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'Table . .

of Cont e ~l s
Fau3 Kabrrwala
w* FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
Power Company
Llmlted / COMBI ~~ED CYCLE FUNDP, MENTALS
I
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO COMBINED CYCLE POWER GENERATION 7
. 1.1 COMBINED CvCLE FUNDAMENTAL THE0P.Y AND OPERATlON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Overvi ew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1. 1. 2 The Gas Turbi ne (Brayton) Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 .
1. 1. 3 The St eam-Wat er (Rankine) Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5'
1. 1. 4 Heat Recovery St eam Gen~r at or (HRSG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1. 1. 5 The Combi ned Cycl e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1 . 1 . 6 Rankine Cycl e Parameters and Effi ci ency . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.1.7 Combi ned Cycl e Parameters and Effi ci ency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1. 2 BENEFl TSOFTHECOMBI NEi I CYCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1. 2. 1 Operational Benefi ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.2 Envi ronmental Aspect s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.3 Repoweri ng and Economic .Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . 12
(3
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2. 0 GASTURBINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2. 1 Applicable Physics Concepts and Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2 Gas TurSi;?e Engine Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; 5
2. 2. 1 Gas Turbi ne Cycl e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2. 2. 2 Gas Turbi ne Engine Theory . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : 6
2.3 Gas Turbine Mai n Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : 7
2. 3. 1 Air Inlet Equi pment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7
2. 3. 2 Compressor . . . . . . . . . ". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 3. 3 Ccmbusti on Secti on T 1
P .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 3. 4 Turbine Secti on L -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 4 Gas Turbine Parameters and Efficierlcv 2 6
3. 0 HEATRECOVERY STEAM GENERATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3. 1 Gvervi ew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Functional Description 33
3. 2. 1 St eami Wat er Fl owpat h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. 2. 2 Gas Side Fl owpat h 31
3. 3 hRSG Characteristics . 3nd Design Ccinsiderations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3. 3. 1 HRSGGeomei ry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2
3. 3. 2 Exhaust Gas Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. 3. 3 Duct Firing 33
3.3.4 Stack Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 33
3. 3. 5 Bypass Stack And Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4
3.3.C Stress and F.,~tigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. 3. 7 Bl owdn\ vn 3 c
3. 3. 8 Selective C:italytic Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CTEAMTUEBINES 3E
4. 1 Turbine Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3f
C
4. 1 . 1 I\:ozzles and Their Prir, c i p l e ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3E
4. 1. 2 Sasic Turbi ne Type:; and Frinc . ~ l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 1. 3 Classification of Tu:-bines -11
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Fau11 Kablrw~/a [ VOL U~ I E I - FACILITY OVEFVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS Revi g3n:
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Power Somp,'n y i
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COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.0 INTEGRATED COMBl r\ : E3 CYCLE OPERATION 4:
5. 1 r\!orrnal St a r t up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44'
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 Co mb u s t i ~r Turbi ne St art up 4 C .
5. 1. 2 HRSGSt art up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45;
5. 1. 3 Steam Tu-bine St art up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 1. 4 Fast St art s 50
5. 2 Cperati ng Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5.2.1 Base Loae . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
> ; ,
5. 3 Shut down of Con~bi ned Cycl e Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
5. 3. 1 Normal Si-utdowr! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
5 . 3 . 3 Emergencv :';hu:dov~n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
I ~ml t ed
6.0 COMKNED CYCLE PEFFORhlANCE MONl TORl Nl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1 Intro3ucti on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. 2 Enerr,y Conversior Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. 2. 1 Energy Conversi on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.;: Energy Le~v i r i g the Plant 55
6.3 Pl ant Heat Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6
6. 3. 1 Gross Plan- t-!eat Rat e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6. 3. 2 Net Plant t !eat Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6. 4 Fac~c rs Af f ect i ng Plant Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 4. 1 Gas Turbin-: 57
6. 4. 2 Heat Fi eco~ ery St ear i Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6. 4. 3 St e a m Turt' i ri e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1
6. 4. L F.tlain Ccncl?nsi?rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
6.4.5 Eeser3tor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
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I
! Fauii Kabirwala VOLUME 1 - FACILITY ~ V E RV I E W AND PMNT FUNDAMENTALS IReYLllon: 5 1
1 0 INTRODUCTION TO COMBI NED CYCLE DOWER GENERATION
1 . I COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTAL THEORY AND OPEPATION
Dower Company
1 Limited
Thi s Modul e provi des an over vi ew of t he pri nci pl es and t heor y of zombi ned cycl e power pl ant desi gn 1 .
2nd operati on. The obj ect i ve i s t o provi de pl an' personnel wi t h a basic uqderst andi ng of t he maj or
cn111porlcnts of t t i c c o ~ ~ ~ t ~ i n e d cycl e power plan: and t l i e rol e of each con-' poncnt i n achi evi ng opt i r num i ) ; : r r i t
1
efficiency. I n addi t i on, thi s Modul e wi l l hel p thz? pl ant st af f devel op an aopreci ht i on f or t he uni que
i
characteri sti cs of t he combi ned cycl e power p1,:'nt.
I
1.1.1 Over vi ew
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There are many di f f er ent types c f pov.leV pl ant s ; ~c l udi r l q t h~r mb! ?' 5wer ~ I n n t s and h y i j r ~ u l i ~ po\ </ er
p 1 3 ~ t s . Thermal qower o! ant s bur n some sort r f f uel ( s t l r h ? c ' or r ' l or r l t l r l ear f t ~ c l ) t o ? ~c ' . ! c e heat RPC~: V
t t ~ ! is convert ed t o el ect ri cal ener gv t h-ougb 7 series oC i n t ~ r ~ r ~ r ' i - + e P~ CCL ? SSEL S. tl .. .? qdi c pr)wer F!L~R::;
ccnver t the pgte~tic3.1 ener gy of wat er t o el ectri -al power as i t 'Io.n,- I - : -- ?' gh?r r: !?\: er e' ~~+~, ~: i cn: :
COMBINEE CYCLE FUVDAWEYTALS
The "t r adi ' i oi a! " t+tlrrnal power cllant i q !he R;int-;nc r , , r ! c r12ni, named aJt er t he manf who i ~~ver : t ea
the cycl e. A ccv.,c-r ?:ant cycl e is a series of processes in whi ch a fluid, genel-ally via!?r/%eam, is user' :a
conver t heat energy t o mechani cal energy. Tk-3 R 2 r .;:- - 'cycl.. :- i t . - c: - - . i-?st f s r m ~17r r ; : t s c.! a boils;,
::~rhi!ie, a conderse:, n 3 3 bl;i!er f ccd aamn. 5arl y pl a! i t s had t herma; c.ffi ci enci es of appr oxi mat el y- 25% t o
30%. Only 25% t o 30% of t he heat energy i n t he f uel bur ned i n these pl ant s was cor i ver t ed t o electric.ol
energy. The rest vi as l ost i n vari ous ways. Rz>nkine cycl e pl ant s are sti l bei ng bui l t t oday.
File: cc.
The Ranki ne c3/ cl e has been ref i ned consi derabl y over t he years and made marc: ef f i ci ent by t he
adt f ~t i on of componcr l t s l i ke f eedwat cr heaters, superl i eaters, ari d rehcatcr-s. Tl i e ef f i ci ency of t l i e Rcl nh: c
cycl e has also Seen i mpr oved b y i ncreasi ng t hc pressurt- and teniperatur:: of [ l i e cycl e. One of :he i l i o s ~
ei:ic;e:it Rankirie cycl e pl ant s ever bui l t (Philad8:lphia El ect ri c' s Eddyst one pl ant, Uni t s 1 and 2) was pl ai (:d Iri
zervice aroclrid 19GO. The t hermal ef f i ci ency cf t he Edci ystone pl ant \-:a,; 42%. The '7.:. 7. :f th!:rn.!..:,y
2nd consi der a! i o~s sl i ch as mat eri al l i mi t at i ons have pr svent ed any si c~i ' i cant i r:i p:ovfmen! sl nce t hen.
Power pl ant s comr nonl y use heat rat e t.3 measure ef f i ci ency. t i eot rat e is rnea;ured i n ETU/i(lri:!.:
Thus, heat rat e z!~cws t he amount of heat i~ vTUs tha! i s rcc;Lireci t o ; >r - ~i - ' ~t cc a [.ilc:x::t:-h3ur of electr;: -!I
enPrgy. Thermal ef f i ci ency can be conver t ed t o heat r at e by usi ng t he conversi on f - - - - - ' 34' 3 BTY ec..:'s -
'/'!\'li". If a power nl ant coul d be bui l t wit!-) I@,)% ef f i ci ency, i:s heat rat e v ~ o u l d ' -2 ?.T13 ?TLJ/KV/t:. i ;
cont rast , the 4 2 % ef' i ci ency of t he Eddystone pl ant cor r espor ds t o a hcat rat e of ,21 ? G BTU,'K\Nh. Ti,: :!EL;
rate ~f the Kabi rwal a Power Generat i on Comp! ex vari es bet . aeen 7390-7090 STU.'K'SI9(46-46O/o thern-5:
ef f i ci ency) c! eper l i nc c n f ae! sel ect ! : -r, duct f - i ? ~ , 27:: 2mhi,-..' : c . ni ' i ' ; i- ..
Gas Tcrbi nes an5 Combi ned Cvcl e
The firs! pract i cal gas t urbi ne w;;s devc l oped i n Europe i n 1930. At t he el13 o: N' or l d Wa i 11, t r; _ i :rs:
zas t ursi ncs \.ve:? devel oped f or ai rcraf t . Sho::ly af t er :he war , t he first i:ldustiia! sar, ~dr bi nes f or po:.:r
product i on and ot her i ndust ri al appl i cati ons, scch as dri vi ng locomotives, were i nt r odcced. Ca: t , ~r bi r , c- s
? : ; O : ~ . P ~ ! ) r t ? $2: :i.i:l? ca!lt?d t he 9r'.ton c' 2 i . also named af t ?r i t s i r i ~~i ?. i t cr . T1:e firs! commer ci al , in(:. ; r i L
r )
~ 2 s tu:bincs \.itere rei st i vel y i nef f i ci ent , r y i ~ i c a l y h a v i ~ g tP,errn~!l ef ' i ci ei cy o i 'E,'/o !!c 17%.
As t5e gcts ;u:-b~ne i ndust r y maturer,. t t -e desi sn of gas turbi nec, i kc t ha: ci Rr.ni:ine cycl es, w a
~ n p r o v e d . Use of g a s t urbi nes i n t he pow?r u' i l i t y in:Iu?try i ncreased :tc:adil\/ f ro-? thei r i nt r cduct ~on i ;- : #- , e
l ate 1930' s. Gas rurbi nes r eached a peak a i ropul ?ri t.,l i n t he ear!y 1573' s. A: ! i t at tin:,:, t he gr owt h ;
demand for el ectri c power exceeded t he abi l i t , , of ;:I(; i r:dustry t o i neet r , l ?ct r i ca~ cem2n;l t hr ough addi:., r ! c i
Ranki ne cycl e plan:s al one. Gas turbi nes \ ' e r n at t ract i ue because :l:e\/ :auld be kl i i l t - - r i ~c! i mor e rapic:.,, [ her
nanki ne cyci e pi an~s .
I FauJl Kabj r Vdal a 1 VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVEFVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS I H e v i s ' " :
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j ?ewer Ccmpany I
I ~CI MBI NED CYLFE FUNDAMENTALS
I A ! E : ,CCf
i Limited I
The oil :risis of the early 1970' s brought a sur!den halt t o the popul ari ty of gas turbi nes for t h-t 2
reasons. First, almost all utility gas turbines use either gas or oil for fuel. The cost of these fuels wen: up
dramatically wi i i i e their avai abi l i ty went down. Seco,~dl y, the oil crisis brought renewed at t ent i on t o t : : ?
need for effi ci ency (gel ri ng i nore energy out of the fu,:l). Gas turbi nes of this peri od were si gni f i cs~~t l y i ess
ci fi ci ent than Fa17k;:)e cycl e pl ants. Typical gas turb: : : t herwsl efficiencies were 20% t o 25%. Finail\., the
r:rn~i-:asis on conserving ene-gv reduccd the rate of ir- -.ease in electrical power demand and thus the i- - 2d far
'IC.:.' :-3wer pl ~" l t s .
i
The gas turbine i ndustry has seen a resurgenct3 i n t he last 15 t o 20 years. Part of !his recovery :;as
:cs:;!!ed from s:eedy i ncr eas~s In gas turbine effi ci enc: due t o materi al and design i mprovements. Ac~c k2r
ca3se for grow!h i n :he gas :urbinc i ndustry has been t he growi ng popul ari ty of combi ned r:ycle pl ants. .A
,
co!rt\ir..?d c\ 71: ;I; ,n! c ~ n s i ~ . s of one or morP gas tur! 'i;es 1h3t drive ge!icrators anc' exhaust i nto a s pi 21 ,
sailer ~ : j l r , d -. . e:; -: . cc~er. ! 5 ! ~ r 1 l ~ g~797at 3r !I-!RSG\ 1 :: f i t > . . - , ~ s S; ==+~I [ pr 3 P + T ~ ; , ; ~ P <;,;rI(: y~::!.
I
On? of t h e ;~ri ri ci pal i,:asons for the pogu!nri ty :f the cornbined cycle power p!ants is their hi gh t >zrmai '
effi ci ency. Cor ~bi ned cycl e , ~l nnt s wit? thern-131 effi zi . - 5es as hiqh as 52% have b<?er: bui i t. C~n:l?ini>:. cycle
p!ants can achi':ve th1.x efii;l?ncies because much o, rhe heat f rom the gas turbi nei s) i s captured a~;:l _ s i . '
ie the ?anki ne ~: vcI ? psi ~i on. ,f :he pl a~: . Zefer t o Fig .,re 1-1 belo,/;l. The heat f r om the ext\zi i st gaser; :.12.
!;ormally be i os. :3 t he etrngr ?!lerc i n a silnplc gas tur ,ine c y c l ~ . .
Figure 1-1 Cr . ~nbi ~ ed Cycl e , ' oivcr plant
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/ Fau!i Kabi rwal a I VOLUME 1 - FACILITY GVEPV!EW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS IRevision: 0 j 1
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Anot her reason f or t he popul ari t y of combi ned cycl e pl ant s is t he rr?l ati vel y short t i me requi red for their :
const ruct i on. Al t hough i t t akes l onger t o bui l d 2 combi ned cycl e pl ant t han a si mpl e gas t urbi ne pl ant, a
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combi ned c\j cl e pl ant can be bui l t i n muc h less time t han a Ranki ne cycl z d a n t of comparabl e out put .
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Wwer Company /
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One of t he bi ggest obst acl es t o even greri ter accept ance of combi ned cycl e pl ar,ts is t he f act tha! t he
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gas turbi nes used i n combi ned cycl e pl ant s sti l l :)urn oi l and gas. Gas t ~ r t ~ i n e s bui l t t o date cannot bur n coal
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di rectl y. Of t en oi l and gas cost much mor e t har coal . Whi l e t he combi ned cycl e pl ant mi ght be mor e
1
cf f i ci ci . : ~ t her modynan~i cal l y t han a coal f i r ed pl cnt , t he coal pl ant mi ght b.3 l ess expensi ve t o r un b e c a u s e of !,
\ he l ower cost f or fuel . One sol ut i on t o t he hi gh f uel cost f or gas t urbi rei ; is t he develripmenL of gas t ui ' u~ne:.
that can burn coai . Whi l e t here have been experimental gas turkiines b ~ ~ i l ' wi t h this capabi l i ty, none ha),?
reached commerci al i zati on.
i COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMER'TALS
Natural gas is the most common f uel us r d by combi ned cycl e 92s t urbi ne power pl ants, Ir. receri t
years however, manuf act urers have desi gned 2-:c! bui l t gas t urbi nes wl ~i c"\an bur n vari ous f or ms of l o\ v and !
medi um Bt u gas. These l ow bt u gasses can be deri ved as a byor oduct o' t he refi nery process, or i n soni e
!
caws, produced t hrough a process ref erred t o r.s gasi fi cati on. 3ur i ng gasi fi cati on, sol i d f uel such as cczi or
wood is r out ed t hr ough a heat ed vessel of appr3xi rnatel y 1500-2000F. The hi gh t emperat ure envi ronment
causes an i mmedi at e release of vol at i l e gasses ' rom t he sol i d fclel; wi t h t.i e resul ti ng bypr oduct s of t he
gasi fi cati on process bei ng char, ash, and l ow- n?edi un~ B:u gas. Gas turb:r.es can burn t he resul t ant gas as
easily as na:ural 9as, and t hus i ndi rect l y can u?e wood or coal 3s a f u ~ l .
i
1.1.2 The Gas Turbi ne (Brayt on) Cycl e
1 !,mifed
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The fi rst maj or component of t he cornbi qed cycl e power pl ant is <he gas turbi ne. In instaliation.,
wher e t he gas i ur bi ne exhaust s di rect l y t o t he atmosphere, i t ir; sai d t o ke operat i ng i n a ' % p m e ;
[ node. When ;1 ?as turbi ne ex ha us!^ i nt o 3 b"-.t re( ? . ; : j c j l st eni n yt ner. ; t l : ( FRSG) ;rn i the resultan: .:I, ;.:I-$ i ;
3 5 ~ 5 !? oper at e :! s!earn t urbi ne g~, . i ~-. r; l t or, t - 7 : pl ant i s ef er r r r - !o ?s : I c3,nbi :i ed r\:c!:! n3v/eV plan:.
A ccmi nc, i srrrrngcmerit of : I ;;is t ar t ' i r dri vi ng ?n elc:ctric ger ..:I i:cr i; shown i n Figure 1- 2. T!.c:
basic g s s ! u r b i n ~ ~~r i ; i st : : o f a corrpressor, ;l ombust i r n sect on, ~ n c , s i ~ r b i n e s7cti :n. Ai r is drz%,vn ' - ' . - I
- --
the cor npr eGor ..,.+lh~c'i raises t he ai - pressure ' 1 a f act c- of 12 t o i r : I he ! em?cr 3' ur ? of !he air al sr .
increases v,,i:h conp?,i ;si an, and may he as ii : h as 603c a t t i c !:orr.Tr3 ..;or dl sci . 3r : e.
F Jure 1- 2 Si mpl e Cycl e Gas Turbi ne Co: ~f i gur at i on
' a . l n l e ~ ? d u a ~ ui G!)jsc1:;~?cll ~r , ~~; : . ' i l : ;ua:ql:Jrt q l ! ~ sax! w s?6 pal s: 7 ;;.a at; L . V- C a,.~!! /ic; F3:uasaJdal ,,
~ J ~ ~ . ~ ~ z @ u J I P at11 O! si sl s; l xa : ~ q .
.qi i c i : j i ;c ?u!l oos :)qi s! al3,43 ~ o i . I : I ~ 314) !.)I ! : ?3~, 2~3 I PUI J ~q- ; ,
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'yicr.'\ U I J C ~ ; - ~ ~ 21 p..s;l S: [:;i ::: 7:J5SSl. ! l o[! ;i ,: l o A ~ J T U ~
' r ~ , , ; . ~ ~ j - 3 - 1 2 71;: /,q p21uasaJ::;,
S! ' si l ! aJnl aul ~,':lno:'.il 5; ) s ; ?r ! 1, -:
se6 > . : I ) o 6~ !nos p: ~p uo~sur: ! : . ~7 r ?q: ; I C S ~ D . ;CI ~~141 a4fl
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,;a:: -:I JOSC':J~UIOC) all: l e JIP au: j r ? : : . l l l ci a: i ~~a: 21,; u ~ o ~ j /,i qe~ap!suo:
sas?aJzu! uo!i snqu_l o3 aq! 1-uoi: ~1; : - ;a1 ley ! se6 : 4: l o a ~ n i e ~ a ~ u ; ~ 3\11 . z- g ar!!l IL!) A q ~ a l u a s n ~ d a j
Ian! 1" E u ~ u ~ n q hq a~nssa.lc! i:!?ls:r?r' r' ;!? al3r 2 aq: .: i l eaq 10 uo! i ! pps : (11 SI r:ss?o:d ?l:o:ias a,,
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e q6no1qi J O S S ~ J ~ W O ~ aU!QJnl se6 a q l 01 pal dn 13 A113aJ!!l S! 4314h.1 aul '!"; Z Y l t:iOi; <GIPLII~!.:C yJ3M SI:;~
: wJoj l ad 01 (A61aua) JaMod a u l .a~nssa:d pue am ? ~ a d i u a l 40 w ~ o ; aqi L ,',f~?:1-3 ; ~ i j l SaiC 1s ;!E a:Ji ' ~ f e a:;]
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:'O auop s! YJOM sv ' Adleldiua u! a s e a ~ ~ u ! E~u! puod~ ~ J J O ~ e s! aJaql pcre sa:,crJ?u! a ~ n s s a ~ d pue a ~ n : e ~ a d u ~ z ~
SI! ' passa~du! c3 s! J!E aqi s v ' gy au!l a q l .q pa:ua<aJdaJ ~ossa~. ! ul o- , aq: 2i i ! p l o uo!ssa!-?uo3 al.1;
s: 5,-:q=o.rd isl!! at/& c- a ~ n 5 i ~ ~ u! rue16e!p u - 1 a q i u o , J M~J Q aq ue:, a13A3 ~lo:Ar:.; aq: LI! ssa:oid q3"3
.1n33c ssacl o~d l e q l ayew o: oa~l nbal l eaq JO l u r o w r c u i s! a ~ n 3 a:;l l apun e 3 ~ e 2.1; .
