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Recho TiBwa

www.RechoRoket.com
Rocket Stove
Lesson Book
by Jon & Flip Anderson
Mercy Corps volunteers
Saint Marc, Haiti 2012
Dedicated to the people of TiBwa
with thanks to Larry Winiarski
Chapters
1. Why Rocket Stoves are important
2. Science of Fire
3. Clay Mixture
4 Combustion Chamber
5. Fuel Feed & Air Intake
6. Molded Pot Skirt
7. Planting trees
8. Starting a re
9. Mold dimensions & ideas
10. Troubleshooting
1
Recho TiBwa
Cleaner
emissions
Less fuel
Safer to use
Cooks food
fast
3 Rock Fires
Are smokey
Use lots of
wood
Are dangerous
for children
Require longer
cooking time.
Fuel
Every day
people gather
wood to cook.

They must go
farther from
home
and use
smaller
pieces.
Improved
Kitchen
Recho TiBwa
makes the
kitchen a
cleaner, safer,
more beautiful
place to
prepare
healthy meals
for the family.
2
SCIENCE OF
FIRE
High heat
causes gases
to be released
from wood.
Wood gases
need oxygen
and heat to
burn clean.
Rocket Stoves
draw air in,
under the
wood, through
the re, and
into the
combustion
chamber,
supplying
oxygen
necessary for
a hot re.
Insulated
combustion
chambers
concentrate
heat so that a
small ame
becomes a
big, hot re.
An insulated
combustion
chamber
heats and
mixes oxygen
& wood gases
which clean
emissions in
the smoke.
3
TEST YOUR
CLAY
The rst step
in stove
making is
nding a good
source of clay.
Roll the
moistened
clay. Good
clay should
bend without
breaking.
Using poor
quality clay will
result in a
stove that
degrades
quickly from
the high heat
of the re.
PREPARING
DRY CLAY
Dry clay needs
to passed
through a ne
screen.
If the materials
are not passed
through a
screen they
will not mix
well and will
result in a
stove that is
not durable.
PREPARING
WET CLAY
Wet clay
should be well
mixed into a
paste-like
consistency
without lumps.
4
INSULATION
PRINCIPLE #1
Insulate
around the re
using
lightweight,
heat-resistant
materials.
Organic matter
and clay
become like a
jacket holding
in heat.
INSULATION
MATERIAL
Choose
materials that
are local, free,
or inexpensive
and not used
for human or
animal feed.
Examples are:
sawdust, rice
bran,horse
manure and
pumice.
PREPARING
INSULATION
Pass through
a ne screen
no larger than
1/4. Small
particles mix
with clay
better,
making the
stove stronger
and last
longer.
ASH WATER
Use a gallon
of wood ash
which has not
been leached
by rain or
water. Mix well
with 3 or 4
gallons of
water.
5
Strain ash
water. Use the
ash water to
moisten clay.
Discard the
ash residue.
Ash water
improves
durability of
the clay.
Sugary syrup
Fruit pulp also
strengthens the
clay mixture.
For 5 gallons of
clay use one
gallon rotting
fruit (when
available) or 2
cups sugar and
mix with water.
It will improve
stove durability.
Clay Mixing
Techniques
Thoroughly
combine clay
and organic
material before
adding ash
water or
sugary syrup.
Poor mixing
will result in an
inferior stove.
Add water and
mix and knead
the moist clay
and break up
any lumps.
Make sure
everything is
thoroughly
mixed.
It should not
be too wet or
too dry.
6
Form the clay
into balls to
further improve
clay structure.
Then pack
them into the
molds.
7
PRINCIPLE #2
Put an
insulated short
chimney right
above the re
to burn up the
smoke and
speed up the
draft.
Combustion
chambers
should be 8"
tall to be able
to clean
emissions.
Buckets with a
10" diameter
bottom are
lighter and use
less materials.
These are the
mold parts for
the
combustion
chamber:
bucket and
bottom, 2
gaskets, 12"
section of 4"
PVC cut
straight.
