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INTRODUCTION

Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths longer than those of

terahertz (THz) frequencies, but relatively short for radio waves. Microwaves have

wavelengths approximately in the range of 30 cm (frequency = 1 GHz) to 1 mm

(300 GHz). This range of wavelengths has led many to question the naming convention

used for microwaves as the name suggests a micrometer wavelength. However, the

boundaries between far infrared light, terahertz radiation, microwaves, and ultra-high-

frequency radio waves are fairly arbitrary and are used variously between different fields

of study. The term microwave generally refers to "alternating current signals with

frequencies between 300 MHz (3×108 Hz) and 300 GHz (3×1011 Hz).

The existence of electromagnetic waves, of which microwaves are part of the

frequency spectrum, was predicted by James Clerk Maxwell in 1864 from his Maxwell's

equations. In 1888, Heinrich Hertz was the first to demonstrate the existence of

electromagnetic waves by building an apparatus that produced and detected microwaves

in the UHF region. The design necessarily used horse-and-buggy materials, including a

horse trough, a wrought iron point spark, Leyden jars, and a length of zinc gutter whose

parabolic cross-section worked as a reflection antenna.

Point-to-point microwave radio links have many uses. They can be used as

studio-to-transmitter (STL) links for radio and television broadcasting stations, and they

can also link the head-ends (antenna sites) of many cable television installations to their

distribution systems. Another very common application of microwave links is a part of a

communications network involving telephone, data, or television signals.

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Some microwave systems use only one link or hop, while others are multi-hop

systems that use repeaters to extend the system beyond the line-of-sight range of a single

link.

1.1 Background of the Study

Microwaves are generally described as electromagnetic waves with

frequencies that range from approximately 500 MHz to 300 GHz or more.

Microwave systems use line-of-sight propagation and require repeaters

approximately every 40km, depending on the terrain. It propagates signals

through Earth’s atmosphere between transmitters and receivers often located on

top of towers spaced about 24km to 48km apart.

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TRANSMISSION CALCULATION: LINK 1
(KIDAPAWAN NORTH COTABATO TO MT. TALOMO)

SITE INFORMATION

Geographical Location

Site A: Kidapawan, North Cotabato


Longitude: 125° 4’ 0” E
Latitude: 7° 1’0” N

Site B: Mt. Talomo


Longitude: 125° 17’ 50” E
Latitude: 7° 7’ 25” N

Bearing
Site A: 54 ° Southeast
Site B: 22 ° Southeast

Site Ground Elevation (Mean Sea Level)


Site A: 200m
Site B:1800m

Site Terrain Type


Site A: Urban
Site B: Woodland

Antenna Height
Site A: 20m
Site B: 20m

DESIGN PARAMETERS
Reliability Requirement: 99.9999%
Configuration: Non-protected (1+0)
Traffic Capacity: 4 x E1 main plus 4 x E1 spare (8 x E1)
Path Length: 28Km

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CHANNEL PLANS

Frequency Band: 13 GHz


Frequency Range: 12.75 GHz- 13.25 GHz
Low Band Range: 12.75 GHz to 12.986GHz
High Band Range: 13.014 GHz to 13.25 GHz
Duplex Spacing: 500 MHz
Traffic Capacity: 4 x E1 main plus 4 x E1 spare (8 x E1)
Channel bandwidth for 8 x E1: 14 MHz

FREQUENCY PLAN

No. of Duplex Channel

* Divide the smaller bandwidth between the high band and low band with
the channel bandwidth.

No. of Duplex Channel = 13.014 GHz – 12.75 GHz


14 MHz
= 19 Channels

Transmit Frequency

* Select 7 channel spacing above the high band and low band edge.

14 MHz x 7 = 98 MHz

Low Band Frequency


12.75 GHz + 98 MHz = 12.848 GHz

High Band Frequency


13.014 GHz + 98 MHz = 13.112 GHz

EQUIPMENT INFORMATION

Transmitter Output Power


Site A: 25 dBm
Site B: 25 dBm

Receiver Input Threshold


Site A: -86.5 dBm
Site B: -86.5 dBm

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Waveguide Length

Site A:
Rigid Waveguide Length = 17m + 8.5m + 1.2m
=26.7 m

Flexible Waveguide Length = 0.5m + 1.3m + 0.5m


= 2.3 m

Site B:
Rigid Waveguide Length = 17m + 8.5m + 1.2m
= 26.7 m

Flexible Waveguide Length = 0.5m + 1.3m + 0.5m


= 2.3 m

Waveguide Unit Attenuation

Note: Use WR 75

Site A:
Rigid: 0.049 dB/ft = 0.1607 dB/m
Flexible: 0.15dB/ft = 0.492 dB/m

Site B:
Rigid: 0.049 dB/ft = 0.1607 dB/m
Flexible: 0.15 dB/ft = 0.492 dB/m

Rigid Waveguide Loss (RWL)

RWL = (Rigid waveguide length) x (Waveguide unit attenuation)RIGID

Site A: RWL = (26.7m)(0.1607dB/m)


= 4.29069 dB

Site B: RWL = (26.7m)(0.1607dB/m)


= 4.29069 dB

Flexible Waveguide Loss (FWL)

FWL = (Flexible waveguide length) x (Waveguide unit attenuation) FLEXIBLE

Site A: RWL = (2.3m)(0.492dB/m)


= 1.1316 dB

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Site B: RWL = (2.3m)(0.492dB/m)
= 1.1316 dB

Total Waveguide Loss (TWL)

TWL = RWL + FWL

Site A: TWL = 4.29069 dB + 1.1316 dB


= 5.42229 dB

Site B: TWL = 4.29069 dB + 1.1316 dB


= 5.42229 dB

Connector Losses (CL)

CL = (Loss of connector) x (No. of connectors)

Site A: CL = (0.15dB/connector) x (5connectors)


= 0.75 dB

Site B: CL = (0.15dB/connector) x (5connectors)