I: ~: ?er p q - 1 aqr u o aAJn3 e se p a j u a s a ~ d a ~ aq ue3 s a 3 o ~ d e 11 .a(:,A:, e ui 11-3-10 S S ~ ~ C J ~ P ~ P L U 01 p3l l f l ba~
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?P?IJ 4 0 ?unowe a q l sloaAaJ 11 asne3aq sal3A3 ~!LLIP Apou~au! 6u;zAleu ) UI I nj >qn SI i ue~r j ei l > 4 - 1 al l 1
'yJo-A op. 01 A6~2ua l o Ai ! : f qel ! err act! s eq! i 3s a~ l evl ~n3uel - r r ?s 4 0 A:?nd . ~ d e s! Ad;eqlu-j
. Sl XF! IBlUOZ!JOIj ai l 1 u o ( q) Adl cqi ua ptie s!xe [ ~ Z J ! ~ J ~ A aq? uo pal uasa d n ~ s! li-) a ~ n l e i a d u ~ a i ' aj sA3 au!qJni
sPS ai l 1 6u! p~l 3u! sapA3 i uel d J ~ M O ~ j o a 3 u e w~ o p a d a 11 azA1eue pue a!ellsnll! o l APM l u. a! uan, ~o3 e s! we ~ 6 e ! p
c;--L a l l 1 ' C- L a ~ n 6 ! j u! u ~ o q s we~6e! p (4-1) Adl ~l r l ua- al r l l e~adur al e u o pa: uar ; a~da~ al e a13A3 uol Ael a 211:
j c ?assa301d Jnoj aql ' a p A3 uol Ae1g a q l se 01 pa.iJ;ijaJ s! au!qJn] se5 F l o ~ , ' o i : , ? ! u e u Ac o w~ a q l aq.1
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'LJ,()OL 1 01 035 j o aFur ?~ aql u! hll1?3!dAi ii
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?: . , cJnl se6 aql . i uoJj pal snet l xa ] eaq a q l ' l ol e~auaf i ? ~ UI A ! J P Aq J ~ M O ~ a3npo.d 01 al qel l nAr s! ~ J O M aUlqJnl
nt l i 10 I ~ P UI F UI ~ J p q l . J O S S ~ . I ~ L U O ~ a q l aA!Jp 01 p:-:n s! ' 0/ ~0g l ncq? ' au!qJni a q i uo.1) y.lo:n aql l o u o q ~ o d
a 5 , ~ l . ~ J O M o p 01 pasn st l e q l A6~aua l e3! uet pai i 1 r i u ! pal ~ar \ uo3 S! se6 a q l 4.2 ~ 6 ~ a u a IeLuJaql ai l 1 ' uo! l 3as
aul q~n) aq] q 6 n o ~ i l l 6u!loor, pue Gu!puedxa l o s s a33~d a q l ul .au!q.!rii 6u! i ci ct ~ aql j3 sape!? a y l 01 A61aua
;e:-i;Jaql sl! d n 6 u ! ~ ! 6 ' spuedxa I! a.iaqM uo! l 3as au! qi r : a q l sj al ua se6 l o q s ! q l . A6~aua I E W J ~ ~ ~ alqeJap!suo3
i l i l ~ seG a ~ n s s a ~ d q f i ~ q ' a ~ n l e l a d wa l q6!11 et u! s1ln.a~ Ian4 aql 6u! u~ng . A6~aua i eaq ol u! ! $6~aua l e3!uaL:3
. ~ g r ? l aqi IJaAuos 01 p a u ~ n q pue l ! e passa~duro:, au. oi u! pal3a!u! s! tan! ' uo! l n?s uo! l snqu^13 a( l l ul
I L .
1 - FACILIT., O*.:ERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS IRevision: @
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Lim1:ed
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Fi l e \ c c f
T%e amount of heat t hat is requi red t c make t he Br ayt on cycl l ? ' work is represent ed b y t he arecl underl
l i ne 8-C. The f r act i on of heat t hat i s rej ect ecqs represent ed by t he a wa under t he l i ne D-A. The area
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bet ween these t wo lines represent s t he heat that i s conver t ed to usef i rl mechani cal energy. The h, ea~ i
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conver t ed t o usef ul mechani cal ener gy i s 20'% t o 250: of :he to:al h e ~ t requi red t o ~ n a k e t he process wor k. I
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To anal yze si mpl e cycl e perf ormance, dat a for a t ypi cal gas t ur . ~i ne is' shown i n Fi gure 1-4. TI , ? fic;iir'
s h o v ~ s the energy suppl i ed and ener gy o u t p ~ ~ t f r om a t ypi cal gas turbi rl e cycl e. The dat a shown refle;:s
operat i on at 100 percent l oad. The dat a is based on an ambi ent t emperat ure of 59' F and si t e al t i t uce of
1,700 f eet above sea l evel . Energy suppl i ed b y t he f uel i s 925, 000, 000 BTUi hr based upon 37, 910 io!hr of 1
gas fuel wi t h a heat i ng val ue of 1000 BTUISCF (SCF - Stanc' ard CuLi c Feet). The power out put of t ne gar;
t ur bi ne is 81, 074 KW.
Overal l ef f ~cl ency of t he gas t urbi ne 1 . 29. 92Y~. The t emper at ~l r e of t he exhaust gas IS 990F snd
exhaust gas f l ow IS 2, 577, 856 I bsl hr. Since t hi s exhaust gas s t ? r ! ~ " 7' 7 p h f l pt t p-Perqt : i rp as alr 03d f , ~ r l
considerable energy IS used t o hea: t he gas ' o such a h ~ g h t Pmper at ur 3
If t he heat energy added t o t he exhavst gas was con, / ert ed t o 9l ectri cal energy i n t hi s instan,-!!, an
addi t i onal 179 MW coul d be generat ed b y t be cycl e ( over t wi ce t he el ect ri cal power act ual l y generai i -d).
pract i ce, ~t is i mpossi bl e to conver t al l of [hi:: heat energy i nt o usef ul t 3nergy. Howr ver , i t LS possibie to
r ecover a l arge f ract i on of t he heat energy ir t he exhaust gas by opor;i ti ng !he gas t urbi ne i n a c o m~ l n e d
cycl e. In a covbi ned cycl e pl ant , some of t L. e exhaust hear energy s used i n a Sai -,ti ne Cycl e.
Fi gure I - C Gas Turbi ne Per f or r nanc~ 4nal ysi s
1. i . 3 The St eam- Wat er (Ranhi ne) Cycl e
-.
r;c ?h~i.:ine Cyc' e used in coi l \ . , ~n: i : .ial t her r , al pci p.er plarl;s c a n be represi t nt zd on s T-' :: .:;'?I
>.; v:~th :ze Er ayt cn Cycl e, eaci- line sr : y~: : ~t i n tk,c cfiagrar-,i ccr r espc~nds ro a ,)roc 2ss i n t he cycle:
-? s4 .,;,
2' ;~n;ti ne C\:c!e corlsists of onl y f our c,-;lmpor 2nts; ti:^: boilc: ;o't:n c31 ed a st car t i g i ner at or ) , a t u: xr .:, 3
O c ,ndenser, an:i 3 boiler f eed pump. 'he 5::-.~pl e 2sn;:ine Cy;.le is s! i 3\ vn on t ! i e T-i- d~dyr ar n ' n FiL,.i i -5 i .
mus t be not ed t i a i the i l l ust rat i on uses a t7..iler wi t h a superhzat er t ' i cs t he tempe-a:ure of t he ::;: .-I-,
crite:incj t h ? ;irrbirle is above satura:ion t ei ~3er at ur e.
5
/ T
o
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- CCMDENSER
/ LC. r
Fi qure 1-5 Rankir ,. Cycl e T-h Di agr am . SZV&*
,1L:2 t
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i, The br s+ process In t i l e Ranki no Cycl e 1s t he ir :rease i n pressure of t he condensat e f r om t he
condenser by - 7e bo~l er f eec pump. The i ncrease i n F -essure occur s wi t h a sl i ght i ncrease i n ent hal py. T i e
Increase i n er7t.-gy whi ch thr t ) o~l r r f eed pump adds t i t he cycl e is represent ed b y l ~ n e 1- 2.
VOLUMS, I - FACILITY OVER\/IEW AND PWNT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
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Th? second Rank nr 3ycl e process (Li ne 2- 3) i t he addi t i on o f heat (represent ed b y O) t o t he n i : o r
cr ~t eTi ng the bc-iler. Wi t hi n tq(: boi l er, t he wat er i s t r a ~ ~ f o r m e d f r cni a l i qui d t o a gas ( st eanl ) . The gt.n:;3rio::
r .
o[ str:arn ! s zs::l;rn~.d t o 0cci . r a k l corl st ant pressure. ;:Jditional ener gy is added t o t he st eam as i t p<j : :es
: hr ouct , t he ~u,;:?r;-~e;:ter j i 17, : . ! : ! A -i i e st eam is t hen t panded and cocl ed as i t passes t h r 3 l ~ g h t he turr; . e 2s
rep:-e.jc-n!cd b\: I ; r - i 2-5,. :-!c:-e, :I-.;, r:nC?rgy of i he st e? .i is used t o per f or r r wor k.
,,,;-\
'' ' The 13s: [:r~!ci?ss i l l t t . e Ranki ne Cycl e is t he cc:idensa;;on cf the stearr! tila: exhaust s from t he :.!r.bine,
repre<entt.d by i171r; 5-1. D ~ ~ v i n g c!3nd(:nsa:io!i, consi c l rabl e heat, cal l ed t he heat of vapori zat i on, is Ins:
FaujI Kabl f wal ~
Power Cornpap y
Llmlted
The 'ie; t reqc.ired t o make t he Ranki ns Cycll: , j ork is det er mi ned by t hc area under t he l i nes be!\../eeri
poi nt s 2 t o 4; . ! nd t he heai I3r;t f rom . he c y c e is und r t he l i ne betkveen poiryts 5 and 1. The area be:v:een
t he lhnes reore:en;s !he he3: :hat s ci nver t ecl t o use' : I mechavi cal energy. The usef ul rpechani cal er f r r ; y is
oni y abcut ' ' 3 ci' t he heat r ?cui r nJ t c make :he cycl t .!ark.
G ~ T I ~ ? ? r 6 c r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,
?ar-~kirir- Cyr l c perfor.nr~r;cc. cz7 be anal yzed b
: ?f e: r~ng t o t h~: t , qp~cal { s i r ~ l i f ' e d , i de3! 1zed) gowe:
! i I ~ i ? : c\ / ci e S~IC\ J. ; T! :I; i i 91i r ' 1- 6. 51e;rm pressure at
t i - ~e r ~ r o i n e :nil t :: : 4C'Z i!si i : nd tcniperal1.1re is
! 0 3 0 ' F. The . , i i i ~i , - nc y oi t hi s id~.;lized plan: is
' $1 . 5 O / j . The e: f f c. er : cv ci 3 real Fankir:e c,,icle ~ i j i f h
I . , "
L : . C .;:>me ,:!,.:i _:r:-,t.;c!l LVC. J d t;e ~ , h j e : - t h i r l ;he i des.
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:,;CI?. As: ~; a! - < . a ; I.I:.~: c\; C , C C' : I C: :ilc ,; is ! :\, ; I - i h j n
[ ! >a! ca;cL2i z:c,:. *, -- ., .!- i j e cvc: e a . j nt - . In arr;,,t:;e,
p,;t,7pl,,;: c, )871, 2 - . , - , < f , - i , ,. , ,-.?;,,: . - . -. r . : ! i ?e f, -cm 205 , 111 : ? ? 3 ' C.
F' gure 1-6 Basic Power Pl ant Cycl e Ef f i ci ency
Act ual Ranki ne cycl e pl ant s are consi derabl y mor e compl ex t han t be si mpl e cycl e shown i n Fi gur? 1- 5
secaose component s such as f eedwat er heaters a r t added t o i mpr ove eKfi ci ency. Whi l s most of t he addi t i ons '
:o t he Rankine cycl e i mpr ove i t s ef f i ci ency, t hew are al so f act or n i n a real Ranki ne Cycl e t hat t end t o make i t I
less ef f i ci ent .
caulikabirwala
Fo wer Company
L~mrted
Not all of t he chemi cal ener gy s u p p l i ~ d :o t he boi l er f r om t he f uel i s absorbed by t he st eam.
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Typi cal l y onl y 85% t o 90% of t he encr gy inpu! i s ab$orbed. T i ~ s means t hat t he boi l er i s onl y
85% t o 90% ef f i ci ent . I
Addi t i or ~al auxi l i ary equi pment , such 7s f ans and soot blower:;, uses par t of ' he power pr oducad
(usual l y ar ound 596).
1.1.4 Heat Recovery St eam Generat or (HRSG)
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Vd~OrjlE ?C FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLAYT FUNDAMENTALS
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COMBINED CYCLE FUMDAMF~~TALS
The HRSG is basi cal l y a heat exchanger composed o f a series of .I corheat er, F \ TPqrqt rr, and
ccnv,p- lzpr sect i ons These sect l ons are posi t ~o?ed f r om gas ~ n l e t t o gas 2uLlet t o f l a x ml ze heat r ecovt ?,
?.om the gas t dr b~ne exhaust gas. The heat r ecr ver ea I n t he HESG IS ~ s e i l o suppl y st eam t o t he stearn
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t ur b~ne at the proper t emper at ur e and pressure.
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I n the s ~mpl e cycl e mode of operati on, t ht ? t emper at ur e of t he exhaust gas l eavi ng a gas t ur b~ne can bc
3 s h ~ g h as 1 10O0F, and f l o w r at es can be as h ~ s I as 3 million pounds per l our . Hi gh t emper zt ur e gas
.epresents a source of heat energy, some of w h ~ c h can be recovered i f thc means t o do so are ava~l abl e
E.y
recovering scme of t h ~ s wast e heat, t he out put n d t he ef f i ci ency 3f a pol ver pl ant can be i ncreased
The f cnct i on of a heat r ecover y st eam gr ner at or ( HQSG) is t o recot!er t he wast e heat available i n
:hese exhaust gases and t r ansf er t hat wast e hea: t o wat er and st eam. TTI-e heat r ecovcr ed i s used t o
ger er at e st eam at hi gh pressure and hi gh tempeS.ature. The st eam is t hen used t o oenerat e addi t i onal po+der
n a st eam turbi ne dri ven generat or. The HRSG provi des t he cri t i cal l i nk bet ween t he gas t urbi ne and the:
?anki ne cycl e i n a cornbinecl cycl e pl ant . The FZSG i s a key campoqent i-i combi ned c i c l e ef f i ci ency.
Combi ned cycl e ref ers t o a power pl ant ir whi ch
;. S,jS T . L, l r t ~ i n e i s ;",>grat-31-! wi t h a Ranki ne cycl e uni t .
pq! GP. S 7 b ., ,.- I -., RANKI NE
"anki ne cycl e makes use of much of t he he;,t i n
'T"Jf?B;NE V : ! ; j y , CYCL E
CYCL E
the gas !urbine exhaust gases. Ther modynar ni c. ~~l l y,
:he combi ned cycl e can be r epr esent ed by joinin.; t he
I h i ~ h ti l rnpernture Br ayt on cycl e wi t h t he modera*e
F EJECTED
oresscre and t emperat ure Ranki ne cycl e. An ex.?mpl e
i a combi ned cycl e showi ng t he Br ayt on cycl e ( gas
: urki ne) and the Ranki ne cycl e ( st eam turbi ne) 0? a T-h
;:;ag:am 1s shovdn i n Figure 1-7. The area enclor;,?d by
:ne Rznki ne cycl e s -,vithin t he area :hat reprej e-l t s t he
T
. . . . .
r t eor rcjectec! f r om :hc Br ayt on cycl e. Thus, the . . . . . . . . . .
( . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . I _
7nnki ne cycl e area represent s t he hezt energy i P3t i s . . - . . . . . . .
::li;er t ed t c usei u mechani cal energy t hat wcc: r i
;:i.ier\::iss be rejec:ed t c :he at mosphe- e.
...... I : : : . : . . : ' : :
... . . . . . . . . . .
A largc po:tlor~ of t he heat 10s. f r om the 7 r ayt on
, - -
: , cl e i s useci In t he Ranki ne cycl e. A much grez ,;i-
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I :,action of the hea: added t o t he cycl z is actual1 CI I
I
\ - sn~, er t ed t~ usef cl mechani cal energy i n t he co. l bi ned
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1
zycl e t han either t he Br ayt on cycl e or t he Rari ki -9 Fi gure 7-7 Combi ned Cycl e T- h Di agram
cycl e al one. The Ranki ne cycl e par amet er s (pressure and t emper at ur e) are sel ect ed t o mat ch t he tr:n;::-rctu:.
of t he avai l zSl e gas turbi ne exhaust gases. Usual l \
:he pressure and' t empcr at ur e used i n t he Fi anki ! ! ~ :zb,~rle
por t i on of th.: combi ned c i c l e pl ant are muc h l ower t han t hose used i n convent i onal Hari ki ne cycl e ;;i;.,.iis.
The l ower pTessure and t emper at ur e are necessary ':~ecause t he gas t ur bi ne exhaust gas, whi l e verk b ~ r , is
not nearl y as ho: as t he : I . J ~ gas en:ering t he c onv ~c : i on pass of a convent i onal f i r ed boi l er.
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The chal l enge i n jo ni ng t he Sr ayt on and Rari ki ne cycl es i n a combi ned cycl e pl ant , is t he degrec o f
'
i nt egr at i on needed t o maxi mi ze ecf i ci ency at an eccl nomi c cost . The si mpl e Combi ned cycl e can c o ~ s i s t of a
single gas turbi ne, HRSG, st eam t urbi ne, condenser, and auxi l i ary syst ems. I n addi t i on, i f t he
envi r onment al regul at i ons requi re, an emi ssi ons r edi ~c t i on syst em can be di r ect l y i nt egr at ed wi t hi n t he YRSG. '
A var i et y of mor e complex conf i gur at i ons are possi'-rle.
1.1.6 Ranki i e Cycl e P..~rarneters and E' f i ci ency
1
The ef f i ci ency of !be Ranki nc cycl e i s i nf l uerl ced b y t he conf i gur at i on of t he pl ant and t he st ea: ni wat c
t
condi t i ons i n t he cycl e. I r order t o achi eve t he hi gl ) est overal l combi ned cycl e pl ant ef f i ci ency, t he ef i i ci cnc'
of bo:h t he C' rayton cycl c 3nd t!,e R3nki ne cycl e mL st be compr omi sed.
For t he Ranki ne Cy:le, t he hi gher t he st eam -r?ssure and t emperat ure, t he mor e ef f i ci ent t he c i c l e.
Fur i her moi e, t he st can, rii 1s: be sur ~er heat ed far ab. )ve i t s sat ur at i on t emper at ur e t o pr event condenss! ; on 3 :
i t passes t hr cugh t he st eam t ur ki ne. As an exa,np!f:, i n a cycl e wi t h i ni t i al condi t i ons of 241 5 psi g a:.d
1000aF, t i l e .;tean.i is heat3ci 3E3"F above saturati or.~ and t hus is sai d t o have 388F of super heat . T' t 21e
mi l st be a soJrce of heat t +ai is hot:er t han 1000F in order t o heat t he st eam t o 1000F. I n a typic:.) boi l er.
the fi rebai i a i d hot flue g 3 ; es (anproachinc_i 2000,'F) ~ r o v i d e t har hi gh t emperat ure.