Place the
bucket bottom
in rst, then
put in two
gaskets and
the PVC.
8
Wash and oil
the PVC and
bucket to
keep if from
sticking when
removing.
Pack the clay
mixture rmly
with a at
bottomed stick
to remove air
cavities.
Make sure the
bucket and
PVC don't rise
up.
Keep the PVC
centered.
Smooth clay
and keep it
uniform and
level. Leave a
1 space from
the top to help
release the
clay from the
bucket when
you turn it over
later.
The PVC
should have
two holes at
one end.
Slide a rod
through the
holes and pull
the PVC out of
the clay.
9
turn the
bucket over.
10
Press down on
the removable
bottom. The 1
gap helps
relieve the
suction along
the sides of
the bucket.
Lift up the
sides of the
bucket while
pushing down
on the
moveable
bottom. The
bucket will
slide free.
Now take off
the bucket
bottom and
the other
ttings.
Filling in the
holes and
smoothing the
clay will make
the stove more
durable.
Place the
combustion
chamber in
shade to dry
so it does not
crack from
drying too
quickly.
11
FUEL/AIR
FEED
Place a piece
of cardboard,
wood, or tin on
the ground.
Coat inside of
box with oil,
set in place,
begin lling.
The scored
line in the box
should be
down near the
bottom.
Fill the box
part of mold to
the scored line
with clay
mixture and
then level the
mixture.
Rub oil on the
center mold to
help the clay
release.
The center
mold sits on
top of the
lower layer of
clay.
Make sure the
center mold is
centered
between the
vertical lines
on the end of
the box.
Begin packing
clay around
the center
mold.
The top of the
center mold
needs to stay
level with top
of the box and
stay centered
between the
sides.
12
Tamp the clay
with a at
ended stick to
make sure the
clay is properly
packed and
without air
cavities.
Use a stick to
make sure the
top of the
center block
stays centered
and the same
height as the
sides of the
box.
Attention to
detail will
make a stove
base that
works well and
is durable.
Pull up on the
handles on the
side of the box
to remove the
outside mold.
Shaking it a
little from side
to side will
help loosen
the box.
13
Slide the
center mold
out.
You may need
to rock it back
and forth a
little to get it to
release.
The Fuel/Air
Feed is now
ready to dry in
a shady
location.
Fill in any
holes and
smooth the
clay to make
the Fuel/Air
Feed last
longer.
PRINCIPLE #3
Use a grate
under the re.
Air ows in
through the
grate to give
wood tips lots
oxygen to
make a hot
re.
PRINCIPLE #4
Heat and burn
the tips of the
sticks as they
enter the re
to make
ame, not
smoke.
Keep a space
between the
sticks and the
back of stove
to allow more
air ow.
14
Use 4 or 5
pieces of rebar
for the grate,
no more than
1/2" apart to
keep coals
from falling
before they
turn to ash.
Use straight
rebar cut into
6" lengths.
The grate will
burn out so
use thick
rebar.
Place rebar in
the back of
the fuel/air
feed to allow
air to ow
under and into
the burning
sticks.
FUEL/AIR
FEED
A piece of tin
will be placed
on 3 pieces of
rebar that are
spaced farther
apart.
The rebar that
supports the
tin can be
thinner as the
re will not be
as hot as at
the grate.
Sticks rest on
a short piece
of tin which
sets on rebar.
The tin creates
the air intake
tunnel as well
as a place to
remove ash.
15
PRINCIPLE #5
Maintain a
good, fast
draft from
under the re,
up through the
coals. Avoid
allowing too
much extra air
above the re
to cool it.
A piece of tin
on the ledge
at the front of
the fuel/air
intake will hold
the sticks and
create a
space for air to
enter below.
Stick tips need
air from below.
PRINCIPLE #6
Too little draft
being pulled
into the re will
result in
smoke and
excess
charcoal.
Use a grate
and allow air
to ow below
the tin or the
ash will build
up.
DON'T
DON'T let the
tin get pushed
onto the grate
or the airow
will be
blocked.
Keep the grate
and airow
open. Remove
ash when it
blocks airow.
