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14.

1 Graph Sine, Cosine,


and Tangent Functions
Before You evaluated sine, cosine, and tangent functions.
Now You will graph sine, cosine, and tangent functions.
Why? So you can model oscillating motion, as in Ex. 31.

Key Vocabulary In this lesson, you will learn to graph functions of the form y 5 a sin bx and
• amplitude y 5 a cos bx where a and b are positive constants and x is in radian measure.
• periodic function The graphs of all sine and cosine functions are related to the graphs of the
• cycle parent functions y 5 sin x and y 5 cos x, which are shown below.
• period y
• frequency M51 y 5 sin x
1
amplitude: 1
range:
21 ≤ y ≤ 1
22
3π 2π 22
π π π 3π 2π x
2 2
21
m 5 21 period:

y
M51
y 5 cos x
amplitude: 1
range:
21 ≤ y ≤ 1
22π 2 3π 2π 22
π π π 3π 2π x
2 2 2
21
m 5 21 period:

KEY CONCEPT For Your Notebook


Characteristics of y 5 sin x and y 5 cos x
• The domain of each function is all real numbers.
• The range of each function is 21 ≤ y ≤ 1. Therefore, the minimum
value of each function is m 5 21 and the maximum value is M 5 1.
• The amplitude of each function’s graph is half the difference of the
maximum M and the minimum m, or } 1 (M 2 m) 5 1 [1 2 (21)] 5 1.
}
2 2
• Each function is periodic, which means that its graph has a repeating
pattern. The shortest repeating portion of the graph is called a cycle.
The horizontal length of each cycle is called the period. Each graph
shown above has a period of 2π.
• The x-intercepts for y 5 sin x occur when x 5 0, 6π, 62π, 63π, . . . .
• The x-intercepts for y 5 cos x occur when x 5 6} p , 6 3p , 6 5p , 6 7p , . . . .
} } }
2 2 2 2

908 Chapter 14 Trigonometric Graphs, Identities, and Equations

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KEY CONCEPT For Your Notebook
Amplitude and Period
The amplitude and period of the graphs of y 5 a sin bx and y 5 a cos bx,
where a and b are nonzero real numbers, are as follows:

Amplitude 5 a Period 5 }2p


b

GRAPHING KEY POINTS Each graph below shows five key x-values on the interval
2p that you can use to sketch the graphs of y 5 a sin bx and y 5 a cos bx for
0≤x≤}
b
a > 0 and b > 0. These are the x-values where the maximum and minimum values
occur and the x-intercepts.
y 1 2π y y 5 a cos bx
s 4 ? b , ad y 5 a sin bx (0, a)
s 2π
, d
0 s 14 ? 2πb , 0d s2πb , ad
b

(0, 0) x x
s 12 ? 2πb , 0d s 34 ? 2πb , 0d
s 34 ? 2πb , 2ad s 12 ? 2πb , 2ad

EXAMPLE 1 Graph sine and cosine functions


Graph (a) y 5 4 sin x and (b) y 5 cos 4x.

VARY CONSTANTS Solution


Notice how changes 2p 5 2p 5 2π.
a. The amplitude is a 5 4 and the period is } }
in a and b affect the b 1
graphs of y 5 a sin bx 1 y
Intercepts: (0, 0); } p 2π, 0 5 (p , 0); (2p, 0)
1 2 4
and y 5 a cos bx. When 2
the value of a increases,
p
1 p 2π, 4 5 }
the amplitude increases. Maximum: } 14
1 , 42 2 2 x
When the value of b π 3π
increases, the period 3 p 2π, 24 5 3p , 24 2 2
decreases.
Minimum: }
4 1 }
2 2 1 2
2p 5 2p 5 p .
b. The amplitude is a 5 1 and the period is } } }
b 4 2
y
p , 0 5 p , 0 ; 3 p p , 0 5 3p , 0
1 p} 2
Intercepts: } 14
2 1} 2 } }
2
}
8 14 2 2 1 8 2
p, 1
Maximums: (0, 1); 1 } 2 2 π 3π x
8 8
p , 21 5 p , 21
1 p}
Minimum: } 12
2 1} 2 2 4

✓ GUIDED PRACTICE for Example 1

Graph the function.


