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Mechanical Services

Performance Specification

for

GAP Outlet
Unit 16
Newport Retail Park
Newport




Part 2

Materials and
Workmanship





Prepared for:

GAP UK
Castle Mound Way
Rugby
Warwickshire
CV23 0WA




2
nd
October 2012

Ref: AD398/mech2/ 10.0
Issue 1.0




Alchemi Design Limited
Landmark House
Station Road
Cheadle Hulme
Cheshire
SK8 7BS

Tel: 0161 486 3332
Fax: 0161 486 3336
E-mail: info@alchemidesign.co.uk
GAP Outlet Newport
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PART 2

GENERAL MATERIALS AND METHODS OF INSTALLATION

2.01 INTRODUCTION

2.02 REGULATIONS

2.03 PIPEWORK
2.03.01 Pipework Materials and Valve Schedule
2.03.02 Refrigeration
2.03.03 Underground Mains Cold Water
2.03.04 Gas
2.03.05 Condensate
2.03.06 Drainage
2.03.07 Domestic Pipework
2.03.08 Condenser Water/LPHW
2.03.09 Pipework Routes
2.03.10 Pipework Supports
2.03.10a. Table 1 Supports for Copper Pipework
2.03.10b. Table 2 Supports for Plastic Pipework
2.03.10c. Table 3 Supports for Wrought Iron and Mild Steel
Pipework
2.0310d. Table 4 Supports for Drainage Pipework
2.03.11 Electric Water Heaters
2.03.12 Cisterns and Cold Water Tanks
2.03.13 Waste Water Pump Unit

2.04 DUCTWORK
2.04.01 General
2.04.02 Flexible Ductwork
2.04.03 Flexible J oints
2.04.04 Control Dampers
2.04.05 Access Doors
2.04.06 Fire Dampers
2.04.07 Smoke Dampers
2.04.08 Grilles, Diffusers and Louvers
2.04.09 Duct Cleanliness

2.05 AIR HANDLING UNITS
2.05.01 General
2.05.02 Construction

2.06 HEATER BATTERIES
2.06.01 General
2.06.02 Electric Type

2.07 FANS
2.07.01 General
2.07.02 Centrifugal Fans
2.07.03 In-Line Fans

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2.08 BELT DRIVES AND GUARDS
2.08.01 Belt Drives
2.08.02 Guards
2.08.03 Fan Drive Pulleys

2.09 AIR FILTERS
2.09.01 General
2.09.02 Frames, Seals and Gaskets
2.09.03 Panel Filters
2.09.04 Bag Filters

2.10 THERMAL INSULATION
2.10.01 General
2.10.02 Methods of Application
2.10.03 Ductwork Insulation
2.10.04 Pipework Insulation
2.10.05 Vapour Barriers

2.11 VIBRATION ISOLATION AND NOISE INSULATION
2.11.01 Anti-Vibration
2.11.02 Noise
2.11.03 Noise Insulation (Airborne Noise)

2.12 RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL OF REFRIGERANT

2.13 FLAMMABILITY

2.14 PIPEWORK AND PLANT IDENTIFICATION

2.15 PAINTING AND CLEANING ON COMPLETION

2.16 PRE-COMMISSIONING, CLEANING AND FLUSHING
2.16.01 Sterilisation
2.16.02 Condenser Water
2.16.03 Pseudonymous Bacteria

2.17 COMMISSIONING, TESTING AND HANDOVER

2.18 REDUNDANT EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES

2.19 OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE MANUALS


APPENDIX A DESIGN STANDARDS




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PART2

GENERAL MATERIALS AND METHODS OF INSTALLATION


2.01 INTRODUCTION

This part of the Specification known as the GENERAL SPECIFICATION details the general
material requirements, installation methods and the standard of workmanship on which
the Contract installation shall be based.

The following clauses detail the basic materials, but where materials or equipment are
required which are not detailed herein or in the Particular Specification, then these shall
be of proven quality to British Standards, BS EN or equivalent EU standards and CE
marked, and installed in accordance with approved and accepted current practice
and manufacturers instructions.

It will be the Contractors responsibility to ascertain from the manufacturers, where
necessary, any relevant information to ensure compliance with the Specification. If
evidence is found of non-compliance with the Specification, any remedial work
necessary as instructed by the Engineers shall be at the Contractors own expense.


2.02 REGULATIONS

The Mechanical Services shall be designed and installed in accordance with the
requirements of this specification and as detailed below and shall also take full account
of the following: -

a) All relevant British Standards, European Standards and Codes of Practise.

b) Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and existing statutory Health and Safety
provisions.

c) Health and Safety Executive Guidance Notes.

d) CIBSE Guides, Building Energy Codes and Technical Memoranda.

e) Water Authority Regulations.

f) Building Regulations.

g) Local Authority requirements.

h) Electricity at Work Regulations 1989.

i) Electricity Supply Regulations 1988.

j) IEE Wiring Regulations (Current Edition).

k) Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2006.

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l) The Scottish Building Regulations (where appropriate)


Particular attention should be paid to the need to reduce the risk of Legionella and the
design must take full account of the following publications

m) British Standard BS 6070.
n) Health and Safety Executive EH48, IAC (L) 27 HSG 70.
o) CIBSE TM13.


2.03 PIPEWORK

2.03.01 PIPEWORK MATERIALS AND VALVE SCHEDULE

PIPEWORK MATERIALS SCHEDULE
SERVICE MATERIAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
D.H.W.S. COPPER NON-LEAD SOLDER
C.W.D.S. COPPER NON-LEAD SOLDER
CONDENSATE ABS AS SPECIFICATION
CHILLED WATER STEEL AS SPECIFICATION
CONDENSER WATER STEEL AS SPECIFICATION
MWS (EXTERNAL) MDPE AS SPECIFICATION
MWS (INTERNAL) COPPER NON-LEAD SOLDER
GAS (INTERNAL) STEEL AS SPECIFICATION
REFRIGERATION COPPER AS SPECIFICATION

VALVE SCHEDULE
SERVICE MATERIAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
D.H.W.S. CRANE D191 ) REFER TO DOMESTIC
C.W.D.S. CRANE D191 ) PIPEWORK SECTION
C.W.M. CRANE D191 ) 2.0107
C.H.W. CRANE D911/DM910 (IV/OP)
D920/D922/DM920(DRV)
CONDENSER WATER CRANE D911/DM910 (IV/OP)
D920/D922/DM920(DRV)

Materials

All materials shall be of British Manufacture (unless otherwise stated) and shall not be
inferior to the latest relevant British Standard referred to in this Specification as BS. Samples
of materials are to be submitted as and when requested for examination and approval
by the Consulting Engineer. Any materials not approved and/or not in strict compliance
with this Specification or as detailed on the drawings are to be immediately removed
from the site.

Materials shall in all cases be as specified or of other similar equal and approved
manufacture.

Manufacturers recommendations for site storage of materials are to be closely adhered
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to, to prevent damage, deterioration or loss of materials.

Substitution of Materials and Equipment

Substitution of specified materials or plant shall not be permitted without the written
consent of the Consulting Engineer.

In the event of non-availability of the specified material or plant, the Contractor shall
formally notify the Consulting Engineer and shall at the same time submit proposals for
alternative materials for the consideration of the Consulting Engineer.

The Contractor shall give notice in good time to avoid any disruption to the regular
progress of the Contract works, and shall provide full details in justification of any
substitution that may be proposed.

All alternative materials and plant shall conform to the requirements of this Specification.
The cost of any variation shall be agreed with the Consulting Engineer at the time.

2.03.02 REFRIGERATION

Refrigeration pipework shall be installed by a specialist and in accordance with current
good practice.

The pipework shall be half-hard or soft tempered refrigerant quality copper in
accordance with BS 2871 Part 2, ASTM 280 and DIN 1754/8905. Soft tempered pipework
may be used where the diameter is or
3
/8.

Bends shall be formed using pipe benders. The use of bend and elbow fittings should be
avoided (to minimise the possibility of leaks).

All brazing of joints shall be carried out whilst passing oxygen-free nitrogen through the
pipework.

It is the responsibility of the Specialist Installer to ensure that the pipework is adequately
protected during the installation to prevent the ingress of dirt and moisture. Pipework that
is delivered to site without end caps must be rejected.

Pipework must not be cut using any tool that may cause filings, as it will contaminate the
system.

Brazing shall only be carried out by skilled operatives in accordance with HVCA Codes of
Practice. Refnet joints shall be used in accordance with Daikin Ltd requirements.
The pipework shall be sized in accordance with the manufacturer's requirements and
guidelines. All pipework to be tagged at 3m intervals.

All filters, driers, thermal expansion valves, charging valves, etc., shall be included in the
system where manufacturers recommendations are applicable.

All pipework shall be properly insulated with Armaflex class O insulation suitably
weatherproofed and painted to protect against degradation by UV light.
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The Contractor shall be responsible for providing an independently supported, suitably
sized medium duty return flange cable tray for refrigerant pipework and interconnecting
cables, externally and throughout ceiling voids, etc. The pipework and cable must be
individually secured.

Where galvanised tray cannot be installed due to space restrictions the hydrozorb
cushion clamp system as supplied by Dean & Wood Ltd., shall be used only with prior
agreement to the Engineer. Any other support system will be rejected.

Where exposed to view internally, the pipework shall run in a suitably sized UPVC trunking
containment system.

Gauges

Pressure gauges shall be installed adjacent to the external condensing units of split and
multi-split systems to provide visual indication of refrigerant charge status.

Note: VRV condensing units shall not be fitted with gauges.

2.03.03 UNDERGROUND MAINS COLD WATER

Underground polyethylene pipework for water shall be to BS 6572 (1985) Specification for
blue polyethylene pipes up to nominal size 63 for below ground use for potable water.

Pipes larger than nominal size 63 shall conform to WAA-SWMC information and guidance
note number 4-32-03 (ISBN 267-0305).

In all instances, the installation and jointing of polyethylene pipework shall be in strict
compliance with the Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999 Edition and any other
requirements of the local Water Company. All jointing methods must be approved by
the Consulting Engineers.

All marker plates, pipe route markers etc, shall be included by the Contractor to comply
with the Water Authority requirements.

2.03.04 GAS

Underground polyethylene pipework for gas services shall be to BFP/PS/PL2 Parts 1 and 2.

In all instances the installation and jointing of polyethylene pipework shall be in strict
compliance with British Gas Publication IM/16 and any other requirements of the local
Gas Board.

All marker plates, pipe route markers etc. shall be included by the Contractor to comply
with the Gas Regulations.


2.03.05 CONDENSATE

Unless otherwise specified condensate pipework shall be in copper. The pipework shall
be as detailed in section 2.03.06 f).
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2.03.06 DRAINAGE

a) General

The work shall conform to the Specification in all respects and be executed by fully
qualified, competent tradesmen and certified welders, in accordance with the
Specification to the satisfaction of, and as directed by, the Clients Representative and
the relevant Local Authorities.

b) Relevant Codes of Practice

Attention is drawn to the following Codes of Practice where they are applicable and do
not conflict with the Specification:

BS6367: 1983 Drainage and roofs and paved areas.
BS8301: 1985 Building Drainage
BS5572, 1994: Code of Practice for Sanitary Pipework.
Building Regulations (Current Edition)

c) Materials

Vertical soil, waste and ventilating
pipework 75 mm diameter and above
Cast or Ductile iron socketless pipe to
BS 416/EN877 with flexible two piece
mechanical joints to BS6087.

Horizontal soil, waste and ventilating
pipework 75 mm diameter and above
exposed or in ceiling void spaces.

Cast or Ductile iron socketless pipe to
BS416/EN877 with flexible two piece
mechanical joints to BS 6087.
Horizontal soil, waste and ventilating
pipework 75 mm diameter and above.



