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Definition and Acquisition of CM and DM EM1 Noise for General-Purpose

Adjustable Speed Motor Drives

W. Shen, F. Wang, D. Boroyevich, and Y. Liu

Center for Power Electronics Systems

The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer EnFineering

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA

weshen@,vt.edu

Abstract- Separating conducted EM1 noise into different

modes, common mode ( CM) and differential mode (DM), is

important to the appropriate application of emission reduction

techniques. While the CM/ DM separation is well defined and

understood for the single-phase or DC system, the same cannot

be said for three-phase converter systems, common for

general-purpose adjustable speed drives (ASD). Based on the

study of CM and DM propagation characteristics of a three-

phase diode-front converter, this paper identify different noise

modes for different front-diode conducting patterns. The

impact on EM1 filter components by these noise modes is

summarized. Finally, a time-domain based method is proposed

to separate and acquire CM and DM noisecomponents for the

diodefront three-phase systems. Simulation and experimental

verifications are presented.

I. INTRODUCTION

The separation of common-mode (CM) and differential-

mode (DM) noise components from total conducted EM1

noise is important to the EM1 filter design and conducted

emission modeling. For DC or single-phase AC systems, the

definitions of CM and DM conducted EM1 noises are clear

and well understood [I]. Hardware based on signal

transformers or combiner/splitter has been introduced

successfully to acquire them [1]-[4].

+ h

v,, =-

2

V,, =V, - V, ( V, , Vh : noise voltages on two lines)

However, when the CM noise is not evenly distributed

between two lines, the unbalanced part of CM noise would

become DM noise according to the above definition. The

discontinuous conduction of the front diode bridge does

cause this CM uneven distribution, the so-called non-

intrinsic differential-mode noise that has been reported in

[5] for diode front-end single-phase power converters. This

affects EM1 filter design and emission modeling, since the

CM and DM noise equivalent circuits cannot be separated

clearly. Specifically, line-to-line capacitors would be chosen

both considering for balancing the unevenly distributed CM

and attenuating DM noises.

For three-phase systems, there is no corresponding CM

and DM definition. However, westill can define the CM

This work was supported primarily by the ERC Program of the National

Science Foundation under Award Number EEC-973 1677.

noise for three-phase system as ground loop noise, and

DM noise as line-to-line. Once we characterize the CM

and DM in this way, we have already assumed that the

three-phase converters can be decoupled into two orthogonal

equivalent modes. CM noise is generated by CM noise

source and propagated along ground-included-loop, and DM

noise is from DM noise source and through line-to-line loop.

If the three-phase syr:tem is symmetrical, linear and time-

invariant, CM and DM components can be decoupled and

obtained through (y, ti, 0) transformation [6] or some other

orthogonal transformations. Accordingly, several CM/DM

separation methods [7]-[8] are proposed based on this

symmetrical assumption.

However, for three-phase systems widely used in ac

converters (such as motor drives with diode-front), the

circuit is inherently unsymmetrical and time-variant. Similar

to the single-phase c3se [SI, the unevenly distributed CM

noise would appear. Furthermore, the possible diode

commutation would make the three-phase case more

complicated. Under this circumstance, separation of CM and

DM noises meaningfully at the three input lines is a

challenge. In [9], a mapping relationship, scaling the

spectrum by two thirds (3.5dB). is built between DM noise

currents at inputs of liont-end rectifiers and at point of DC

links, where CMIDM separation can be straightforward.

This convolution reflection is valid under the assumption

that the rectifier input current shape is quasi-square-wave of

certain amplitude with a given conduction pattern (each

diode conducts 240).

Following the analysis approach for single-phase

converters [5], this paper tries to clarify the existence of

unevenly distributed CM noise among three phases. Based

on the study of CM and DM propagation characteristics of a

diode-front converter, this paper identifies different noise

modes for different front-end diode rectifier conducting

patterns. The impact on EM1 filter components by these

noise modes is analyzed. Finally, a time-domain based

method is proposed to separate and acquire CM and DM

noise components for the diode-front three-phase systems.

11. CM AND DFdPROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS

For motor drives with diode-front rectifiers, the DC link

can be treated as three-wire DC system, where the CM and

DM definition and separation are explicit as discussed

above. However, the three-phase EM1 filter at AC input, not

0-7803-8399-0/04/$20.W 02004 IEEE. I028

2004 35rh Annual IEEE Power Elecrronics Specialists Conferace Aachen, Germany, 2004

DC EM1 filter, is usually chosen for the system. Therefore,

wecan find out the mapping relationship between the A: ,

inputs and DC link, to help us to understand and define ihe

noise mode. To conduct the %apping analysis, we can

assume that front-end diodes do not contribute to EM1

noises emission, as shown by other previous work. DM

noise current circulates between two-conducted phases

under normal operation. There also could be no DM noise

flow under discontinuous-conducted-mode (DCM), or DM

noise current on all three lines under continuous-conducted-

mode (CCM) because of diode commutations. Meanwhile,

these different diode-conducting conditions also affect the

propagation paths of CM noise currents, which is actually

the mechanism of mixed mode noises [SI.