R'vi"on: :
\ C C ~
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The ti :!n?erzture of exhaust !]as fro[,- 2 t yp : , i gas t ur bi ne is l ower t l i an t he f i ue gas i n a c o r ~ v ~ ~ itio1:-!
fi red boi l er, L ;ually 900 t o 1100F. Si nce !I:I-, t er r : -rat ure i s rel at i vel y l o w compar ed t o t he c ~ n v e r ~ t i ~ i ~ a ! ,
fi red boi l er, t i e maxi mum pressure t 5at t he ti,3SG L. ! n have and sti l l pr ovi de adequat e superheat i s 1ov:er t h ~ :
t he firs?d boii!:r f ound i n t hc convent i onal Ran':.lne c:,!::le. Typi cal i ni t i al st eam condi t i ons f or a combi ned cyi ' c:
pl ant are 530 psi g and 90CF. St eam at t hi s ;:.rss::i -2 and t emper at ur e has about 368F of superhe:it. Thc
rei bt i vel y l o w pyessure and t emper at ur e make t h y F,; i ki ne cycl e por t i on of t he combi ned cycl e pl ant 1t . j ~
ef f i ci ent t han t he Ranki ne cycl e i n most conventi on;. pl ant s. None t he less, t he use of a rel at i vel y i i ~! Ti c i ?r , t
9anki ne c y d c t oset her w: t l i :he ~ j z s t ur bi ne i n a C C i l :~ned cycl e, makes t he overal l cycl e ef f i ci ency iii-,ner
t har a can\ . / ert i onai Rankin;. cycl e al one.
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
.
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
'
a
A n c i n ~ r cri t i cal paramet er t hat af f ect s t he ef ci ency of t he Ranki ne cycl e i s t he pressure i n t he
condense:. In general , t he l ower t he condenser pres ;ure ( t he hi gher t he vacuum) , t he mor e ef f i ci ent t e
Ranki ne cycl e can be. The f act or s that det ermi ne :h . condenser pressure f or a gi ven l oad o n a rank,^:: cycl e
uni t are t he cc' ndi t i on of t he conde-i ser (especi al i y n c .v cl ean t he t ubes are) and t he t emper at ur e of thi.
c i r c ~ l a t i n g :verer. The l o v ~ c r t he c i r c ~ l a t i n g wat er te .lr,erature, !he l ower t he condenser pressure and :t7us
t he rnore el i i cent tCle Rankrne cycl e. The desi gn ,?ni c?;-erating consi derat i ons f or :he condenser of 5
c~r . i : i ) i ~ec! i ' : , ci ? gi ant are t h? same as t hose f or e 1- 0. \ : , ; l t i onal Ranki ne cycl e pl ant .
FJuli Kabfrbt'al,
Power Company
Llmlted
1 . I .7 Co~nhi ned Cycl e Parzlrneters a n d Ef f i ci ency
Tkt e 7 ; : i ns of t' ie ga; t ur b' ne 3nd thr. Rcnki r ~t c,jcle i n the combi ned cycl e pl ant requi res som.
con?pr cm~scs ( - 1 con1poner.t ef f i ci t ncy i n order t 3 ass -e t he max; ni um overal l combi ned cycl e pl ant
effi: er,:y. ';.I ex;;nip;e, i f !hl: ef i r ci ei cy of i he gas : . . r ~r i e was maxi mi ze,d wi t hout r egar d t o t he ef f ~: _ ~ c y
o f t l -2 i:lari? :;I a whol e, t he Rsnki ne cycl e por t i on of : . >e pl ant mi ght be adversel y af f ect ed. Maxi ni i z; n] gas
t urbi ne efirrrcr:y coul d rescrl; i n an oi peral l rt?ciuction l i t l i e combi ned cycl e ef f i ci ency. Si mi l arl y, ii th.
Rank nc cvc' ~: . l or t i on wer e , -nodi f i ed i . ~i t hout regard t
i ~ ? gas :urbine, t he gas t urbi ne ef f i ci ency r n i ~ i ~ :
decrcase an:: ; l wei the overal i plan; ef f i c i e~, - y .
4 T wo pri nci pal i ssues must be consi dered i~ t he combi ned cycl e per' ormance. hc f i rst i ssue i s t he
ni ti al st eam condi t i ons i n t he Ranki ne cycl e. - h ~ hi j her t he i ni ti al st eam pressure and :emperature, t he mor e
ef f i ci ent t he Ranki ne cycl e. Gas t ur bi ne exhaust t emper at ur e det ermi nes t he upper l i mi t s o n Ranki ne cycl e
i ni ti al condi t i ons; t he hi gher t hat t emperat ure, tt-o hi gher t he Ranki ne cycl n pressure and t emper at ur e can be. 1
Hi gher gas t urbi ne exhaust t emper at ur e al so ber ef i t s t he Ranki ne cycl e because t he hi gher t l ~ e t en~per at ar e o' ~
:he gas turbi ne exhaust t he mor e t her mal energ\, (heat ) is avai l abl e t o t he FRSG.
Hi gh gas t ur b~ne exhaust t emper at ur e is r' esirahle f or hi gh Panki ne cvcl e ef f i ci ency. The mor e e f i ~ c ~ c n *
the gas t ur b~ne IS, t he l ower i t s exhaust gas t er r 3er at ur e. Accor di ngl y, scl ne compr omi se IS requi red
I
bet ween gas t urbi ne ef f i ci ency and Ranki ne cyc ? i ni t ~al c o n d i t i o ~ s .
' Gas t ur b~ne exhaust t emper at ur e i s al so a concer n when :he gas t i l rbi ne is at less t han f ul l l oad.
gas t ur bi ne dri ves a generat or t hat i s r ynchr on~zed t o an ei ectri cal di st r i but i on syst em, t he i bi L;l ne
1,
speed I S const ant regardl ess of t he l oad. The ccrnpressor opera;es at ti-e same const ant speed and t hus
Fauli Kabirwala
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY CVERVIEW AND PIAN- FUNDAMENTALS
Pgwer Company I
limited COMBINED CYCLE FU~IDAMEFITALS
provi des the same amount of air t o t he combust on secti on, regardl ess of t he amount of f uel bei ng bur ned.
The resul t is consi derabl y l ower f i r i ng t erhperat ui es and exhaust t emper at l j r e at r educed l oad. The r edbced
t emperat ures cause bat h t he gas t ur bi ne and Raf ~ki ne cycl e ef f i ci enci es t o fal l as t he l oad is reduced.
' , 1
\ ccf I I
I n ol der gas t urbi ne desi gns, t her e was nn wa y t o r emedy t hi s pr ot l em. I n newpr gas t urbi ne desi gns,
air f l ow t hr ough t he compr essor can be control l r-d by adj ustabl e I nl et Gui ce Vanes (I GVs). The cont r ol is
1
done by changi ng t he angl e of at t ack of t he IGL's i n operat i on. A t r educed loads, t he l GVs can be adj usred
t o pr oduce a l ower air f l ow and mai nt ai n hi gh eyhausl t emperat ures at reciuced l oad. The range of l oad over
whi ch thi s met hod is ef f ect i ve is rel at i vel y smal !, t ypi cal l y f r om 70% t o 100% of ful l l osd.
he second pri nci pal i ssue i n combi ned c /cl e ef f i ci ency is t ?e gas :urbi ne exhaust pressur.. The
pressure at t he gas t urbi ne exhaust is t he same .as t he pressure 3t t he HR">G i nl et . As ! ?xt l aust pressl i re
Increases, the vel oci t y of t he exhaust gas t hr oui i h t he HFiSG t ube bundi l s al so i ncr easr s.
Heat t ransf er i n t he HRSG is pri nci pal l y c' 2nvect i ve heat t ransf er. -he ef f ect i veness of convect i ve : ) cat
:ransfer is part i al l y dependant on vel oci t y. As tL!e vel oci t y of t he exhaust gases i ncrease, t he heat t r ansf zr
,ncreases al sc. Thus, HRSG ef f i ci ency i mproves as t he gas t ur b' ne exh;u';t pressure in,:reases. Thi s is,
however , t he opposi t e of what is desi rabl e f or 93s t[:.kin~: ef f i ci ency.
Heat t ransf er can be i ncreased wi t hout i r cr easi ng gas t ur bi i e exhr ust pressure Sy addi ng mor e rclljes
i n t he HRSG whi cl i i ncreases t he heat transfer ~ ' ~ r f a c e arca. Th? i ncreased cost of t he addi t i onal heat
:ransfer surf ace area may, however , out wei gh t he i ncrease i n gss t urbi ne ef f i ci ency.
For t he si mpl e cycl e, i ncreasi ng t he pres:ure rat i o i ncreases gas tu-bi ne ef f i ci ency whi l e i r*creasi ng
fi ri ng i emper at ur e can decrease ef f i ci ency. Ho~.:ever, i ncreasi ns t he f i ri nc t emperat ure i ncreases t he gas
t urbi ne out put . For t he combi ned cycl e, very h i h pressure rati os resul t i r ~ l i t t l e i ncrease or even a decrease i l l
i or nhi ned cycl e ef f i ci ency. Increases i n fi ri ng tcx-npersture al waos resul t i.1 an i ncrease i n combi ned cyc12
ef f i ci ency.
3esi grl ers of combi ned cycl e pl ant s musr compr or i i se t he ef f i ci ency of t he gas t urbi ne and t he
?anki ne cycl e, especi al l y t he HRSG, in order t o ~ p t i mi z e !he per' ormance ci t he combi ned cycl e. By desi gn,
:lie pressure rat i o is I i r r l t ed sornewl -; at and t he e, ~haust pressure is sligh.-l\ hi gher t han ~t woul d be wi t h : h e
gas : ur L~ne operat i nc in si mpl e cycl c~. Thi s opti r-i i zati orl !]as resul t ed i n ccmbi nec! cyc! e ef ' i ci ency as hig-I 2s
32?/b. F\ ~t i ! r e inrrt?a:ec i n 93s tcrbi :,e f i ri ns tcrr.)erat:!:e: cocl d 3 i o d ~ c c combi ne? cycl.2 ef f i ci ~nci es as ilii]'i
25 c,393.
1. 2 BENEFITS OF THE CQVBINED CYCLE
-
The demand for c o ~ b i n e d cycle power plants ilds increased dramarically over the last decade. Trre
1
principal reasoq for :his increase in popularity i s prob3bly the fact that combined cycl e plants offer the most
,
efficient, provrn technology for generating steam anc!or electric power commercially available today. T:)ere
'
are other reasons for the increase i n popularity howe,~er, including availability of gas and oil fuel, nioCer2::e
capital cost, and short constructi on schedule as compared t o conventional Rankine cycl e plants. This Sczt i oi i
describes t he r~encf i l s of conSi nod cycl e technology.
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1.2.1 Operational Benef i t s
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~ a u j i itabiiivaia VOLUME 1 - FAC~L~TY OVEQV~EW AND PUNT FUNDAMENTALS
Power Comp~ny '
COMBINED CVCL'E FUNDAMENTALS
Limited
Vany cf the benefits of combined cycle techn2logy are related directly t o operat~onal benefits. Those
,
benefits are described bel ow.
Eff~ci oncv
I
I
devi sl l ~" G
File: ,ccf
Recent ;~dvances i n gas turbine technology have increased effi ci ency whi l e maintaining high avail
a n d reliability rc~ti ngs. Manufacturers, such as Gener ~ Electric, have implemented design advancements
cooling and aerodynamics to boos: the efficiency of t' -[ei r simple cycl e MS7000F gas turbine t o over 355,.
This is a significant i mprovcri ent c ~mpar ed t o the GE frame 5 units of the 1970' s that had thermal
efficiencies of :!2 - 23%. S~eci al l v developed hi gh strength alloys and improved coatings ha::fe allowed f i r i n~l
teniperatures tc exceed 2300F. These gas turbines '.ave simple cycl e efficiencies comparable t o
conventional fo;sil-fired pnw2r plants.
Other e:.icicncy imp:cvr?rnenis have c3me f r or l ~ enhancements i n the fol l owi ng areas:
Inlet guide vane &:sign
Corn:~ressor blade design
Tighter compresscr and :i ~rbi ne clc3rances
Improved turbine rozzles, ' ~ucket s, and shrc..~:-is
irnprclved combustion syst :ms
Ezirlv irid.jstrial gas :cr')ines Inert? relatively unre ia2le when compared to steam turbines in Rankin,
c:/cle pl ani s. Ar:var:cc.d gas t ~r bi ne ciasigns t.3ve resuli:d i n greater reliability and higher availability.
A\.lailability i s a l-,ieasure o i reliability : t i _~t is e.rsentially L7e r 11io of the time the machine was available :c,
produce power t 3 the time thr. unit si l oi ~l d ha\/e been r i - l i ne. Since the early seventies, gas turbine
availability has irIcreased frorn as l ow sr: 7 O0 h , t o over ::0%. Drojected availability for newer models can ce
as high as ?45/0 >.viti: 3000 ho Jrs MTI;F (Mean Ti me Be:ween ;-aiiures). This is better than the availabil;:) cf
many conveni;o;?al Rankine c)cl e pl ai ~rs. Im:~rovement- in reliability are mainly due t o improved material: and
'designed-in' red.~ndan:y of critical at:ccssor:l corr,pone?ts; es;ccially i n the control systems. Building
:edundan~:y in:a .3 dr:sign enscrfs that ??ere ,s at laast i 3ne back - up component to perform a functi cn so \ . . at .
!he failurr! cf 2 s i . 1 ~ 1 ~ cori pont,nt docs r o t r i . s ~ l t ir: a fc,ct--d out>ge.
Beyond th?rrnal effi ci encv and reliability gai rs, c mbined cycle olants can offer consir'erable c.pe:;.;r,,;
I , - , . , ~ x , ~ i I i ~ v . .:i. In n-ia- y cmbi neo crycle pl ani s, the gas iurbine <.an be operated simple cycl e or i n the cornbi r!i d
ni cde. This feati l re requires : h- ' nst?l ati r' !l of a by1:)ass 5tac k and cai i l per between rhe con.1'3usticn t ur t i , s
cs:iac;st and tl?e - I RS G. The d.jrr,pe: car; be posi i i cned . 2 ?ire:: the gss turbine exhaust gas to either the
s. vp3ss stack or !he HRSG. US? of a bypass dampe. all( .vs th: gas turbine to be placed i n operati3n whlii.
t he Rankine Cycl e por t i on o f t he pl ant i s. shut down. Fl exi bi l ' t y can be ext ended t hr ough t he addi t i on of
:
mul ti pl e gas t urbi ne HRSGs; afid ste3,ry turbines. However . i ncreased f l dxi bi l i t y c o r ms at t he cost of grea[ er
4, @ .,
compl exi t y. I
~a u i l Kablrwal3
OVERVIEW AND P L ~ T FUNDAMENTALS
Po~ver Company
1 Lirnrted COMBI ~~ED CYCLE RJNDA~IENKALS
I
an kine Cycl e power pl ant s equi pped wi t h f i r ed boi l ers sf t en requi re several / l ours, or every days, I:,!
I
go f r om col d i ron t o base l oad operati on. The maj or i t v of t he sta-tup process is spent preheat i ny t ! ~ e boi1i.r /
and st eam t urbi ne t o pr event t hermal stress ;!nd f at i gue t o t he equi p-n?~r,t. Because convent i onal ( R a : ~ k i n ~ j
Cycl e) power pl ant s operat e a t such hi gh ternperatures and pressure, tCley are consi r uct ed wi t h
i
heavi er/thi cker mat eri al s desi gned t o wi t hst 3' l d t he desi gned operat i no condi t i ons. T o i ncl ude; t he t urbi nc
shell and rot or, !he boi l er drums, and t he fi r? bri ck i n t he boi l er f urnace. These heavi er l t hi cker materi al s
I
require a very sl ow and gradual heat up process t o br i ng t he pl ant t o base l oad operat i on.
I
3
File ;ccf
Combi ned cycl e power pl ant s, o n t he ot her hand, operat e at l o\ ver t emperat ures and pressures anc art:
therefore const r uct ed wi t h l i ght er materi al s. The gas t urbi ne por t i on c f a combi ned cycl e pl ant can tje
brought f r om col d i r on t o f ul l l oad i n a mat t e- of 10 t o 20 mi nut es dependi ng upon :he part i cul ars oi :he un: , ,
I'
The pri mary l i mi t i ng f act or o n t he gas t urbi np ramp-ra:e i s t he heat up of t he HRSG. However , sinct. P R S G
are made of l i ght er materi al s t han coriventior.tal boilers, t hey can of t en be br ought t o f ul l st eami ng ccnditio-8 .
i n an ti our or less. Thi s i ncreased fl exi bi l i ty ::ver convent i onal Ranki ne Cycl e pl ant s resul t s i n reducec! cos:s ,:I
ni anhours and downt i me, and i ncreased revrri ue i n bei ng able t o gene-at e power i n 3 short peri od oi l i me
1
Hi oh Deqree of Cont r ol and A~i t oma! i or i wi t h Mi ni mal Moni t or i ns
1
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Present day gas t urbi nes i ncorporat e s hi gh degree of automati ' 3n and cont r cl / moni t or i ng capabi l i t i es'
!ha: make t hem qui t e si mpl e t o operate. Ga.; t urbi ne cont r ol syst ems sre based on di gi t al componen:s and
techni ques t hat al l ow f l exi bi l i t y and hi gh r el i ~hi l i t y. The capabi l i ti es of :he cont rol s i ncl ude aut omari c rtar!:!p,
syncl i roni zi ng and l oadi ng t o r at ed load, con-pl et e moni t ori n?, and pr o- ect i on of t he gas turbi ne f r om unsaf e
operat i ng cont i i t i ons.
Ei gh cont r ol syst em rel i abi l i ty is achit;ved by r c d u n d a ~ t cont r ol sensors, con!rol l ers, and final contr;l
elt:n7ecits (i . c. , [ emperat ure and f l ow cont r ol iralves et c. ) . Cont i r uous moni t or i ng is pr uvi ded o n grapni c
comput er screens and t he operat ors i nt erf ac' ? wit!] t he gas t urbi ne is t ~ r o u g h kevbo;~rds or ot her devces.
The comput er baser1 syst ems empl oy bui l t -i n di ag~~os t i c s ancl troubl est oot i ng routi nl ?s t hat anal yze z- , ~_!
correct operat i on 2nd co: ~t r ol probl ems. -11;: use of redundznt comaor7rjnts al l ows on-l i ne repl acern?ri t of
boards and sensors thar ar a~~i r y s i c al l y acce:;;iblc ?i;ring ope:ation. A! of t hese fea:ures ccnt r i but e 1 2 t hc
iricreasc i ,l aut omat i on and mi ni mi ze t he rie.3 for opcrat or i nt eract i cn .'or norni ai t urbi ne operat i on.
1.2.2 Envi r onment al Aspect s
Over t he past decade, gr owi ng concc-;i i for t he envi ronment ha; l ed t o strict:?r st anoards regz:r!irig C J I ~
emi ssi orl s and i ndust ri al pol l ut i on. NO, emis.;ions are a pr oduct of e%ver\i ai r-f ed corri bust i on process, ; r i c l ~ d ; n ]
t hose .in t he gas :ur-bine. NO, emi ssi ons are L;uspected of cont ri bu: i rg t o several at mospheri c pr ocus_ds t l l i t
are ei ther k nown or t hought t o be degradi nc t o t he envi r onment . Amcng t hose pro,:!:sses are aci d r:,.n, fcrc.::
and veget at i on decl i ne, and changes t o t he - zone l ayer.
Power pl ant s are responsi bl e f or abor t one- t hi r d of t he z~;:nunl ?JO, emi ssi onz. LJtilities have i..;,:r.~
. .
f or ced t o add n e w equi pment or modi f y cj : l i ! l ng equi 2ment t o comp' y i-:ith recent r.:gcla!ions. Tht.5.:
addi i i ons an:! modi i i ca: i ons have proven :o e bs:h expensl..e arid L'm? cons~r:-.in:;.