UPVC solvent weld or ring-seal socket
joints to BS 4514 or cast iron as vertical
pipework.

Vertical soil, waste and ventilating
pipework 75 mm diameter and above.
UPVC solvent weld or ring-seal socket
joints to BS 4514 or cast iron as vertical
pipework.

Rainwater pipework Cast of Ductile iron socketless pipe to
BS416/EN877 with flexible two piece
mechanical joints.

Vertical waste and ventilating pipework
less than 75 mm diameter.
Copper to BSEN 1057 R250 (BS2871 Part
1 Table X) capillary jointed with fittings
to BS864 Part 2. Chromium plated
where exposed in finished areas.

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Horizontal waste and ventilating
pipework less than 75mm diameter
exposed or in ceiling void spaces.

Copper to BSEN 1057 / 2250 (BS2871
Part 1 Table X) capillary jointed with
fittings to BS 864 Part 2. Chromium
plated where exposed in finished
areas.

Horizontal waste and ventilating
pipework less than 75 mm diameter
concealed other than in ceiling voids.

MUPVC to BS 5255: 1989 with solvent
welded joints or copper as vertical
pipework.
Overflow pipework As waste pipework

Traps: (sizes as described on project
drawings)

Concealed
Exposed



Polypropylene to BS3943: 1979
Chromium plated copper.

d) Installation

Pipework shall be installed in the positions and to the sizes shown on the drawings, in
straight lines and even gradients with swept branches facing up the gradient against
the oncoming flow.

Access fittings shall be provided on all vertical pipework at each storey level above
the spillover level of the highest appliance or terminal fitting connected to the vertical
pipework on the particular storey.

Access fittings shall be provided on all horizontal pipework and at all changes of
direction, gradient and level. In addition the minimum requirements for access
described in BS5572 shall be met.

The locations of access fittings shall be arranged to suit the layout of the building.

J ointing material shall not project into the bore of pipes, fittings or appliances.

Where pipework passes through roofs, a roof connector compatible with the roof
construction shall be used.

All soil, waste and vent pipes shall terminate with a wire balloon guard, or proprietary
approved vent pipe terminal to the requirements of BS 5572.

J oints between branch soil pipes and WC pan spigots shall be made by the use of a
proprietary solid WC connector.

Site installation works shall comply with BS5572, BS6367, the Building Regulations and
the requirements of the District Surveyor.

During the course of construction all open ends of pipework are to be sealed with a
temporary cover, the contractor shall carry out regular checks to ensure that the
covers are still effective.

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Where pipes pass through floors or walls, compatible pipe sleeves shall be sized to
provide a minimum of 15 mm clearance around the pipe to be installed, in order that
the sleeve may be packed and sealed at both ends with water and fire retardant
mastic.

Fireproof sleeves shall be fitted to UPVC pipework over 50 mm where it passes through
all fire rated walls and floor slabs.

The fire sleeves shall be installed in strict accordance with the manufacturers
instructions and shall be the Firebreak type as manufactured by Caradon Terrain Ltd.

Adequate provision shall be made for expansion and contraction in all soil, waste and
ventilating pipework in full accordance with the manufacturers' recommendations.

e) Cast Iron Drainage Pipework with Flexible Joints

Cast / ductile iron pipework and fittings shall be to BS416/EN877.

Copper pipework shall be fixed at centres not exceeding the minimum described in
the table under section 2.0110d using brass holderbats.

Socketless pipes and fittings shall be jointed with flexible couplings, comprising cast /
ductile iron clamps manufactured from metal conforming to BS1452, Grade 180,
secured with stainless steel bolts, nuts and washers to BS3692, Grade 18/8 and synthetic
rubber gaskets in accordance with BS2494 and as specified in BS 6087. The joints shall
be made and torqued strictly in accordance with the manufacturers instruction.

Electrical continuity couplings shall be used, to comply with the IEE wiring Regulations.

Cast iron pipework shall be fixed using two piece zinc plated mild steel or coated
ductile iron pipe clamps / brackets, bolted to flat iron hangers suspended from soffit,
built-in to walls or screw to walls as appropriate and shall be fixed at centres not
exceeding the minimum described in the table water section 2.03.10d.

f) Copper Drainage Pipework

Pipework up to and including 54 mm nominal size shall be copper to BSEN 1057-R250
BS2871 Part 1 Table X) except where a particular table is called for the drawings or
elsewhere in this specification. The pipework shall be assembled using copper or
copper alloy, soft solder capillary fittings to BS864: Part 2. Capillary joints shall be made
in accordance with fitting manufacturers recommendations.

Pipes of normal bore greater than 54 mm shall be copper to BSEN 1057-R250 BS2871:
Part 1 Table X) and pipework shall be assembled by silver brazing, using formed sockets
and spigots and/or suitable copper or copper alloy capillary type fittings.

Silver brazing shall be carried out in accordance with BS 1723 and Technical Note TN4
issued by Copper Development Association. All joints in permanently concealed
pipework without access shall be silver brazed.

Maintenance joints shall be provided at connections to all items of plant, valves, etc.,
not provided with flanges or unions and elsewhere in the pipework system, as
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necessary, to allow for easy erection and dismantling of the installation. All
maintenance joints shall be provided in accessible positions.

Union couplings shall be copper alloy type.

Flanges shall be copper alloy slip-on type suitable for silver brazing to BS4504 or BS10
Table E. Flanges used at connections to equipment, valves, etc. shall match those
provided on the equipment. All flanged joints shall be made in the approved manner.

Connections between copper and ferrous pipework and equipment shall incorporate
where possible non-metallic materials to prevent direct contact between the two
metals.

Bends, springs and sets in Table X tubing, up to and including 54mm diameter, may be
made where standard fittings cannot be used or where this method will give a neater
appearance. Pulled bends or off sets which show flattening, rippling or restriction of
the bore will not be accepted.

Fittings incorporating screwed threads to BS211 shall be jointed by systems using
materials and compound complying with BS5292 or P.T.F.E tape.

J oints between copper tube and capillary type fittings shall be made in accordance
with the manufacturers recommendations.

J oints between copper tube and compression type fittings shall be made in
accordance with the manufacturers recommendations.

Where chromium plated pipework is called for elsewhere in this specification or
indicated on the drawings, chromium plating shall comply with BS 1224. Compression
or pre-fabrication only shall be used.

g) UPVC Drainage Pipework

All joints on UPVC pipework and fittings, except where expansion must be catered for,
shall be solvent welded. All surfaces to be jointed shall be cleaned prior to coating the
contact surfaces with solvent weld cement using a clean brush.

The joint shall be assembled immediately and excess cement shall be removed, the
joint shall be left to set for 12 hours before testing.

Where pipework is to be cut, a fine tooth saw shall be used. Pipes must be cut square
and burrs and swarf removed.

Where it is necessary to connect to dissimilar materials e.g. cast iron or copper, such
joints shall be made using proprietary connectors in full accordance with the
manufacturers instructions.

Where boss or branch connections are made to soil or waste stacks, the distance
between the entry point and the nearest fixed point shall not be less than 500 mm.

UPVC vertical pipework shall be fixed at centres not exceeding the minimum
described in the table 2.03.10d using galvanised mild steel holderbats.
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UPVC horizontal pipework shall be fixed at centres not exceeding the minimum's
described in the relevant table using galvanised mild steel support brackets (or
thermal movement limiters if required) on 8 mm diameter drop rods. MUPVC horizontal
pipework shall be fixed with pipe clips and brackets as recommended by the pipe
manufacturer.

Expansion joints in general shall be provided at a maximum of 4m centres for soil
pipework and 2 metre centres for waste pipework and between fixed points over 1.0m
apart. Pipework shall not be inserted fully into expansion fittings. A sufficient gap shall
be allowed to allow lateral movement of the pipe into the socket of the fitting.

h) Floor Drains

Drains shall be of stainless steel construction and be supplied with a removable trap to
provide full rodding access.

The drain shall have height adjustment of 55 mm and trap seal depth of 60mm. The
unit shall have a 5mm slot width grating.

Drain outlet size shall be 110 diameter suitable for a flow rate of 0.8 l/s.

An additional clamp shall be installed where a damp proof membrane is to be
secured to the gully body.

The drain shall be type RND0-5764 as supplied by RNDO Services Ltd (Tel: 01376 563636)
or equal and approved.

i) Testing

All internal and / or external pipework shall be tested with air as soon as practicable
after installation and before completion of shaft walls, access panels and suspended
ceilings.

Open ends of pipe shall be fitted with plugs, one of which shall incorporate a tee-
piece for connection to an air pump and manometer. Air shall be pumped until the
manometer indicated an air pressure of 38mm WG, which must remain constant for 3
minutes or to Local Authority requirements if different.

The fact that any part of the works has been passed by test will not relieve the
Contractor of any of his obligations and any defect shown by the independent final
test. Any faults appearing during the period of maintenance shall be located and
made good at the Contractors expense.

The Contractor shall provide all necessary drain / pipe stoppers and bags, force
pumps, gauges etc., to carry out the required testing.

All testing of the various installations shall be carried out in the presence of the
Engineer and the Local Authority Environmental Health Inspector.

At least 48 hours notice shall be given in writing to the engineer and Environmental
Health Inspector of any proposed testing.
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Any failures in the system shall be made good and the system retested, all work
disturbed thereby shall be renewed and left sound and perfect, at the Contractors
expense.

j) Sanitary Appliances

Sanitary appliances shall be supplied and fixed as detailed on the Sanitary Fittings
Schedules.

Suites containing more than one component shall be obtained from a single source
wherever possible to ensure compatibility. All colours including white shall be batched
to ensure accurate colour matching. All metal appliances shall be supplied with tags
for electrical bonding.

Protective coverings shall be retained, when practical, during and after fixing.

All packing and protective wrappings, etc are to be completely removed from inside
and outside of all appliances prior to Practical Completion.

Prevent use of appliances for any purpose (except testing to specification), until
practical completion.

k) Installation

Assemble and fix appliances and accessories so that surfaces / parts designed to fall,
drain as intended.

Where masonry walls are faced with ceramic tiling, wall plugs shall be pushed beyond
the back face of the tiling.

Floor standing appliances shall be bedded in suitable mastic and secured with screws
and not bedded in cement mortar unless so specified.

Only brass or stainless steel screws shall be used throughout.

Taps and waste fittings shall be bedded using washers or a suitable mastic. Any surplus
mastic shall be cleaned off immediately after installation.

Where not otherwise specified, using bedding and jointing compounds recommended
by the manufacturers of the appliances and / or accessories.

Where an appliance is fed with both hot and cold supplies the hot tap shall be fixed
on the left hand side and the cold on the right when viewed from the front, unless
otherwise specified on the drawings.

Watertight joints between appliances and duct or wall surfaces shall be made using an
impermeable flexible material such as silicone rubber mastic to a matching colour.

This specification section shall be read in conjunction with architectural specification.

Ensure that noggins, bearers, etc. required to support sanitary appliances and fittings
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are accurately positioned and securely fixed.

For tiled back grounds (other than splashbacks) ensure that:

Tiling is completed before fixing appliances.

Fixings do not overstress tiles.

Ensure that seat and lid are stable when raised.

Unless specified otherwise obtain cistern operating components from cistern
manufacturer. Ensure that ball valve matches pressure of water supply.

Fix at the height recommended by manufacturer unless otherwise specified or shown
on drawings.

Ensure that overflow pipe is fixed to falls, and located to give visible warning of
discharge. Agree position with Engineer where not shown on drawings.

Fix taps securely, making a watertight seal with the appliance. Place hot tap to left of
cold tap as viewed by user of appliance.