A simple but representative switching converter is built

and analyzed to understand the mechanism of the mapping

CM and DM noises from DC link to the input of the three-

phase rectifier. The system is shown in the Fig. I , which

consists of three-phase rectifier, DC link capacitor, and

MOSFETllGBT switches. The system represents the

conducted EM1 emission of typical switching power

converter, and the analyzed results can be applied to other

three-phase converter systems such as motor drives.

Fig. I. The three-phase diode-front switching converter system (blue

components representing major parasitics considered during analysis)

A. DM Noise Propagation

For converters with DC link capacitors, DM noise

propagation mechanism can be described as follows. High

current slew results from each switching instant, and the AC

source and DC link capacitors would provide the fast dUdt

together. The portion from AC source is what we concern

for EM1 noise reduction and standard limits regulate, which

is determined by the equivalent source impedances of the

source and capacitor. The presence of LISN would cause the

DM current provided by LlSN capacitors, if we think the

LlSN ideally isolate the AC source for high frequency

range. Since the front-end rectifier is nonlinear and time-

variant, we need to examine noise propagation path

specifically for different diode conduction patterns. The

diode conduction is determined by the relationship between

line-to-line voltages and the DC link voltage. If we only

focus on the AC inputs, during input line current conduction

period, DM noise currents will flow between the two

conducting phases, as shown in Fig. 2. DM noise current can

still flow to certain extent, when there is no line-frequency

current conducted (DCM), since the ESL of DC link

capacitors will lower the DC voltage. Therefore, the

conduction angle of DM noise current is larger than that of

low frequency phase current for each phase. Under this

condition, the three-phase converter is equivalent to three

single-phase converters operating alternatively within one

line cycle. Therefore, we can apply the DM definition by

standard to the circuit.

During the duration of no phase current conducting, there

is no DM noise presenting at the AC input, while the DC

link capacitor would provide the switching current slew, as

illustrated in Fig. 2.

During the short period of diode commutation, there are

all three lines representing low impedance, and the DM

noise current could flow through three LISNs. Although the

noise of one phase is always equal to the sumof noise on the

other two phases, the detailed distribution still depends on

the instantaneous circuit parameters. DM is not appropriate

description for the noise mode under this transition duration,

so wenote this mode as commutation mode.

- -

- - -

1029

2004 35lh Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialisls Conference Aachen, Germany, 2004

Fig. 2. DM noise propagation path illustration during the period ofno-

phase, huo-phase, and three-phaseconducting ( bm top to bottom)

E. CM Noise Propagation

CM noise current flow is determined by phase voltages

and diode conduction status, which play similar role as

transistor DC voltage and current biasing to small signals.

CM will basically flow through low loop impedance paths,

which are affected by diode conduction and component

high-frequency impedance.

Under two-diode conducting conduction, CM noise

current will be evenly distributed on the two conducted

phases, as in Fig. 3. Since the DC link impedance is much

smaller than the source LlSN impedances, we can treat the

positive and negative DC buses as equal potential points.

For no line current conduction, CM will flow uni-

directinnally through either the most positive phase, when

rear-end switch turns-on (dv/dt>O), or the most negative

phase, when the switch turns-off (dv/dt<O), as in Fig. 3. This

is what is defined in [5] as mixed-mode or non-intrinsic

DM noise phenomenon. Here, wewant to note this noise as

unevenly distributed CM , which represents its inherent

mechanism - flowing through ground. There is no DM

current under this condition, so any separation hardware

cannot discriminate all these different modes for different

time duration. Therefore, we need understand their behave

and measure correspondingly under certain diode

conducting condition. However, since DM noise current and

input line parasitic inductance will cause line voltage

distortion, there could be two phases conducting CM current

at the same time. This means CM current will gradually

commutate from one phase to another, not exactly abrupt

commutation from one phase two another as discussed

above.

For the three-diode conducting situation, CM noise could

be distributed into all three lines. However, the later

discussion shows the existence of filter X cap will make CM

noise current always evenly distributed on all three lines.

Therefore, the impact on filter design is same for all diode-

conducting conditions.