Ges i uroi nes and combi ned cycl e p!2. t s hcve ;,rcven t o cper ai i , w. t h si gni f;c:i ntl y 10.~vver ~r ni j ~. : - : s r. i
con:ar;iinants t o t he air t han ol der Ranki r , ~: ;cle 1;lsn:s. Emissions i n( lade SUIPIICI~ i i oxi de, ni troger, L , s i d i . ,
;i:id part i cul at es. Anot her envi rc~nrncri tal L\c:.efi t of I!-ie combi r ed c\;,cl 2 pl ant is rel ared t o i t s hi gh ei i : I cn~ :.
Ey operaiincj mor e ?f f i ci ent I y, less fuel is i !~s,r,ed i , ~ r a giver) elec;ric;:l : i t put r es8~; : i : ~c; i n f ewsr COI TI L~. : ; : ~~?
by- pr oduct s. : i nat ural gas is i i red, c~!lpl:d: 1i oxi i : - (S9,) anid pzrtic.11; t:: er ni ssi or : ~ - 1 - t . - \ ?g! i g bl e. >. ' - a,
acfvances in j;om!~ined cyc!e techno!ogy have yielder! ~nodi f i cat i ons i n the process whi ch reduce emissions
even further Several of these rnodifications are listl:d bel ow: -
St ear / Wat er I n i e c m - Injecting steam or vi ater i nto a gas turbi ne' ? combi ~st or has proven t o
0
s i gni f ~~ant l y reduce KO, emissions. Steam i rsi de the c ~ ~ n b u s t i o n zone t ~as a quenchi ng effect \:!hich
supprmses NO, formati on by as much as 70nb. Steam/water i nj ecti on also increases power o u t ~ u t ,
but reduces combined cycl e effi ci ency sl i ght;,/.
Revlslgn: 3
File: \cci
Fauli Kabirrfi/ala
Power Com,?an y
L~ml tea
f
Low r\10, Burners - ' Jodi fi cati gns in gas turbi i t? combustors have resul ted i n l ower NO, emissions by
adeqi .atel y prerni xi rg the air and fuel upstreem of the combustor and provi di ng more stabl e control of
fuel.and air i n the c3mbusti on process. The low NO, burners reduce the amount o f excess air, contrv
flame length, and reduce flame temperatures all of whi ch reduce the formati on of NO,.
VBLCIME 1 - ~ACI LI TY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CWLE FUNDAMENTALS
Selec{cve Catalytic ;<eduction [ SCRI - SCR is . : ! process in whi ch ni trogen oxi des are removed by !he
i nj ecti cn of aqueolJc ammonia (NH,) i nto the ' l ue gas upstream of a catal yst structure. The ca;3lyst
causer. a chemicril rf ?act i oq that converts the nitrogen oxides t o elemental ni trogen and wat er vj por .
The SL R uni t, generally l ocated wi t hi n the HFSG, offers a NO, removal effi ci ency of up t o 90%
In addition to reducc,d air emissions, cornbineri cycl e power pl ants generally operate wi t h less tl i ?rmaI
pol l uti on of crloling water s.surces, and reduced con::~mption of wat er and natural resources. Also, t h? space
required t o bui l d a combined cycl e faci l i ty is significantly less than f or conventi onal Rankine Cycle plan:s. Al!
of the,se envir3nrnentel fact3rs a:e ccnsidered by Put !ic Utilities Commissions in granti ng licenses t o b~ i!d
new power pI;ints. The les; :he ervi ronrnental i mpart , the more l i kel y a license wi i l be granted. Acc3:dingly,
the di ffi cul !y ; nd risk af cor n~l et i ng the licer,sing pro.ess required for a combi ned cycl e pl ant is less tk.1 . n that
for a c3rnpara;,le, co~vent i c n;.~l, Ra~k i na Cycle pl ant.
.
*
! .2.3 Repowering end Eco. 1~ mic k s pc . : t s
Repnw(:ring is a rerrr [; :nerzlly ;,pplied t o :he .epl acement of the boiler i n an older Rankine cycl i plan!
wi t h a gas :ur!)ine and HRSG. The reslllt is a con bin , d cycle pl ant wi t h greater capaci ty and effi ci enci than
the ol d Rankin,? c':/cie plan!. R:powerir3 wi t h ad~,,nc ?d gas turbines and HRSGs can i mprove overall ;, ant
thermal effi ci ency by more t+a,? 20?h. Repo~veri ncl c,l n also triple total plant electrical capaci ty. Repov~eri nrj
of t en h3s the ; dvnnrage oC I ~ei ng more economical, p,,r cost of ki l owat t generated, than other opti ons j ar
addi ng capacit .I.
While rt?po..:crir,g is r ormaliy thought of as the conversion of an older Rankine cycl e plant,
modi fi cati ons c an also be r-I: de t o existing gns turbini plants operating i n simple cycl e. Modi fi cati on r ; ! y
i nvol ve the adclit!on of the a~j propri ate duct v/ork t o a Ii ew HSSG and Rankine Cycle components. S O I : , ~ 92:
. .
t ur b~ne power -, l an: s are bull I.:-, run in simple cycle !r! al l y and are later converted :o combi ned cycl e
confi gurati or v. her? I ' ! e econ2rnic conditions are fauor :!,le.
The am,:uni 3 : me rt quired t o I ?power a plan. , so has a significant econorriic i mpact in poke. - .jl;lnt
constructi on. C epe?dir?g u ~ c n equiprnc:nt sixs and cor ~p exitv, delivery and cor,s!:uction of a gas turb,,.,:
combi ned cycle po1..$,cr plan: ':an be co-rlpletec i n jilst i~,vc.: a year; much less time than required for
cons!ruci i on 3f :n:~vt?n:i oni ' 3ower p!ants. Shorier cc.i structi on time generally results i n a si gni fi cant
aecrease in ove.all cr!:;t. In 3 j ~ i t 1 0 r i , tP,e systcrn cep~:. ' cos! is typi cal l y l ovi as a result o i smaller,
s:andardized co. nr?cr, cr, -s, rr>c dula: constructi on, rapid ,-ri:ctior,, and mi ni mum support system costs.
To underst and t he desi gn, f unct i on, operati on, and cont r ol of gas turbi nes i t i s f i rst essent i al t o grasp
t he underl yi ng pri nci pl es. Thi schapt er addresses t he t heor y and pri nci pl es of gas t urbi ne desi gn and
operati on, as wel l as t he const r uct i on, classifi,za!ion, and characteri sti cr; of gas t ur bi r es.
1 Faull Kab/rwa/~
Power Company
I L~rnifed
2.1 Appl i cabl e Physics Concept s and Laws
a To underst and basi c gas t ur bi ne engi nc t heory, one must be fami l i ar wi t h t he ~ h y s i c s of t he gas
t urbi ne engine. The f i ve physi cs concept s wb; ch appl y t o t he operat i on of a gas t urbi ne engi ne are:
--
VOLUME 1 - FACILITV OVERVIEW AND PUNT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
1. Bernoul l i ' s Pri nci pl e
2. Boyl e' s Law
3. Ct ~ar l es' Law
4. newton',^ Law
5. Pa s c a ! ' ~ Law
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Bernoul l i ' s Princinle
i
I f an i ncompressi bl e f l ui d f l owi ng t hr ouqh a t ube reaches a cons!riction, or nar r owi ng of t he tube, t h? I
vel oci t y of t he fl ui d f l owi ng t hr ough t he cons!ric!ion i ncreases and t he Fressure decreases. Fi gure 2- 1
illus:rates Bernoul l i ' s Principle.
As i l l ust rared i n Fi gure 2-1, Chamber A is
under pressure and is connect ed b y a t ube t o
Chamber 8, whi ch is also under pressure. Chamber 1 0 , 90 100
A is under stati c pressure of 100 psi . The precsure
at any poi nt al ong t he connect i ng t ube ( Poi r t X)
consi st s of a vcl oci t y pressure of 10 psi. Added is
-.-.).. . ..- ....
the unused st at i c pressure of 90 psi, whi ch c' l eys
Pascal' s Law and operates equal l y i n all di rectl ons.
As t he f l ui d enters Chamber B f r om t he constri:ted
space, it is sl owed down. I n doi ng so, i t s vel oci t y
head i s changed back t o a pressure head. ,4 e
POI NT X
Therefore, t he stzti c pressure i n Chamber B is [.qua1
t o t hat i n Chamk8ei A; al t hough i t was l ov~- - , r at
Figure 2-1 Bernoul!ils Pri nci pl e
i nt ermedi at e Poi nt X.
The i l l ~st r at i on (Fi gure 2-1) di sregards f i c t i o n and is not encount ' ?red i n act ual pracri ce. Force cr he:irl
is al so requi -ed t 2 overcome f r i ct i on. But , unl i l e i nerti a ef f ect , ?hi s forcc cannot be r ecover ed al thougt; t he
energy represent ed sti l l exi sts somewher e as h8?at . Therefore, i n ar! a c ! ~ a ! syst em t he pressure i n Chamber 3
wocl d be less !!>an i n Chamber A. Thi s is a r es' l l t of t he amour t of pressare used i n os!ercorning f r i ct i or al ori ;
the wav .
A! all poi r t s i n a syst em, t he st at i c pre::;ure is al ways t i l e origina st at i c pressure less any vel oc~: y
head at the pci ri t i n q ~ ~ e s t i o n . I t is al so jess thr f r i ct i on head c3nsurned n reach' ng t h ~ t poi nt . Bol h v ~ : L.CII~.
h03d ari d f r i ct i on rc:>rcsent energy t hat came f r om the ori gi nal stati c h r a j . Energy cannot ' be destr0vt.i :. Sc
the sum of ri l e s t ~ r i c head, vel oci t y head, anc! ' r i ct i on at any p3i nt i n t h ~ syst em must add up t o t he 011cjl:-:al
st ai l c head. T ! ~ i s [Per,, is Gernoulli' s principle, . nore si mpl y sta-ed; : f a n~n- compr essi bl e f l ui d f l owi ng r : ~ r o u c t ~
a t ube reaches a ; o~s! r i i t i on, or nar r owi ng of t he tuhe, t he v e l ~ c i t \ , of f l i i d f l owi ng t kr oug' l t he const r :lion
i ncreases, and t he pressure decreases. Be r n o ~ l i ' s pri nci pl e gol1err.s t he -el ati onshi p of t he st at i c and a , n a r ;
f act cr s concerni ng no;-compressible f l ui ds. P?scal ' s l aw governs t he behavi or of t he :ta?ic f act or s when
t aken bv ti:c-msel\.~es.
Bovle's Law
*
Compressi bi l i ty is a charact eri st i c of all gases. The Engl i sh sci enti st, Robert Boyle, was among t he
firs1 t o st udy this ciiaracteri::tic, ref erri ng t o i t as t he ~~pr i ngi ness of air. Boyl e di scovered t hat when the
temperature of an cncl osed sampl e of gas was kept const ant and t he pressure doubled, t he vol ume was
reduced t o hal f t he f ormer v3l ue. As t he appl i ed pressure was decreased, t he resul t i ng vol ume increase(!.
From these observati ons he -,oncluced t hat for a consrant t emperat ure t he product of t he vol ume and
pressure of an !?nclosed Gas remai ns const ant . Thi s b?came Boyl e' s l aw, whi ch is normal l y stated; The
vol ume of an cncl osed dry g-is vari es inversely wi t h i ts pressure, provi ded t he t emperat ure remai ns consl ant
Revision: 0
File: ,ccf
Faull Kabirwala
Power CompFny
Limrted
Boyl e' s Law can be damonst r at ed by conf i ni ns a quant i t y of
gas i n a cylinder whi ch has a t i ght l v f i t t ed pi ston. By appl yi ng f or ce
t o the pi ston, t 5e gas i n the cyl i nder wi l l compress t o cor ne speci f i c
volume. If t he applied force i s doubl ed, t he pi st on wi l l ::ompress t he
ga-s t o one hal f i ts ori gi nal vol ume (=i gure 2-2). Ac t he appl i ed
pressure is decreased, t he r ewl t i ng vol ume is increased.
Changes i n the pressu*e of a gas al so af f ect t ht densi t y. As
t he pressure i nrreases, i t s vc1t;rne decreases; however, t here is no
change i n the \::eight of t he gas. Therefore, t he w ~ i g h t per uni t
, vol ume (densi t y, increases. !5o i t f o' l ows t hat t he der si t y of a gas
varies di reci l v a? the pressure, i f t he temperature is co- . cant .
VOLUP!E 1 - FACILITY OVESV~EW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
a
Charles' La\,?
Figure 2-2 Boyl es Law
Jacaues ':harles, a i r o- i ch scien:ist, provi ded r? , ch of t he f oundat i on for the moder n ki net i c the(: ~f
gases. He foun:: that all gases ~ ~ ~ 3 r d and cont ract I,, l..iir,oct proport i on t o the change i n the absol i l t e
!emperature; pr wi ded t he pre:;sure is hei d constant. A.ly change i n t he temperature of a gas causes a
correspondi ng cl-:ange i n vol ume. Theref ore, if a gi ven .-,ample of gas wer e heated whi l e conf i ned wi t hi n . I
si ven vol ume, t1i.i prpssure s h . x ! d .rlcrease. An examp of Charl es' Law is as f ol l ows:
I f an iierosol car: is pl aced i n a fire and heated, i t woul d eventual l y explode. Thi s resul ts f r om ;he
expar xi on of t he oes i n t he can due t o t he rike i n absol ut e temperature.
Newt or ' s First L:;&
fdewton's -irst Law st at es t hat a body : ~ t rest te i ds t o remai n at rest . A body i n mot i on tends t o
i
re11;ain i n rr,c:ion. An exampl e of Newt on' s First Law is 3s f ol l ows:
i
A p a r ~ ~ i d aut omobi l r. ~ v i l l re-ni l i n mo:;onless u: i t i l some f orce causes i t t o move (a body at res!
rem3ir:'; at r est ) . Tho second port i on of t he I ; \v can be demonst rat ed onl y in t he theoreti cal s e se.
The sz-ne ?,utomobi l .? nl aced i n rn3t i cn woul d ~emai n i n mot i on i f all air resi stance wer e remov?..i, i f
no f;;c:ion wer e i n t i e besri ncs, and i f the suiZa;e wer e perf ect l y level.
Nev.ftc11l's ::!ecor>d i a ~ v s' at es :hat an i mbal anci - o f orce on a body tends to produce an accel er at i o~, in
the di rect i cn c?f ;hc force. The !c;el?i;!ti~~n, if any, i s dir cl l y propsri i onal to the f orce and is i nversel y
proporti onal 13 :!Ti: mass o f t ?e )ori v. An exarn;,ie of Ve.::tonls Second Law is as f ol l ows:
' ,Vt\en :!rc?i.:ing a basei?all, t he force :a:quiied 1.1 accel erate t he ball at a rat e of 50 f t l sec woul d
have t o SP doub! ed t t accel erate the :-ma11a1 a :.jte of 100 f t l sec. However, i f t he mass of the S ~ l l
ive:e br : ~! l l ed, the 07i;iial acct leratio-, rat^? of 30 f t / sec woul d be cu: i n hal f t o 25 f t / sec.
Newt on' s Thi rd Law
1 ~ a u ~ i Kabirwala
i Power Companv
I I Limited
-
Newton' s Third Law states that for e v e y acri on there is an equal and oppositr, reaction. An example
of this is as fol l ows:
The firing of rifle. The fi ri ng of the rifle causes t he bullet t o qo i n one dire,:tion (t he acti on) and
the gun to recoi l i nto your shoulder (the reacti on). Force = lnass x Acceleration.
2.2 Gas Turbine Engine Fundamentals
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANS FUNDAMENTALS
w-
6 0 ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ 3 CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
A gas turbine is an i nternal combusti on engine. Like all internal combusti on engines, gas turbines
compress air, take i n fuel for combusti on, and use the ,resultant vol ume of hot gases !o develop shaft
horsepower. Referring t o Figure 2-3, the th-en primary sections oC a Fa.; turbine engine are:
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Compressor - Ai r is drawn i nto the air inlet by the compressor. Wi thi n the compressor, the air i n
compressed and a corresponding temperature increase is inctrrred. The hcl , compressed air is
discharged t o the combusti on sect i sm of the engine.
Combustor - Fuel is admi tted i nto the combusti on section by fuel nozzlcs. The fuellair mixrure is
i gni ted and combusti on occurs.
Turbine - The hot and rapidly expardi ng gases are di rected art through the turbine rotor assembly.
There, thermal and ki neti c energy ,.re converted i nto mechanical energy. The gases are :hen
expelled out t he turbine exhaust.
EXHAUST
AI R INLET COMPRESSOR COMBUS TOR
T C F i
Figure 2-3 Gas Turbine Engine
2.2.1 Gas Turbine Cycle
A cycl e is a process that bcg;ns wi t h c Wai n conditions, pr;gres:es through a series cf addi t i oi . 3
condi ti ons, and rctl;r: 2 to the original condi: i . ' l s. Gas t ~r b i i i ? enhines cperate on tlie Sraytorl Cycie. Ti-I?
Brayton Cycle is one where cornbu;tion occur,; at a cor?stant pres.;ure. Gas turbine ei gi nes have con-~: ~or; er: ! ~
cesigned to perform each f unci i on sf the c\ ci*. reparately, yet c, 2rt i n~3~sl , ; . T?ese fi:rictions ;re int::..e.,
compression, combusti on, expansi ~n, and ex'13ust. Ficurs 2-c- is s graphic i l l ustrati nr of the Brayton ::y:ie
wi t h respeci :o pressure and vol un-2.
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2.2.2 Gas Turbi ne Engi ne Theor y
Fauji Kabjrwala
Power Cornpan y
I ~ r n ~ t e d
1
The i l l ust rat i on ,of !he Br ayt on Cycl e i n Fi gure 2-4 can be appl i ed t o
B
There are several pressure, vol ume, and vel oc: y changes t hat occur wi t hi n a gas t urbi ne duri ng
operati on. The f ol l owi ng ci i ~cussi on appl i es :he Phys cs Laws t hat pert ai n t o t he oper at i on of a gas t ur : ~i ne
engi ne and thei r relations hi^ t o t he Convergentl 3i verc:ent Process. Figure 2-3 demonst r at es t he appl i czl i on
of these pri nci pl es t o the cp- r at i on of a gas t urbi ne e- ~gi ne.
t he operat i on of a ga< t urbi ne engi ne. A t Poi nt A, 3ir ent ers t he i nl et -at
at mospheri c pressure and const ant vol ume. As t he ri r passes t hr ough t he
compressor, it increases in pressure and decreases in ,/olume; Li ne A-8. A t
,u
Poi nt B, combust i on occur s at a const ant pressurc whi l e t he i ncreased
$
t emperat ure cj uses 3n i ncrease irl vol ume; Li ne B-C. The hot gases ent er
2
t he turbi ne an3 expand t hr ough i t . As t he gases pa:;s t hr ough t he t urbi ne
UJ
3
rot or, the rotol- turns ki neti c 3nd thermal energy i nt o m3chani cal energy. The
expandi ng sl i ar ~e of t he t urbi ne passages causes f ur t l . er i ncrease in vol ume
Ai r is d- awn ir:to t l i r f r ont of t he compressor. The r ot or is so const r uct ed t hat t he area decreases
t hr ough each successi ve st age. 'his t apered const r u ::ion gi ves a conver gent area; desi gnat ed as Area A on
Fi gure 2-3. Ea;h succeedincl st age is smaller, i vhi ch ncreases pressure and decreases vel oci t y (Berncu 1;'s
Pri nci pl e). E e t i v e ~ ~ each ro.a:ing s:age is a sr zt i onar , st age or st at or. The st at or part i al l y convert s hi cn
vel oci t y :o preq:sL.:c and dire:ts t he air t o t he n,.!xt set of rotatin:; blades.
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEI.~~ AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CVCLE FUNDAMENTALS
A D
Becausc ~f i ts hi gh r ct at i onsl s7eec : :'?E i.otor npar t s vel >ci t y t o t he air. Eazh pai r of r ot or ant ;ta!or
bl ades cons tit^ :.:s J pressurr stage. Dur i r i j cpc-rati on t here is a 3iessure i ncrease snd a correspondir:g
r educt i on i n v: 1, ~i r . e thrcug'! "ch ccompre: ;J: s:age (I nyl e' s Law, .