= 0.75 dB

Antenna Misalignment Loss


Site A: 0.25dB
Site B: 0.25dB

Antenna Polarization
Vertical Polarization

PATH LOSSES

Free Space Loss (AFSL)

AFSL = 92.44 + 20 log f + 20 log D

Where f = frequency used in GHz


D = total path length or distance in kilometers (km)
AFSL = 92.44 + 20 log 13 + 20 log 28
AFSL = 143.6620277 dB

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Oxygen Absorption Loss (Ao)

For frequencies below 57GHz:


 6.09 4.81 
A o =  7.9x10-3 + 2 +  ( 1x10-3 ) f 2 D
( f - 57 ) +1.5 
2
 f + 0.227

Where f = frequency used in GHz


D = total path length or distance in kilometers (km)

 6.09 4.81 
A o = 7.9x10-3 + 2 +  ( 1x10-3 ) ( 132 ) ( 28 )
( 13 - 57 ) +1.5 
2
 13 + 0.227
A o = 0.219421637 dB

Water Vapor Loss A H2O ( )


For frequencies below 350GHz

 3 9 4.3  -4 2
A H2 O = 0.067 + + +  10 fαD
( f - 22.3) + 7.3 ( f -183.3) + 6 ( f - 323.3) +10 
2 2 2

Where f = frequency used in GHz
α = water vapor density in gm/m3 = 12gm/m3
D = total distance or path length in kilometers (km)

 3 9 4 .3 
A H2 O = 0 .0 6 7 + 2 + + -4 2 2
(1 0 )(1 3 ) (1 2 ) ( 2 8 ) 
( 1 3 - 2 2) .3 + 7( .3 1 )3 - 1 8 3( .3 + 6)
2
 1 3 - 3 2 3 .3 + 10 

A H2 O = 0.564099437dB

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SYSTEM GAIN CALCULATIONS

Fade Margin (Fm)

Fm = 30logD +10log ( 6Abf ) -10log ( 1- R ) - 70

Where f = frequency, GHz


R = reliability expressed as decimal (0.999999)
A = roughness factor
= 4 over water or a very smooth terrain
= 1 over an average terrain
= 0.25 over a rough, mountainous terrain
b = factor to convert a worst case month probability
= 1 to convert an annual availability to a worst month basis
= 0.5 for hot humid area
= 0.125 for very dry or mountainous area
= 0.25 for average land area

Fm = 30logD +10log ( 6Abf ) -10log ( 1- R ) - 70


Fm = 30log28 +10log ( 6 ) ( 0.25 ) ( 0.125 ) ( 13) -10log ( 1- 0.999999 ) - 70
Fm = 37.28418718dB

Path Attenuation (Lp)

L p = 92.3 + 20logf + 20logD


L p = 92.3 + 20log13 + 20log28
L p = 143.5220277dB

Transmitted Power Output: 25dBm

Threshold Level: -86.5 dBm

Median Received Power

Median Received Power = Threshold Level + Fm


Median Received Power = -86.5 + 37.28418718
Median Received Power = -49.21581282dB

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Total Fixed Losses

Total Fixed Losses = ( waveguide loss + connector loss ) SiteA + ( waveguide loss + connector loss )SiteB
Total Fixed Losses = ( 5.42229 + 0.75 ) + ( 5.42229 + 0.75 )
Total Fixed Losses = 12.34458dB

Total Losses (TL)

Total losses = total fixed loss + path attenuation


Total losses = 12.34458 +143.5220277
Total losses = 155.8666077dB
Net Path Loss

Net path loss = transmitter power - median received power


Net path loss = 25dBm - ( -49.21581282 )
Net path loss = 74.21581282dB

Computed Antenna Diameter, d

Fade Margin = RSL - RTH


RSL = Fade Margin + RTH
= 37.28418718 + (-86.5)
= -49.21581282 dB

RSL = transmitter power output – connector losses(TX and RX) –


waveguide losses(TX and RX) + AGT – misalignment loss(TX and
RX) – AFSL – A0 – AH2O + AGR

-49.21581282 dB = 25dBm – (0.75 dB + 0.75 dB) – (5.42229 dB + 5.42229


dB) + AGT – (0.25dB + 0.25dB) - 143.6620277 dB -
0.219421637 dB - 0.564099437dB + AGR

AGT + AGR = -25dBm + (0.75 dB + 0.75 dB)+ (5.42229 dB + 5.42229 dB) +


(0.25dB+0.25dB)+143.6620277dB+ 0.219421637 dB +
0.564099437dB - 49.21581282 dB

= 83.07431595 dB

Let AGT = AGR = 41.53715798 dB

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At
8 log -1
3x10 10
d=
πf η
41.53715798
8 log -1
3x10 10
d=
π(13GHz) 0.55
d = 1.18m

Computations using the Computed Value of the Antenna Diameter

Tower Height

HT = HA + 1/ 2 (d)

Where HT = Tower Height, meters


HA = Antenna Height, meters
D = Antenna Diameter, meters

Site A: HT = 20m + 1/ 2 (1.18m)


= 20.59m

Site B: HT = 20 + 1/ 2 (1.18m)
= 20.59m

System Gain (GS)

2
 πfd 
A t = 10logη  
 c 

Site A:
2
 πfd 
A t = 10logη  
 c 
 π ( 13x109 ) ( 1.18 ) 
2

A t = 10log0.55  
 3x108 
A t = 41.52070645dB

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Site B:
 π ( 13x109 ) ( 1.18 ) 
2

A r = 10log0.64  
 3x108 
A r = 42.17887929 dB

G s = Fm + TL - At - Ar
G s = 37.28418718 +155.8666077 - 41.52070645 - 42.17887929
G s = 109.4512091 dB

Antenna Diameter

Site A: Computed Value: 1.18m (3.87’)

Site B: Computed Value: 1.18m (3.87’)

Antenna Gain (AG)