1. y 5 2 cos x 2. y 5 5 sin x 3. f(x) 5 sin πx 4. g(x) 5 cos 4πx

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EXAMPLE 2 Graph a cosine function
1 cos 2p x.
Graph y 5 }
2
SKETCH A GRAPH Solution
After you have drawn 1 and the period is 2p 5 2p 5 1.
The amplitude is a 5 } } }
one complete cycle of 2 b 2p
the graph in Example 2
1 p 1, 0 5 1 , 0 ;
Intercepts: 1 }
on the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 4 2 1} 2 4
you can extend the
y
graph by copying the
cycle as many times as 1 }34 p 1, 0 2 5 1 }34 , 0 2 1

desired to the left and


1 ; 1, 1
Maximums: 1 0, }
right of 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. 2 1 }22 2 1 2 x

1 p 1, 2 1 5 1 , 2 1
Minimum: 1 } }2 1} }2
2 2 2 2

MODELING WITH TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS The periodic nature of


trigonometric functions is useful for modeling oscillating motions or repeating
patterns that occur in real life. Some examples are sound waves, the motion of
a pendulum, and seasons of the year. In such applications, the reciprocal of the
period is called the frequency, which gives the number of cycles per unit of time.

EXAMPLE 3 Model with a sine function


AUDIO TEST A sound consisting of a single frequency is
called a pure tone. An audiometer produces pure tones to
test a person’s auditory functions. Suppose an audiometer
produces a pure tone with a frequency f of 2000 hertz (cycles
per second). The maximum pressure P produced from the
pure tone is 2 millipascals. Write and graph a sine model that
gives the pressure P as a function of the time t (in seconds).

Solution
STEP 1 Find the values of a and b in the model P 5 a sin bt. The maximum
pressure is 2, so a 5 2. You can use the frequency f to find b.
1
frequency 5 } 2000 5 }b 4000π 5 b
period 2p
The pressure P as a function of time t is given by P 5 2 sin 4000πt.

15 1 .
STEP 2 Graph the model. The amplitude is a 5 2 and the period is } }
f 2000

Intercepts: (0, 0);


P
1 }12 p }1 ,0 5 1
}, 0 ; }, 0
1
2000 2 1 4000 2 1 2000 2 2

1 p 1 ,2 5 1
Maximum: } } 14
}, 2
2000 2 1 8000 2 1 t
8000
3 p 1 , 22 5 3
Minimum: } } 14
}, 22
2000 2 1 8000 2

910 Chapter 14 Trigonometric Graphs, Identities, and Equations

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✓ GUIDED PRACTICE for Examples 2 and 3

Graph the function.


1 sin πx
5. y 5 } 1 cos πx
6. y 5 } 7. f(x) 5 2 sin 3x 8. g(x) 5 3 cos 4x
4 3

9. WHAT IF? In Example 3, how would the function change if the audiometer
produced a pure tone with a frequency of 1000 hertz?

GRAPH OF Y 5 TAN X The graphs of all tangent functions are related to the graph
of the parent function y 5 tan x, which is shown below.

y
y 5 tan x

22π 3π 2π π π π 3π 2π x
22 22 2 2

period:
π

FIND ODD The function y 5 tan x has the following characteristics:


MULTIPLES p . At these
p
1. The domain is all real numbers except odd multiples of }
Odd multiples of } are 2
2 x-values, the graph has vertical asymptotes.
values such as these:
p p 2. The range is all real numbers. So, the function y 5 tan x does not have
61 p } 5 6}
2 2 a maximum or minimum value, and therefore the graph of y 5 tan x
p 3p
63 p } 5 6}
does not have an amplitude.
2 2
p 5p 3. The graph has a period of π.
65 p } 5 6}
2 2
4. The x-intercepts of the graph occur when x 5 0, 6π, 62π, 63π, . . . .