P
The p:,cess conti nue:: at each r ompi essor stac.9 unt i l t he ai r charge ent ers t he di f f user ar ea' at t t l e
compressor ou:iet (Area 6). There is a short arca in t t ? di f f user wher e no f ur t her changes t ake pl ace. ,is t he
air charae approaches t he en3 of t he di f f user, ;he ope. i ng fl ares (di verges) out war d i nt o t he combust i or
secti on. At t hi s poi nt , t he ai r l oses vel oci t y ac d i ncrc; ,res i n vol ume and pressure. Thus, t he vel oci t y e~l er gy
has become pressure energv, whi l e pressure t f ! r ough t ' i e di f f user has remai' ned const ant . The reverse 3 ;
Bernoul l i ' s Pri nc,pl e and Bo\/l c,' s Law hast aker : pl ace.
C1
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and a sharp di:crease i n pressure; Line C-D.. The gasqs ar e rel eased to t he
atmosphere wi t h a large dr oo i n vol ume and at const ap : pressure; Li ne D- A.
VOLUME
At this point t he cvcl e is compl et e. The Brayt on Cycl e i s' cont i nuous in a gas
turbi ne engi ne wi t h each ac;ion :,ccurrirlg at all t i mes.
Fi gure 2-4 Br ayt on Cycl e
.
The com;,ressor cont i r uousl y f orces mare air t t , r ough t he diffuse; sect i on at a const ant rate, t hi l s a
cor,stant pressu-e is rnaintain.6. Once t he alr is i n t he combust or, i t is mi,xed (at omi zed) wi t h f uel and
cornbcst i on ta%i:s place at a c.onstan; pressu,':. As a r.-tsult of combustio,n, t here is a l arge i ncrease i n : b ?
vol dni e cf :he ai - ( expansi or ) and cornbusti :)) ysses (Ci i arl es' Law) .
A' ter cor,:busti sn, t he combust i on p;i;.-,s t ravel - 2sr war d t o Area C. Thi s occur s parti al l y by vel oci t y
i n?par ~?d by t he :omilressor a 76 par!ially becaL:se t he ; 3 s is escapi ng t o a l ower pressure area; i . e. t he
: ~l i 3 i n e e- xh, ~i ~~st Ti )? end of i'+rna !I is ' he ! ~ r ! i r ~ e noz. sect i on. Here, a decrease i n pressure and an
I
i r ~ c r e ~ s e i n vel oc : b i nccurs. T!!c hi.;h vi ?l oci t 1 , i l i gh-t ei pcrat ure, l ow-pressure gases are di rect ed t hr oui ; ' i tl:e
'
i
i nl et nczz; e lo : t o , ? :i':;t st zge c f ?he t cr t i ne rr::':r (Area _>) . The hi qh vel oci t y, hi gh t emperat ure gases C ~ : L st-:
:
.L,,, . . 7 T Ct v , J , , w e - . - i i , , i l . ~ : . J\ , ilar1sfer:ing k i et i : er>el,:::, and t h r mal energy t 3 the t urbi ne bl ades. Area D is a
di vergent area. 2et:\,een eact i at ayi ng : u r b i n ~ stage is .: st at i c stagr. or nozzle whi ch di rect s the hot
expsndi ne gases t o :he nex: si ccecsi . i / e stagc..
A nozzle is a st at or r i ng wi t h a series of vanes. They act as smal l nozzles t o d i r ~ c t t he combust i on
gases uni f orml y and- at t he proper angl e t o t he turbi ne blades. Due t o the desi gn of t he nozzles, each
succeedi ng stage i mpart s vel oci t y t q t he gases 7s t hey pass t hr ough t he nozzle. Each nozzl e conver t s heat
and pressure energy i nt o vel oci t y ener gy by cor t r ol l i ng t he expansi on of t 9e gas. Each smal l nozzl e has a
convergent area.
j'auji Kabirwala
Power Company
Limited
Each stage of t he t ur bi ne is l arger t han ttte precedi ng one. The pressure energy drops are qui t e rapid;
consequentl y, each stage must be l arger t o use the energy of a l ower pressure;lower t emperat ure, and larger
vol ume of gases. I f more st ages are used, t he r3t e of di vergence wi l l be less.
Area D must di verge rapi dl y i n proport i on t o t he rat e i n whi ch Area A converges i nt o Area B.
Atmospheri c air i s rai sed i n pressure and vel oci t v, and l ower ed i rl vol ume, i n Area A by t he compressor. Each
stage can onl y compress ai r about 1.2 times, so t he rat e is l i mi ted. Vowever, i n t he t urbi ne r ot or (Area D),
the gases gi ve u p t hermal and pressure energy ~2nd increase i n volc!me t hr gugh three stages. If thi s di d not
happen rapidly, back pressure f r om Area D wou' d cause Area C t o become choked. Tt-e gases i n t he
combust or woul d back up i nt o t he compressor. There, t hey woul d di srupt air f l ow and cause a condi t i orl
known as surge, or compressor stall. Thi s concl i ti on can dest r ol ~ an engi ne i n a mat t er of seconds. Surge is
further expl ai ned i n Sect i on 2.3.2, pert ai ni ng t o axial f l ow compressors.
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS !Revision: 0
The gases f r om t he l ast t urbi ne st age enrer t he exhaust duct wher e t hey are expel l ed t o t he
atmosphere. The l eadi ng por t i on of t he exhaust duct is part of a di ver ger t area. Further di vergence reduces
the pressure and increases t he vol ume of t he war m gases and alds i n l ower i ng t he vel oci t y. The exhaust
gases enter t he at mosphere at or sl i ght l y above atmospheri c pressure. Thi s depends on t he l engt h and sue
of the exhaust duct , or t he pl acement of a heat recovery st eam generator (boi l er).
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
2.3 Gas Turbi ne Mai n Component s
File: ,ccf
2.3.1 Ai r I nl et Equi pment
Q The f unct i on of t he air i nl et is t o del i ver nir, wi t h mi ni mal t urbul ence and pressure vari at i on t o the gas
turbi ne compressor. Gas turbi nes are sensi ti ve ' o i nl et air qual i t y because of t he i nherent desi gn and the
enormous amount of air consumed. Fi l t rat i on is necessary t o p r ~ v i d e prot ect i on agai ns? t he ef f ect s of
cont ami nat ed air t hat may degrade gas t urbi ne ! >er f o~r na~c e and liCe t h c o ~ g h erosion, corrosi on, f oul i ng, and
pl uggi ng of t he cool i ng passages.
The i nl et fi l ter compar t ment s t hat are no..v t ypi cal l y suppl i ed b y ?u:bine manufac:urei.s can be
separated i nt o t wo generic t ypes: sel f -cl eani ng and mul t i -st age. Conve-i ti onal compar t ment s t ypi cal l y use
sel f-cl eani ng fi l ter syst ems wi t h t reat ed paper ~ ~ e d i a . Special features ;ire i ncl uded w h c h al l ow these
hi gh-ef f i ci ency fi l ters t o be cl eaned of accumula' .ed dust by moment ari l y di rect i ng a backwar d f l ow of air
I
throu(;h t he fi l ter. The pul se cl eani ng ai r can be deri ved f r om the pl ant s i nst rument air syst em or f r om t he
gas turbi ne conl pressor. The reverse ai r pul se clislodges accumcl at ed dus! and debris, '.vhich t hen-f al l s f r om
the f i l t er. Onl y a f ew of t he many f i l t er elemenLs are cl eaned at any giver. Lime, so tha: air f l oi v t o t he
operat i ng gas t urbi ne is essenti al l y undi st urbed. Pulsing of the filters is normal l y i ni t i at ed when the pressure
drop across t he fi l ter comparl : i , t unt i nc r e~~s es t c 3 predetermi ned set @oi nt . The abi l i ty t o cl ean t he fi l ters ,vhile ,
the uni t is runni ng el i mi nates t he need f or ar-I i rrnl osi on door, thus r er novi : ) ~ a si gni f i cant pot ent i al l eakase
pat h whi ch coul d al l ow i ngest i on of dust l aden -1mbient air t o f l cw clirectl\: !o t he gas t urbi ne.
t
i
@o\.vnstream of t he fi l ter coppar t r nent , !-3ffl es are of t en instzlle:! i7 :he air d u c t : n s t o ei mi na: i ~s
turbul ence and 10 silence t he f l ow of t he rushin!] air. Care must bs exerc seb a! all :i rn~?s :o keep the g ; s
i
turbi ne air i nl et cl ean. Di rt, trash, f or got t en t oe s or cl ot hi ng car i be ins:.ctcd by the conpr essor , r esu! t i r g In
serious engi ne darnage. It i s st ri ct l y f orbi dden f ~ r anyone t o enter t 5e pi e3~1r n chamber wi eneve: t he gss
turbi ne is operati ng. Bef ore a gas t urbi nc engi n$, is ever started, the air n l c t duct shoul ti be caref ul l y ch;:cket'
for dobri s. Once ~ l l personnel aro out of the i nl - ! air ducti ng, all ent rance coors shoul d be cl osed and l ocked.
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Fauii Kabi r ~. . 3/ a
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
9
Power Company
COMBINED CVCLE FUNDAMENTALS
File: \ ccf
limited
2.3.2 Compressor
The f unct i or i of t he gas t ur bi ne compressor is t o ef f i ci ent l y comp;ess t he requi red mass of air and
del i ver t he air t o t he comb~bst i on sect i on. Ther e are * wo basi c t ypes o f compr essor s used f or gas t urbi ne
appl i cati ons; cent ri f ugal cornoressors and axi al f l ow compressors. Axi al f l ow compr essor s are most of t en
used i n power p!ant appl i cet i ons because of t hei r abi l i ty t o pump l arge vol umes of air at hi gh ef f i ci ency l evel s
Bot h t t l e cent ri f ugal and axi al - f l ow compressors compr ess ai r b y i mpar t i vg moment um t o t he air b y
means of r ot at i ng el ement s and t hen conver t i ng t hat moment um t o pressure i n sui t abl e st at i onary passages.
Refer t o Figure 2-5 bel ow. I n t he cent ri f ugal t ype compressor, air i s dr awn in at t he cent er, or ' eye' of a
rapi dl y r ot at i qg vaned di sc. Cent ri f ugal act i on o n thp r ot at i ng air mass f or ces i t t o t he t i ps of t he di sc wher e
i t is f l ung of f at hi gh t ange3t i al vel oci t y. Sui t abl y shaped st at or bl ades recei ve t hi s f ast movi ng air st r ezm
and sl ow i t d o wn in such a nl annnr as t o i ncrease thr? pi essure. About hal f o f t he pressure ri se occurs : n t he
r ot or and t he remai nder i n rhe st at or passages.
Fi gure 2.4 Axi al and Ceri t ri f ugal Compressors
The tv:o mai n el ement s of a i axi al f l ow corn;ressor are t he st at or and t he r ot or .
A t ypi cal a x a l !lo!.!
compressor rolor I s i l l ustrat :6 i n Fi gu-e 2-13. The r ot : \ r is :onstructed wi t h several r ows of f i xed bl ades
1
e i mpar t momeritur7i t o t he ai ~ ~ n d f or c? i t rearward. F 3l l owi ng each r o w of r ot or bl ades, is a r o w of st a! ] snary
st at or blades.
An axiril f l ow cornprl Lssor dra,;*.fs in . ~i r from t h atml::.phere and moves i t paral l el t o t he axi s of
r ot at i on. The Si r is compr e: S C ~ i n bc rh thc r ot or and stator I I;de passages, by cont i nual l y di f f usi ng r h ? ai r
f l ow f r om a hi3h vel oci t y :o a l o ~ v ve 3ci t y i vi t h a c: r espol c: ! t g ri se i n pressure. Each consecut i ve psir of
r ot or and st at cr blades con5titu:cs a : >ri ?ss\ l re stage.
T!-it: fir:rt s!age of thc rot or, havi ng the largest .;urface area, dr aws i n t he ambi ent air, i ncrease i : s
vel oci t v, and 1:ust-es i t t o t t e fi rst st ass i).:.c!es, or v? - ~es, of t he st at or . By vi r t ue of t hi s i ncreased v~:i .;ci ty,
Ierler?;y i s ~r d n : : f e r r r d f r om v i e compressor tc: t he air i -I :he forr; of vel oci t y energy. As t he air passes t r c; uc_j t ~
the srato: i ! an! , s i t ' s veloci!y is !owere:. caL. ; i ng a cc. r ~spondi ~: g rise i n pressure, t hus compl et i ng on,? srasr:
of cc. mpr ~ssi o: i . The v anes of the st r t i l r cre 3te a di v. , rgi ng a r e a and act as a di f f user . The out l ei of :I-,;: car.,:
area Is ar ser :.73n :htc i nl et . The di ve- ? rig s- ea takes : he hi gh .,e!oci:y, l ow press;ire air f r om rhe pr ezi :!:* : .
st agc a i d C.~I\.,FJ~~:; i [ t o a / ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - v e ! o c i t ~ : , : i g: 3ressure 3 : ~ f l ow.
Fi gure 2-6 Comi..ressor Rotor Assembly
' Fau11 Kabirwala
1 Power Company
1 Limited
Most axi al f l ow compr essor s are desi gned t o del i ver ai r at pressures 10 t o 15 t i mes t he i nl et prcssure.
TIie air f l ow requi rement i s al so dependent on !he physi cal size a i d speed of t he machi ne. The power t o
dri ve t he compressor vari es wi t h air f l ow and pressure rise. At ful l -l oad, t he compressor uses roughl y t wo
thi rds t he power pr oduced b y t he t urbi ne secti an. The remai ni ng power (one-t hi rd) is used t o t urn ?t i e
generat or and pr oduce el ect ri ci t y. Therefore; a one per cent gai n i n compressor ef f i ci ency produces a t wo
percent gain i n l oad-shaf t out put . I: is ext r emcy i mpor t ant t hat :he con-pressor bl adi ng be kept clear1 ;ind
mai nt ai ned i n good physi cal condi t i on so t hat r. i axi mum overal l ef f i ci enct l and capacit\! can be mai nt ai ned at
all t i mes.
Com~r es s or Surqe and St al l
I '
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VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE F ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Power pl ant gas t urbi ne? are desi gned f or cont i nuous operat i on a: synchronou: speed t o achi eve :he
correct f requency (Hz) out put d f t he ~ o n ~ e c t e c ! generatar, Si nce t be operating speed of t he gas t urbi ne is
held const ant and very l i t t l e devi at i on t akes place, turbir4e manufac:urers are abl e r o desi gn t he aerodynami cs
of t he compresscr bl adi ng tc achi eve opt i mum efficiency at t he specifiec! synchr onous speed. To achi eve
opt i mum aerodynami cs, t he angl e and aerofoi l -.hape of t he r ot or acd st at or bl ades are preci sel y machi ned
and set i n pl ace such t hat t he compressi on of ;ir t hr ough t he compi essor is smoot h ari d ef f i ci ent .
~~~~~
Revision' 0'
File: ,ccf ;
Duri ng st ar t up and shut down of a gas t>:rbine, t he aerodynami cs of t he r ot or and st at or blades 30 not
pr omot e a smoot h progressi on of air t hr ough t he compressor. Thi s occu-s, si nl pl y because t he shape ;nd
posi t i on of the bl ades IS not conduci ve t o l ow s ~ e e d and l o w f l 3w condi t i ons. As pr e~i ous l y st at ed, po..wer
pi ant gas t l j rbi ne compressors are desi gned for 3perat i on at cont i 7uous s y nc hr ono~~s soeed.
Q Compressor surge resul t s when t he air f l ow stal!s across t'le comnressor bl ader; t hi s is, air is no:
smoot hl y cornpressed. St al l i ni may occJr over a f e w b!ades or across o,le or mor e st.>:;es. If enough sir
f l o ~ v is i nt errupt ed, pressure r a y surge ti ack t kr ough t he compressor. T' i i s occurrenc! : .nay be mi nor, sr i t
can be very severe wi t h possi i i l e damagc t o thl- comoressor. I: ex:reme cases, a stal l can phvsi cal l y ci.s:ro\
:he c;mpiessor blades, cai i si r . g t hem t o b r ~ d k :,part ;inc event i i al l y pass tnrouG? !fie t ' ~r 31ne, dest royi na ;he
enti re engi ne i n a rnatter of scconds. A 2omprrssc. . . :a!] can be irlentifre A by orii. or era1 l oud bangs
foilov;ed by sxcessi ve vi br at i j ns f r om t1.c engi1.e. Figure 2-7 i l l ustrates :he ef f cct s o! - I f l o i ~ t hrough 2 ; 3 s
t urbi ne cornpressor duri ng a r. ompressor stal l .
COMBUSTOR
RESSOR SECTION
+ - , -
Fauji Kabifv.(ala VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PIANT FUNDAMENTALS IRevislon:
I;
Figure 2-7 compressor StalVSurge
Power Cornpan y
Limlted
A key requirement oL axial compressor design is the avoidance of compressor stalllsurge during pa!
speed operaticn. The t wo pri mary methods of preverY?i ng compressor stalllsurge is by; (1) control l i ng the i n-
f l ow of air !o the compressc.lr, and ( 2) bleeding air f rom the compressor at one or more stages.
Controi!ing the i n-f l ow of air t o the compressor can be accomplished through the use of variable inlet
guide vanes (IGVs) and/or v(3riable stator vanes (VSV-). Every gas turbine compressor has a r ow of inlet
guide vanes preceding the fi rst stage 3f compressor t a d e s ; I n the fixed position, the purpose of the 1GVs is
t o straicjhien :' e air fl ow an'J direct i t to the first stape of compressor blades. However, variable lGVs pivc!
axially and theiv argl e can b,-: cont r, ~l l rd t o a' ,ow marc, or less air f l ow through the compressor. Li kewi z,
several stages {of tile ccmp:c:ssor ;'ator vant s can ais.: be constructed in the same fashi on.:' Duri ng startup
and shutdown, the lGVs snd!or V_ Vs can bt hydrau:. . j ! l y modul ated by t he turbine control system t o lirnit air
f l ow through t i - e compressx, t.h:~,: preventin a stall cl r surge from occurring. Once the turbi ne is near
synchronous sreecJ, the bl ades z r ? op1:ned f i l!y to t h ~ normal operating position.
.
COMBINED C'JCLE FUNDAMENTALS
The use of interstage b!e::rf valves is another rr cthod by whi ch compressor stalllsurge can be
prevented. ! n :his rnethod,.r.ianufactures construct tt-,~-? gas turbine compressor wi t h annular bleed ports at
specific l ocat i or; ~ (stages). Typicn!ly, :wo or three st;qes are sufficient., The bleed ports are each equipped
wi t h an openlcl3sed valve w ~ i c h is controlled by the t.i:bine control system. Du r i ~ g startup and shutdovi n,
the valves are ' -~el d open t o bleed air fr3m the compre:. ;or, thus preventing a stall or surge frorn occur r ' n~.
The discllargcd air i s vented ' o t h e atmosphere t h1. 0~5 I a silencer, or in some cases i t may be piped t o t : l e
turbi ne exhaust and di r ect ed onward through :he stacl . Once the turbine is near synchronous speed, :t8;:
bleed valves ar c closed and must remain closed during :urbine operation.
File: ,ccf
! GVs For T e r n ~ t ~ r a t ~ ~ r e Control
During p;irtizl load op~r s t i on in combined ::ycle : r nf i gur at i ~n, gas turbine exhaust temperature
decreases as a resuit of decieased i uel consumpti on. ' h ' ? l ower exhaust temperature resul ts i n a decreased
steam f l ow and remperature nener3ted i n the HRSG, c:~asequentl y leading t o a drop i n steam cycle effii:it?ncy.
I r scnie ;;as :urbine applica:ions, the positiori of !)e variable inlet guide vanes can be modul ated
during lo',v Iorlc! :onc'i:ions to ricreosr: the turbine exha , I : temperature. Closing down on the,lGLfs a: li::;
:han has ? I o: : ~ r3cr2:,or: sf :I e gas tuiuine, efGec!i \.t!v ':t~okes' :he engine somewhat, resul ti ng in r ed~c2r j
cool i ns alr flc;i, :hrough the h3? gas sections of the t?r;i - ::. In :his respect, modularion of t he lGVs car. rji
used to i:~c:f:si. tai!!l'le exha[ ! st !ernpe:ature and ttlt-rc- -.! mai ntai n steam producti on and superheat ou: c. i
, the heat :ecc':er..) st.:am gener-ator.