2
 πfd 
A G = 10logη  
 c 

Where AG = antenna gain in dB


f = frequency in GHz
d = diameter of the antenna in meters
η = antenna efficiency
η = 0.55 for transmitter antenna
η = 0.64 for receiver antenna
c = speed of light = 3 x 108 m/s

Low Band Frequency

Site A:
2
 πfd 
A G = 10logη  
 c 
 π ( 12.848x109 ) ( 1.18 ) 
2

A G = 10log0.55  
 3x108 
A G = 41.41854996dB

Site B:

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2
 πfd 
A G = 10logη  
 c 
 π ( 12.848x109 ) ( 1.18 ) 
2

A G = 10log0.64  
 3x108 
A G = 42.0767228dB
High Band Frequency

Site A:
2
 πfd 
A G = 10logη  
 c 
 π ( 13.112x109 ) ( 1.18 ) 
2

A G = 10log0.55  
 3x108 
A G = 41.59521821dB

Site B:
2
 πfd 
A G = 10logη  
 c 
 π ( 13.112x109 ) ( 1.18 ) 
2

A G = 10log0.64  
 3x108 
A G = 42.25339106dB

PATH LOSSES

Free Space Loss

AFSL = 92.44 + 20 log f + 20 log D

Where f = frequency used in GHz


D = total path length or distance in kilometers (km)

Low Band Frequency


AFSL = 92.44 + 20 log 12.848 + 20 log 28
AFSL = 143.5598712 dB

High Band Frequency


AFSL = 92.44 + 20 log 13.112 + 20 log 28

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AFSL = 143.7365394 dB

Oxygen Absorption Loss (Ao)

For frequencies below 57GHz:


 6.09 4.81 
A o =  7.9x10-3 + 2 +  ( 1x10-3 ) f 2 D
( f - 57 ) +1.5 
2
 f + 0.227

Where f = frequency used in GHz


D = total path length or distance in kilometers (km)

Low Band Frequency

 6.09 4.81 
A o = 7.9x10-3 + +  ( 1x10-3 ) ( 12.8482 ) ( 28 )
 12.848 + 0.227 ( 12.848 - 57 ) +1.5 
2 2

A o = 0.218195213 dB

High Band Frequency

 6.09 4.81 
A o = 7.9x10-3 + +  ( 1x10-3 ) ( 13.1122 ) ( 28 )
 13.112 + 0.227 ( 13.112 - 57 ) +1.5 
2 2

A o = 0.22033675 dB

(
Water Vapor Loss A H2O )
For frequencies below 350GHz
 3 9 4.3  -4 2
A H2 O = 0.067 + + +  10 fαD
( f - 22.3) + 7.3 ( f -183.3) + 6 ( f - 323.3) +10 
2 2 2


Where f = frequency used in GHz


α = water vapor density in gm/m3 = 12gm/m3
D = total distance or path length in kilometers (km)

Low Band Frequency

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 3 9 4 .3
A H2 O = 0 .0 6 7 + + + -4 2
(1 0 )(1 2 .
( 1 2 .8 4 8 - 2) 2 .3 +( 7 .3 1 2 .8) 4 8 - 1( 8 3 .3 + 63)
2 2 2
 +1120.8 4 8 - 3 2 3 .

A H2 O = 0.545749513dB

High Band Frequency

 3 9 4.3 
A H2 O = 0.067 + + + -4

(102 )(13.112) (12)(28)
( 13.112 - 22.3) + 7.3( ) (+ 6 3) - 323.
2 2 2
 13.112 -183.3 13.112 + 10 
A H2 O = 0.578035188 dB

Total System Loss (TSLoss)

TSLoss = RWL (Tx and Rx) + FWL (Tx and Rx) + Total Connector Loss
(Tx and Rx) + AFSL + A H2 O + AO + AMLoss (TX and RX)

Low Band Frequency

TSLoss = (4.29069 dB+4.29069dB) + (1.1316 dB+1.1316 dB) +


(0.75dB+0.75 dB) + 143.5598712 dB+ 0.545749513dB +
0.218195213 dB + (0.25dB+0.25dB)
TSLoss = 157.1683928dB

High Band Frequency

TSLoss = (4.29069 dB+4.29069 dB) + (1.1316 dB+1.1316 dB) +


(0.75dB+0.75 dB) + 143.7365394 dB +0.578035188 dB
+0.22033675 dB + (0.25dB+0.25dB)
TSLoss =157.3794913 dB

Total System Gain (TGS)

TGS = Tx Output Power (TxOP) + Antenna Gain (Tx and Rx)

Low Band Frequency


TGS = 25dB + ( 41.41854996 dB+ 42.0767228 dB)
TGS = 108.4952728 dB

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High Band Frequency
TGS = 25dB + ( 41.74120299 dB+ 42.25339106 dB)
TGS = 108.9945941 dB

Power Input to Receive (RSL)

RSL = Total System Gain (TGS) – Total System Loss (TSLoss)

Low Band Frequency


RSL = 108.4952728 dB - 157.1683928dB
RSL = - 48.67312 dB

High Band Frequency


RSL = 108.9945941 dB - 157.3794913 dB
RSL = - 48. 53088207dB

Power Input to Receiver (RSL)

Low Band Frequency

Parameter Function Value Unit


Site A: Transmitter
Transmitter Power Output Given 25 dBm
Connector Losses Subtracted 0.75 dB
Waveguide Losses Subtracted 5.42229 dB
Antenna Gain Added 41.41854996 dB
Antenna Misalignment Loss Subtracted 0.25 dB
Environmental Losses
Free Space Loss Subtracted 143.5598712 dB
Oxygen Absorption Subtracted 0.218195213 dB
Water Vapor Absorption Subtracted 0.545749513 dB
Site B: Receiver
Antenna Misalignment Loss Subtracted 0.25 dB
Antenna Gain Added 42.0767228 dB
Waveguide Losses Subtracted 5.42229 dB
Connector Losses Subtracted 0.75 dB
Power Input to Receiver (RSL) Computed -48.67312317 dB
High Band Frequency