L

Fig. 3. CM noise proptigation path illustration during the period ofno-

phase, two-phase, and three-phase conducting (from topto bottom)

111. SMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The analysis of CM and DM noise propagation

characteristics is verified through simulation and

experimental results, for the converter shown in Fig. 1. The

simulation is based on the vendor-provided MOSFET model

(Infineon@ SPW 1 1N80C3) and high-frequency parasitic

measurement of components and interconnections. The

MOSFET is switched at 100kHz, and the load is adjusted to

make sure the cnnverter operating in DCM. Since the

purpose of this work is not to predict the exact emission of

certain converter, the simulated and measured noises are not

perfectly same. Fig. 4 presents the result for two-diode

1030

2004 35th A n n u l IEEE Power Electronics Speciolisrs Conference Aachen, Germany, 2004

conducting situation. The DM noise is between the two

conducting phases, while the CM, due to both MOSFET

turn-on and tun-off, also evenly appears on these two

phases. For no-diode conducting duration, Fig. 5 shows the

unidirectional CM noise on each phase, and there is no DM

noise.

i "l .l ".l l l l ."l l "."."." ... " . ~. . . . . . . . . ... .........I

s,

simulation (uppa) and expenmental (lower)

IV. SEPARATION OF CM AND DM

Since our purpose is to find out the profile of the noise

spectrum, which will be used as bare noises for EM1 filter

design, we can use the spectrum result of the diode-

conducted period as worst-case. The effect of noise for

whole line cycle time duration would be the same as this

worst period, fiom filter design point of view.

After understanding the propagation mechanism of CM

and DM noises under all three possible rectifier diode-

conducting patterns, it is apparent that CM noise can be

obtained at anytime by measuring all three phases together.

For the DM noise, nom1 two-phase conducting would have

bigger noise contribution, for the line current amplitude is

bigger than commutation intervals. Therefore, we can

measure two conducting phase currents during the period of

pair diodes conduction. Accordingly, CM noise can be

obtained by sum two-phase currents at this period, and DM

noise of the phase would be the result of subtracting half of

the CM noise amplitude from each phase current. The

corresponding spectrum of CM and DM noise then can be

obtained through doing Fourier Transform.

50

2

VCu =FFT[(i, +i , ) *- ] vor instance, phase A and E

conducted) ( 2)

i - i

2

VDU =F F T [ ( e ) * 2 * 5 0 ] vor instance, phase A and

B conducted) (3)

To verify the method, we first perform the proposed

method to obtain CM and DM noise components at the

diode rectifier input side. Then we connect LISN's to

positive and negative DC outputs of the rectifier, and

directly measure CM and DM spectrum using Common-

mode rejecter (CMR)/Differential-mode rejecter (DMR) and

AgilentB E7402A spectrum analyzer. The comparison is

shown in Fig. 6, and they match well below several mega-

hertz. The high-frequency discrepancy is because of the

coupling of noise from the function generator, which is used

to get MOSFET gate signal.

3

UL j i am *:m P.*.W. I_j* B m e i66' xi%

". .." ..,.,.. ... , .. I

simulation (upper) and experimental (lower)

Fig. 5. lhree input line current waveform during no-diode conducting,

103 1

2004 35Ih Annual I EEE Power Electronics Specialists ConferencE

dBuV

Fig. 6. CM noise (upper) and DM noise (lower) from the proposed

method (solid) and Agilat@ E7402A spectrum analyzer (dotted)

v. IMPACT ON FILTER DESIGN

Fromthe analysis abovementioned, it is clear that CM

and DM noise propagation characteristics are different for

different rectifier diode conduction patterns, and EM1 filter

design needs to consider all of them on time domain basis.

For a given filter topology, filter equivalent circuits can be

derived under different periods within one line cycle in time

domain. To guarantee the filter design meeting attenuation

requirements in frequency domain, we need to take Laplace

transform of the noises, multiply the corresponding transfer

function of the equivalent filter circuit, sum all s

components, and finally apply Laplace-Fourier transform to

obtain spectrum [IO].

In practice, since there is only one filter for all three

different time durations within one line cycle, one practical

approach is to identify one duration as the worst case and

design the filter accordingly. The designed filter would

automatically satisfy the frequency domain attenuation

requirements. We can assume the noise amplitude does not

change for different diode conduction conditions. For DCM

applications, we can design CM and DM parts of EM1 filters

according to the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 7,

respectively, since X capacitors (usually several pF) make

filter CM equivalent circuit almost the same for different

conditions.

For CCM applications, we need to consider both two and

three diode conducting situations. The filter CM equivalent

circuit can still use the one shown in Fig. 7. After checking

DM equivalent circuits, we can conclude that the two-diode

conducting situation is the worst case. Therefore, we still

can usethe equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 7.