Wastes and overflows shall be bed in waterproof jointing compound and fixed with
resilient washer between appliance and backnut.

l) Sealant Pointing

Sealant: Silicone based to BS 5889, Type B with fungicide.
Manufacturer and Reference: To be approved.
Colour: White

2.03.07 DOMESTIC PIPEWORK

a) General

The domestic water services works shall comprise the supply, installation, testing,
sterilisation and commissioning of the complete water mains installation to the standards
and regulations specified and indicated on the drawings.

Submit all relevant information and pay any fees or levies to the Statutory Authorities and
obtain approval on the services installed as a whole.

Failure to comply with the above clauses shall be rectified until the standard or Local
Authority requirements are met at no cost to the contract.

Copper Domestic Pipework

All copper pipework, fittings and processes of fabrication shall be 100% LEAD FREE and
shall comply with the current Water Byelaws for potable water supply.

15mm diameter to 54 mm diameter shall be copper tubing to BSEN 1057, (BS 2871, Part 1,
Table X). J oints and fittings as BS 864 (kite marked), (lead content not exceeding 0.1%).
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Integral solder ring capillary fittings installed using a non-toxic flux. No end feed fitting
shall be permitted. Compression fittings type B to BS 864, part 2 can be used as an
alternative to capillary fittings.

b) Installation Standards

Ensure that the installation of the domestic water services comply with all Statutory and
Local Authority regulations and current British Standards, with particular reference to:

BS 6700 design, installation, testing and maintenance of services supplying water for
domestic use within buildings and their curtilages.

BS 8000: Part 15 Domestic Hot & Cold Water Services (Workmanship on Building Sites)

c) Easements and Notices

Ensure that prior to work commencing, all necessary easements have been obtained, all
notices sent and all fees and levies paid to the Water Authorities concerned that are
legally demandable by them.

d) Pipework Supports

All vertical or horizontal pipework shall be supported by means of brass pipe rings, as
Yorkshire catalogue No. 107. With build into wall split iron stem or brass pipe ring, as
Yorkshire catalogue No. 107.

With screw to wall backplate, or by means of brass single pipe rings on appropriately
sized mild steel drop rods supported off a secondary support system comprising mild
steel channel iron and angle iron, secured by means of Unistrut fixings, or equal and
approved.

Supports for pipework with expansion couplings shall be of the guide and anchor point
type to allow correct operation of the expansion coupling. The support and alignment
of the pipework shall be in accordance with the expansion coupling manufacturers
requirements.

Surface finishes of site cut supports to be made good, cut surfaces to be de-burred
and all supports to be fixed square to major building elements, i.e. walls, floors etc.

All primary and secondary support systems shall comprise non-ferrous metals, ferrous
metals galvanised or ferrous metals painted. Ferrous metals to be painted are to be
thoroughly cleaned and degreased, a rust inhibitor applied and primed with a base
coat in compliance with the recommendations of the paint manufacturer prior to
application of finishing coats.

e) Valves

All valves shall be Water Research Centre (WRC) approved and shall be listed in the
current water fittings and materials directory for potable use. All valves shall be non-
dezincifiable.

Isolation/stop valves shall generally be positioned such that ranges of fittings can be
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isolated, individual fittings shall be provided with service valves to facilitate
maintenance of the individual item/fitting.

All valves unless flanged shall be compression fittings. When positioning/fitting valves
into the system care should be taken to allow the future removal of that valve for
future maintenance.

Failure to comply with this clause shall be rectified to the satisfaction of the Consulting
Engineer at no cost to the contract.

Gates valves 15 mm to 80 mm nominal bore shall comply with BS 5154 following full
pattern complete with wheelheads or be lockshield pattern where indicated. Gate
valves 80 mm and larger shall be flanged ductile iron to BS 5150.

Isolation valves up to 50 mm nominal bore shall be screw down pattern to BS 1010 Part
2 with crutch head.

Drain Cocks shall comply with BS 2879.

Double check valves shall comply with BS 6282: Part 1. Connections shall be to BS 2779
BSP or BS 864: 2 compression as Yorkshire SOCLA IMI type 4423 or 4421 connections to
BS2779 or BS864:2 compression.
Note: Valves shall be suitable for the system pressures exerted upon them.

Servicing valves shall comply with BS 6675:1986 and shall be of the compression
rotating ball type with large handles as Yorkshire or equal and approved.

All valves shall be compression fitting to BS 864: 2 (unless flanged) to facilitate easy
removal.

Ball valves shall be Equilibrium pattern and comply with BS1212, with copper ball float
to BS 1968.

Water saving valves shall be hydraulically operated valve or electronic time clock
type.

The hydraulic operated valve units installed shall be appropriate to the pressures
exerted.

Stopcocks shall comply with BS 1010: Part 2: 1973 with crutch heads.

Pressure reducing valves shall be as manufactured by Honeywell Ref. No. D06FN or
equal and approved

f) Automatic Urinal Flush Valves

Each automatic urinal flush tank shall be fitted with an approved flush control device
utilising ceiling mounted, flush fitting, battery operated passive infra-red detection as
FLUSHMATIC or equal and approved.

All fittings shall be listed in the current edition of the WRC Fittings and Materials
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Directory.

The Contractor shall give attendance as required to permit the bonding of metal
pipework to earthing cable (see Electrical Specification).

g) Electro-Magnetic Descalers

For the Inhibition of hard scale formation, an electro-magnetic water conditioning unit
shall be installed where indicated on the drawings. Size should be as recommended
by the manufacturer.

The system should be WRC approved.

The unit shall be comprised of an electrical coil for generating the magnetic field, a
designed flow path that enables the water to cross the magnetic field line at an angle
of 90 degrees, with PTFE plated body. The power supply / control box should have a
polarity reversal mechanism to eliminate routing maintenance of the unit, and should
be connected to a 240v/1ph/50Hz supply through a fused spur.

h) External Trace Heating

All plant and equipment sited in areas subject to ambient temperatures shall be
protected by means of self-regulating trace heating tape. The tape shall comply with
BS 635 1. Supply and fix all necessary equipment, cabling, etc. leaving a 1metre cable
tail for connecting to the electrical supply by others.

i) Expansion Couplings

Shall be as Engineering Appliances (1978) Ltd., Unit I 1, Sunbury Cross Industrial Centre,
Brooklands Close, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex TW16 7DX. Generally as their stainless
steel axial expansions joint with gunmetal unions, type EA02, or similar, equal and
approved.

j) Overflow Pipes

Overflow pipes shall discharge externally where possible in conspicuous positions. The
exact method and termination points are to be confirmed and agreed with the Local
Water Authority and the Client's Representative.

All overflows shall be water tested for soundness under working conditions.

Where overflows discharge internal to the building, or where it may not be easily
discernible as to the origin of the overflow, Traffolyte labels shall be affixed to, or
adjacent to, the overflow at its termination to indicate the origin.

k) Mechanical Plant Connection

Mechanical plant connections shall be via a backflow prevention device suitable for
the fluid category at the point of connection and shall be in accordance with the
requirements of the Water Regulations. This shall be positioned down stream of an
isolating valve. No mechanical plant shall be connected to the drinking water
supplies.
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l) Cleaning Injection Point

A WRC approved injection point shall be installed as close to the main stopcock as
practicable.

2.03.08 CONDENSER WATER/LPHW

a) General

Black mild steel pipework shall be of heavy weight tube to BS 1387 (1990) and shall be
coated at the manufacturer's works with a special anti-corrosive varnish.

Pipework of 65 mm diameter and above shall be welded. Pipework up to and including
50 mm diameter shall be screw threaded.

Where screw joints are employed they shall have a taper thread to BS 21 (1985) and shall
be made with approved jointing compound BS 5292 (1980).

J oints on all permanently concealed or other inaccessible work shall be welded.

Screwed fittings for mild steel pipework other than sockets shall be malleable cast iron,
banded or beaded pattern, conforming to BS 143 (1986) and BS 1256 (1986). Purpose
made welding fittings to BS 2971 (1991) shall be used on welded pipework.

Flanged joints shall be wrought iron or annealed steel with faces machined to a true
mating surface and conform to BS 4504 and be capable of maintaining the appropriate
pressures specified.

Flanged joints shall be made with gaskets to BS 4865 Part 1 or BS 3063 as appropriate.
Gaskets shall be asbestos free. Full faced joints shall be acceptable only when mated
flanges are non-ferrous. Flanges shall be pulled up by steel hexagon headed nuts and
bolts with steel chamfered edge washers. Bolt thread protrusion through the nut shall not
exceed 5 mm when fully tightened.

Isolation and regulation valves shall be provided and installed as shown on the drawings.
All valves shall have local supports to prevent undue forces from being applied to the
pipework.


b) Strainers

Duplex strainers shall be fixed as shown on the drawings and be screwed or flanged for
the particular service. All strainers 50 mm and above shall have suitable drain cocks fitted
to allow the complete draining down of the strainer.

The strainers shall be malleable cast iron Airpel Delta model OW by BSS Ltd and shall be
pipeline size.

The strainers shall be fitted with "100" mesh liners for the initial system operating period.
After the initial operating period the strainers shall be fitted with 400 micron stainless steel
perforated screen once the system is clear.
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Where control valves are fitted with integral strainers these shall be removed when the
perforated screens are installed.

Note: The strainers shall only be changed from "100" mesh liners to the perforated screen
upon instructions from the Engineers.

c) Non Return Valves

Malleable cast iron non-return (check) valves shall be installed in the pipelines as
indicated on the drawings. The valves shall be sized so that the flow rate is above the
minimum required to hold the valve wide open in a stable position. The valves shall be
Series FM 492 (Bronze Trim) PN16 as manufactured by Crane Ltd.
d) Drain Cocks

The Contractor shall supply and fix 15 mm diameter drain cocks wherever necessary to
allow the completed draining of the system. These shall be provided with an 8 mm BSP
black malleable cap and hose union wired on. Where pipes run under doorways and for
similar short sections of pipework which do not drain to the system low points 15 mm
plugged outlet tees shall be supplied and fitted. The drain cocks shall be Crane series
D171 MHU ball cocks.

Where drain cocks are exposed to view external to plant rooms on copper pipework
systems these shall be Crane figure 340.

e) Air Cocks and Air Bottles

Generally air vents shall be fitted at all high points. Pipework which requires venting shall
be fitted with 8mm air cocks on air bottles unless specified differently. Air bottles shall be
formed from 150 mm length of tube of equal bore to the pipe which is being vented, with
8 mm pipe welded into the top and taken to low level and fitted with 8 mm ball valves -
Crane series D191 with T-Handle. Each valve shall be provided with a 6 mm malleable
plug.

f) Test Plugs

15 mm BSP Twinlock test plugs shall be provided in the pipework at the positions shown on
the drawings. They shall be as manufactured by Binder Engineering and be suitable for
the service specified.

All test plugs shall be fitted complete with 50 mm extension pieces to bring the test plug
clear of the insulation.

2.03.09 PIPEWORK ROUTES

Pipe runs shall be installed in accordance with that shown on the drawings, the
diagrammatic nature of which shall be interpreted to accord with the best practice. Full
allowance shall be made in setting out runs of piping for possible future removal of
sections for extension and routine maintenance.

Where two or more pipe runs follow the same route care must be taken to ensure that
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they are truly parallel to each other and in the case of pipes running vertically, side by
side to the surrounding structure.

Pipes that are to be insulated shall be so spaced that they can be separately insulated.
Combined insulation will not be acceptable.

Steel tubes shall be reamed after cutting and shall be free from burrs, rust, scale and other
defects and shall be thoroughly cleaned before erection.