Parameter Function Value Unit


Site A: Transmitter
Transmitter Power Output Given 25 dBm
Connector Losses Subtracted 0.75 dB
Waveguide Losses Subtracted 5.42229 dB

21
Antenna Gain Added 41.59521821 dB
Antenna Misalignment Loss Subtracted 0.25 dB
Environmental Losses
Free Space Loss Subtracted 143.7365394 dB
Oxygen Absorption Subtracted 0.22033675 dB
Water Vapor Absorption Subtracted 0.578035188 dB
Site B: Receiver
Antenna Misalignment Loss Subtracted 0.25 dB
Antenna Gain Added 42.25339106 dB
Waveguide Losses Subtracted 5.42229 dB
Connector Losses Subtracted 0.75 dB
Power Input to Receiver (RSL) Computed -48.53088207 dB

PATH CACULATIONS/LINK BUDGET

Low Band Frequency

Transmitter Power Output (TXPO) =25 dBm


Transmitter Losses (TL) = waveguide losses + connector losses+
antenna misalignment loss
Antenna Gain at the transmitter side (At)
Path Losses (PL) = free space loss + oxygen absorption + water vapor absorption
Antenna Gain at the receiver side (AR)
Receiver Losses (RL) = antenna misalignment + waveguide losses + connector
losses

RSL=TPO-TL+AT – PL+ AR - RL

Actual Transmitter Power Output = TPO-TL


= 18.82771 dB
Actual Antenna Transmitted Power = TPO-TL+AT
= 59.99625996 dB
Actual Received Power = TPO-TL+ AT – PT
= - 84.32755597 dB
Actual Antenna Received Power = TPO-TL+ AT - PT+AR
= - 42.50083317 dB
Power Input to Receiver (RSL)= TPO-TL+ AT - PT+AR - RL
` = - 48.67312317 dB
High Band Frequency

Transmitter Power Output (TXPO)= 25 dBm


Transmitter Losses (TL) = waveguide losses + connector losses+
antenna misalignment loss
Antenna Gain at the transmitter side (At)
Path Losses (PL) = free space loss + oxygen absorption + water vapor absorption

22
Antenna Gain at the receiver side (AR)
Receiver Losses (RL) = antenna misalignment + waveguide losses + connector
losses

RSL= TPO-TL+AT – PL+ AR - RL

Actual Transmitter Power Output = TPO-TL


=18.82771 dB
Actual Antenna Transmitted Power = TPO-TL+AT
= 60.17292821 dB
Actual Received Power = TPO-TL+ AT – PT
= - 84.36198313 dB
Actual Antenna Received Power = TPO-TL+ AT - PT+AR
= - 42.35859207 dB
Power Input to Receiver (RSL) = TPO-TL+ AT - PT+AR - RL
= -48.53088207dB

23
24
FADE MARGINS

Thermal Fade Margin (FMTHERMAL)

Low Band Frequency


FMTHERMAL = RSL- Receiver Input Threshold
= -48.67312317– (-86.5dB)

25
= 37.82687683 dB

High Band Frequency


FMTHERMAL = RSL- Receiver Input Threshold
= -48.53088207– (-86.5dB)
= 37.96911793 dB

Dispersive Fade Margin (FMDISP)

Since the dispersive fade margin is not given in the product specification,
it is assumed that the 4xE1 to 8xE1 = 70 to 80 dB dispersive fade margin and has
a dispersive factor of 3 for average propagation conditions.

FM DISP = 70dB

Diffractive Fade Margin (FMDIFF)

Since diffraction loss and clutter loss = 0, then

FMDIFF = FMTHERMAL

Low Band Frequency


FMDIFF = 37.82687683 dB

High Band Frequency


FMDIFF =37.96911793 dB

Flat Fade Margin (FMFLAT)

 -FMTHERMAL -FM DIFF



FM FLAT = -10log 10 10 +10 10 
 

Low Band Frequency

 -37.82687683 -37.82687683

FM FLAT = -10log 10 10
+10 10

 
FM FLAT = 34.8165687 dB

26
High Band Frequency

 -37.96911793 -37.96911793

FM FLAT = -10log 10 10
+10 10

 
FM FLAT = 34.95881797dB

Effective Fade Margin (FMEFF)

 -FM10FLAT -FM DISP



FM EFF = -10log 10 +10 10 
 

RD is the fade occurrence factor and considering a dispersive fade margin


of 70dB with an average fade factor occurrence of RD = 3.

Low Band Frequency


 -34.8165687 -70

FM EFF = -10log 10 10
+10 10 
 
FM EFF = 34.81525234 dB

High Band Frequency


 -34.95881797 -70

FM EFF = -10log 10 10 +10 10 
 
FM EFF = 34.95745778 dB

RAIN LOSSES

CCIR Recommendation 530 Rain Attenuation (ARAIN)

Interpolation Formula:

27
Mx = ( log f1 - log fx ) / (log f1 - log f2 )
kx = antilog [ log k1 - Mx ( log k1 - log k2 ) ]
α x = α 1 - Mx (α 1 -α 2)
Do = 35e−0.015R0.001%
DE = D/[1 + (D/ Do )]

Where Do = effective rain path length (km)


D = path length (km)
R0.001% = 180 @ N (Philippine Region)

γ = k x ×(R 0.001%) eα x
ARain = γDE

Low Band Frequency

Interpolation Factors

f1 = 12 GHz k1 = 0.0168 α1 = 1.217


f2 = 15Ghz k2 = 0.0335 α2 = 1.154
fx = 12.848 GHz R1 = 180 @ N

Mx = ( log 12 - log 12.848) / (log 12 - log15 )


Mx = 0.30599812

k x = antilog [ log 0.0168 - 0.3059981(log 0.0168 - log 0.0335)]


k x = 0.020750462

α x = 1.217- 0.30599812 (1.217- 1.154)