AAer X capacitors of the filter are added, the path of CM

and DM noise currents will be different on LISN reference

resistors (SOQ) from input terminals of the rectifier. Since

the value of Cx is usually in the range of 0.5-3pF, which

would short three phases together for the frequency range

of the interest.

Therefore, CM noise current would follow through three

LISNs evenly, to certain degree. In this sense, the Cx also

attenuate CM noise, similar to the reported mixed-mode

phenomena in [SI. Another important point is that the design

~

1032

Aachen. Gennany, 2W4

of CM choke would consider one third of total CM noise

current for each winding.

Zcm

50R

50R

Fig. 1. CM filter equivalent circuit (upper) and DM filter equivalent

circuit (lower)

From above discussion, we can conclude that the three-

phase EM1 filter is actually designed as three single-phase

filters, which will be effective alternatively along the phase

sequence. The combination of these three identical filters

results in the one three-phase filter for the system.

Furthermore, this conclusion implies that the EM1 filter put

at the DC link could be more optimal from both part count

and size standpoints. Another advantage of the DC link EM1

filter is that the Cy leakage current limitation is not

applicable any more. It is true that front-end diode bridge

would generate very limit CM and DM noises, and not

putting of the EM1 filter at the input edge of the system

would degrade the eflectiveness of the filter. However, the

careful shield and ground design could still make the DC

link filter work well.

VI. CONCLUSIONS

One CM noise and one DM noise are not enough to

characterize the EM1 noise of diode-front type of three

phase converter systems. Other diode conducting conditions

due to current discontinuous or diode commutation

influences would cause other modes of noise. However, the

two-diode conducting situation is identified as the worst

case. Therefore, sepaiating CM and DM components from

total noise of each phase can be obtained during two-diode

conducting period, through clearly defined algebraic

calculation and Fourier Transform. This analysis is useful to

the three-phase EM1 filter design, and also provides insights

to the further efforts on EM1 modeling. Both bare noise

spectrum acquisition method and filter design equivalent

circuits are given.

2004 351h Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference Aachen, Germany, 2004

ACKNOWLEDGMENl

This work made use of ERC Shared Facilities supported3

by the National Science Foundation under Award Number

EEC-973 1677.

REFERENCES

[ I ] CISPR 16-1, Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus,

1999.

[Z] C. R. Paul and K. B. Hardin, Diagnosis and reduction of conducted

noise emissions, IEEE Transactions an Electromagnetic

Compatibility, Vol. 30, No. 4. Nov. 1988, pp. 853-560.

131T. Guo, D. Y. Chen, F. C. Lee, Separation of the common-mode- and

diffmtial-mode-conducted EM1 noise, Power Electronics, IEEE

Transactions on, Vol. I I, May 1996, pp. 480488.

[4] M. J. Nave, A novel differential mode rejection network for conducted

emissions diagnostics, Electromagnetic Compatibility. LEEE 1989

National Symposiumon, 1989, pp. 223 -227.

[SI S. Qu and D. Chen, Mixed-mode EM1 noise and its implications to

filter design in amine switching power supplies, Power Electronics,

EEE Transactions on, Val. 17, J uly 2002, pp. 802 -507.

161A. Cansoli. G. Oriti,A. Testa, and A. L. J ulian, Induction motor

modeling for common mode and differential mode emission

evaluation, IAS 96.. Conference Record, Vol. I , pp. 895 -899.

[7] A. De Bonitatibus, C. De Capua. and C. Landi, Automatic test

equipment for the measurement of symmetrical and asymmetrical RF

interference based on hybrid junctions, lnsrmmentation and

Measurement, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 49,2000, pp. 1337 -1343.

[SI L. Ran, J. Clare, K. 1. Bradley, and C. Christopoulos, Measurement of

conducted electromagnetic emissions in PWM motor drive systems

without the need far an LI SN, Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE

Transactions on, Val. 41, Feb. 1999, pp. 80 -55.

[9] L. Ran, S . Gokani, I. Clare, K. J . Bradley, and C. Christopoulos,

Conducted electromagnetic emissions in induction motor drive

systems. 1. Time domain analysis and identification of dominant

modes, Power Electronics, lEEE Transactions on, Vol. 13, J uly 1998,

pp. 751 -767.

[ IOIJ. C. Crebier, L. J ourdan. R. Papescu, I. P. Ferrieux. Common mode

disturbance reduction of PFC full bridge rectified, PESCW. 2000

IEEE 3151 Annual, J une 2000, pp. 922 - 927.

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