Open ends left during the progress of work shall be protected by being blanked off with
purpose made metal or wood plugs or blank counter flanges. Pipework shall follow lines
of walls and have a minimum grading of 1 in 250 to ensure venting and drainage.

The clearance between pipework (or the lagging) and the wall and any other fixtures
shall not be less than 30 mm.

J oints shall not be made within the thickness of any wall, floor or ceiling and pipework
shall not be embedded in the structure of floors unless specifically indicated or instructed
by the Engineer.

Where tubes pass through walls, floors or ceilings, sleeves shall be provided. Tubes passing
through floors and ceilings shall be provided with an approved type floor and ceiling
plate. The sleeves shall be of the same material as the tube.

Where pipework penetrates roof sections the opening shall be suitably weathered using a
galvanised steel construction. A detail shall be submitted to the engineer for approval.
Penetrations shall be kept to a minimum.

All sleeves shall be packed with a compressible fire resistant material.

Whilst pipework is stored on site care shall be taken to prevent the tubes from rusting and
they are to be properly racked and covered, the necessary racks and covers being
supplied by the Contractor. Any installed pipework showing any evidence of corrosion or
UV degradation will not be permitted to be put into service.

2.03.10 PIPEWORK SUPPORTS

All pipework shall be adequately supported.

It is the Contractors responsibility to provide suitable secondary steelwork that is necessary
to ensure the correct support of the pipework.

Where subsequent expansion, settlement, vibrations and other changes in the system can
occur, variable support brackets shall be used.

All supports must be adequate for the total load being supported and shall be so formed
and fixed that proper allowance is made for longitudinal expansion and contraction,
without lateral deviation, guide points are to be sited in strategic positions.

For steel tubing, clips shall be fabricated from malleable iron and for steel copper tubing
the clips shall be fabricated from brass, copper or gunmetal.

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Holes in brackets shall be drilled not large than 3 mm greater in diameter than the bolt or
rod accepted. All suspension rods over 300 mm shall be plain mild steel rod, minimum
diameter 10 mm threaded on site with minimum thread to serve the purpose, no joints to
be made in the length of the suspension rod. Where suspension rod securing nuts seat on
a tapered flange tapered washers shall be used under the nut. Screwed studding for
suspension rods shall not be acceptable where exposed to view. Brackets shall be sawn
off if possible. If flame-cut the edges shall be filed and ground to a smooth finish.

Vertical pipework shall be supported by the use of purpose made "U" bolts onto channel
iron sections. The spacing of supports shall not exceed that in the following tables:

Multi-pipe supports for pipes of differing sizes shall be spaced at intervals required for the
smallest pipe.

Suspended type pipe hangers and accessories shall be constructed and assembled in
accordance with BS 3974: Part 1.

The type of pipe hanger clip or hoop used shall be selected according to the
application, special provision being made in instances where the piping or tubing is
subject to axial movement due to thermal expansion and/or contraction.

Where it is proposed to support pipes on cantilevers of fabricated mild steel section, either
bolted or welded. Full details of pipe supports must be submitted to the Architect for
acceptance prior to ordering of fabrication.

Where individual fixings require cutting for the building into the building structure, the
installer shall arrange for positions to be to be marked out on the building for acceptance
by the Architect before cutting out and fixing.

Contact between dissimilar metals must be prevented. Cast iron and mild steel piping
shall have steel supporting members actually in contact with the pipe.

Socketless pipe systems shall be supported, in accordance with manufacturers fixing
instructions, adjacent to every joint. Long sections of drain shall be laterally braced to the
structure with angle section mild steel to prevent horizontal movement.

Angle section mild steel thrust brackets shall be fitted at vertical bends to prevent axial
movement of suspended pipes.

In undercrofts and similar where the piping system is not suspended from a slab over,
support shall be supported from engineering brick piers in accordance with BS 5228,
Table 1, C20p Grade concrete bedding and haunching. Spacing to piers to be as for
pipe supports.

Pipe in shafts shall be fixed with two-piece eared type holderbats bolted together with
cadmium plated mild steel and nuts and screwed to shaft walls using 50 mm No. 10
cadmium plated mid steel screws and plastic wall plugs.

All steel brackets and pipe shall be wire brushed clean of rust and then painted with one
coat of red oxide paint prior to erection. Following erection and installation of the piping
and brackets shall be painted with one additional coat of red oxide paint.

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Exposed pipework fixed to walls in occupied areas shall be supported on brass or mild
steel pipe rings as appropriate with screw on backplates.
Pipework supports shall permit free movement of pipes due to expansion and contraction
and shall generally be arranged as near as possible to the joint, valves and on both sides
of changes in direction. Each support shall not exceed the centres given in the table
unless otherwise indicated.

Where two or more pipes share support points spacings shall be based on the centres
required by the smallest bore pipework.

Pipework shall not be fixed to skirting boards.

Multiple pipe runs in plant rooms and where not exposed to view shall be supported form
mild steel single or channel sections or approved proprietary system securely fixed to the
building structure.

Individual pipe runs in plant rooms and where not exposed to view shall be supported via
individual split ring type brackets securely fixed to the building structure.

In certain circumstances pipes may be suspended from larger ones. The reverse shall not
be permitted.

The total weight of vertical pipes shall be carried at the base of the riser or as detailed on
the drawings. Branch pipes shall not be used to support vertical mains.




2.03.10a - Table 1 Supports for Copper Pipework
Nominal
Bore of Pipe
Intervals for Horizontal Runs
Intervals for Vertical
Runs Bare or
Insulated
Bare Insulated
Mm

15
20 and 25
32 and 40
50
65 and 100
m

1.2
1.8
2.4
2.4
3.0
m

1.2
1.5
1.8
1.8
2.4
m

1.8
2.4
3.0
3.0
3.6


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2.03.10b - Table 2 Supports for Plastic Pipework
Nominal
Bore of Pipe
Intervals for Horizontal Runs Intervals for Vertical Runs
Bare or Insulated
Mm

15
22 to 25
32
40
50 65
80
100
M

0.75
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.8
2.0
m

1.5
1.8
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.5
4.0


2.03.10c - Table 3 Supports for Wrought Iron and Mild Steel Pipework
Nominal
Bore of Pipe
Intervals for Horizontal Runs
Intervals for Vertical
Runs Bare or
Insulated
Bare Insulated
Mm

15
20 and 25
32
40 and 50
65 and 80
100
m

1.8
2.4
2.7
3.0
3.6
3.9
m

1.8
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0
3.0
m

2.4
3.0
3.0
3.6
4.5
4.5



2.03.10d Table 4 Supports for Drainage Pipework

PLASTIC PIPEWORK

Pipe Dia. (mm) Support Interval Horizontal Pipes
(m)
Support interval Vertical Pipes (m)
32
28
50
82
110
160
0.5
0.5
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.8
1.8
1.8

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COPPER PIPEWORK

Pipe Dia. (mm) Support Interval Horizontal Pipes
(m)
Support interval Vertical Pipes (m)
28
35
42
54
65
76
1.5
1.8
1.8
1.8
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.7
3.7

CASTIRON PIPEWORK

Pipe Dia. (mm) Support Interval Horizontal Pipes
(m)
Support interval Vertical Pipes (m)
75
100
150

2.0
2.0
2.0
2.7
2.7
3.6


a) The Contractor is to carry out his own fixings and must provide anchors similar
to the HILTI type or girder clamps where appropriate. Self drill anchors shall not
be used. Care must be taken to ensure that the fixings are located securely,
and in accordance with the Structural Engineers requirements.

b) Where practicable, provision for expansion and contraction of pipework shall
be made by changes in direction.

2.03.11 ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS (UP TO 50L)

Electric water heaters up to 50 litres capacity shall be of an unvented type,
incorporating and supplied complete with unvented systems kit comprising: pressure /
expansion relief valve and pre charged expansion vessel appropriately sized to suit the
system volume. Pressure reducing and check valves to be provided as required.

The heater shall be constructed from corrosion resistant plastic coated or stove
enamelled steel and / or high impact resistant plastics outer casing, CFC free
expanded polystyrene or polyurethane foam insulation and copper or glass lined steel
inner casing rated for 6 bar max8mum working pressure.

Heating units to be replaceable, generally to comply with the requirements of BS 3456:
Part 2: Section 2.21: and BS EN 60335-2-73: 1997.

Heater to incorporate temperature and pressure relief valve set to open at 7 Bar and
90
o
C.

Water heater and pressure/temperature relief drain arrangement shall be in
accordance with Building Regulations Approved Document G3.

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2.03.12 CISTERNS AND COLD WATER TANKS

Cisterns and cold water storage tanks shall be of the following types as indicated: -

a) Thermo-plastics for cisterns.

b) Glass reinforced plastics (one-piece)

Thermoplastic cisterns shall comply with BS 4213 (1991).

Each cistern shall be provided with a loose cover formed in sections not exceeding 2 m
long and 1 m wide. Covers shall be of the same material as the cistern or tank body. The
termination of vent pipes into cisterns and tanks shall permit the easy removal of the
covers.

Each cistern or tank shall be fitted with a float-operated valve suited to the pressure
available. Cisterns and tanks shall be installed in positions that allow easy access for
maintenance.

Warning and/or overflow pipes shall be twice the bore of the ball-float valve fitted or
32mm size, whichever is the greater. Warning and/or overflow pipes shall be run to
discharge outside the building wherever possible.

Where indicated the cistern or tank shall be complete with integral insulation with a rigid
outer skin. The insulation shall also cover the base and lid.

All cisterns or tanks shall comply with all current Water Byelaws.

2.03.13 WASTE WATER PUMP UNIT

a) Toilet Waste

Note: Where pumping systems are required to serve WCs, domestic pumping systems
shall not be used.

Floor mounted sewage pumping systems shall be installed. These units shall be installed in
a separate enclosure of suitable size, and with suitable maintenance access to the
pumping system.

The units shall be capable of 30 m
3
/h at 5 m head. They shall comprise vortex freeflow
pumps with non-clogging single vane open impeller with large free passage to prevent
blockage. The unit shall include an 80 mm (3) discharge connection. The unit shall be
supplied with a non-return valve on the discharge pipework, and all necessary couplings
for all invert, discharge and vent connections. The discharge pipework shall be uPVC
class C or D with solvent welded joints.

The tank on the unit shall be vented to external atmosphere using 75 mm (O.D.) pipework.
Durgo type air admittance valves are not acceptable.

The units shall be suitable for 230 V, single phase electrical supply.

The units shall be supplied with a small pre-wired control panel which can be wall
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mounted adjacent to the unit. The control panel shall include manual/automatic switch
and pump run/fault lamps.

The units shall be supplied with a separate high level alarm unit, which must be provided
with a separate 230V supply. The alarm shall be wired to the pump set with a 0.75mm
2
2
core cable.

The units shall be the Efflu Midi 40 as supplied by Pump Technology Ltd or equal and
approved.

b) Sink Waste

Where waste pumping systems are required only to serve sinks these shall be suitable for
commercial premises.

The units shall be installed under the sinks. The units shall comprise a pump enclosed by a
durable tank manufactured from polyester/glass fibre laminate, with externally smooth
isophthalic polyester gel coating and resin enriched lining.

The tank shall have a 1 BSP discharge outlet. The discharge pipework shall be uPVC
with solvent welded joints. The contractor shall connect the waste outlet to the side of
the tank by drilling a hole and using the appropriate tank connector. The contractor shall
supply and install a vent off the side of the tank run to external atmosphere of minimum
size 1 .

The pumps shall be capable of pumping to a head of minimum 5 m against a flow rate of
10 m
3
/h. The pump shall be a vertical centrifugal type of stainless steel construction,
suitable for submerged operation, with a strainer base, and open impeller capable of
handling 10 mm solids. The pump body shall be manufactured from plastic, with a GRP
impeller and stainless steel encapsulated motor.