α x =1.197722118

Do = 35 e -0.015R0.001%
= 35e-0.015(180)
= 2.352192946

DE = D/[1 + (D/Do)]
DE = 28/[1+ (28/2.352192946) ]
DE = 2.169905898

28
γ = k x (R0.001%)α x
γ = 0.020750462 (180) 1.19772211
γ =10.43197121

A RAIN = γ DE
A RAIN = 10.43197121(2.169905898)
A RAIN = 22.63639585

High Band Frequency

Interpolation Factors

f1 = 12 GHz k1 = 0.0168 α1 = 1.217


f2 = 15Ghz k2 = 0.0335 α2 = 1.154
fx = 13.112 GHz R1 = 180 @ N

Mx = ( log 12 - log 13.112) / (log 12 - log15 )


Mx = 0.397148791

k x = antilog [ log 0.0168 - 0.397148791 (log 0.0168 - log 0.0335)]


k x = 0.022097792

α x = 1.217- 0.397148791 (1.217- 1.154)


α x =1.191979626

-0.015R0.001%
Do = 35 e
-0.015(180)
= 35 e
= 2.352192946

DE = D/[1 + (D/Do)]

Where Do = effective rain path length (km)


D = path length (km)
R0.001% = 180 @ N (Philippine Region)

DE = 28/[1+ (28/ 2.352192946) ]


= 2.169905898
γ =kx(R0.001%)αx
γ = 0.022097792 (180) 1.191979626
= 10.77923049

29
ARAIN = γDE
ARAIN = 10.77923049 (2.169905898)
= 23.38991582
Rain Fade Margin (FMRAIN)

FM RAIN = FM THERMAL - ARAIN

Low Band Frequency


FM RAIN = FM THERMAL - ARAIN
FM RAIN = 37.82687683 - 22.63639585
FM RAIN = 15.19048098 dB

High Band Frequency


FM RAIN = FM THERMAL - ARAIN
FM RAIN = 37.96911793 - 23.38991582
FM RAIN = 14.57920211 dB

RELIABILTY CALCULATIONS

Unfaded Reliability (R)

R = ( 1- U ) 100%
 K - Q  
-FM EFF

U =  1.3  10 10  ( f b ) ( d c )
 S  

Where K-Q = regional K-Q value = 1.9 x 10-9


S = standard deviation of the terrain
SD = 469.07
f = frequency, GHz
d = path length, km
b, c = regional climatic factor (b=1.2; c=3.5)
FMEFF = effective fade margin

Using:
K-Q value of 1.9 x 10-9
b = 1.2
c = 3.5
d = 28 km

30
fH = 12.848 GHz
fH = 13.112GHz

FM EFF( LOW BAND FREQUENCY ) = 34.81525234 dB


FM EFF( HIGH BAND FREQUENCY ) = 34.95745778 dB

Low Band Frequency

 1x10-9   -34.81525234 
 ( 12.848 ) ( 28 )
1.2 3.5
U LBF = 1.3  
10 10
 469.07   
U LBF = 2.763895087x10-10

R LBF = 1- ( 2.763895087x10-10 )  100%


R LBF = 99.99999997%

High Band Frequency


 1x10-9   -34.95745778 
 ( 13.112 ) ( 28 )
1.2 3.5
U HBF =  1.3  
10 10
 469.07   
U HBF = 2.740949948x10-10

R HBF = 1- ( 2.740949948x10-10 )  100%


R HBF = 99.99999997%

Rain Reliability (RRAIN)

( U 100%
R = 1- )
  
-FM RAIN 2
 K-Q
U =  1.3 10 10
 f (d b ) ( c
)
 S   


FM RAIN 2= FM EFF-A RAIN

Where K-Q = regional K-Q value = 1.9 x 10-9


S = standard deviation of the terrain
S = 469.07
f = frequency, GHz
d = path length, km

b, c = regional climatic factor (b=1.2; c=3.5)


FMEFF = effective fade margin

Using:

31
K-Q value of 1 x 10-9
b = 1.2
c = 3.5
d =28km
fH = 12.848 GHz
fH = 13.112GHz

FM EFF( LOW BAND FREQUENCY ) = 34.81525234 dB


FM EFF( HIGH BAND FREQUENCY ) = 34.95745778 dB

Low Band Frequency

FM RAIN 2 = FM EFF - ARAIN


FM RAIN 2 = 34.81525234 - 22.63639585
FM RAIN 2 = 12.17885649dB

 1x10-9   - 12.17885649 
 ( 12.848 ) ( 28 )
1.2 3.5
U LBF = 1.3  
10 10
 469.07   
U LBF = 5.07178855x10-08

R LBF = 1- ( 5.07178855x10-08 )  100%


R LBF = 99.99999493%

High Band Frequency

FM RAIN 2 = FM EFF - ARAIN


FM RAIN 2 = 34.95745778 - 23.38991582
FM RAIN 2 = 11.56754196dB

 1x10-9   -11.56754196 
 ( 13.112 ) ( 28 )
1.2 3.5
U HBF =  1.3  
10 10
 469.07   
U HBF = 5.982637475x10-08

R HBF = 1- ( 5.982637475x10-08 )  100%


R HBF = 99.99999402%

LINK 1 RELIABILITY

32
R = 99.99999402%

Computations using the Market Value of the Antenna Diameter

Use parabolic antenna with a diameter higher than the computed value which is
readily available and with a better rain reliability.

33
Use parabolic antenna with a diameter of 1.2 m (4ft) readily available in the
market and with a better rain reliability.

