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2004 3Sth Annual IEEE Power El ectroni cs Specialisrs Conference

Anclten, Germany, 2004


Definition and Acquisition of CM and DM EM1 Noise for General-Purpose
Adjustable Speed Motor Drives
W. Shen, F. Wang, D. Boroyevich, and Y. Liu
Center for Power Electronics Systems
The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer EnFineering
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA
weshen@,vt.edu
Abstract- Separating conducted EM1 noise into different
modes, common mode ( CM) and differential mode (DM), is
important to the appropriate application of emission reduction
techniques. While the CM/ DM separation is well defined and
understood for the single-phase or DC system, the same cannot
be said for three-phase converter systems, common for
general-purpose adjustable speed drives (ASD). Based on the
study of CM and DM propagation characteristics of a three-
phase diode-front converter, this paper identify different noise
modes for different front-diode conducting patterns. The
impact on EM1 filter components by these noise modes is
summarized. Finally, a time-domain based method is proposed
to separate and acquire CM and DM noisecomponents for the
diodefront three-phase systems. Simulation and experimental
verifications are presented.
I. INTRODUCTION
The separation of common-mode (CM) and differential-
mode (DM) noise components from total conducted EM1
noise is important to the EM1 filter design and conducted
emission modeling. For DC or single-phase AC systems, the
definitions of CM and DM conducted EM1 noises are clear
and well understood [I]. Hardware based on signal
transformers or combiner/splitter has been introduced
successfully to acquire them [1]-[4].
+ h
v,, =-
2
V,, =V, - V, ( V, , Vh : noise voltages on two lines)
However, when the CM noise is not evenly distributed
between two lines, the unbalanced part of CM noise would
become DM noise according to the above definition. The
discontinuous conduction of the front diode bridge does
cause this CM uneven distribution, the so-called non-
intrinsic differential-mode noise that has been reported in
[5] for diode front-end single-phase power converters. This
affects EM1 filter design and emission modeling, since the
CM and DM noise equivalent circuits cannot be separated
clearly. Specifically, line-to-line capacitors would be chosen
both considering for balancing the unevenly distributed CM
and attenuating DM noises.
For three-phase systems, there is no corresponding CM
and DM definition. However, westill can define the CM
This work was supported primarily by the ERC Program of the National
Science Foundation under Award Number EEC-973 1677.
noise for three-phase system as ground loop noise, and
DM noise as line-to-line. Once we characterize the CM
and DM in this way, we have already assumed that the
three-phase converters can be decoupled into two orthogonal
equivalent modes. CM noise is generated by CM noise
source and propagated along ground-included-loop, and DM
noise is from DM noise source and through line-to-line loop.
If the three-phase syr:tem is symmetrical, linear and time-
invariant, CM and DM components can be decoupled and
obtained through (y, ti, 0) transformation [6] or some other
orthogonal transformations. Accordingly, several CM/DM
separation methods [7]-[8] are proposed based on this
symmetrical assumption.
However, for three-phase systems widely used in ac
converters (such as motor drives with diode-front), the
circuit is inherently unsymmetrical and time-variant. Similar
to the single-phase c3se [SI, the unevenly distributed CM
noise would appear. Furthermore, the possible diode
commutation would make the three-phase case more
complicated. Under this circumstance, separation of CM and
DM noises meaningfully at the three input lines is a
challenge. In [9], a mapping relationship, scaling the
spectrum by two thirds (3.5dB). is built between DM noise
currents at inputs of liont-end rectifiers and at point of DC
links, where CMIDM separation can be straightforward.
This convolution reflection is valid under the assumption
that the rectifier input current shape is quasi-square-wave of
certain amplitude with a given conduction pattern (each
diode conducts 240).
Following the analysis approach for single-phase
converters [5], this paper tries to clarify the existence of
unevenly distributed CM noise among three phases. Based
on the study of CM and DM propagation characteristics of a
diode-front converter, this paper identifies different noise
modes for different front-end diode rectifier conducting
patterns. The impact on EM1 filter components by these
noise modes is analyzed. Finally, a time-domain based
method is proposed to separate and acquire CM and DM
noise components for the diode-front three-phase systems.