Motors shall be fully encapsulated submersible motors with built-in overload/thermal cut-
out, within a watertight (IP68) enclosure. The pump shall be supplied with a built-in level
switch. The pump end shall include a silicon carbide mechanical seal, unaffected by dry
running.

The waste pump shall be suitable for 230 V, single phase electrical supply. The pump shall
be the Drainmajor 60/W as supplied by Pump Technology Ltd, or equal and approved.

2.04 DUCTWORK

The supply and extract ductwork systems shall be installed as indicated on the drawings.

2.04.01 GENERAL

In general, all ductwork shall be manufactured and installed to DW/144 Specification of
the Heating and Ventilation Contractors Association for low and high velocity/pressure
systems with the following specific requirements: -

a) The "Mez Flange" jointing system shall be used throughout. Drive cleats shall be
used where additional clamping is required.

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b) All ductwork shall be detailed on suppliers' manufacturing drawings of a scale
not less than 1:20. These drawings shall include all plans, sections and details as
necessary to ensure all aspects of co-ordination are allowed for. All ductwork
sections shall be individually numbered for identification purposes. The
drawings shall be based on actual site dimensions and manufacturers certified
drawings for plant and equipment. These are to be submitted to the Engineer
for approval before manufacture and installation.

c) All bends and changes in direction (including final bends onto grilles and
diffusers) shall be fitted with turning vanes.

d) Support rails shall be as supplied by Unistrut Mez or B.S.S. Boss Flamco. Rails shall
be selected by the ductwork Sub-Contractor to suit the duct size and loadings.

All rail sizes shall be shown on the ductwork suppliers manufacturing drawings.

e) All suspension rods exposed to view (including false ceiling voids) shall be
sheradised studding. The studding shall be cut to a proper length and filed
smooth to remove all sharp edges. All cut ends shall be painted with a zinc
rich paint to inhibit rusting.

f) All suspension rods shall be selected by the Contractor to suit the loadings and
rail sizes. All rod sizes shall be shown on the ductwork supplier's drawings.
Spacing of supports shall be in accordance with DW144.

g) At each point where a duct passes through a roof or external wall a weather
cravat shall be installed to the duct to ensure a weatherproof fixing.

h) Duct connections between individual components of an air handling assembly
and connections between an assembly and a ductwork system shall be made
with angle flanged joints.

i) Where the ductwork rests on the support brackets, the bracket must be felt/
Hardwood lined to avoid vibration/condensation.

The following clauses shall apply to flat oval ductwork:

a) "Flat oval" is the term used to describe a duct of cross-section with flat opposed
sides and semi-circular ends. The duct is formed from a spirally wound circular
duct using a special former. Apart from stiffening flat oval ducts have the
same constructional requirements throughout the pressure ranges covered in
DW144.

b) Flat oval ducts may also be formed from flat sheet with straight seams.

c) Spirally-wound flat oval duct is accepted as airtight to the requirements of
DW144 without sealant in the seams, provided the grooved seam is tightly
formed to produce a rigid duct.

d) Wherever possible all joints shall be sealed with heat-shrinkable tape.

e) However, where agreed with the Engineer the joint is made with sealant, the
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ends to be jointed shall be carefully cleaned with a suitable solvent to a length
of 100 mm and sealant applied to the spigot so as to give a joint length as for
the requirement for circular ducts. Use of excessive sealant shall be avoided.

The joint shall be fixed with permitted fastenings at 60 mm centres, on the flat
surfaces only.

f) Where the joint is made by enclosure, such as with a heat shrinkable band or
strip, or other approved material, the makers' recommendations shall be
followed. Care should be taken to maintain close contact between the
material and the flat sides of the duct until the joint is completed.

g) Where conditions require the use of flanged joints, they shall be as above.
Alternatively, the duct shall be continuously welded inside the angle flange.
Sealant shall be used between the duct and the spigot, and sealant or gasket
between the angle flanges. The flanged joint shall be secured by bolts and
nuts at 150mm centres.

h) The larger sizes of flat oval duct are stiffened by swages. Additional tie rods are
required, positioned as indicated in DW144.

i) Flat oval ducts with opposed sides and semi-circular ends may also be formed
using plain sheet and straight seams. Ducts so formed should follow the metal
thickness and stiffening requirements specified for the corresponding sizes of
rectangular ducts, except that stiffening is necessary on the flat sides only.

Seams and cross joints shall be sealed to ensure the necessary degree of air
tightness throughout the pressure ranges covered in DW144.

The ductwork installation shall be carried out by a Specialist.

All drilling, screw fixings, etc., associated with these works shall also be carried out by the
Contractor or his Specialist.

2.04.02 FLEXIBLE DUCTWORK

Where flexible ductwork is indicated, or required between rigid ductwork and items of
equipment, the internal diameter of the flexible duct shall be equal to the external
diameter of the rigid duct and equipment spigot. Flexible ductwork shall be kept to a
minimum and shall not be used between rigid sections of ductwork to change direction.
The maximum length of any individual flexible duct shall not exceed 1.5 m unless
otherwise indicated by the Engineer. The flexible duct shall only include one change of
direction.

The flexible duct shall have a liner and a cover of tough tear-resistant fabric equal in
durability and flexibility to glass fibre fabric. The fabric shall be impregnated and coated
with plastics. It shall be reinforced with a bonded galvanised spring steel, stainless steel or
other approved wire helix between the liner and the cover. An outer helix of glass fibre
cord or equal shall be bonded to the cover to ensure regular convolutions.

Flexible ductwork up to and including 140 mm diameter shall be secured with a double
worm drive type hose clip complying with BS 5315. Ductwork over 140 mm diameter shall
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be secured with a band clip.

The leakage from any section of flexible duct shall not exceed 1% of the local design
airflow rate at the local maximum static pressure.

Flexible ductwork shall consist of, or be externally protected by, materials having a fire
penetration time of at least 15 minutes when tested in accordance with BS 476, Parts 20-
23 (1987) and shall comply with BS 476 Part 7, Section 2, clause 2.8 (Class 0: surface of very
low flange spread).

2.04.03 FLEXIBLE JOINTS

Flexible joints shall be provided on fan inlet and outlets connections and elsewhere on
ductwork where indicated. J oints shall be of the same cross-sectional area as the mating
fan inlet, outlet or duct section. The centre lines of flexible joint connections shall be
coaxial.

Flexible joints shall consist of, or be externally protected by, material having a fire
penetration time of at least 15 minutes when tested in accordance with BS 476 Parts 20-23
(1987) and shall comply with BS 476 Part 7, Section 2, clause 2.8 (Class 0: surface of very
low flame spread).

2.04.04 CONTROL DAMPERS

Control dampers shall be provided where indicated on the drawings. The dampers shall
have stainless steel low profile aspect ratio blades of riveted double skin construction
complete with silicone treated synthetic seal with twin trailing edges to minimise air
leakage. The damper shall have a double skin spigot casing with a 20 gauge galvanised
steel formed inner frame and an 18 gauge galvanised steel formed outer frame. The
external casing shall have only one penetration for the control drive shaft.

The control dampers shall be of the "Aeroseal Series" as manufactured by Actionair
Equipment Ltd or equal and approved.

2.04.05 ACCESS DOORS

Removable hinged insulated access doors to DW144 Table 25 Level 2 and shall be
provided where indicated on the drawings and adjacent to all attenuators coils, fire
dampers and volume control dampers. They shall also be installed at changes in
direction and be adequate to comply with clause 2.02.09 of this document. The door
shall be of twin wall deep drawn 20 gauge galvanised steel construction totally
encapsulating mineral wool insulation.

The door shall have a compressible fire resistant gasket on the door inner side to ensure
air-tightness to DW144 and be complete with safety chain or hinged operation (120
o

minimum opening).

The doorframe shall be of one piece deep drawn construction from 20 gauge galvanised
steel, with pre-punched fixing holes.

The frame shall be suitable for surface mounting on the ductwork and shall be complete
with an overlapped finishing edge to protect the external duct insulation.
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The access doors shall be of the "Access/Shield" type as manufactured by Actionair
Equipment Ltd or equal and approved.

2.04.06 FIRE DAMPERS

Fire dampers shall be fitted in the ductwork where indicated on the drawings and where
any ductwork passes through concrete slabs/fire compartments.

The fire dampers shall conform to BS 476: Part 20-23 (1987).

The fire dampers shall not obstruct the airway when in the fully open position. The fire
dampers shall have stainless steel folding curtain blades of not less than 22 gauge. The
bottom blade shall be fitted with a manual release device to facilitate the opening of the
damper position.

A fusible link rated at 72
o
C shall be mounted on the fire damper by a stainless steel
bracket incorporating a quick release trigger.

The damper casing shall be completely airtight and shall be constructed from 16 gauge
galvanised sheet steel with continuously welded corners. The casing shall have a gasket
of 32 gauge tempered stainless steel fitted between the blade ends and the casing.

All dampers shall be provided with "Installation Frames" which shall be fixed with the slab
and grouted in by the Main Contractor to provide a fire barrier. The fire damper is to be
independently supported to the building fabric in all instances.

The fire dampers shall be of the "Fire/Shield" type as manufactured by Actionair
Equipment Ltd or equal and approved.


2.04.07 SMOKE DAMPERS

Fire/smoke dampers shall be installed within the ductwork where indicated on the
drawings and where any ductwork passes through a smoke barrier.

The fire/smoke dampers shall be fire tested to BS 476 Part 8 and be approved by the
LPCB.

The damper shall have stainless steel interlocking aerofoil blades and stainless steel
bearings and gasketing.

The opposed blade drive mechanism shall be totally enclosed and outside the air stream.

An externally replaceable and fusible link rated at 72
o
C shall be mounted on the unit to
provide fail safe operation.

An externally replaceable electrical self re-settable thermal link shall also be provided.

The rating/operating method of the fusible and thermal links and the mode of operation
shall be as specified the particular specification.

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All dampers shall be provided with installation frames which shall be fixed to the
slab/partition and fully grouted in to provide a fire/smoke seal

The fire/smoke damper is to be independently supported in all instances.

The fire/smoke dampers shall be the smoke/shield type as manufactured by Actionair
Equipment Ltd or Advanced Air, series 1200 type or equal and approved.

2.02.08 GRILLES, DIFFUSERS AND LOUVRES

All grilles and diffusers throughout the premises must be supported from the building
structure and not the ceiling grid.

The grilles shall have where practicable secret fixings and a removable core on safety
chains.

Grille boxes shall be provided with painted matt black internal finish.

Louvers shall be weather tight and provided with an insect screen in all instances and
burglar bars where the opening exceeds 300 mm in any direction.

2.04.09 DUCTCLEANLINESS

The Workplace Health Safety and Welfare Regulations 1992 places a duty on Employers
(Regulation 6) to ensure that mechanical ventilation systems including air conditioning
systems be regularly and properly cleaned and kept free from anything which may
contaminate the air.

It is therefore essential that at Practical Completion/Handover the installed ductwork
systems are internally clean in all respects with zero contamination from dust, dirt, debris
etc., arising from the construction process.

To aid this requirement all ductwork sections delivered and stored on site prior to erection
shall have sealed ends to prevent contamination.

All ductwork shall be subject to internal inspection on completion and any contamination
shall be removed at the installers cost. Access must also be provided to level 2 as set out
in HVCA publication DW/TM2.

2.05 AIR HANDLING UNITS

2.05.01 GENERAL

Casings shall generally be of constant cross-sectional dimensions. Casings shall be
complete with internal flanged joints. Mixing sections, with outside air/recirculated air
connections complete with dampers as appropriate, shall be included together with
access sections, bulkhead light fittings and viewing panels.