Tower Height

HT = HA + 1/ 2 (d)

Where HT = Tower Height, meters


HA = Antenna Height, meters
D = Antenna Diameter, meters

Site A: HT = 20m + 1/ 2 (1.2m)


= 20.545m
Site B: HT = 20 + 1/ 2 (1.2m)
= 20.545m

System Gain

2
 πfd 
A t = 10logη  
 c 

Site A:
2
 πfd 
A t = 10logη  
 c 
 π ( 13x109 ) ( 1.2 ) 
2

A t = 10log0.55  
 3x108 
A t = 41.66669122dB

Site B:
 π ( 13x109 ) ( 1.2 ) 
2

A r = 10log0.64  
 3x108 
A r = 42.32486407 dB

G s = Fm + TL - At - Ar
G s = 37.28418718 +155.8666077 - 41.66669122 - 42.32486407
G s = 109.1592396 dB

Antenna Diameter

34
Site A: Market Value: 1.2m (4’)

Site B: Market Value: 1.2m (4’)

Antenna Gain (AG)


2
 πfd 
A G = 10logη  
 c 

Where AG = antenna gain in dB


f = frequency in GHz
d = diameter of the antenna in meters
η = antenna efficiency
η = 0.55 for transmitter antenna
η = 0.64 for receiver antenna
c = speed of light = 3 x 108 m/s

Low Band Frequency

Site A:
2
 πfd 
A G = 10logη  
 c 
 π ( 12.848x109 ) ( 1.2 ) 
2

A G = 10log0.55  
 3x108 
A G = 41.56453473dB

Site B:
2
 πfd 
A G = 10logη  
 c 
 π ( 12.848x109 ) ( 1.2 ) 
2

A G = 10log0.64  
 3x108 
A G = 42.22270758dB
High Band Frequency

Site A:

35
2
 πfd 
A G = 10logη  
 c 
 π ( 13.112x109 ) ( 1.2 ) 
2

A G = 10log0.55  
 3x108 
A G = 41.74120299dB

Site B:
2
 πfd 
A G = 10logη  
 c 
 π ( 13.112x109 ) ( 1.2 ) 
2

A G = 10log0.64  
 3x108 
A G = 42.39937583dB

Antenna Misalignment Loss

Site A: 0.25dB
Site B: 0.25dB

Antenna Polarization
Vertical Polarization

PATH LOSSES

Free Space Loss (AFSL)


AFSL = 92.44 + 20 log f + 20 log D

Where f = frequency used in GHz


D = total path length or distance in kilometers (km)

Low Band Frequency


AFSL = 92.44 + 20 log 12.848 + 20 log 28
AFSL = 143.5598712 dB

High Band Frequency


AFSL = 92.44 + 20 log 13.112 + 20 log 28
AFSL = 143.7365394 dB

Oxygen Absorption Loss (Ao)

36
For frequencies below 57GHz:
 6.09 4.81 
A o =  7.9x10-3 + 2 +  ( 1x10-3 ) f 2 D
 f + 0.227 ( f - 57 ) +1.5 
2

Where f = frequency used in GHz


D = total path length or distance in kilometers (km)

Low Band Frequency

 6.09 4.81 
A o = 7.9x10-3 + +  ( 1x10-3 ) ( 12.8482 ) ( 28 )
 12.848 + 0.227 ( 12.848 - 57 ) +1.5 
2 2

A o = 0.218195213 dB

High Band Frequency

 6.09 4.81 
A o = 7.9x10-3 + +  ( 1x10-3 ) ( 13.1122 ) ( 28 )
( 13.112 - 57 ) +1.5 
2 2
 13.112 + 0.227
A o = 0.22033675 dB

Water Vapor Loss A H2O ( )


For frequencies below 350GHz
 3 9 4.3  -4 2
A H2 O = 0.067 + + +  10 fαD
( f - 22.3) + 7.3 ( f -183.3) + 6 ( f - 323.3) +10 
2 2 2

Where f = frequency used in GHz
α = water vapor density in gm/m3 = 12gm/m3
D = total distance or path length in kilometers (km)

Low Band Frequency

 3 9 4 .3
A H2 O = 0 .0 6 7 + + + -4 2
(1 0 )(1 3
( 1 3 .1 1 2 - 2) 2 .3 +( 7 .3 1 3 .1) 1 2 - 1( 8 3 .3 + 63)
2 2 2
 +1130.1 1 2 - 3 2 3 .

37
AH2O=0.545749352dB

High Band Frequency

 3 9 4.3 
A H2 O = 0.067 + + + -4

(102 )(13.112) (12)(28)
( 13.112 - 22.3) + 7.3( ) (+ 6 3) - 323.
2 2 2
 13.112 -183.3 13.112 + 10 
AH2O = 0.578035188 dB

Total System Loss (TSLoss)

TSLoss = RWL (Tx and Rx) + FWL (Tx and Rx) + Total Connector Loss
(Tx and Rx) + AFSL + AH2o + AO + AMLoss (TX and RX)

Low Band Frequency


TSLoss = (4.29069 dB+4.29069dB) + (1.1316 dB+1.1316 dB) +
(0.75dB+0.75 dB) + 143.5598712 dB+ 0.545749352dB +
0.218195213 dB + (0.25dB+0.25dB)
TSLoss = 157.1683958dB

High Band Frequency

TSLoss = (4.29069 dB+4.29069 dB) + (1.1316 dB+1.1316 dB) +


(0.75dB+0.75 dB) + 143.7365394 dB +0.578035188 dB
+0.22033675 dB + (0.25dB+0.25dB)
TSLoss =157.3794913 dB

Total System Gain (TGS)

TGS = Tx Output Power (TxOP) + Antenna Gain (Tx and Rx)

Low Band Frequency

TGS = 25dB + ( 41.56453473 dB+ 42.22270758 dB)


TGS = 108.7872423 dB

High Band Frequency


TGS = 25dB + ( 41.74120299 dB+ 42.39937583 dB)
TGS = 109.1405788 dB

Power Input to Receive (RSL)

38
RSL = Total System Gain (TSG) – Total System Loss (TSLoss)

Low Band Frequency

RSL = 108.7872423 - 157.1683958dB


RSL = - 48.3811535 dB

High Band Frequency

RSL = 109.1405788 dB - 157.3794913 dB


RSL = - 48.2389125 dB

Power Input to Receiver (RSL)