16
PRINCIPLE #7
High and low
heat are
created by
how many
sticks are
pushed into
the re.
Fast moving
air through the
grate works
like a forge,
increasing the
re heat.
Caption
Air owing in
over the sticks
keeps the
smoke owing
up the
combustion
chamber and
not out the
front where it
blackens the
stove.
Place a piece
of tin or brick
on top of the
fuel feed to
bring in more
air above the
sticks and
keep smoke
from
discoloring the
stove.
POT SKIRT
PRINCIPLE #8
Concentrate
the heat ow
path, from the
re, to and
around pot.
Pot skirts
increase heat
transfer by
directing hot
gases along
the sides of
the cooking
pot.
17
MOLDED POT
SKIRT (TOP)
This tub has
sloped sides
and a bottom
the same
diameter as
the 5 gallon
bucket mold
for the Rocket
Stove
combustion
chamber.
This is what
the mold for
the pot skirt
looks like.
There is a
gasket and a
short piece of
4" PVC in the
bottom of the
tub.
Moisten the
inside of the
tub and line
with plastic so
the clay
mixture will slip
out easily.
Pack with clay
mixture and
press rmly.
Be sure to
pack the clay
mixture in tight
to capture the
shape of the
ring tting.
Pack the
mixture up to
the top of the
PVC.Make
sure the PVC
stays in place.
18
Set the pot on
top of the PVC
and make
sure it is
centered.
Make sure the
gap between
the cooking
pot and tub is
the same all
around. Pack
and smooth.
It's important
to put some
weight in the
pot while
packing in the
clay mixture.
If you don't,
the pot will rise
up above the
PVC.
Remove the
pot, put a
board on top
of the tub and
holding to the
handles, turn
the tub over to
release the
new pot skirt.
Fill in any air
cavities and
smooth.
Once they've
dried a little,
place the pot
skirt on top of
combustion
chamber. The
ttings allow
them to
interlock and
hold in place.
19
PRINCIPLE #9
Keep air ow
unrestricted by
maintaining
constant cross
sectional area
through the
stove.
A small re
can have a
BIG impact if
you use a
properly sized
pot skirt to
transfer all the
heat to the
cooking pot.
PRINCIPLE
#10
Maximize heat
transfer to the
pot with
properly sized
gaps.
If the gap is
too large, heat
transfer to the
pot will
diminish and
heat will be
wasted.
20
POT SKIRT
Use the stove
tool to form
the correct
cross sectional
area and
height of pot
rests.
The stove tool
is placed into
a combustion
chamber to
determine the
pot rest height.
Make sure the
stove top is
beveled and
pot rests are at
the proper
height to allow
hot gases to
leave the
combustion
chamber
without
slowing down.
While the clay
is still soft,
insert rocks or
rebar for pot
rests. Make
sure the pot
rests are
packed tight.
They should
be set 1" back
from the edge
of combustion
chamber.
TOO HIGH
Rebar will
work well for
pot rests.
These pot
rests are way
too high and
will result in
wasted heat.
A stove tool
makes it easy
to nd the
correct height.
21
STOVE TOOL
This handy
stove tool can
help you know
how high the
pot rests must
be and how to
form the
correct cross
sectional area
slope on the
pot skirt.
The stove tool
pattern is
found on
www.
RechoRoket.
com
Print it, cut it,
and...
trace it onto a
piece of tin.
Cut the tin and
you have your
own stove
tool.
Work your way
around the
combustion
chamber with
the stove tool
as shown and
you will come
pretty close to
getting the pot
supports
equidistance
apart.
22
TREE
PLANTING
Rocket Stoves
will save wood
but there is a
need to plant
trees as well.
On garden
land, an
A-frame can
be used to nd
the contour of
the land.
Seeds can be
planted along
the contour.
Fruit trees, fuel
wood trees,
lumber trees,
will help hold
the soil in
place and
replace trees
that are being
cut.
Trees like
Leucana and
Moringa can
be trimmed
into a hedge
and used as
animal feed.