KEY CONCEPT For Your Notebook


Characteristics of y 5 a tan bx
The period and vertical asymptotes of the graph of y 5 a tan bx, where
a and b are nonzero real numbers, are as follows:

• The period is }p .
b
• The vertical asymptotes are at odd multiples of }p .
2b

GRAPHING KEY POINTS The graph at the right y


shows five key x-values that can help you sketch
the graph of y 5 a tan bx for a > 0 and b > 0. a
These are the x-intercept, the x-values where
the asymptotes occur, and the x-values halfway π π π x
between the x-intercept and the asymptotes. At 2 2b 4b 2b
each halfway point, the function’s value is either
a or 2a.

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EXAMPLE 4 Graph a tangent function
Graph one period of the function y 5 2 tan 3x.

Solution
p 5 p.
The period is } }
b 3
Intercept: (0, 0)
p 5 p , or x 5 p ;
Asymptotes: x 5 } y
} }
2b 2p3 6
p 5 2 p , or x 5 2 p
x 5 2} } }
2b 2p3 6 2

p ,a 5 p ,2 5 p ,2 ; π π π x
Halfway points: 1 } 2 1} 2 1} 2 26
4b 4p3 12 12 6

p p
, 2a 2 5 1 2} , 22 2 5 1 2}, 22 2 p
1 2}
4b 4p3 12
"MHFCSB at classzone.com

✓ GUIDED PRACTICE for Example 4

Graph one period of the function.


10. y 5 3 tan x 11. y 5 tan 2x 12. f(x) 5 2 tan 4x 13. g(x) 5 5 tan πx

14.1 EXERCISES HOMEWORK


KEY
5 WORKED-OUT SOLUTIONS
on p. WS1 for Exs. 5, 17, and 31
★ 5 STANDARDIZED TEST PRACTICE
Exs. 2, 15, 24, 25, and 31
5 MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS
Ex. 32

SKILL PRACTICE
1. VOCABULARY Copy and complete: The graphs of the functions y 5 sin x
and y 5 cos x both have a(n) ? of 2π.

2. ★ WRITING Compare the domains and ranges of the functions y 5 a sin bx,
y 5 a cos bx, and y 5 a tan bx where a and b are positive constants.

EXAMPLE 1 ANALYZING FUNCTIONS Identify the amplitude and the period of the graph of
on p. 909 the function.
for Exs. 3–14
3. y 4. y 5. y
1 1
π

π 3π 5π x π 2π x 1 3 5 x
8 8 8 2 2 2

912 Chapter 14 Trigonometric Graphs, Identities, and Equations

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GRAPHING Graph the function.

1x
6. y 5 sin } 7. y 5 4 cos x 2x
8. f(x) 5 cos } 9. y 5 sin πx
5 5
2 sin x
10. f(x) 5 } px
11. f(x) 5 sin } p cos x
12. y 5 } 13. f (x) 5 cos 24x
3 2 4

14. ERROR ANALYSIS Describe and correct


}3  5 1
the error in finding the period of the 2
b
2 x.
function y 5 sin }
Period 5 } 5 } }
3 2p 2p 3p

15. ★ MULTIPLE CHOICE The graph of which function has an amplitude of 4 and
a period of 2?
A y 5 4 cos 2x B y 5 2 sin 4x C y 5 4 sin πx 1 πx
D y 5 2 cos }
2

EXAMPLES GRAPHING Graph the function.


2, 3, and 4
16. y 5 2 sin 8x 17. f(x) 5 4 tan x 18. y 5 3 cos πx 19. y 5 5 sin 2x
on pp. 910–912
for Exs. 16–24 1 πx
20. f(x) 5 2 tan 4x 21. y 5 2 cos } 22. f(x) 5 4 tan πx 23. y 5 π cos 4πx
4

24. ★ MULTIPLE CHOICE Which of the following is an asymptote of the graph of


y 5 2 tan 3x?
p
A x5} B x 5 2π 1
C x5} p
D x 5 2}
6 6 12

25. ★ OPEN-ENDED MATH Describe a real-life situation that can be modeled by a


periodic function.