Low Band Frequency

Parameter Function Value Unit


Site A: Transmitter
Transmitter Power Output Given 25 dBm
Connector Losses Subtracted 0.75 dB
Waveguide Losses Subtracted 5.42229 dB
Antenna Gain Added 41.56453473 dB
Antenna Misalignment Loss Subtracted 0.25 dB
Environmental Losses
Free Space Loss Subtracted 143.5598712 dB
Oxygen Absorption Subtracted 0.218195213 dB
Water Vapor Absorption Subtracted 0.545749352 dB
Site B: Receiver
Antenna Misalignment Loss Subtracted 0.25 dB
Antenna Gain Added 42.22270758 dB
Waveguide Losses Subtracted 5.42229 dB
Connector Losses Subtracted 0.75 dB
Power Input to Receiver (RSL) Computed -48.38115346 dB

High Band Frequency

Parameter Function Value Unit


Site A: Transmitter
Transmitter Power Output Given 25 dBm

39
Connector Losses Subtracted 0.75 dB
Waveguide Losses Subtracted 5.42229 dB
Antenna Gain Added 41.74120299 dB
Antenna Misalignment Loss Subtracted 0.25 dB
Environmental Losses
Free Space Loss Subtracted 143.7365394 dB
Oxygen Absorption Subtracted 0.22033675 dB
Water Vapor Absorption Subtracted 0.578035188 dB
Site B: Receiver
Antenna Misalignment Loss Subtracted 0.25 dB
Antenna Gain Added 42.39937583 dB
Waveguide Losses Subtracted 5.42229 dB
Connector Losses Subtracted 0.75 dB
Power Input to Receiver (RSL) Computed -48.23891252 dB

PATH CACULATIONS/LINK BUDGET

Low Band Frequency

Transmitter Power Output (TPO)=25 dBm


Transmitter Losses (TL) = waveguide losses + connector losses+
antenna misalignment loss
Antenna Gain at the transmitter side (At)
Path Losses (PL) = free space loss + oxygen absorption + water vapor absorption
Antenna Gain at the receiver side (AR)
Receiver Losses (RL) = antenna misalignment + waveguide losses + connector
losses

RSL=TPO-TL+AT – PL+ AR - RL

Actual Transmitter Power Output = TPO-TL


= 18.82771 dB
Actual Antenna Transmitted Power = TPO-TL+AT
= 60.14224473 dB
Actual Received Power = TPO-TL+ AT – PT
= - 84.18157104 dB
Actual Antenna Received Power= TPO-TL+ AT - PT+AR
= - 42.20886346 dB
Power Input to Receiver (RSL)= TPO-TL+ AT - PT+AR - RL
` = - 48.38115346 dB
High Band Frequency

Transmitter Power Output (TPO)= 25 dBm


Transmitter Losses (TL) = waveguide losses + connector losses+
antenna misalignment loss
Antenna Gain at the transmitter side (At)

40
Path Losses (PL) = free space loss + oxygen absorption + water vapor absorption
Antenna Gain at the receiver side (AR)
Receiver Losses (RL) = antenna misalignment + waveguide losses + connector
losses

RSL=TPO-TL+AT – PL+ AR - RL

Actual Transmitter Power Output= TPO-TL


=18.82771 dB
Actual Antenna Transmitted Power = TPO-TL+AT
= 60.31891299 dB
Actual Received Power = TPO-TL+ AT – PT
= - 84.21599835 dB
Actual Antenna Received Power= TPO-TL+ AT - PT+AR
= - 42.06662252 dB
Power Input to Receiver (RSL)= TPO-TL+ AT - PT+AR - RL
= -48.23891252 dB

41
42
FADE MARGINS

Thermal Fade Margin (FMTHERMAL)

Low Band Frequency


FMTHERMAL= RSL- Receiver Input Threshold

43
= -48.38115346 – (-86.5dB)
= 38.12884654 dB

High Band Frequency


FMTHERMAL= RSL- Receiver Input Threshold
= -48.2389152– (-86.5dB)
=38.2610848 dB

Dispersive Fade Margin (FMDISP)

Since the dispersive fade margin is not given in the product specification,
it is assumed that the 4xE1 to 8xE1 = 70 to 80 dB dispersive fade margin and has
a dispersive factor of 3 for average propagation conditions.

FM DISP = 70dB

Diffractive Fade Margin (FMDIFF)

Since diffraction loss and clutter loss = 0, then

FMDIFF = FMTHERMAL

Low Band Frequency

FMDIFF = 38.12884654 dB

High Band Frequency

FMDIFF =38.2610848 dB

Flat Fade Margin (FMFLAT)

 -FMTHERMAL -FM DIFF



FM FLAT = -10log 10 10 +10 10 
 

Low Band Frequency


 -38.12884654 -38.12884654

FM FLAT = -10log 10 10
+10 10 
 
FM FLAT = 35.11854658 dB

44
High Band Frequency
 -38.2610848 -38.2610848

FM FLAT = -10log 10 10 +10 10 
 
FM FLAT = 35.25078484dB

Effective Fade Margin (FMEFF)


 -FM10FLAT -FM DISP

FM EFF = -10log 10 +10 10 
 

RD is the fade occurrence factor and considering a dispersive fade margin


of 70dB with an average fade factor occurrence of RD = 3.