Packaged plant components shall comprise a combination of the following fans, filters,
cross flow plate heat exchanger, heaters and attenuators, all as described in the
Particular Specification.

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Individual components shall, in addition to the requirements of this section, comply with all
other relevant sections of this Specification.

Sections of packaged air handling units shall be arranged with adequate separation and
generally to promote even air distribution across the face of all components.

Air handling units shall be corrosion resistant.

J ointing methods shall ensure that air handling units are no less airtight than the related
ductwork system.

Air handling units for outdoor installation shall have a weatherproof outer casing, a
pitched roof constructed of watertight metal decking with water seals in all joints and
lockable access doors.

2.05.02 CONSTRUCTION

Air handling units shall be of rigid construction to minimise distortion and drumming in
operation.

The casing shall be of a framed construction utilising heavy gauge steel penta-post
section or steel box section frames fully welded at each corner. The infill panels shall be of
a sandwich construction from 16 gauge zinc coated mild steel. The panels shall have a
plastic or vinyl faced outer skin and a galvanised inner skin.

The panels shall encapsulate 25 mm minimum thick mineral wool insulation with a density
of 60 kg/m
3
. The panels shall meet Class 0 requirements and BS 476: Part 7 (1973) Fire
Tests on Building Materials and Structures.

A copy of the manufacturers Class 0, BS 476: Part 7 Certificate shall be included in the
Mechanical Installation Operating and Maintenance Manual.

Where penta-post frames are used they shall also be insulated to the same standard as
the infill panels but using rigid type materials to prevent the migration of fibres from the
insulation.

Each panel shall be set flush into the framework and shall be seated on a 3 mm pliable
gasketing to give a fully airtight seal.

Full height access doors shall be provided where necessary for inspection and
maintenance and shall be complete with safety latches that may be opened from within
the unit. Access doors shall be hinged and capable of being lifted off completely or
open through 180
o
to provide a clearway for maintenance.

All other panels shall be of the lift off type for easy removal and replacement. All fan
section access doors shall be fitted with lockable handles.

The filters shall be mounted in a purpose made housing that shall be complete with
galvanised steel filter frames and withdrawal strips.

Individual components and sections shall be assembled using proprietary and proven
fastening techniques. Locking devices shall be used with all fastenings that are subject to
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vibration.

Floor decking suitable for 1.5 kN/m
2
loading, shall be provided to all accessible sections.

Each section shall be identified by a label on the external surface indicating the contents
of the section.

Unless otherwise indicated, there shall be a clearance of at least 150 mm between the
underside of the air handling unit and its base or the plant room floor.

Unless otherwise indicated each fan and drive motor shall be mounted on a common
frame or other means of support. The complete assembly shall be isolated from the
casing to prevent the transmission of vibration. Electrical connections shall not inhibit free
movement of the fan and drive motor set.

Where the fan and drive motor are directly connected to the fan section casing, the
casing shall be isolated from the structure to prevent transmission of vibration. Flexible
jointing to adjacent sections shall be provided.

All power transmission shafts, belts and pulley drives shall be guarded in accordance with
Section 2.9 of this Specification and any Health and Safety legislation including EEC
directives.

Vapour proof bulkhead lights shall be fitted to all sections having access and shall be pre-
wired to an individual switch external to that section complete with engraved plate
indicating the light switch.

The fans shall be pre-wired to an externally mounted isolator suitable for the area of use.
The cabling internally shall be in galvanised conduit with the final connection to the fan
motor in metallic flexible conduit.

2.06 HEATER BATTERIES

2.06.01 GENERAL

Casings shall be of galvanised sheet steel not less than 1.2 mm thick with angle framing at
each end drilled ready to receive the counter flanges on the connecting ductwork.
Heaters shall be supported so that their weight is not transmitted to ductwork and so that
they can be removed without disturbing adjacent ductwork. Inspection doors shall be
provided on both the upstream and the downstream sides of the heater.

2.06.02 ELECTRIC TYPE

Electric air heaters shall consist of a number of heating elements of the enclosed type
mounted in a sheet steel casing. The elements shall be so installed that they can be
removed for cleaning or renewal without dismantling ductwork. The surface temperature
of the elements shall not exceed 400
o
C when measured in an airflow of 2.3 m/s at
ambient temperature. A high temperature limit device located nearest to and above
the heating elements which is energised by the first control step shall be incorporated.

The high limit device shall incorporate a remote reset and indication for integration into
the mechanical services control panel.
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The control of electric air heaters shall be interlocked with the fan motor starters and an
air flow control of the pressure type so that the heaters cannot operate unless the fan is
running.

The number of elements in the heater shall be the same as or a multiple of the number of
steps in the controller. All heaters and heater sections of more than 3 kW loading shall be
balanced over 3 phases and the complete heater bank shall be arranged for balanced
operation on a 3 phase 4-wire system.

The connections from each element shall be taken to readily accessible extended
terminal boxes arranged for conduit/cable gland entry.

Terminals and cable entries shall be suitably sized for their respective cables. Each heater
section shall be separately fused and the neutral point of all 3 phase star-connected
sections shall be brought out to a link in the terminal box. Near hot areas the wiring
insulation shall be of a quality suitable for the maximum temperature.

The total resistance of the heater to airflow shall not exceed 25 Pa and the face velocity
shall not exceed 6 m/s.

2.07 FANS

2.07.01 GENERAL

Fans shall be constructed to proven design standards and shall be capable of
withstanding the pressures and stresses developed during continuous operation at the
selected duty, during starting, during stopping and during speed and duty changes.
Additionally, belt-driven fans shall be capable of running continuously at 10% in excess of
the selected duty speed and shall have a minimum of two belts. Details of the design
standards shall be included in the Mechanical Installation Operating and Maintenance
Manual.

Fans shall be installed using bolts, nuts and washers with all nuts properly locked and
secured. All as cast bearing surfaces for bolt heads and washers shall be machine
counterfaced. Holding-down bolts for fans and motors shall be provided with means to
prevent the bolts turning when the nuts are tightened. Fans heavier than 20 kg shall be
provided with eyebolts or other safe means of lifting.

The shaft and impeller assembly of all fans shall be statically and dynamically balanced
to BS 6861 (1987). Where indicated, limits of vibration severity shall be in accordance with
BS 4675: Part 1 (1986).

Fan bearings shall be of a type suitable for the size, speed, loads and discharge angle of
the fan and shall be grease/oil ball and/or roller type, oil lubricated sleeve type or sealed
type where approved and shall be included in the Mechanical Installation Operating
and Maintenance Manual. Bearing housings shall be precision aligned and arranged so
that bearings may be replaced without the need for realignment. Bearing housings shall
be protected against the ingress of dust. For grease lubricated systems, the bearings shall
be provided with grease in the quantity and quality recommended by the bearing
manufacturer. Oil lubricated systems shall have an adequate reservoir of oil. All bearing
lubricators shall be located to facilitate maintenance.
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Finishes and materials of construction shall not be affected by gases handled by the fan
or the local environment.

2.07.02 CENTRIFUGAL FANS

Unless otherwise indicated, centrifugal fans consuming more than 7.5 kW at the fan shaft
shall be of the backward bladed type, selected for operation at a fan total efficiency not
less than 75%.

Fan casings shall be mild steel sheet, with welded or riveted joints and welded angle
stiffeners, constructed to permit withdrawal of the fan impeller. A plugged drain shall be
fitted at the lowest point in the casing. Permanent indicators shall show the direction of
rotation of the impeller. Casings shall have access panels incorporating air seals to
facilitate cleaning and maintenance of the impeller.

Impellers shall be of mild steel protected against corrosion or aluminium alloy. Impeller
cage braces shall be bolted, riveted or welded to the cage and hub. Stressed wire of
threaded rod bracing shall not be used. Bolted assemblies shall have locking devices.

Impellers of fans consuming more than 1 kW at the fan shaft shall be keyed to the drive
shaft or fixed with tapered bush fittings.

Each fan impeller shall have a separate shaft. Where necessary, fan shafts shall be
connected with flexible couplings to ensure correct alignment.

Each fan impeller shall be supported by an individual bearing system.

Plumber block bearings or similar split bearing housings shall be used on fans consuming
more than 4 kW at the fan shaft.
Rubber bushed bearing housings with lateral deflections shall not be used on belt-driven
fans consuming more than 1 kW at the fan shaft.

Belt-driven centrifugal fans and drive motors shall be located on a common base.

2.07.03 IN-LINE FANS

Fan casings shall be rigidly constructed of mild steel protected against corrosion or
aluminium alloy and shall be stiffened and braced where necessary to minimise
drumming and vibration. Mounting feet shall be provided where necessary for bolting to
a base or supports. Each inlet and outlet shall terminate in a flange to BS 6339 (1983) to
facilitate removal. Stator vanes shall be of mild steel or aluminium alloy.

Provision shall be made for inspection of the fan impeller and motor. Casings shall have
an access panel incorporating an air seal to facilitate cleaning and maintenance. A
removable inspection panel incorporating an air seal shall be fitted to casings 450 mm
diameter and above.

Fans connected at both ends to ducted systems shall have circular cross section casings
that cover the overall length of the impeller, impeller hub, motor and any inlet cones and
discharge straightening vanes.

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Impellers shall be mild steel protected against corrosion or aluminium with blades welded
or riveted to the impeller hub and shroud. Impellers with an outside diameter 500 mm or
less may be die-cast aluminium with a fitted shroud.

Electrical connections to fans with direct-drive motors mounted inside the casing, shall be
through flexible conduit to an external galvanised mild steel or plastics terminal box
secured to the fan casing.

Fans driven by externally mounted motors shall have twin ball or roller bearing mounted
steel impeller shafts. The drives shall be so arranged to minimise air leakage and allow
access to pulleys and belts.

2.08 BELTDRIVES AND GUARDS

2.08.01 BELTDRIVES

Belt drives shall comply with BS 3790 (1995) and be capable of transmitting at least the
rated power output of the driving motor with one belt removed. Unless otherwise
indicated, no less than two belts per drive shall be used and all multibelt drives shall used
matched sets. Pulleys shall be correctly aligned and the Contractor shall ensure that any
holding down bolts or fixings he provides are positioned by the Main Contractor to ensure
correct alignment. Provisions shall be made for adjustment of the tension in belt drives
and also for their alignment.

2.08.02 GUARDS

Guards shall comply with the recommendations contained in BSEN 953 (1988). Guards
shall be provided at all open intakes and exhausts from fans, all forms of open power
transmission systems including belt drives and drive couplings, and where indicated.

Fixed guards shall be used and they shall be installed to prevent access to dangerous
parts of machinery. Construction and installation of guards shall ensure strength and
rigidity and it shall not be possible to remove any guard or access panel without the aid
of a tool.

For belt drives, the guards shall be of galvanised steel wire not less than 2.5 mm diameter
attached to a rigid galvanised steel rod or angle framework. The mesh size and/or the
location of the guard shall prevent figure contact with any enclosed danger point.

2.08.03 FAN DRIVE PULLEYS

Belt Driven fans shall be fitted with pulleys suitable for the belt drive used. Pulleys may use
split taper bushings of an approved type for drives up to 30 kW. Alternatively, and in any
case above 30 kW output, pulleys shall be secured to the fan and motor shafts by keys
fitted into machined keyways. Pulleys shall be keyed to the fan shaft in the overhung
position. Keys shall be easily accessible so that they can be withdrawn or tightened and
they shall be accurately fitted.

2.09 AIR FILTERS

2.09.01 GENERAL

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Filter assemblies shall operate with not less than the efficiencies of values of arrestance
specified for individual cells.

Filter material or wetting agents shall not be carried out in the airstream.