11. CM AND DFdPROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS
For motor drives with diode-front rectifiers, the DC link
can be treated as three-wire DC system, where the CM and
DM definition and separation are explicit as discussed
above. However, the three-phase EM1 filter at AC input, not
0-7803-8399-0/04/$20.W 02004 IEEE. I028
2004 35rh Annual IEEE Power Elecrronics Specialists Conferace Aachen, Germany, 2004
DC EM1 filter, is usually chosen for the system. Therefore,
wecan find out the mapping relationship between the A: ,
inputs and DC link, to help us to understand and define ihe
noise mode. To conduct the %apping analysis, we can
assume that front-end diodes do not contribute to EM1
noises emission, as shown by other previous work. DM
noise current circulates between two-conducted phases
under normal operation. There also could be no DM noise
flow under discontinuous-conducted-mode (DCM), or DM
noise current on all three lines under continuous-conducted-
mode (CCM) because of diode commutations. Meanwhile,
these different diode-conducting conditions also affect the
propagation paths of CM noise currents, which is actually
the mechanism of mixed mode noises [SI.
A simple but representative switching converter is built
and analyzed to understand the mechanism of the mapping
CM and DM noises from DC link to the input of the three-
phase rectifier. The system is shown in the Fig. I , which
consists of three-phase rectifier, DC link capacitor, and
MOSFETllGBT switches. The system represents the
conducted EM1 emission of typical switching power
converter, and the analyzed results can be applied to other
three-phase converter systems such as motor drives.
Fig. I. The three-phase diode-front switching converter system (blue
components representing major parasitics considered during analysis)
A. DM Noise Propagation
For converters with DC link capacitors, DM noise
propagation mechanism can be described as follows. High
current slew results from each switching instant, and the AC
source and DC link capacitors would provide the fast dUdt
together. The portion from AC source is what we concern
for EM1 noise reduction and standard limits regulate, which
is determined by the equivalent source impedances of the
source and capacitor. The presence of LISN would cause the
DM current provided by LlSN capacitors, if we think the
LlSN ideally isolate the AC source for high frequency
range. Since the front-end rectifier is nonlinear and time-
variant, we need to examine noise propagation path
specifically for different diode conduction patterns. The
diode conduction is determined by the relationship between
line-to-line voltages and the DC link voltage. If we only
focus on the AC inputs, during input line current conduction
period, DM noise currents will flow between the two
conducting phases, as shown in Fig. 2. DM noise current can
still flow to certain extent, when there is no line-frequency
current conducted (DCM), since the ESL of DC link
capacitors will lower the DC voltage. Therefore, the
conduction angle of DM noise current is larger than that of
low frequency phase current for each phase. Under this
condition, the three-phase converter is equivalent to three
single-phase converters operating alternatively within one
line cycle. Therefore, we can apply the DM definition by
standard to the circuit.
During the duration of no phase current conducting, there
is no DM noise presenting at the AC input, while the DC
link capacitor would provide the switching current slew, as
illustrated in Fig. 2.
During the short period of diode commutation, there are
all three lines representing low impedance, and the DM
noise current could flow through three LISNs. Although the
noise of one phase is always equal to the sumof noise on the
other two phases, the detailed distribution still depends on
the instantaneous circuit parameters. DM is not appropriate
description for the noise mode under this transition duration,
so wenote this mode as commutation mode.
- -
- - -
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2004 35lh Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialisls Conference Aachen, Germany, 2004
Fig. 2. DM noise propagation path illustration during the period ofno-
phase, huo-phase, and three-phaseconducting ( bm top to bottom)
E. CM Noise Propagation
CM noise current flow is determined by phase voltages
and diode conduction status, which play similar role as
transistor DC voltage and current biasing to small signals.
CM will basically flow through low loop impedance paths,
which are affected by diode conduction and component
high-frequency impedance.
Under two-diode conducting conduction, CM noise
current will be evenly distributed on the two conducted
phases, as in Fig. 3. Since the DC link impedance is much
smaller than the source LlSN impedances, we can treat the
positive and negative DC buses as equal potential points.