The dried
branches can
be used as
fuel for Rocket
Stoves.
Racius is a
man from
Limbe who
established
forests in poor
soil by planting
tree seeds at
the base of
banan plants.
You can do it
too. You need
to do it.
23
FIRE
STARTING
Place dried
corn husks or
paper on the
grate. On top
of those place
twigs and
small slivers of
wood. Light
the re and
then add
larger twigs
and sticks.
Fan the re.
The rst res in
a new Rocket
Stove will be
more difcult
to light
because the
clay will still be
a little moist.
The stove will
also be a little
smokey until it
dries out.
As the sticks
burn, push
them forward
so the tips rest
over the grate.
Be sure to
clean the ash
from under the
grate and tin
before starting
a re.
In wet weather
once you are
nished
cooking the
meal, place
the wood for
the next meal
on top of the
warm stove so
it will dry out.
24
DIMENSIONS
Fuel/Air Feed
Box: 16.25" x
11.5" x 7.75"
Base ll line 2"
Sanding inside
of box and
center mold
will help clay
release.
Painting will
also help.
Fuel/Air Feed
top section:
4.75" x 13" x
4.25"
bottom
section:
4" x 13" x 1.5"
COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
4" PVC -14"
(cut straight)
5 gal bucket
10" dia. base
1" cut from
bucket bottom
Buckets can
be purchased
from Christ
Seul Espoir
Pepe in Saint
Marc
3722-7911
Cut the
bucket bottom
with a hack
saw. It's easier
to measure
from the
bottom up,
once you
calculate how
much to cut
off.
25
Molded Skirt
The tubs need
to be the size
of a 5 gallon
bucket at their
base. Check
with Mercy
Corps Saint
Marc to nd
out where to
nd these
tubs.
The tting in
the tub should
match the
height of the
tting in the
bucket. The
PVC will t
inside the
tting. Put 2
screws thru
the top and
then 6 from
the bottom.
ARTWORK
If you are
making stoves
to sell it would
be a good
idea to have a
mark or logo
that identies
your stove. If
you make a
quality stove it
should be
worth more
money.
Guy puts birds
on his stoves.
He says the
stoves will
save enough
trees for the
birds to have a
place to build
their nests.
26
These birds
were made by
tracing around
a paper cut-
out.
A tree design
would be nice
to see, or a
mountain
This design
was made by
tracing around
a leaf that was
pinned onto
the stove.
TROUBLE
SHOOTING
The charcoal
build up on the
piece of tin
was a sign of
problem. The
tin was
pushed too far
forward and
was blocking
the grate.
This
turbulence n
soaked up
water from the
combustion
chamber, got
soggy and
broke. It was
not red
enough. They
need to be
cooked.
27
There are two
problems here:
the clay is a
type that
disintegrates
when heated.
Also the
manure is too
large so there
is poor mixing
of the
ingredients.
Soil that
doesn't stick
together won't
make a
durable stove.
This soil was
so poor the
top didn't even
survive coming
out of the
mold.
The rebar
does not
make a grate.
This stove will
choke with
charcoal and
ash.
The
turbulence ns
are put in too
at and are
blocking the
air ow. The
combustion
chamber
would be
white if the
stove was
working
properly.
28
The soot on
the outside of
this
combustion
was a sign
that something
was blocking
the air ow. It
is the pot. The
pot blocked
the air ow as
you can see
from the soot.
Such a
problem can
be corrected
by cutting
away clay
from the inside
of the skirt.
There should
be a gap of
3/8" (1 cm).
This stove is
smokey
because the
pot is too small
to t on the
pot rests and
is choking the
re.
This problem
was corrected
by installing
rebar bent in
over the
combustion
chamber.
Trouble
shooting is an
important of
stove building
and
maintenance.
29
Stoves must
be protected
from rain.
Cover the
kitchen area
with tin or
plastic so the
stoves stay
dry.
Build a base
under the
stove to keep
the bottom
dry. This will
make it so a
cook doesn't
have to bend
over so far to
put wood in
the re.
30