Adequate access shall be provided for removal and refitting of filter cells or replacement
of gaskets in filter holding frames.

All filters shall be changed immediately prior to Handover.

2.09.02 FRAMES, SEALS AND GASKETS

Filter cell holding frames shall be purpose made from non-ferrous metal or steel protected
against corrosion, of adequate strength and stiffened as required to prevent distortion in
use.

Holding-down frames shall be capable of retaining air filters, constructed within the
dimensional tolerances stated, in a rigid manner and without edge leakage.

The entire framework shall be securely fixed in position with all edges and joints effectively
sealed to prevent air leakage.

Purpose made gaskets shall be provided to minimise air leakage around the filters. The
effectiveness of the seal shall not be impaired by removal and refitting of filter cells.
Gasket material shall be fitted in the holding frames.

The retaining clips, or other securing device, shall be capable of pulling the filter on to its
seating and shall exert equal pressure on all faces.

2.09.03 PANEL FILTERS

Air velocity at the filter face shall not exceed 1.75 m/s.

Where filter pads in permanent casings or frames are provided the pads shall be limited
to the requirements for Grade 4 filters. Pads shall comply with all requirements for
replaceable type panel filters.

The dust holding capacity, as achieved by tests carried out on 595 mm x 595 mm air filters
at a face velocity of 1.75 m/s shall be not less than 300 g at 250 Pa final resistance.

A copy of the test results shall be included in the Mechanical Installation Operating and
Maintenance Manual.

2.09.04 BAG FILTERS

Air velocity at the filter face shall not exceed 2.5 m/s.

Filters shall be fully self-supporting without external ties or stiffening frames. Filters shall
inflate fully, shall not sag or flutter, nor have effective medium area reduced by
obstruction due to contact with other filter faces or housing surfaces when operating
between 60% and 100% of design air volume flow rate.

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Front flange of filter shall be 21 +2 mm thickness.

Filter length shall not exceed 760 mm.

The dust holding capacity, as achieved by tests carried out on 595 mm x 595 mm air filters
at an air volume flow rate of 0.94 m
3
/s, shall be Grade 7 filters, not less than 450 g at 350
Pa final resistance.

A copy of the test results shall be included in the Mechanical Installation Operating and
Maintenance Manual.

2.10 THERMAL INSULATION

2.10.01 GENERAL

Thermal insulation shall comply with the requirements of BS 5422 (1990) and BS 5970 (1992).

Insulation materials and finishes shall be inherently proof against rotting, mould and fungal
growth and attack by vermin, be non-hygroscopic and in all respects be suitable for
continuous use throughout the range of operating temperatures and within the
environment indicated.

Unless otherwise indicated, all thermal insulating materials used within any building shall,
when tested in accordance with BS 476 Part 4 (1984), be classified non-combustible.

Alternatively, all thermal insulation materials used within any building shall be non-
combustible with a facing of combustible material providing the facing is not more than
0.8 mm thick and it has a Class 0 Surface Spread of Flame when tested in accordance
with BS 476 Part 7. Thermal insulating materials used within any building shall be free issue
from substances, which in the event of a fire would generate appreciable quantities of
smoke, noxious or toxic fumes.

Insulation material and their finishes shall be free from asbestos. Where any works is
carried out on existing insulation material or finish which contains asbestos in any form the
Contractor's attention is drawn to his responsibilities under the provision of the Asbestos
Regulations 1969.

2.10.02 METHODS OF APPLICATION

Fixing methods for insulation shall provide a minimum of direct metal paths that thermally
bridge the insulation, particularly when the insulation is metal faced. The full insulating
effect shall be maintained at connections and access openings and panels including the
edges of such openings. Thermal insulation shall cover all forms of flanges joints, fasteners
and stiffeners either by means of purpose made boxes or by increasing the general
thickness of the insulation to give at least 6 mm cover.

Where insulation is applied in layers all joints in all layers shall be staggered.

Spaces around valves and fittings shall be filled with fibrous material. Pieces of shaped
insulation or other approved infill covers, which are to be removable, shall not adhere to
the main insulation but shall be separately secured.

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At all points of support, the insulation and other covering and vapour seal shall be
continuous and shall not be pierced or fouled by the supports.

The insulation supports shall be material of sufficient compressive strength to take the
loads transmitted to the supports.

Pre-formed slab insulation shall be applied with adjacent sides lapped to maintain a
uniform thickness at corners. The insulation shall be fixed securely with adhesive and by
impaling on fasteners which may be rustproof metal studs, split prongs, plastics studs or
other approved devices fixed to the duct surfaces. Fastenings shall be suitable for the
thickness and weight of the insulating materials and finishes to be applied and shall be
spaced at approximately 300 mm centres. Fastenings shall be finished flush with the
surface of the insulation to which they are applied. Adhesives shall be compatible with
the insulation and in their dry state be non-flammable. In no circumstances shall adhesive
be used which attacks or dissolves the ductwork or insulation.

Aluminium foil or plastic faced pre-formed slab insulating materials shall be placed with
adjacent sides lapped to maintain a uniform thickness at corners. All joints shall be sealed
with tape of the same material as the facing and held in place with contact adhesive.
The adhesive shall be suitable for the range of ambient temperature and humidity
encountered.

Where thermal insulation is protected against the effects of weather by plastic sheet or
roofing felt, particular care shall be taken to ensure a watertight seal at all joints. The
sheet material shall be adhered to the external surface of the insulation and all joints shall
be lapped, secured and sealed by adhesive or solvent welding. All jointing and sealing
materials and methods of application shall be to the recommendations of the sheet
supplier. Polyisobutylene sheet shall be not less than 0.8 mm thick and have a tensile
strength not less than 3.4 MN/m
2
.

2.10.03 DUCTWORK INSULATION

a) Within buildings, concealed from view and not readily accessible, the
insulation shall be of pre-formed slab (or flexible material having a bulk density
of at least 16 kg/m
3
) having a thickness of 40mm with a facing of factory-
applied aluminium foil or plastic film. Secured by enclosure within galvanised
wire netting of 25 mm mesh.

b) Within buildings, exposed to view but not readily accessible, the insulation shall
be pre-formed slab material, 40mm thickness, secured by adhesive and
piercing fasteners enclosed in aluminium foil with all laps sealed with matching
self adhesive tape and painted to match decoration of surroundings.

c) Within plantrooms and elsewhere where indicated to prevent damage, the
insulation to be as a) but enclosed in 0.8 mm hammered aluminium sheet.

d) Outside buildings, exposed to weather, the insulation to be as a) but enclosure
to be aluzinc cladding sheet, lapped and sealed at all joints. An allowance
shall be made for painting this to a RAL colour.

INSULATION THICKNESS UP TO 25
O
c
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
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W/mK 0.03 0.04 0.09 0.06
Thickness mm
38

50

63

75


2.10.04 PIPEWORK INSULATION

Pipework insulation shall be applied to services in accordance with the following:

Cold Water Services, Rainwater Pipework, Chilled Water Pipework

Pipe Size 15-20mm 25-50mm 65-150mm Above
150mm
Phenolic Foam Density
35kg/m Thickness mm

Ceiling voids, Floor
voids, Bulkheads and
shafts, plantrooms
15mm 20mm 25mm 30mm

Mineral Fibre Sections
Density 80kg/m
Thickness mm

Ceiling voids, Floor
voids, Bulkheads and
shafts, plantrooms
30mm 35mm 40mm 50mm

Hot Water Services, Heating Pipework

Phenolic Foam Density
35kg/m Thickness mm

Ceiling voids, Floor
voids, Bulkheads and
shafts, plantrooms
15mm 20mm 25mm 30mm

Mineral Fibre Sections
Density 80kg/m
Thickness mm

Ceiling voids, Floor
voids, Bulkheads and
shafts, plantrooms
30mm 30mm 40mm 50mm



a) Within buildings, concealed from view and not readily accessible, the
insulation shall be pre-formed sections with a facing of factory applied
aluminium foil or plastic film securely fastened.

b) Within buildings, exposed to view but not readily accessible, the insulation shall
be as a) but painted.

c) Within plantrooms, and elsewhere where indicated to prevent damage, the
insulation shall be as a) but enclosure to be "Isogenopack" finish with proper
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elbows and end caps secured in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions.

d) Outside buildings, exposed to weather, the insulation shall be as a) but
enclosure to be aluzinc cladding sheet lapped and sealed at all joints. Unless
otherwise stated pipe insulation shall be 25 mm thick.

e) Within the building rainwater pipework shall be insulated in accordance with
section a).

f) Insulation shall be provided as type a) to cold water cisterns.

2.010.05 VAPOUR BARRIERS

Where thermal insulation is applied to the outside of piped and ducted services,
equipment and plant used to convey, store or generate fluids or gases at temperatures
lower than the design ambient dew point temperature indicated, a water vapour barrier
shall be provided. The vapour barrier shall be applied such that it is continuous and gives
protection to the whole surface of the insulation which it protects. It shall not be pierced
or otherwise damaged by supports or by the application of external cladding.

At points of support means of load distribution shall be provided as necessary.

Unless otherwise indicated the vapour barrier shall have a permeance value not
exceeding 0.05 g/s (sMN).

The material chosen for the vapour barrier and its method of application shall be
compatible with the thermal insulation which it is to protect.

The following may be used: -

a) Elastomer sheets with all joints adequately overlapped and continuously
sealed.

b) Polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, Polyisobutylene or other plastics tapes or
sheets.

c) Sheet metal with all joints adequately overlapped and continuously sealed
to a vapour-tight condition.

d) Metal foil used along or laminated to building paper, building sheet or
plastics film with all joints adequately lapped and continuously vapour
sealed.




2.11 VIBRATION ISOLATION AND NOISE INSULATION

2.11.01 ANTI-VIBRATION

All dynamic machinery shall be isolated from the building structure by vibration isolators
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and/or vibration isolation materials that shall be purpose designed and selected to suit
the machinery. Where mat type isolation materials are used the Contractor shall supply
the materials and be responsible for their correct location, all other vibration isolators shall
be supplied and installed by the Contractor.

For fans and air distribution systems, flexible joints shall be provided to minimise the
transmission of vibration. For pumps and water distribution systems, purpose-designed
flexible connections shall be provided as indicated to minimise the transmission of
vibration.

The connections shall be compatible with the tube materials and methods of jointing and
the fluid(s) handled in the system.

2.11.02 NOISE

Care shall be taken in the selection and installation of plant and equipment to ensure
that the noise level in the spaces served, in any adjacent buildings and within plant rooms
does not exceed the indicated maximum acceptable noise rating (NR). In the spaces
served the noise level due to the plant and equipment shall comply with the
recommended criteria given in the CIBSE Guide 1986 Book A table A1.10.

2.11.03 NOISE INSULATION (AIRBORNE NOISE)

Purpose-made silencers and sound absorbent material shall be designed and installed to
give the indicated acoustic performance and offer minimal resistance to air flow.
Acoustic insulation materials shall be applied to the internal surfaces of ductwork only
where indicated.

Material characteristics, including fire properties, for purpose-made silencers and duct
lining materials shall be in accordance with BS 5422 (1990), BS 476 Part 7 and BS 5970
(1992).

Purpose made silencers shall be tested in accordance with BS 4718 (1971) and the
insertion loss and generated noise level for each octave band and the pressure loss of the
silencers shall be stated.

2.12 RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL OF REFRIGERANT

Prior to dismantling and removal of redundant air conditioning systems the existing
refrigerant charge shall be recovered utilising proprietary recovery equipment and
subsequently disposed of by a registered company in accordance with the
Environmental Protection Act.

A certificate of disposal shall be submitted by the Contractor as evidence of proper
disposal and for inclusion within the project Health and Safety file.


