . of area A(:r:). taken pt' r' l i errcl i <' ul ar tcl the r-zrxi s.
dr .
A(37) t aken perpt ' rrri i crrl ar t o t he
37-axi s,
29. Sol vi rrg Di fferenti al Equati ons: Graphi cal l y ancl Nurnerri r.al l .l '
Skrpc Fi ei cl s
Af ever' 1' poi rrt (.r. r7) a di fferetrti al ecl uati orr of the fol rrr
#
-
f t, .i /) gi ves the sl ope of tht'
nernber of the farni l y of sol uti t.rns that c:onta,i ns that poi rrt. A sl ope fi el cl i s a, gra,l rhi ctrl
represent:rti otr of thi s fami l y of curves. At eac:h pt-ri rrt i rr the pl arre. a short s()gnl ent i s rl rau' n
"vhose
sl ope i s ecl ual to the val ue of the cl eri vati ver at that poi rrt. I' hese scgnrerrts are taugcnt
to the sohrti on' s graph at the poi rrt.
The slope fielcl allows you to sketc:h the graph of ther solution cul've even though
you
rlo rrot
have i ts ec|rati on. Thi s i s cl c-rne by starti ng at arry poi nt (usual l v the poi nt gi ven bv the i ni ti al
c' ondi ti ti n). and movi ng fron one poi rrt to the next i n the di rec' ti on i rrdi cnted by the segrncnts
of the sl ope fi el cl .
Somc t' trl c' ul ators havtt bui l t i n operati ons fbr drawi ng sl ope fi el ds; fci r cal cul ators rvi thorrt ti ri s
feature tlrere are
l)rograms
available fbr drawing thern.
30. Soi vi ng Di ffel enti al Equati ons b)' Separati rrg the Vari abl es
There are lnAny techniclues for solving differential equations. Any differential equatir_rn vou
may be asked to sol ve ott the AB Cal cul us Exam can be sol ved by separati ng the vari abl es.
R,ewrite the equatioll as an erluivalent equation with all the r and dr terrns on otle side arxl
al l the q and d37 terrns ou the c-rther. Anti di fferenti ate both si des to obtai n an e(l uati on
wi thout dr or du, but wi th orte c' onstant of i nteqrati on. Use the i ni ti al condi ti on to evahrate
thi s constant.
of area
r h.
z .
Fol cross secti ons
' ,l l ttttt'
:
.[rr"
^rr,
Fbr <' ross se<rti ons
v.l trttc'
-
.[,"
^r,,