CHALLENGE Sketch the graph of the function by plotting points. Then state the
function’s domain, range, and period.
26. y 5 csc x 27. y 5 sec x 28. y 5 cot x

PROBLEM SOLVING
EXAMPLE 3 29. PENDULUMS The motion of a certain pendulum can be modeled by the
on p. 910 function d 5 4 cos πt where d is the pendulum’s horizontal displacement
for Exs. 29–30 (in inches) relative to its position at rest and t is the time (in seconds).
Graph the function. What is the greatest horizontal distance the pendulum
will travel from its position at rest?
GPSQSPCMFNTPMWJOHIFMQBUDMBTT[POFDPN

30. TUNING FORKS A tuning fork produces a


sound pressure wave that can be modeled by
P 5 0.001 sin 880t
where P is the pressure (in pascals) and t is
the time (in seconds). Find the period and
frequency of this function. Then graph the
function.
GPSQSPCMFNTPMWJOHIFMQBUDMBTT[POFDPN

14.1 Graph Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Functions 913

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31. ★ SHORT RESPONSE A buoy oscillates up and down as waves go past.
The buoy moves a total of 3.5 feet from its low point to its high point, and
then returns to its high point every 6 seconds.
a. Write an equation that gives the buoy’s vertical position y at time t if the
buoy is at its highest point when t 5 0.
b. Explain why you chose y 5 a sin bt or y 5 a cos bt for part (a).

32. MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS You are standing on a bridge, 140 feet


above the ground. You look down at a car traveling away from the underpass.

140 ft

a. Writing an Equation Write an equation that gives the car’s distance d


from the base of the bridge as a function of the angle u.
b. Drawing a Graph Graph the function found in part (a). Explain how the
graph relates to the given situation.
c. Making a Table Make a table of values for the function. Use the table to
find the car’s distance from the bridge when u 5 208, 408, and 608.

33. CHALLENGE The motion of a spring can be modeled by y 5 A cos kt where


y is the spring’s vertical displacement (in feet) relative to its position at
rest, A is the initial displacement (in feet), k is a constant that measures
the elasticity of the spring, and t is the time (in seconds).
a. Suppose you have a spring whose motion can be modeled by the
function y 5 0.2 cos 6t. Find the initial displacement and the period of
the spring. Then graph the given function.
b. Graphing Calculator If a damping force is applied to the spring, the
motion of the spring can be modeled by the function y 5 0.2e24.5t cos 4t.
Graph this function. What effect does damping have on the motion?

MIXED REVIEW
PREVIEW Graph the function. Label the vertex and the axis of symmetry. (p. 245)
Prepare for
34. y 5 2(x 2 2)2 1 1 35. y 5 5(x 2 1)2 1 7 36. f(x) 5 2(x 1 6)2 2 3
Lesson 14.2
in Exs. 34–39. 37. y 5 23(x 1 3)2 1 2 38. y 5 0.5(x 1 2)2 1 5 39. g(x) 5 22(x 1 4)2 2 3

Let f(x) 5 x 2 2 5, g(x) 5 27x, and h(x) 5 x1/3. Find the indicated value. (p. 428)
40. g(f(9)) 41. h(g(3)) 42. f(g(27)) 43. f(h(8))

Sketch the angle. Then find its reference angle. (p. 866)
44. 2508 45. 2908 46. 21458 47. 24308

13p
48. } 21p
49. } 13p
50. 2} 16p
51. 2}
3 4 6 3

914 Chapter 14EXTRA PRACTICE


Trigonometric Graphs,for
Identities, andp.Equations
Lesson 14.1, 1023 ONLINE QUIZ at classzone.com

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