For no line current conduction, CM will flow uni-
directinnally through either the most positive phase, when
rear-end switch turns-on (dv/dt>O), or the most negative
phase, when the switch turns-off (dv/dt<O), as in Fig. 3. This
is what is defined in [5] as mixed-mode or non-intrinsic
DM noise phenomenon. Here, wewant to note this noise as
unevenly distributed CM , which represents its inherent
mechanism - flowing through ground. There is no DM
current under this condition, so any separation hardware
cannot discriminate all these different modes for different
time duration. Therefore, we need understand their behave
and measure correspondingly under certain diode
conducting condition. However, since DM noise current and
input line parasitic inductance will cause line voltage
distortion, there could be two phases conducting CM current
at the same time. This means CM current will gradually
commutate from one phase to another, not exactly abrupt
commutation from one phase two another as discussed
above.
For the three-diode conducting situation, CM noise could
be distributed into all three lines. However, the later
discussion shows the existence of filter X cap will make CM
noise current always evenly distributed on all three lines.
Therefore, the impact on filter design is same for all diode-
conducting conditions.
L
Fig. 3. CM noise proptigation path illustration during the period ofno-
phase, two-phase, and three-phase conducting (from topto bottom)
111. SMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The analysis of CM and DM noise propagation
characteristics is verified through simulation and
experimental results, for the converter shown in Fig. 1. The
simulation is based on the vendor-provided MOSFET model
(Infineon@ SPW 1 1N80C3) and high-frequency parasitic
measurement of components and interconnections. The
MOSFET is switched at 100kHz, and the load is adjusted to
make sure the cnnverter operating in DCM. Since the
purpose of this work is not to predict the exact emission of
certain converter, the simulated and measured noises are not
perfectly same. Fig. 4 presents the result for two-diode
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2004 35th A n n u l IEEE Power Electronics Speciolisrs Conference Aachen, Germany, 2004
conducting situation. The DM noise is between the two
conducting phases, while the CM, due to both MOSFET
turn-on and tun-off, also evenly appears on these two
phases. For no-diode conducting duration, Fig. 5 shows the
unidirectional CM noise on each phase, and there is no DM
noise.
i "l .l ".l l l l ."l l "."."." ... " . ~. . . . . . . . . ... .........I
s,
simulation (uppa) and expenmental (lower)
IV. SEPARATION OF CM AND DM
Since our purpose is to find out the profile of the noise
spectrum, which will be used as bare noises for EM1 filter
design, we can use the spectrum result of the diode-
conducted period as worst-case. The effect of noise for
whole line cycle time duration would be the same as this
worst period, fiom filter design point of view.
After understanding the propagation mechanism of CM
and DM noises under all three possible rectifier diode-
conducting patterns, it is apparent that CM noise can be
obtained at anytime by measuring all three phases together.
For the DM noise, nom1 two-phase conducting would have
bigger noise contribution, for the line current amplitude is
bigger than commutation intervals. Therefore, we can
measure two conducting phase currents during the period of
pair diodes conduction. Accordingly, CM noise can be
obtained by sum two-phase currents at this period, and DM
noise of the phase would be the result of subtracting half of
the CM noise amplitude from each phase current. The
corresponding spectrum of CM and DM noise then can be
obtained through doing Fourier Transform.
50
2
VCu =FFT[(i, +i , ) *- ] vor instance, phase A and E
conducted) ( 2)
i - i
2
VDU =F F T [ ( e ) * 2 * 5 0 ] vor instance, phase A and
B conducted) (3)
To verify the method, we first perform the proposed
method to obtain CM and DM noise components at the
diode rectifier input side. Then we connect LISN's to
positive and negative DC outputs of the rectifier, and
directly measure CM and DM spectrum using Common-
mode rejecter (CMR)/Differential-mode rejecter (DMR) and
AgilentB E7402A spectrum analyzer. The comparison is
shown in Fig. 6, and they match well below several mega-
hertz. The high-frequency discrepancy is because of the
coupling of noise from the function generator, which is used
to get MOSFET gate signal.