TURNI NG
VA? 5.
Fauli Kabirwala
1 Power Company
1 Limited
COYBUSTI ON ' OUBU6 TI OH
CHAUBER CHAUBER
HOUS: hO LI NER
EN[: I NLET
C O k I R TRAHSl Tl OH
PI ECE
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
CAN-TYPE COMBUSTOR
Rev' s' c' ":
File: \ c c r
OUTCG CASING OUTER LINER
\ FUEL
CAN-ANNULAR CCIMBL'STCR ANYULAR COhlBUSTOR
Figurc. 2-8 Di f f er el - t T.vPds ( f Cor nbr st i on Sect i ons
Si mi l ar t o t he can- t ype cori7:)ustdr, t he inner and c;uter liners )f an annul ar combust or are const r oct ed
of t hi n met al vi l t h numer ous per f or at ed hol cs t o a l l o ~ v f or cool i ng and f l ame cent eri ng. Several f uel nozzl 3s
are l ocat ed ci rcumf erent i al l y ar ound t he cor::Sustion chamber, cnch di schargi ng i nt o a common open are<i .
Annul ar combust or s f unct i on muc h : y e si j me wa y as can- t ype combust ors; ,wi th t he pr i mar y d~f f er cnce
bei ng t hat several fian:es exi st s wi t hi n a sinsqle open area rat her t han i nsi de i ndi v i d~al cans. Because of ,neir
open area, annul ar combust or s arc: , / pr y e' fi-ient and exhi bi t nii-iimal sressure l osses bet ween t he compr.:ssor
and t ur bi ne. Ir addi t i on, annul ar cc~mbust or ; pr omot e uni f or m I xhaust t emperat ure prof i l es and uni f or m ;as
d. st r i but i on t o t he t urbi ne bl ades a n d .?ozzleT;. T~l er e are some ci i sadvsntages h o w~ v e r ; o n some engi nes t he
' ~ner s are oqe pi ece and cannot be rerrovec! l ~l i t hout comple:e er gi ne di sassembl y
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Faf l i Kabi rwal a
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERV~EW AND PUNT FUNDAMENTALS Revision:
0 '
Power Company
Llmited CONIBINED;CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS File: ,ccf
2.3.3 Combustion Section
-
The combusti on secti on is t he area of the gas turbine engine where fuel is i nj ected for combustion.
'
The injected fuel is very ef f i ci e~t l y mi xed (atomized) with the conti nuous f l ow of hot compressed air
1.
i
discharged by th!? compressor. The resul tantthermal energy f rom the combusti on secti on is directed t o the
nozzles and b l a d ~ s of the turbiqe secti on where shaft hcrsepower i s produced.
I I
!
Various arrangements or the gas turbine combus' on secti on are used by di fferent manufacturers. ~ t l d
four bas~c arrangrmeqts of conbust i on recti ons are:
Can-Tvpe Combustcr
Annular Combustor
Can-Annular Combustor
Silo Cc~mbustor
A can-type combustor consists ofi ndi vi dual , cyl i rdri cal , combusti on chambers rnounted outside,
around the axis of the engine. Refer t o Figure 2-8. This arrangement makes removi ng a chamber easy.
However, it is a bulky arrangement and consumes the largest amount of space around the engine. Each
combusti on chamber r4nsi sts cf a thi ck metal housing and a thi n metal combusti on liner. A transilion piece
provides' routing of air !-om t he compressor discharge, i nt o the center of the combusti on chamber inlet.
The combustion chamber liner is constructed wi t h perforated cooling holes all along i ts length and
around its circumference. The Lnlet end of the liner provides mounti ng for a centrally l ocated fuel nozzle. As
shown i n Figure 2-8, the cornb~, st i on liner fits inside the combusti on chamber housing and there is an
intentional air gap between the t wo components. Du r i n ~ operation, a continuous f l ow of air from the
compressor passes through and arouqd the combusti on chamber liner. The air whi ch passes through the ,iner
is used for comSur.tion. Simult;~neously, a blanket of secondary air fl ows around the periphery of the liner.
The secondary air f l ow serves t >ao purposes; (1) is server as cool i ng air t o keep the liner and the chamber
housing frcrn experiencing hot spots and overheating, an-! (2) a porti on of the air passes through the
perforated holes 04 t h e liner t o ?i d i n 'flame centering' an:j t o mai ntai n a blanket of cooling air betweer.1 the
flame and the insii'e of the liner.
The largest area of concern i n any type of cornbus;or is ' hot spots' and the resultant thermal st r ess
and damage to ;hc: affected con-iponents. Hot spots occcjr when a continuous concentrati on of heat i nl pi rges
on a specific srea of the cornburti on chamber and/or liner. Hot spots can result from i nsuffi ci ent cool i i -~g zir
f l ow to different ayeas of the co-nbustion chamber, or f r or i uneven flame distribution wi t hi n the chamber.
For exar pl e, a pl ~i j ged or di rty 'uel nozzle wi l l produce a ?on-uni form flame whi ch may impinge on the
combustor liner to 2roduce a ho.. spot. Over a period of t ne, the affected area of the l i ner' wi l l erode ~ n t i l a
hole is formed, at 5. ~i ~i c h pci nt si j ffi ci ent c2oling and flamrn centering cannot take place. It is for this r el s oi
that ni uctl of the a r supplied to : he c3mbl ~st i on section is used for cooling and flame centering, whi!e ;
snial1t.r portion 125 30' ' /0) of the ;lir is usec! for acTual com;:~ustion.
The exposecl constructior! of a can-type combustor provides ease of maintenance and inspec!~or-..
Fleplacenient of fui:l nozzles or c ~ ~ b u s t o l . liners can be performed wi thout major disassembly of the ( 15s
:urbine. The can-r,.pe zombus:sr does h~\.vever, consists of many individual parts.
An annular ~r or i bust or c ~i i s i s t s o' ur-idivided, inner 2nd outer liners whi ch extend z : ~und t t e ou:5idc- c,f
:he t ~~r bi ne shaft ! i > ~ ! s ~ +Fqu. . e, 2-8). 1-hc inner and oute- liners form the combustion ci i amber ':.:thi- !he
confrnes of the enC!nr a n d are st,rround?d by a single out c- casing.
The degree of cool i ng requi red for ; I turbine stage i s a f unct i on of turbine nozzle and bucket m e t ~ ~
remperatures.' Gas turbines are produced c ~ i t h turbines havi ng mul ti ol e stages, rangi ng f r om t wo t o fi ve or
more.' The number of stages determi nes tbe energy recovered per s'age and' consequentl y the t emper at ~r e
drop per stage. More energy recovery per stage and temperature drop per stage occur as t he number or
stages is reduced. As a result, t he averagf turbine blade met al temperature is si gni fi cantl y l ower for a gas
turbine wi t h f ew stages than those havi ng 3 greater number of stages.
- , . -
Extracti on air f l ow f r om the comprec;sor for cool i ng can have a dramati c ef'ect on t he effi ci ency :,nd
power out put of a gas turbine. Greater extracti on air f l ows reduce the mass of gas f l owi ng through the
turbine. Since turbine devel oped power is j i rectl y proporti onal t o m x s fl ow, and turbine power is rougi-,ly
three ti mes shaft output power; a one percent increase i n extracti on f l ow results i n a 3 percent decrease i n
useful out put . Increased extracti on f l ow wi l l dilute the mai n gas stream fl ow. The di l uti on of mai n gas
stream f l ow l owers i ts temperature and en,:rgy level. The result of a l ower temperature and energy levc: is
that,final exhaust temperature is :educed.
2. 4 Gas Turbine Parameters and Ef f i c i e~c y
Revision: C
File: ,ccf
Fauji Kabjrwala
Power Company
Limited
Operating parameters have a si gni fi cant i nfl uence on gas turbine effi ci ency. Some operati ng
psramercrs are fixed by design of the turbine. Other parameters vary wi t h operaton, regardless of the
turbine design and vintage. The parameter-, considered i n this sec:ion are:.
VOLUME 1 - FACIL!TY OVERV~EW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBIVED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
Compressor Pressure Ratio
- Tuvbine Inlet Temperature
Exhaust Pressure and Temperat !re
- Ambi ent Air Tem~er at ur e
Ga s Turbine Comoression Ratio
The compression rati o of a ga.: t ur br . 2' ~ compressor has the yeat est i i ~f l uence on the overall
operational effi ci ency of the gas turbi :i e. '- e compr essi ~r i of air by the gas t c~r bi r e compressor is the rl l;u!t
of the compressor design, performance, at) . effi ci ency. 'The relationship between a turbi ne' s compressl ,n
rati o and the e'ficiency of the Braytor, Cyc
is shown i n Figure 2-1 2.
Figure 2-7 2 Br a\ f t on Cycle E:ficienc\; vs: aressure Ratio
NOZZLE f MOVI L4G f f t
I Fauil Kablrwala
/ Power Company
1
Limited
I MPULSE REACTION
Fi gure 2-10 I mpul se and R~ a c t i o n Turbi ne Bl adi ng
The t urbi nc sect i on of a gas t j r bi ne conver t s part of t he t hermal energy cont ai ned i n t he hot gas i nt o
mechani cal energ*,,. Suf f i ci ent r i echani cal energy must b,:. r emoved f r om t he gas st r eam t o suppl y t he power
necessary t o dr i vr t he gas turbi rl e ccmpressor, t he uni t a,.lxiliaries, provi de f or beari ng f ri ct i onal losses, and
have enough excess power t o c'rive t he el ect ri c generator.
VOLUME 7 - FACILITY OVERVIEV~' AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
-
COMBIYED CYCLE KUNDAMENTALS
The hot gas f r om comb1 st i on is del i vered t o t he t ! ~r bi ne sect i on f r om t he combust i on chambers. The
e
t emperat ure and " ow of t he hc: gas is det ermi ned by ger;erator l oad. The gas t emper at ur e may range f r om
1500F t o 235gC' , dependi ng ~n t h2 desi gn and l i mi t at i ons of t he gas t urbi ne engi ne. Whi l e f l owi ng t hr ough
t he turbi ne nozzl es and bucke!:, t he gas l oses bot h heat ;2nd pressure. When passi ng t hr ough t he stages. t he
gas has gi veq up enough ener gj t o t ur n t he t urbi ne rot or :o provi de t he necessary mechani cal power .
Revision:
O I
File: \ ccf
Cool i nq
The primssy f acl or thrl: has cont r i but ed t o i n c r e a ~ i n ~ t u r b i n e wt p u t i n t he l ast t w o decades has been
an i ncrease i n t urbi ne inlet temDerature ( f i r i ng t emperat ure). Gg h e r i nl et t emperat ures and i ncreased mass
f l ow t hr ough t h e turbi ne, resul:s i n i ncreased power out put . These hi gher t emperat ures are made possi bl e b y
i mpr oved bl ade and nozzle des gns, Setter materi al s, anci i mprovement s i n cool i ng t echni ques.
The n o z z l ~ s and bl ade i n t he firSt t wo or three
stages of a comb. ~st i on turbi nc are cf t en const ruct ed wi t 1
i nt ernal cool i ng i i r sassages. Co ~ p r e s s o r b! eed air i:;
si ~ppl i ecl throug.- passases i r t he turtline, where i t if;
di r ect ed :o the 3ir c:ooled noi zl es 2nd bl ades. Ttle a -
cool ed corn1,oner-is are cnnst r l ct ed ~ * ~ i t h many small I ~ol t ~: ;
or sl ot s on ihc i eadi nq and ! ai l i ng edges. Figure 2-1;
illustrates a ty;~ic,Y ai r cooi ed n3zzl e. Air is forced i nt o t hc
nozzle an3 out t i -; rnu?h t he sio:s an! holes, t hus the var e
is cool ed as t he .1r passes th:',ugh. The air is discharge,?
i nt o t he hot gas ,;!rean, passlr 5 t hr ougt the rer-~aincier 1 , :
t he turbi ne s e c t ' l n an13 GnWc:: j i ni o t l e exhau:.: duct .
HOLES
Figure 2-1 1 Air Cool ed Nozzle
Iqnition Svstem
-
Fauii Kablrwala
Power Company
l i mi ted
Regardless of i ts design or the t ype of combusti on chambers used, the combusti on secti on of ever!.
gas turbine engine is equi pped wi t h an i gni ti on system. The functi on c,f the i gni ti on system is to establish
ignition of the fuel-air mi xture i n the combusri on chamber(s) during the gas turbine startup sequence.
The priman/ components of a gas turb' ne i gni ti on system consists of one or t wo spark ignitors or s;:ark
plugs, and a hi gh vol tage power source. The i gni tors/pl ugs protrude i nto the combusti on chamber area an<:
produce a hi gh vol tage spark when energizecl.
VOLUME 1 - FACILITV OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
.
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
Iqnition and Flame Di stri buti on
Revision: I
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Depending on the manufacturer and t'ie size af t he engine, every gas turbi ne undergoes a speci fi c
start sequence duri ng whi ch i gni ti on, combusti on, and acceleratior: takes place. Control systems are
incorporated such that each phase of t he startup sequence occurs at a specific rpm, wi t hi n a specified periad
of time, and that certai n parameters are achi oved (e.g. temperature and rotati onal speed). Al though each
model of gas turbine i s-di fferent, the basic sequence of events f o- the startup of all gas turbine is essentiaily
the same.
During a gas turbi ne startup, an ex t er ~al devi ce (diesel enginelelectric mot or) is required t o begi n
rotation of the engine. As rot at i on begins, the compressor draws i n air and begins fgrci ng it through the
engine. As shaft speed increases, the vol umr of air f l ow through the pas turbi ne engine also increases. A ! a
specific rpm, a programmed ' i gni ti on sequence' takes place.
During the i gni ti on sequence, :he spar',: i gni tors are energized at a rate of t wo t o three pulses per
second. Immedi atel y fol l owi ng, the :ngine fuel vals;es are ~ p e r e ? and fuel is admi tted through the fuel
nczzles i nto the combusti on secti on , >f the engine. The presence of sp3rk i n the combusti on secti on resulv: i n
ignition of :he f-el -ai r mi xture. The lame spreads :nroughout the coml ~ust i on s e c t i ~ n unti l the fuel-air
r:iixture at the discharge of every f ur l nozzle 1s igni:ed. In bot h t5e ' can' 2nd 'can-annular' type c o mb ~ s t ~ ~ . ; ,
crossover tubes, or flame tubes, ( 5 g i ~ r e 2-8) ,~rovi c;? di stri buti on of flarne between the chambers t o ensurt ail
are ignited. The crossover tubes are necessa:-y since onl y one or t wo c f the combusti on cans are equippe,:
wi t h a spark i gni tor.
Because gas turbines operate on a cor:tinuous compression and combusti on cycl e (Brayton Cyclej, ' he
ignitors are no I3nger required once a fl ame h . 2 ~ been established, and are therefore de-energized. As the
startup sequence continues, t he starti ng device con!inually increases t t e rotati ng speed of the gas turbi ne.
At the same time, increased thermal energy ;iasses through the turbine section and the turbine begins t o
develop shaft horsepower. At a certai n poi nt of the startup sequence, the turbine wi l l develop enough
horsepower t o turn the compressor wi t hout the ai d of the starting devi.:e. Hence; the gas turbine is sa.d 1; .
be at 'self-sustaining speed'. Once the gas turbine passes the point of self-sustaining speed, the starti ng
device is dis-engaged. The gas turbine cont i r~ues t o accelerale un'il it reaches iule s ~ e e d .
2.3.4 Turbine Secti on
The turb;ne secti on of a gas turbine er:gine converts the thermal and kinc:ic energy of the combus;i>n
gases, i nto rota:ional mechani cal energy. In '"lory, design, 2nd operat ng characteristics, the turbines use?
in gas :urbine engines are similar to those usr d i n a stcam pl ant. ;as : l rbl nes, like sream turbines, use
farnLliar i r r ~ o ~ ~ l s e a n d reacti on princiyles (Fi gurl 2-10). Uowevf r ; t;?ca~.. c sss t;:Sir,e, v ~ o r k wi t h l ower i r , . r . cl ;
\:)let pressures, they have f ewer stages and l i ~ss chance in blzdc. heigi-i f i ~ m inlet t o cx+aust. The gas
i ar l ~i r i e 2lso di ffers from tne steam turbine in; ( 1) the tvpe of .:ladi-ig I I. .erial used, ( 2) :he lo\nier ra:io c L
k! zde I cn~; ! t ~ ta l:$\icel di ameter.
Can-Annular C o r v b u ~ i q
-
The can-annular combustor cornbines some of the features of bot h the can and t he annular
combustors. In t' l e can-annular type of chamber, i ndi vi dual cans are placed inside an annular case. The cans
are essentially individual combusti on chambers iFigure 2- 8) wi t h concentri c rings of perforated holes to admi t
air for cool i ng and flame centering.
' I
~ a u j i KabjrwaI~
, Power Company
j Limited
Depending on the size of the engine and the marufacturer, each combusti on can of a can-annular
combustor can b r equipped w i ~ h si rgl e central l v l ocated fuel nozzle, or several (6 t o 8) fuel nozzles .installed
in a circular pattern at the front of tCle can. On cans wi t h several fuel nozzles, the center of the can is often
constructed wi t h a round per i ~r at ed tube (Figure 2-8). 'he center tube al l ows air di stri buti on through i ts
perforations t o provide more air fur cornbustion, cooling, and fl ame centering. The effect is t o permi t more
burning per i nch of can length than coul d otherwi se be accomplished.
The short l ength of t he can-annular type of chamt ~kr is a structural advantage. It provides ~ni ni mal
!
pressure drop of the gases bet ween the compressor outl et and the fl ame area. Another advantage of ! he
can-annular engine is the greater structural strength i t gvts f r om i ts short combustor area. Maintenance on
the cans is a!so easier than on that of an annular corr,bu::tor.
VOLUME 1 - ?AGILITY OVERV~EW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
Silo Combustor
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Silo type combustors are used on heavy dut y industrial gas turbines. Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) and
Siemens 'are the clnly manufactgrers whi ch currently utilize t he silo design. Silo combustors are vertical
mounted, very large combusti on chambers, whi ch resemble t he constructi on of a single can-type combastor.
This arrangement has a hi gh ccmbus!ion effi ci ency due t o the large vol ume of the combusti on chamber.
Additionally, mai rtenance and nspe.z;ion of the combus::on chamber is relatively simple i n vi ew of its large
size and accessib ' i ty of the coi nponents.
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FUEL NOZZLE
c d .
Fig .Ire 2-9 Silo Combustor
1 Fauli KabirwaIa / VOLUME 1 - FACILITY CVERVIEW AND PLANT 'UNDAMENTALS IRevision:
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Power Company
1 Limited
I
COMBINED ZXCLE FUNDAMENTALS
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Early i ndustrral gas t ur bi nes had pressure r3t i os o f n s l i t t l e as 5 t o 1. The l at est i ~ d u s t r i a l gas t urbi ne
designs empl oy pressure r at i os of 14 $0 16 t o 1, ~vhi l e ai rcraf t deri va: ~ve gi i s t urbi nes have pressure rat i os as
t ~i gh as 22 t o 1.
The gas t urbi ne compr essi on r at i o is af f ect ed b y t he ef f i ci ency of t he compressor. The compressor
consumes approxi mat el y 60 per cent o f t he power out put of t he gas t u r b i n ~ . As a resul t , i f compressor
perf ormance deteri orates, t he ef f ect o n gas t ur bi r e out put and ef f i ci ency n, i l l det eri orat e. A one percent
decrease i n compressor ef f i ci ency wi l l decrease t - ~r bi ne out put b y al most t wo pe' rcent. Consequent l y, t he
condi t i on of t he compressor shoul d be cl osel y moqi t or ed and cor r ect i ve act i on t aken as i ndi cat ed. A common
probl em for compressors i s di r t y bl ades. Correct i \ l e act i on i n t hi s case is cl eani ng t l l c compr essor wi t hout
ci sassembl y by admi t t i ng speci al cl eani ng mat eri al s t o t he ai r i nl et . Di f f er ent gas t urbi ne manuf act ur er s h:vc
~' i et l ~ods and procedures f or bot h ' onl i ne' apd ' of f l i ne' compr esso- washi ng.