Low Band Frequency


 -35.11854658 -70

FM EFF = -10log 10 10 +10 10 
 
FM EFF = 35.11713545 dB

High Band Frequency

 -35.25078484 -70

FM EFF = -10log 10 10
+10 10 
 
FM EFF = 35.24933008 dB

RAIN LOSSES

CCIR Recommendation 530 Rain Attenuation (ARAIN)

Interpolation Formula:

45
M x = ( log f1 - log fx ) / (log f1 - log f2 )
k x = antilog [ log k1 - Mx ( log k1 - log k2 ) ]
α x = α 1 - Mx (α 1 -α 2 )
D = 35e−0.015R0.001%
o

D = D/[1 + (D/ Do)]


E

γ = kx × (R0.001%)eα x
ARain = γDE

Where Do = effective rain path length (km)


D = path length (km)
R0.001% = 180 @ N (Philippine Region)

Low Band Frequency

Interpolation Factors

f1 = 12 GHz k1 = 0.0168 α1 = 1.217


f2 = 15 GHz k2 = 0.0335 α2 = 1.154
fx = 12.848 GHz R1 = 180 @ N

Mx = ( log 12 - log 12.848) / (log 12 - log15 )


Mx = 0.30599812

k x = antilog [ log 0.0168 - 0.3059981(log 0.0168 - log 0.0335)]


k x = 0.020750462

α x = 1.217- 0.30599812 (1.217- 1.154)


α x =1.197722118

Do = 35 e -0.015R0.001%
= 35e-0.015(180)
= 2.352192946

DE = D/[1 + (D/Do)]
DE = 28/[1+ (28/2.352192946) ]
= 2.169905898

γ =kx(R0.001%)α x
γ =0.020750462 (180) 1.197722118
γ = 10.43197121

46
A RAIN = γ DE
A RAIN = 10.43197121(2.169905898)
A RAIN = 22.63639585

High Band Frequency

Interpolation Factors

f1 = 12 GHz k1 = 0.0168 α1 = 1.217


f2 = 15Ghz k2 = 0.0335 α2 = 1.154
fx = 13.112 GHz R1 = 180 @ N

Mx = ( log 12 - log 13.112) / (log 12 - log15 )


Mx = 0.397148791

k x = antilog [ log 0.0168 - 0.397148791 (log 0.0168 - log 0.0335)]


k x = 0.022097792

α x = 1.217- 0.397148791 (1.217- 1.154)


α x =1.191979626

Do = 35 e -0.015R0.001%
Do = 35 e-0.015(180)
Do = 2.352192946

DE = D/[1 + (D/Do)]

Where Do = effective rain path length (km)


D = path length (km)
R0.001% = 180 @ N (Philippine Region)

D E = 28/[1+ (28/ 2.352192946)]


D E = 2.169905898

γ =k x (R0.001%)α x
γ = 0.022097792 (180) 1.191979626
γ = 10.77923049

47
A RAIN = γ DE
A RAIN = 10.77923049 (2.169905898)
A RAIN = 23.38991582

Rain Fade Margin (FMRAIN)

FM RAIN = FM THERMAL - ARAIN

Low Band Frequency


FM RAIN = FM THERMAL - ARAIN
FM RAIN = 38.12884654 - 22.63639585
FM RAIN = 15.49245069 dB

High Band Frequency


FM RAIN = FM THERMAL - ARAIN
FM RAIN = 38.2610848 - 23.38991582
FM RAIN = 14.87116898 dB

RELIABILTY CALCULATIONS

Unfaded Reliability (R)

R = ( 1- U ) 100%
 K - Q  
-FM EFF

 ( fb ) ( d )
c
U =  1.3  10 10

 S  

Where: K-Q = regional K-Q value = 1.9 x 10-9


S = standard deviation of the terrain
S = 469.07
f = frequency, GHz
d = path length, km
b, c = regional climatic factor (b=1.2; c=3.5)
FMEFF = effective fade margin

Using:
K-Q value of 1.9 x 10-9
b = 1.2
c = 3.5
d = 28 km

48
fH = 12.848 GHz
fH = 13.112GHz

FM EFF( LOW BAND FREQUENCY ) = 35.11713545 dB


FM EFF( HIGH BAND FREQUENCY ) = 35.24933008 dB

Low Band Frequency

 1x10-9   -35.11713545 
 ( 12.848 ) ( 28 )
1.2 3.5
U LBF =  1.3  
10 10
 469.07   
U LBF = 2.578298779x10-10

R LBF = 1- ( 2.578298779x10-10 )  100%


R LBF = 99.99999997%

High Band Frequency

 1x10-9   -35.24933008 
 ( 13.112 ) ( 28 )
1.2 3.5
U HBF =  1.3  
10 10
 469.07   
U HBF = 2.562795041x10-10

R HBF = 1- ( 2.562795041x10-10 )  100%


R HBF = 99.99999997%

Rain Reliability (RRAIN)

( U 100%
R = 1- )
  
-FM RAIN 2
 K-Q
U =  1.3 10

10


f (d b ) ( c
)
 S   
FM RAIN 2= FM EFF-A RAIN

Where K-Q = regional K-Q value = 1.9 x 10-9


S = standard deviation of the terrain
S = 469.07
f = frequency, GHz
d = path length, km
b, c = regional climatic factor (b=1.2; c=3.5)
FMEFF = effective fade margin

49
Using:
K-Q value of 1 x 10-9
b = 1.2
c = 3.5
d =28km
fH = 12.848 GHz
fH = 13.112GHz

FM EFF( LOW BAND FREQUENCY ) = 35.11713545 dB


FM EFF( HIGH BAND FREQUENCY ) = 35.24933008 dB

Low Band Frequency

FM RAIN 2 = FM EFF - ARAIN


FM RAIN 2 = 35.11713545 - 22.63639585
FM RAIN 2 = 12.4807396dB
 1x10-9   -12.4807396 
10 10  ( 12.848 ) ( 28 )
1.2 3.5
U LBF =  1.3  
 469.07   
U LBF = 4.731216567x10-08

R LBF = 1- ( 4.731216567x10-08 )  100%


R LBF = 99.99999527%

High Band Frequency

FM RAIN 2 = FM EFF - ARAIN


FM RAIN 2 = 35.24933008 - 23.38991582
FM RAIN 2 = 11.85941426dB
 1x10-9   -11.85941426 
 ( 13.112 ) ( 28 )
1.2 3.5
U HBF = 1.3  
10 10
 469.07   
U HBF = 5.593780969x10-08

R HBF = 1- ( 5.593780969x10-08 )  100%


R HBF = 99.99999441%

LINK 1 RELIABILITY

50
R = 99.99999441%

51