2.13 FLAMMABILITY

All products must comply with BS 5588 Part 9 in respect of flammability, CP413 in respect
of smoke emission and generate the minimum amounts of toxic gases when compared
with HSE Guide EH40/91,
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Certificates of conformity are required for all products.

2.14 PIPEWORK AND PLANTIDENTIFICATION

All items of equipment, pipes, etc., are to be identified strictly in accordance with the
established code or with BS 1710 (1991) or as later directed.

Where no other details are available at the Tender stage, tenderers are to assume that BS
1710 will be adopted with, in addition, an indication as to the direction of flow.

Items of equipment to be so identified are to include: -

Condensing Units Gauges
Pumps Control Panels
Electric Motors Tanks
Fans Air Handling Units
Filters Heater Batteries
Fan Coil Units

Valves are to be identified where these are located in plantrooms, in all main ducts and
wherever else later specifically mentioned and wherever else necessary in order to
identify the service to which the valve is attached.

Generally, however, local isolating and regulating valves, stopcocks etc., are not to be
separately identified.

All pipework is to be identified except where visible in user area in such a way as their
service is obvious, as for example, exposed heating pipes connecting radiators.

The Contractor is to submit details of all proposed identification details for the Consulting
Engineer's labels, diagrams, etc.

Labels of white Traffolyte with black filled letters 5 mm high engraved on the reverse side
are to be two screw fixed to the exterior of all items having a suitable surface with
wording to adequately denote the item number, its name and date of manufacture, its
capacity or rating, speed and where electrically driven, the voltage, current
consumption, phase, with all relevant details of operation etc., all as necessary to
facilitate easy maintenance.

For items with no suitable flat surface, such as valves, white Traffolyte discs are to be used
secured to such as the valve handwheel lock nut through a centre hole, or, where this will
lead to the label being difficult to read, secured by a short length of stainless steel chain.

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All pipework concealed in ceiling voids/risers and in plantrooms shall be identified with
purpose made bands to BS 1710 (1991) giving the flow direction and service as follows: -

SERVICE BASE COLOUR IDENTIFICATION
BANDS

LETTERING AND
FLOW ARROWS

Mains Cold Water
CWDS
HWS
Condensing
Water

Green
Green
Green
Green

Blue
White/Blue/White
White/Crimson/White
White

MCW
CWS
HWS



A valve chart and valve labels shall be provided for the plant room.

All ductwork shall be identified with triangles in accordance with BS 1710 (1991).

Underground water services shall be identified with a continuous tape system made from
100 micron rot resistant polythene. The following tape colours and wording shall be used.

WATER - Blue tape - "CAUTION - WATER MAIN BELOW"

Schematics

The Contractor is to provide a diagram or diagrams as appropriate for each plant area
which are to illustrate the circuits with all items of equipment, valves etc., identified as
described above, located and numbered appropriately.

The schematics shall include: -

Water schematic identifying stop cocks.
Control panel timeswitch instructions for adjustment.
Plant extension timer instructions for use.

In addition, the adopted identification code details are to be provided on or adjacent to
each diagram.

All diagrams, etc., are to be wall mounted in frames within the plant room. In addition
copies are to be included in the Operating and Maintenance manual as later specified.

2.15 PAINTING AND CLEANING ON COMPLETION

All ungalvanised ferrous materials not plated shall be supplied free from rust and scale,
dipped or otherwise coated with a protective priming paint of a type suitable for
receiving the finishing protective or decorative paint.

Ungalvanised steel parts fabricated by the Contractor, e.g. duct brackets and supports,
pipe brackets, etc., shall be wire brushed after fabrication and painted one coat of either
zinc chromate priming paint or calcium plumbate priming paint BS 3698 (1979) before
erection and if damage to the painted surface should occur during erection, a further
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coat shall be applied.

The Contractor shall make allowance for making good all damage to the protective
coating on pipework caused by erection in a manner similar to that specified above. The
extent of all making good shall be determined by the Engineers. All pipework shall be
painted in accordance with the code of practice CP 3012. (1972).

At the completion of the works all parts of the installation shall be thoroughly cleaned. All
equipment, pipe, valves, fittings, etc., shall be cleaned of all grease, dirt etc.
Discolouration or other damage to parts of the building or its finish due to the failure of the
Contractor to properly clean the equipment or piping system shall be repaired by the
Contractor without additional cost to the employer.

2.16 PRE-COMMISSIONING, CLEANING AND FLUSHING

2.16.01 STERILISATION

All new pipework and storage tanks shall be sterilised in accordance with Sections 13
and 14 of BS 6700.

All new pipework and storage tanks shall be sterilised before the system is brought into
use for domestic purposes. Before sterilisation, pipework and storage tank shall be
flushed out to remove dirty water, debris, flux, etc. No water shall be used for domestic
purposes during this flushing operation, nor until sterilisation has been completed.

Distributing pipes and storage tanks shall first be filled with water and be thoroughly
flushed out. With all draw-off traps closed, the system shall be refilled with water and
sufficient sterilising chemical shall be added during filling to ensure that when full, the
system contains water having a concentration of 50mg/litre of chlorine in the solution.

The sterilising chemical shall be prepared in accordance with the manufacturer's
instructions. The supply to the system shall then be stopped and all the draw-off taps
on the distributing pipes shall be opened progressively, working away from the system.
Each tap shall be closed when the water begins to smell of chlorine. The system shall
then be topped up with water and sufficient sterilising chemical to a concentration of
50mg/litre chlorine. The systems shall then remain charged for three hours, whereupon
a test shall be made of residual chlorine. If none is found, the test shall be repeated.
Finally, pipes shall be thoroughly flushed out before any water is used for domestic
purposes.

2.16.02 CONDENSER WATER

The piped services system shall then be flushed to remove fine loose deposits that have
entered the system during the installation works. Prior to the flushing process the systems
shall have been pressure tested, proved for circulation and left full with fresh clean water.

The systems shall be flushed by using a 100PPM concentration of Hatasperse 301 as
manufactured by Houseman Ltd. This shall be circulated through the pipework systems
for at least 1 hour then the system drained. The systems shall then be flushed using a fire
hydrant or equivalent until the water quality is within the following parameters.

a) Total dissolved solids equivalent to the incoming water main.
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b) Iron in solution, below 10 PPM or equivalent to the incoming water main
whichever is greater.

c) That the water is visibly clear and bright and free from suspended solids.

These readings shall be witnessed by the Engineers before signing of a Completion
Certificate.

On completion of the flushing process the water systems shall be dosed using the
following parameters: -

a) Scale and Corrosion - Houseman Ltd Heatreat 552 at 5 l per 1000 l of system
capacity.

b) Bacterial Control - Houseman Ltd Heatreat 711 at 250 ml per 1000 l of system
capacity.

2.16.03 PSEUDONYMOUS BACTERIA

In order to ensure that the mains cold water and chilled water systems do not become
contaminated with pseudonymous bacteria the Contractor shall carry out the following
precautions.

a) Obtain an analysis of the mains cold water landlords chilled water system prior
to works commencing.

b) Obtain a sample of the incoming water supply and analyse.

c) Use a suitable biocide water treatment chemical at all stages of flushing,
cleaning and final fill. Chemicals to be as recommended by a specialist to be
nominated by the tenderer.

d) Treat the water at the point of filling the systems, (possibly using ultra-violet
sterilisation) as recommended by the specialist.

e) Ensure pipework is capped at all times (including stored pipework) so as to
avoid contamination.


2.17 COMMISSIONING, TESTING AND HANDOVER

All air conditioning, ventilation and pipework systems shall be set to work by the
Contractor.

The complete installation shall be checked and commissioned by an independent
commissioning company.

The Contractor shall note that the commissioning company used for the works will be
employed and supervised directly by the Contractor.

At practical completion, the Contractor shall be responsible for the demonstration and
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Handover of all mechanical services installations, to GAP UK Limited or their appointed
representatives, who will be in attendance.

The Contractor shall provide the Maintenance Contractor with a comprehensive
Schedule of Equipment. Refer to the typical sample schedules in Section 3 for the level of
information to be included in the Schedule of Equipment.

2.18 REDUNDANTEQUIPMENTAND SERVICES

All existing redundant equipment and services shall be identified and made safe at the
commencement of works on site. The Contractor shall be responsible for the complete
strip out of all redundant equipment and services. Where part of a system is to be
removed the Contractor shall ensure that this is completed and the system left in a safe
and operational condition. Redundant branches shall be as short as possible on both
ductwork and pipework.

Where existing redundant equipment and services are deemed to be hazardous or
potentially hazardous the Contractor shall employ a specialist to strip out the item(s).

The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that all redundant refrigeration
equipment and plant shall be decommissioned in such a manner that all refrigerants are
recovered and contained for recycling or destruction by a specialist company. The
Contractor shall supply Certificates to show that all hazardous waste and refrigerants
have been safely disposed of.

2.19 RECORD DRAWINGS AND OPERATING MANUALS

The Contractor shall demonstrate and explain fully the installations and the method of
starting, running and stopping of plant and equipment to the Employer's staff.

Draft Operating and Maintenance Manuals and Record Drawings shall be handed to the
Engineer at handover. These shall include the originals of all completed testing and
commissioning certificates. The Engineer shall review the submitted documents within 5
working days of handover and return these with comments to the Contractor for revision.
The Contractor shall incorporate all comments and revisions and issue the final manual to
all parties within a further 5 working days. The final issue of the manual shall include all test
and commissioning sheets and appropriate statutory certification.

The Contractor shall, during the course of the works, maintain a fully detailed record of all
changes from the "Tender" drawings to facilitate easy and accurate preparation of the
"as installed" drawings and to ensure that these drawings are in all respects a true record
of the installation.

These drawings shall be made available upon request for the Engineers at any time
during the works for inspection.

The operating and maintenance instructions manual shall be prepared by the
Contractor in the following format giving the information stated: -



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Section 1 -

A brief outline description of the installation.

Section 2 -

Details of required maintenance for all plant and systems with suggested frequency of
action.

Section 3 -

Emergency shutdown procedures of Mechanical installations, including emergency
contact names and telephone numbers.

Section 4 -

Details of all items of equipment including name and address of the manufacturer, type
and model. Inclusion of complete manufacturers catalogues will not be acceptable.

Section 5 -

All test sheets, certificates, results, calibration certificates of testing equipment and
manufacturers test certification where appropriate.

Section 6 -

Record Drawings shall be incorporated within the manual.

Section 7 -

Manufacturers' maintenance and/or descriptive literature for all items. Inclusion of
complete manufacturers catalogues will not be acceptable.

A "Contents" page shall be included at the front of the manual.

When these documents have been agreed the Contractor shall print and submit
FOUR copies thereof suitably bound.

1 No. Copy (of the draft and final documents) to Engineer/Consultant
2 No. Copies to Planning Supervisor
1 No. Copy to site


In addition to hard copies, one copy of the complete Operating and Maintenance
manual shall be provided in electronic form, on CD, to each of the above. The CD shall
be produced in Microsoft Word format, with all drawings in AutoCAD 2004 format.

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APPENDIX A

Design Standards

Mechanical

Ambient - summer not controlled
- winter - As recommended by CIBSE to suit location


Room Summer Winter Outside Supply
Air
Extract Occupancy


o
C
db
%RH
o
C
db
o
C
wb

Sales areas N/ A N/ A 21 N/ A 1l/s/m

100% of
supply
1 person per 5
sq.m
Offices N/A N/A 21 N/A 12 l/s per person Via infiltration N/A

General Areas N/ A N/ A 21 N/ A 12 l/ s per person 90% of supply N/ A
Toilets N/A N/A 18 N/A 90% of extract To suit 10ac/hr N/A

* For calculation purposes only.