5. a~ Turbi ne Inlet Temi er at ur e
The second most i mpor t ant paramet er af f ect i ng t he ef f i ci ency of t he gas t urbi ne i s' t he t urbi ne i nl et
t2rnperature. The t urbi ne i nl et t emperat ure, also r al l ed [he f i ri ng Lemperature, is t he. t ernperat ure of t he hc t
Gas as i t leaves t he combust i on sect i on and befor(-: i t enters t he t urbi ne.
The vari ati on of t ur bi ne ef f i ci ency wi t h t urbi ne i nl et t emberat ure is not st rai gt i : f orward. As t he
turbi ne i nl et t emperat ure is i ncreased, t he energy cont ai ned i n t he gas i ncresses. The hot t er gas has mor c
energy t o do wor k duri ng expansi on t hr ough t he h r b i n e t han i t woul d i f i t wer e at a l ower t emperat ure. As a
rt'sult, hi gher f i ri ng t emper at ur es can boost t urbi nf : ef f i ci ency j f t he t urbi ne h a u s t ternDcrature is not
i ~rcreased. I n f act , t he t urbi ne exhaust t emperat ure general l y i ncrease wi t h i ncreased f i ri ng t emperat ure.
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The l osses i n t he Br ayt on Cycl e i ncrease as t he exhaust t emperat ure i ncreases. The incr1:ascd heat l oss i n
:~e exhaust gas and t he i nef f i ci ency t hat resul ts c3n be greater t han t he i ncrease i n t urbi ne ef f i ci ency, thcrs
resul ti ng i n an overal l decrease i n gas t urbi ne ef f i cency.
I f the gas t urbi ne operat es i n a combi ned c /cle, an i ncrease i n exhaust t emper at ur e does not repreLent
a loss. I n t he c ombned c\;cle, t he addi t i onal heat energy i n t he exhaust gas can be capt ur ed i n t he HRSG
37d used t o pr oduce st eam t o dri ve t he st eam turbi ne. The hi gher terri perature ext i aust nases can be useu t o
,: crease the pressure, vol urnc, and t emperat ure o r t he Jtearm.producec: by t l ~ e HRSG. I ncreased st eam
p- oduci i on i ncreases !he ef f i ci ency o f t h e Ranki ne Cycl e. Thus, \ uhi l e. hi ghcr gas t urbi ne i nl et t emperat ures
rr:ay nct benefi t gas t urbi ne efci ci ency, t he overall ef f i ci encv of thr: pla7.t !n;y i ncrease.
l ncreased f i ri ng t emper at ur e has an i mpact upon the uni t out put as vl el l as ef f i ci er cy. Out put
;ncreases as t he f i ri ng t emper at ur e i ncreases. M a i m u m fi ri ng t emperat ure corresponds t o maxi mum outp:!t.
S nce most power pl ant gas t urbi nes are operat ed 3t base l oad, t n?y are rnost of t en oper at ed i n a
:crnpersture con:rol mode tha! adj ust s t i l e fuel in:l!~t t o cont r ol f i ri ng t emperat ure a: t he maxi mum safe l i n t !
The l i mi t i ng fr-lctor f or f i ri ng t emperat ure is :he abi l i t y of t he t urbi ne kot gas component s t o 5f f i t hst a! i d
.!-13 hi gh temperatures wi t hout dangerous loss of :.rength cr erosi on. Early ndustri al gas :urbines had firli-lg
: Ei i per a\ ur es rangi ng f r om 1 100F t o 1400F. TI.3 l at est gas t ur t t i ne tlesigrls have f i ri ng t emperat ures
d;;proac'7ing 2400F. These hi gher f i ri ng temperatures have been mad- possi bl e t hr ough t he use of speci t ) ! ,
] <, si gn ' eatures i n t he hot gas pat h.
The hot gas pat h begi ns i n t he combust i on ; ect : ~i i and ends at :he t ~! r bi ne exhaus:. The f i rst sece-31
Ltnges o f t he bl adi ng ( bot h st at i onar y and rot at i ng' are general l y csnst r uct e ' of hi gh streiigTi1 al l oys a r l d , ~ :
cciated wi t h special materi al s f or corrosi on and oxl i at i on resistance. I nt ernal and ext er na' air cool i ng ci rcu ts
,!:. also requi red for the fi rst f e w st ages of blades 3nd st at i onary r,ozz:cs. These bl ades ;re general l y h ~ ; l < j i ~
' c aliov,, cool ~ng air 13 f l ow ins,ide. Smal l hol es i n - i e l eadi ng and Tra'ling edges of t he bl ades are of t en
:;lsloyt:d to allo:i cool air t o f l ow over t he out er r:v~rface of t he bl i ~des t hus prot ect i ng thr:m f r om t he tio:
1:;ses. Cocl ~ng a r is t ypi cal l y dr awn f r om the con-3ressor di scharce or f r om i ndi vi dual cor-?pressor stages.
The most recentl y buil:, heavy-cuty industrial gi l s turbines operate wi t h fi ri ng temperatures
approaching 24C0F.
These ' urbi res have thermal ef f i ~i enc y of over 35%. Gas turbi ne manufacturers s~,:
developing i mproved model s !vith el evated firing temperatures i n the 2500 t o 2600F range. Once available,
these gas r u r b i n ~ s have a.pr*Ti l .t~d Shpl e cycle effi ci ency of over 40%.
'
Exhaust Tem~, er ~t ur e/ Pr essuy
The exhaust gas pressdre and temperature do n2t i nfl uence gas turbine effi ci ency i n the same sense
that pressure rati o and fi ri ng temperature affect effi ci ency. The exhaust gas condi ti ons are determi ned by
other factors such as fi ri ng t evper st ur r , pressure ratio, turbine design, and the condi ti on of the gas path. In
general, the l owr r the pressure and temperature of the exhaust, the greater rhe effi ci ency of the gas turbi ne.
1
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The exhaust pressure is determi 3ed by the t ur bi i e i nl et pressure, the design of t he turbine, and the
design of the exhaust gas fl oi vpath. The gas turbine i s designed t o expand the- gas t o nearl y atmospheric
pressure. Low turbine exhaust pressure is desirable bezause the l ower the pressure at t he turbi ne exhaust,
the more effi ci ent the turbine The number of stages i n the turbine and the pressure drop (or expansion)
experienced by the hot gas in each stage determine the pressure at the turbine exhaust.
Fauji Kablrwala
Power Companv
L ~m~t e d
The temperature at thc turbi ne exhaust is related t o i ts pressure. For a fi xed fi ri ng temperature, the
greater the expansion of the !]as i n the turbine (whi ch can be measured as the pressure rati o across The
turbine), the l oner the gas tei i i perature at the turbine e:ihaust. Thus, l ower exhaust pressures yield lower
temperatures. The pressure r3ti o across the turbine is ,;lightly less than the compressor pressure rati o. Trlus,
for a fi xed firinc temperature, as tl-(: compressor pressL1re rati o increases, the exhaust gas temperature tends
to decrease.
Ambient Air T e ~ p ~ r a t t i r e
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
CO~I I BI NED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
Combusti,2n rurbine pe-formanc? varies ;i gni fi cai tl y wi t h the pressure and temperature of the' amt-,snt
air. TP,e pressurll of the air is pri nci pal l , ~ a fun( tion of t--le elevation (al ti tude) of the pl ant site; the highcr ::ie
elevation. the lo\ver the pressllre. Vari;:tions ir: pres&!+- , due t o weather changes are usual l y so small thz!
Itl ey are not siqr-'ifican!. S;nct- the plan: elevalion is fi:,:-.d, the most significant component of site c ond~t i i i \ s
is the temperature a' the air w.hich rnay dary from sumr,!er t o wi nter.
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Ani b~ent i.ir pressure a:l d temperature af f ect the gas turbine effi ci ency because of their effect on tne
densi ty of the air. The gas turbin'e, alsc called a vOlumr,:ric machine, has a certai n capaci ty that is expr?:.sed
in terms of vo!unte (usually i n cubic feet per second). T-te densi tv of air decreases as temperature increa5es
and/or pressure ciecreases. If the densi ty of the air is dt:creased, t he mass f l ow is reduced even i f the
vol umetri c f l ow rate remains constant. The reducti on ir mass f l ow occurs because there is l ess air i n each
cubi c f oot . Conl,ersely, as thr. densi ty of :he air increa: 9s (whi ch occurs as the temperature decreases
andl or pressure i i creases), t ! : ~ i l ass f l ow ir-creases. Vv'len ambient air temperature drops f rom 59F to C I F ,
ar; appr os~n~at e : 21'0 increas.1 In m;!r;s flow cccurs t hr o~, gh an axial f l ow compressor.
For :xost 13s l u~bi nes, ' he c?mp.ess' on ral i o of ti 7e compressor increases sl i ghtl y as the ambient ;; r
ten-~perj;i::e dror:s. Duri ng c o ~ l amhi en* coi di ! i o~ s, a g.eat :r mass f l ow of air is di scharged f rom the gas
;u,~i r:c com; ~i ess?i . The increased f l ow of sir pr c~i des .!dditional air f or combusti on as wel l as additional
co:>ling 311 10 ;he ho: 93s sec:i3ris cli t hr enginc. There ore, more fuel can be burned and thus, more tht2:rral
energy is 1f l rr0d~i . oc' to t!?e tu:'~i:ie. Th e increase i n thetmal energy and mass f l ow across the turbine sec. i on,
res~rl ts r. ~i i cr c~sl , c! sl i aft horst powr:r and incrcssed e l e ~ :rical output from the generator.
In nn3i intv rna combust on eygi ni ?, shat! horsepo.ver i : : a product of how much f uel the engine
corlsu!:,es; c . 5 . i r ~c~essi ng fuel f l ow :o t!le engine result,. i n in-reased power output. ! n a gas turbine en:; .7e,
: he turb ni. ~nl e: t?n-i;ilerature : c the prlm;iry l i mi l i nc~ fact<
as 1,; how fuel can be admi tted t o the conl Dus: ~l n
sect ~on. Adnll:!ir g :oo much f uel c aq exceed :he desigr, firing temperature of the engine and result i n sei.ere
rhermal stress and eventual component failure. If during t he operation of a gas turbine, i t was desired to
maintain a spec' fi c turbine inlet temperature and/or exhaust temperatuCr; fuel f l ow t o the gas turbine woul d
Fabjr Kabirwala
Power Company
Limited
change (vary) i n accordance wi t h the changes in ambient temDerature at the compressor inlet. The fol l owi ng,
scenario illustrates this concept. !
VOLUME I - FACILITV OVERVIEW AND PUNT FUNDAVENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
!
Referring t o 2-13; turbi ne exhaust temperarul e is sensed by a temperature element (TE) whi ch I
provides a-feedback signal t o the fuel controllr:r. If the controller were qiven a setpoi nt of 1000F, i t woul d 1
modulate fuel f l gw to the gas turbine i n an e f f w t o mai ntai n the tdrbine exhaust terr~perature at 100OGF, i
regardless of ambient conditions. A t any gi ve1 ambient temperature, t ke mass air f l ow through the
compressor wi l l be a specific. corresponding value. For example, at cooler temperatures the mass f l ow wi l l I
I
increase, whi l e at warmer temperatures the mass f l ow wi l l decrease.
Changes i n mass air f l ow through the i
gas turbine, di rectl y affect the amount of cooling air that i s available t o the hot gas sections of the engine., If,
ambient temperatures increase t o 95"F, less cooling air is available, and thus fuel f l o > . ~ ~ must be decreased i n 1
order t o prevent the turbine exhaust temperature f rom exceeding 1000r F. As.ambi ent temperatures
decrease, more cooling air is available t o the hot gas sections, and thus f uel -f l ow car be increased to
I
mai ntai n the turbine exhaust temperature at t he 1000F setpoi nt.
As previously mentioned, more fuel i nput equals more shaft horsepower. More shaft horsepower
! '
equals increased electrical output f rom the geqerator. In general, cooler- ambient ternaeratures and increased
fuel f l ow results i n an increases of bot h the ovt put and effi ci ency of a cas turbine. For most gas turb~nes, a
23% increase i n turbine out put qnd a '5% incrnase i n !+ermal effi ci ency occurs when the ar-iibient air
temperature drcps from 59F t o 0F.
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Figure 2- 1 3 Fuel Control verses Ambient Conditions
3. 0 HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATORS
3. 1 Overvi ew
I n the simple cycle rrode of operation, t he temperature of the exhaust gas leaving a gas turbine can be
as high as 1 ,0!50F, and fl oj v rates can be as high as 3 million pounds per hour, This hi gh temperature gas
, represents a source of heat snercy whi ch can be recovered i f the means t o do so are available.
By recovering
this waste hear, not only ca? the output of a power plant be increased but i ts overall effi ci ency wi l l b~! ~ r e a t l y
a
enhanced.
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Fauj; Kabirv~ala
Power Compnny
Limited
The means t o recove- some of the energy i n the gas turbine exhaust gas is provided i n a c ~ ~ ~ ~ b i n c d
cycle power pinnt. By instal!ing a Hest Recovery Sterlm Generator (HRSG) at the exhaust of the gas turbine,
part of the heat energy avail3ble in the exhaust gas c Tn be utilized t o produce steam whi ch can then be used
to drive a s t eam turbine t o p'-oduc:e electricitv.
VoLurJE I - FACILITY OVE~VI EW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
In combined cycles, t'le HRSG provides the cri'ical link between the gas turbine and the steam turbine.
HRSG designs Iiave evolved From simple, single pressure HRSG' s t o more complex arrangements involvirirj
three pressures, a reheat section, supplemental firing, NO, control equipment, and condensate preheatir;c;
recover maxirnunl heat from the exhaust gas. Depencing on the application, the HRSG may have t wo or
three pressure levels, one s!Tge o i reheat, and may supply process steam at an intermediate pressure : o a
chemicallprocess pl ant. Various configurations of gas furbines, HRSG' s and steam turbines are used, again
depending on fiictors like uni t size, cost, reliability, throttle conditions, and spare parts requirements. An
examination of some.of t hew features wi l l help plant personnel t o better understand their power stati on.
3. 2 Functional Description
The functi on of ' a heat recovery steam .gen?ratcr is t o recover the waste heat available i n the exbcust
gases from a Gas turbine and transfer it t o the wai er arld steam contained in its tubes. The heat recovcrkd is
used to generatc? steam at hic:h pressure and hi gh .erny.erature, whi ch is thcri used l o generate additioca'
power i n the s:ean turbinc: . . r1era:or.
In cornbirted cycle app'ications, ' t is typical t o h :ve HRSG's wi t h t wo or three pressure Ic..i:!s i n 3rder
:c capture 3 5 mL. c: i 3f the hellt from thl? flue gas as po~:si bl e. The highest pressure heat transfer section, ar e
i ~i stal l ed first in t he 'lue gas p3:h, fol l oi ved by the l ow, - pressure heat transfer sections.
A simplified
illustrarion of ? h c HFSG at the Kabirwals Power Generalion Complex is shown i n Figure 3-1. Triple pressmi re
HESGs operate c.n file sarne pri nci ~l es, although an intr .-mediate pressure circuit is incorporated.
9ecausc cf ttlcir dual pressure design, the Kabi r~.. ala Complex HRSGs each have t wo waterlstean:
f l on~pat hs; a l ow pressure ci rc: ~i t and a high pressure ciy :uit. The hi gh and l ow pressure circuits each
consists of a con bination of economizers, evaporators, ' -team drums, and superheaters. Deaersted
feed\va:er is ~u: : ~~l i r ?d to each \' vater/stei ~m circait by thc HP and LP feedwater pumps.
As illustra:ed in Figure 2-1, both sources of feed(::;,ter enter t hk HPILP primary economizer locate3 at
the exliaust end ;,lea! the s:acl.:! of the HRSG. The prim 3ry economizer is a common bank of tubes, maoz up
of : wo sepai ai r f 3\v11aths, i-:h ch provides initial preheaylng of the incoming feedwater. Once through t i ~i :
p:imarv econo!n:z,:r. !lotti f eed~vst er flo\+.~paths (HP & LF; enter the secondary economizer. Similar to the
primary econoriiz~:r. : l i e secontJary cconamizer is also a solnmon bank of tubes made up of t v. 5 separat;
f!nx.vpa:hs. 3nct: ;Ii ri u<i h the ..condary economizer, thr. LP feedwater is routed t o the LP steam drum; v.!?ile
the hP feedv:ater p~sses thro!~,l h a thi rd stage econoiniz.?r en route t o the HP steam drum.
Figure 3-1 - HRSG Si mpl i fi ed Di agram
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Faull Kablrwala / VOLUME 1 - FACILITY ~VERVI EW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
Power Company
L~mi ted COMBINER CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
L
The bct t or n of t i l e st eam drums are each connect ed t o a series of i ?vaporat or co, : s l ocat ed i n t he not
gas pat h of t he HRSG. Toget her, t he st eam drums and their associ at ed e:,aporator coil:; generate st eam
throur;h the absorpt i on of t hermal energy f r om ?be combust i on turbi ne ext aust . Duri ng operati on, f eedi vat cr
:eve1 in the drums is mai nt ai ned near t he drum' s hori zontal cent erl i nc. As st eam i s cont ' nuousl y di scharsed
' rom t he t op of t he drum, a correspondi ng amou.1t of preheated feed\nlater f l ows i nt o ti-e dr um t o mai nt z: r-
correc! drum l evel . Dr um l evel i s mai nt ai ned by ' he respecti ve level contrcil valves.
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The st eam di scti arged f r om t he HP and Lz st eam drums is ' sa! ura: ~d steam' and must be superheat ed
Sefore bei ng r out ed t o the st eam t urbi ne. Stean' f r cm the L? s!eam i f r um ps;g passes t i r ough t he LP
superheater wher e i t ' s t emperat ur- is i ncreased :o 465-470F. Stearn f rorn the HP steern dr um passes
rl l rough a pri mary and secondary superheater wher e i t' s t r mper at ur e is increased t o 91: t o 931 "F depci ! 3i ng
3n duct firing. A st eam at t emper at or (desuperhcclter) is instalterl bet vi ecn the pri mary a?d seconuary HP
;uperheaters to cont1.01 t h e fi nal sa.eam ternperat:,re,
3.2.2 Gas Side Fl owpat h
St cam t emperat ure frorn a parti cui ar se-: t i on cf the HRSG c2n ne\:er be hi gher ' h2n !he gas
el l l i Jsrature ent eri ng :tiat sect i on. Thi s i s 1-ecacc.e transfer of heat require,; a t emperat ure di f f erer, t i al i n :hi:
, . '
: . l rcc: l cr, of hc3' Transfer. The ti o:test gases floi., act: -.s rtie HP sec:ior~ of t ! i e HESG. Once tb,rough t i ) , I-?
: . i ' ct i o~, t he gases are srill at rel at : vcl y hi gh t emp :ra.urcs Tnc car, be uskd to generaye T.;re st ear r i , altCI::..c_:b.
-
; i t a l ower pressure. Thi s i ~ qpne ' 7 an0tht.r scct ' 3n cf : h e HRSG wh: ch r ~ner st es at a io::er pressure. 1 : . e
resultant LP st eam is iFijec$ed ai a 1 i nt er m?di at e ;?oict i i i t o tClc s t ( a m t ~~r ! ) i r e t o prcjvidc , ~ddi : i anal gonerd:.LI:
3 . 3 HRSG Charact eri st i cs and Desi gn Cons i der at i ons
3.3.1 HRSG Geomet ry
The n a j o r ~ t y of the heat transfer surfaces wi t hr n an
HRSG use frnned t ubes ( F~gur e 3- 2) t o i ncrease t h e ~ r heat
transfer are?. If t he fuel 2eing bur ned i s clean, h l ~ h f i ns
w ~ t h hrgh f i n densrtres ar e ussd. For nat ural gar , ~t i s
normal t o Lc.e G f ~ n s per i nch, havi ng a hei ght of 0.75
i - -
rnches. For less cl ean fuel s Ilk. No. 2 011, ~t is necessary
t o r educe t he f i n h e ~g h t and densi t y t o r educ ~! the
possi bi l ~t y of soot hul l dup and excessi ve f oul i ng. H~g h e r
frns and f ~ n censrtres 1ncre3se t he heat f l ux and tub0 wal l ,
t emperat urec, Thi s af f ect s the sel ect i on of t ube a i d f i n
ma!erral, an3 al so t he :rrculatron desi gn f or n2t ur al
cl r cul at ~on e\ apnrai ors.