3
UL j i am *:m P.*.W. I_j* B m e i66' xi%
". .." ..,.,.. ... , .. I
simulation (upper) and experimental (lower)
Fig. 5. lhree input line current waveform during no-diode conducting,
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2004 35Ih Annual I EEE Power Electronics Specialists ConferencE
dBuV
Fig. 6. CM noise (upper) and DM noise (lower) from the proposed
method (solid) and Agilat@ E7402A spectrum analyzer (dotted)
v. IMPACT ON FILTER DESIGN
Fromthe analysis abovementioned, it is clear that CM
and DM noise propagation characteristics are different for
different rectifier diode conduction patterns, and EM1 filter
design needs to consider all of them on time domain basis.
For a given filter topology, filter equivalent circuits can be
derived under different periods within one line cycle in time
domain. To guarantee the filter design meeting attenuation
requirements in frequency domain, we need to take Laplace
transform of the noises, multiply the corresponding transfer
function of the equivalent filter circuit, sum all s
components, and finally apply Laplace-Fourier transform to
obtain spectrum [IO].
In practice, since there is only one filter for all three
different time durations within one line cycle, one practical
approach is to identify one duration as the worst case and
design the filter accordingly. The designed filter would
automatically satisfy the frequency domain attenuation
requirements. We can assume the noise amplitude does not
change for different diode conduction conditions. For DCM
applications, we can design CM and DM parts of EM1 filters
according to the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 7,
respectively, since X capacitors (usually several pF) make
filter CM equivalent circuit almost the same for different
conditions.
For CCM applications, we need to consider both two and
three diode conducting situations. The filter CM equivalent
circuit can still use the one shown in Fig. 7. After checking
DM equivalent circuits, we can conclude that the two-diode
conducting situation is the worst case. Therefore, we still
can usethe equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 7.
AAer X capacitors of the filter are added, the path of CM
and DM noise currents will be different on LISN reference
resistors (SOQ) from input terminals of the rectifier. Since
the value of Cx is usually in the range of 0.5-3pF, which
would short three phases together for the frequency range
of the interest.
Therefore, CM noise current would follow through three
LISNs evenly, to certain degree. In this sense, the Cx also
attenuate CM noise, similar to the reported mixed-mode
phenomena in [SI. Another important point is that the design
~
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Aachen. Gennany, 2W4
of CM choke would consider one third of total CM noise
current for each winding.
Zcm
50R
50R
Fig. 1. CM filter equivalent circuit (upper) and DM filter equivalent
circuit (lower)
From above discussion, we can conclude that the three-
phase EM1 filter is actually designed as three single-phase
filters, which will be effective alternatively along the phase
sequence. The combination of these three identical filters
results in the one three-phase filter for the system.
Furthermore, this conclusion implies that the EM1 filter put
at the DC link could be more optimal from both part count
and size standpoints. Another advantage of the DC link EM1
filter is that the Cy leakage current limitation is not
applicable any more. It is true that front-end diode bridge
would generate very limit CM and DM noises, and not
putting of the EM1 filter at the input edge of the system
would degrade the eflectiveness of the filter. However, the
careful shield and ground design could still make the DC
link filter work well.
VI. CONCLUSIONS
One CM noise and one DM noise are not enough to
characterize the EM1 noise of diode-front type of three
phase converter systems. Other diode conducting conditions
due to current discontinuous or diode commutation
influences would cause other modes of noise. However, the
two-diode conducting situation is identified as the worst
case. Therefore, sepaiating CM and DM components from
total noise of each phase can be obtained during two-diode
conducting period, through clearly defined algebraic
calculation and Fourier Transform. This analysis is useful to
the three-phase EM1 filter design, and also provides insights
to the further efforts on EM1 modeling. Both bare noise
spectrum acquisition method and filter design equivalent
circuits are given.
2004 351h Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference Aachen, Germany, 2004
ACKNOWLEDGMENl
This work made use of ERC Shared Facilities supported3
by the National Science Foundation under Award Number
EEC-973 1677.
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