TUBE WALL
One c f t he princrpal Issues wi l ~ c h af f ect s c o r r b ~ i e d
cycl e ef f r cr i ncy IS I t urbi ne exhaust pre-sure.
l nc- eas~i g t hl pressure agzinsr bvhi c! ~ t he gas turbi ne must
operate, decreases rts out put and ef f ~ci ency. Mi n mu m
back-pressur-: a! t he out e l o" t he gas turbi ne er?gl ne
Fi gure 3-2 He a t Tr a ns f e r Tubes
promot es mai l r num e, f f ~cl ency.
Revl'ion:
Frle: iC>:
Power Comgan y
The p7-essure at t he gas turbi rl e exhaust is tbr? same as t he pressure at t he HRSG i nl et . Tube size,
tube pi t ch, ar ' d tu' bc orie11:2 i on are all cri ti cal f ect o. 5 whi ch af f ect the exhaust gas vel oci t y and pr ess~. r e dro2
t hrough the :-IRSG.
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OL~ERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
Heat t ~ansf er i n t he .iRSS :s ~ri : ! ci pal l y c.onv,:ctive heat transfer. The ef f ect i veness of convec:.,ic. heat
transfer is parti al l y dcpend. , nt 01 veloci:y; i.e. ,ighe.- vel oci ti es resul t i n hi gher rat es of heat transfer. , i rhe
R
turbi ne exhai rst p:essure a t he i nl et of t he HR!:;G w.:.re i ncreased, t he vel oci t y of t he exhaust gas t hr(, l j <! i t!lr
HRSG t ube b~i ndl es woul d ,ncrease. Thus, HRSG ef ' l ci ency can be i mpr oved by i ncreasi ng t he gas :u:::ine
exhaust 7riis:;ure. Thi s ho~vever , is t he opposi t e of ,.%,hat is desi rabl e f or gas t urbi ne ef f i ci ency. I ncrezsi ng
t he pressure,;gainst whi ch t he <;as t l ~r bi ne. must operat e, decreases i t s out put and ef f i ci ency.
Gas siise pressure c!rop is cri ti 2al f or opt i mum gas t ur bi ne perf ormance. If t he pressure dr op th-,ugh
t i l e HRSG i s h ghcr t han e x ~ e c t e d , g ; ~s Turbine perfol.:nance wi l l deteri orate. I n each combi ned cycl e
appl cat i on, 1l.e HFSG is nci t ched to t he associ at ed r as t urbi ne so t hat t he rel at i onshi p bet ween t he t ~ . : b l , ~ ~ :
exhaust pr essl r e a nd t11t: p-essure drop acrcss t he H?SG is bal anced.
Instrun-mentaticn is l:j~tnera!ly provi ded f or r non - @r i ng t he pressure' l osses t hr ough t he HRSG. If ; ni gh
di f f erent i al nressure is not ei i , t he gas tu!.bine :;hould , ) e shut down and t he f i ns of the heat t ransf er sect : ons
checked f or e:.cessive accu-nul at l on of carb91, and soat deposi ts. The f i ns can be cl eaned usi ng a higi-I
pressure spravo:, i r i combi n 3:ion wi t h a cl ea-i 17g sol u: i on r ecomr nendedby t he HRSG manuf act ur er . Ti l e tiear
!ransfe: suri acns of some HRSGc are ccr i st r uct ed of .tai nl ess steel, and per manuf act ur er i nst ruct i ons, :hey ,
can be r u i drk9 \ vi t h no watl:r!steam f l ow. Dr y rurlnir 7 is ef f ect i ve i n r emovi ng soot bui l dup.
3. 3. 2 Exhaust Gas Consi derat i ons
'!I o:ilr:r t o np:irnize :he pt : rf orrnai ~ce of t he HF S G f or ~ n r n i ~ i n e d cycl e appl i cat i ons, i: is essent e t t ~ a ;
c a c ! ~ pressure :ec:;on 1;enc::3:e superti eated :;team. -' '?e pres:;ilre and t emperat ure of st eam that car1 i::
generat ed in :I e F T S G 1s a ' unc! . or of r hc t emper at u- e and qu. j nt i t y of 9xhaust gases l eavi ng t he gas
1u:bine.
Fauji Kab/rwa/a
VOLUME 1 - FACILIT\~ OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
Power Company
Limited I COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
Hi gher pr esi br e st eam h a s a hi gher sat urat i on t emperat ure, and ;:onsequently needs t o be heat t d up
t o t hat t emperat ure ' to conver t t o st eam. Thi s hi gh pressure st eam the^ needs t o be heat ed t o a hi gher
t emperat ure t o have a cer t ai n degree of s u p e r k a t t o avoi d excessi ve moi st ur e f or mat i on i n t he l ower stages
of t he st eam turbi ne. If t he st eam is not superheat ed enough a t t he t'urbine t hrot t l e, i t wi l l st art cond?nsi ng
a t an early st sgc and wi l l cont ai n unaccept abl e quant i t i es of moi st ur e bi.1 t he t i me i t exi t s t he l ast stages of
the st eam t k~rbi nc:
The amount of st eam t hat can be generat ed i n t he HRSG is a f unct i on bf t he t ot al heat avai l abl e in t he
exhaust gases) whi ch depends o n thei r quant i - y and t emperat ure. One wa y of ensuri ng t hat t he st eam
genera!ed i n t he HRSG has a hi gh enough superheat temperatcl re is t o maxi mi ze I he Temperature of t he
exhaust gases. Thi s can be ac a~mpl i s hed i n many di f f er ent wa y s dependi ng on t he capabi l i t i es and
l i mi t at i ons of t he gas turt$r+e; however, t he si-nplest met hod is t o mai nt ai n t he gas t ur bi ne at base l oad
oper a~i on. Thi s will achi eve maxi mum el ectri cal out put f r om t he generator, and maxi mum exhaust gas
t emperat ure out put f r om t he gas turbi ne.
When t he gas t urbi ne i s oper at ed a t pz-t i al l oads, t he exhaust gas t emperat ure wi l l l i kel y decrease due
t he f act t hat t he a b f l o w r at e remai ns t he :3me but f uel i nput t o the l ur bi ne is decreased. Under such
~ndi t i ons, t he superheat st eam t emper at ur e t ends t o decrease. Consequentl y, t here is an i ncreased
probabi l i t y of hi gher moi st ur e cont ent i n t he l ower st ages of t he st eam :urbine. I f t he gas t urbi ne is provi ded
wi t h vari abl e i nl et gui de vanes, t hey can be modul at ed duri ng operat i on t o reduce ai r f l ow t o t he compressor
at l o w l oads t o hel p al l e\j i ate t hi s probl em. By r educi ng air f l o w at l ow loads, t he t evper at ur e of t he gas
t urbi ne exhaust gas, and consequent l y st eam ' emperat ure, is mai nt ai ned at desi gn le18els over a greater
range.
3. 3. 3 Duct Firing
Anot her wa y of mai nt ai ni ng pr oper superheat out of an HRSG, is t o have a duct burner installeci i n thc:
gas t urbi ne exhaust duct . Suppl ement ar y f i ri ng of a second f uel di recrl y i n t he gas t ur bi ne exhaust wi t n a
duct burner yi el ds i mpor t ant advant ages, espe;ially si nce the exhaust h::s enough oxygen t o sust ai n gcod
conl bust i on. Wi t h suppl ement al firing, t he mpxi murn st eam t empe+at ure f r om a HRSG can be controlled
i ndependen~l y of t he gas t ur bi ne exhaust gas !?mperature. I n addi!ion, ';team produc:ion f r om t he HRSG can
be i ncreased.
Duct burners' are general l y capabl e of fi ri ng t he Same f uel as the gas turbi ne, cr i n some appl i cot i ons,
more t han one t vpe of f uel . Dur i ng peri ods of l ow gas Turbine l oad t he ri uct burner can be f i red t o raisi:
st eam pressure and superheat . Typi cal l y, HSSG' s wi t h duct f i r ed burners are not as ef f i ci ent as unf i r t d
HRSG' s because t he fuel f i r ed i n t he HRSG duct does not per f or m .&orLC i n t he gas t ur bi ne.
Q
3. 3. 4 St ack Temperat ure
The ef f ect i veness of a HRSG is hi ghl y c' ependent upon :he :tack t emperat ure. Thi s is true, since t he
amount of heat l ost t hr ough t he st ack is c0nsirlerabi\. I,igher t han f - om ?I1 t he ot her l osses combi ned.
Theref ore, the c:i :nl l asi s is t o l owc: ;he st ack ' emperat ure as r i u c h as pl ~ssi bl e. Lowr * r i ng of st ack
t cmperat i l re can be achi eved by:
Incressi ng t he sur f ace area of t he i- :at trans' er sec:ionz wi t!) n t he HRSG.
Lower i ng !he t emper at ur e differencr. bet vi eeq t he e<hal.;s! !a; and t he l ast zomponent of b.--?r
transit?: surf ace ( economi zer ) withi!; the HRSG.
Decreasing t he operating st eam pre;sure Kowev ~: , st , am iL r b~ne or procb:ss s:eam requlrc.-ni.r1t;
may precl ude this p o s s ~ b i ~ t y.
b
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1
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TI~co.eti cal l y, i t i; possible t o reduce the sta::k temperature to wi t hi r ~ 20 t o 25F feedwater i ni ct
temperature A m&e practical apbroach is t o maint3in stack temperature between 280 and 300F.
!
Operating wi t h too l ow of a stack temperature may have the fol l owi ng detrimental consequences:
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Hi'SG may reqt?ire .excessive surface are,] t o extract the last BTU' s resulting i n excessive capital
erst.
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Fauii Ka b i r ~ a l a
VOLLIME 1 - FACILITY OVERV~EW AND PMNT FUNDAMENTALS
Power Company
Limited . COMBINED CVCLE FUNDAMENTALS
E:.-cessive surfaze area in the HRSG wi l l ,?crease the gas pressure-drop. Additionally, colder
erhaust gas coul d cause a loss of draft i : ~ the stack. The loss of draft wi l l increases the b ~ c k
pri.ssure on the gas t urbi i e
Revision: 'i
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There are practical ' i mi ts to how much the g l s temperature may be reduced. The most signi'icant of
these limits rrlsults from sclphur in t i e fuel. Sulphu: appears as SO, (sulphur dioxide) i nt he gas turbine
exhaust gas. If the flue gas is cooled bel ow the sat i ~rat i on poi nt of the water, moisture contained in rl i e
exhaust gas condenses. T?e conderising moisture mixes wi t h the SO, i n the flue gas t o form sulfuric acid.
These acids are very corro:;ive and can quickly damilge the HRSG. The temperature at whi ch ti l e acirjs are
formed is called the acid di:wpoint. Every effort is made in design and operation of the HRSG t o assure .
7
the flue gas ir; not cooled kel ow the acid dewpoint. Operation bel ow the acid dew point can quickly resi I ~ I
corrosion damage to the HRSG casir,g and heat tran.-fer sections.
--I
In some HRSGs, the last heat trarisfer secti ors are made of corrosion resistant stainless steel ar a
precaution. Stainless steel is used i n the constructic 7 of these heat transfer sections since they are tt,e most
likely t o be subject t o cond.?nsatic~n and attack by aci d.
3.3.5 Bypass St ack And D a n l p ~ r
In sorrr: combined c, ~cl e ,:rrangemer :s, a byp':ss stack and damper are provided at the outlet of the
gas turbine, pr-icr ;o ti l e HRSG 4t some fa :ilities, t t r damper can be modul ated t o al l ow a por?i on of :he
turbine exhaur t t c pass : hr our I- the HRSG I ,r warrni I purposes. The installation of a bypass dampe- , . as
several advanIa2es I ncl udi nl h z atjility to r l n the ga , turbine i n simple cycle mode, and to al l ow the 2 - l ~
turbine to be ~,rcugb,t up to li?.!d i ndependeni ; ~ and f ; srer than the HRSG or steam turbine. By allowi.;! t he
g a s turbine t o be operated i I tk~e c;irn;)le cycle mode, ; becomes possible t o increase the availability o i [he
Gas [urbine cy-le, even i f 111.- stezrn cycle is ?ut of scvi ce for maintenance.
3.3.6 Stress i l nd Fatigue
As st ean tcmperaiurys and pressures Li e elev itec! to maximize combined cycl e efficiency, the t R,
s
must bc desigr:ed to handle thest. conditions. -l herm.i l stresses are particularly i mportant because the :,ystern
must retain its rapid start-s:np and l o?d cycling capal ~l i t i ~i s. Du,-ing startup and shutdown of the gas r ~i - bi r l c,
significant chanses occur i 7 bct h t he -nass f l ow and :,~ierrnal energy being directed through the HRSG. .Also,
combined cyclcz nlants ususl y 9pt::ate il; the sliding p ?ssl;re mode, mea'ning that drum pressure and stl arn
fl ow ,vary i f o l : o ' ~ ) gas turb~ri.: load. Over a pcrioc! 3f; Te, the res .~l ti ng transients can impart stress ar,.:
. f a! i g~e to the t1F,S,3 comporents resu ting in even.ual failuie.
As st earl is produced ?ny impurities :hat rllay i3e present in r h e makeup feedwater are left beh:;-d in
:he steam d r ~ r . s , These n-~curi ti es arp generi.lly ccnc ;..tra:ed i n the upper 4 to 6 inches of the drum , : . 3ter
, eve/ and must - 3 ~ . continuoi:: 1.y rerncvcci to prevel-~t ex-.essive accumulation. For this purpose, steam c: jrns
cre tynically ttq.~;i:~peo vi i th s cont nuous bl gwdown h~, j der whi ch extends internally across the length .;i the
: i rui n, just 5clo,:! :be .icrmai .lv.;tt?r ievt!l. The rate of I ~nt i nuous bl owdown is controlled by throttl i ng ;:I
, so! ~t i on vzl v?, r: a ? r:ffort : c rrair::sin ~v;l ter zheinistr. requirements.
I Fauj i Kabirwala I VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS IRevision: c I !
Cower Company '
. --
I Limited /
I
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS Irile: \ ccf I
1 -
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The conti nuous removal of bl owdown wat er f r om a steam drum represents a loss of thermal energy
j
from the system; and hence, a reducti on i n cycl ? effi ci ency. One way t o ~ i n i mi z e theses losses i n through
the use of a 'cascading' eonSinuous bl owdown pi pi ng arrangement. That is; bl owdown water f rom the hi gh
I
pressure steam drum passes t o the l ow pressure steam drum where i t flashes and st ean is recovered. Once
inside the LP drum, all of the impurities rise t o tPe surface of the wat er a r d are then discharged through the
;
LP continuous bl owdown pi pi ng t o t he HRSG bl cwdown rank.
3.3.8 Selective Catalytic Reducti on
SCR i n v o l v ~ i h e i nj ecti on of ammoni a i n' o the flue gas upstream of a catalyst structure. NO, is
catalytically reduced t o ni trogen and water. T h i need for Selective Catalirtic Reduction (SCR) can have s
significant effect on the way an HRSG is desi gnrd and operated
To meet the requirements of the catal yti r process, the SCR is usu?lly sandwi ched in between. the
HRSG components. Locati on depends upon matchi ng the process temRcrature wi ndow of the catalyst wi t h
i
the proper wi ndow i n the HRSG. The HRSG teri perature profile is a movi qg target, however, that depends
upon gas turbine load and ambi ent air condition.. Gas velocities through 'he SCR porti on of the HRSG r:eed
to be adjusted t o meet the residence ti me requirt?ments for NO, reducti on reactions.
Other considerations include proper cont.31 oi ammonia i nj ecti on a-i d mi xi ng wi t ? turbine exhaust.
The ammonia i nj ecti on grid may have t o be l ocated relatively far f rom the catalyst slruc!ure. Also, if sulphur
is present i n the fuel, and as SO, i n the exhaust, i t can react wi t h anl mon a t o form, ~n- t ong other
compounds, ammoni um bi -sul fate whi ch can prpmote rapid corrosi or of d3wnstream heat transfer tubes.
Provisions for wat er washi ng the col d secti on o' an HRSG wi t h SCR should be considered where this is a
problem.
SCR in HRSG's may also l i mi t operationa! flerrL';i:\,l. Sup3lemen:al firing can drastically change ti l e
temperature profile throughout the HRSG and t c-ndown of the gas turbine must be accomplished whi l e
maintaining the exhaust in the correct temperatrre range. It may be di ffi cul t to meet emissions limits i f
turbine exhaust is bypassed around the HRSG. .-qdditionally, as req~i rec! 1\0, removal efciciencies go up, i t
becomes more di ffi cul t to opti mi ze the SCR process.
4.0 STEAM TURBINES
Steam turbines conl/ert t he hsat energy of st Qam i nt o rotati onal mechani cal energy. The mechLlnlcal
cncrgy of the steam t ur b~n~: is then used to produce el ectri cal energy f rom a generator. The steam tur!)ine-
generator IS, 11v t sel f , a v e y simple machi ne w ~ t h f r w movi ng parts. This i s desirable because i t allofis the
steam ti rrbi re-generator t o have very good reliability
It i s not unusual for a steam turbi ne-generator t o
opcrdlc c o r ~ t ~ r ~ u o l i ~ l y for 17i 3r c tl'lan a year w~t hout s l u\ down.
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File: jccf
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FabY Kabirnaia
Power Company
Lim~ted
4. 1 Turbine "rinciples
VOLUME I - FACILITY OVF~VI EW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
.
COMBINED CVCLE FUNDAMENTALS
The power pl ant is of t en described as an enevgy conversi on factory i n whi ch t he chemi cal energy i n
the fuel is transformed i n a series of steps i nt o electrica,l.energy, wi t h the turbi ne-generator as one part of t he
power pl ant. The k nc t i on of t he steam turbine is t c convert t he energy in' superheated hi gh pressure
f rom t h e boi!er or HRSG, in!o mechani cal energy. I t i s commvn t o refer t o the energy conversi on that cccurs
i n tt-e turbine as happening i n a single step. The conversi on of energy i n t he j urbi ne actual l y occurs i~ i wo
steps. First, :+e heat enercy i n the steam is convert;ld i nt o ki neti c energy of a steam j et by nozzles. Second,
the steam jets a:e used wi t 1 buckets or blades mour:ed on a rotor t o produce a mechani cal force and rorque. .
This section d2scribes bot h of tt-ese grocesses.
4. 1. 1 Nozzles and Their Principles
A stea-? t ur b~ne noz-l e is a device that converts heat energy of steam i nto ki neti c energy (ener.1~ of
nl ot13n) by expand\ng t he s' eam. A simplified, convc rgent nozzle of the type most of t en used i n stezn
t urb~nes I S shog~n in F ~ g ~ r r $-I.
A s ~ ~ i r n n ~ ~ l r t t nlnnfn nt tnn-pnrrlth+rG T( ~ n r i pr ~qs ur e P, enters e
enteri ng rhe nrlzzle. The sLr,am leaves the nozzle at : l ower pressure and
remperal ure, T, and P, but ct a higher velocity, V,. Thi s is because some
of the heal en-rgy i n the stc.arn has been converted i : \ i o energy of moti on,
cal l ed ki neti c energy. Kineti: energy is a functi on of . +e square of velocity;
therefore, as t t e vel oci ty increases, so does the kinet 3 energy. -
The rati o of the pressure upstream and downsV;eam of the nozzle is
cri ti cal i n the e-fi ci ent operati on of t he nozzle. It is drsi gned t o operate
wi t h a const ar r pressure rati o for best effi ci ency in er 2r gy conversion. If
v
1 turbine condi t cns change the pressure ratio. i neffi ci er :y results. Also, i f
chanses to !!I? nozzle such :s erosion occur, the desi!:n is upset and
i neffi ci ency res11l:s. Commo: ~ pr oj l cms wi t h nozzles i.. hi ch occur i n
operati on are e:=sion f rom dc.bris i n t ht 3 steam and del ^isits f rom
cont ami na! i o~ cf i he steam.
Figure 4-1 Convergent Pi ( ; czle
4. 1. 2 Basic Turbine Types arld Principles
The k~l r ! l c Cilerqy n ; jet c i s i i a m is not usefu as it i s . The nozzle by itself cannot converr lit,
w~ c r s g in t he s : i a ~ l to us ef ~j l mecti oni cal ener qy Ther: are t wo basic turbine types: i mpul se and reacl:,n,
Bot h u:ie nczrl i ; z nd rotor !.u:tets ( al s , ~ calleti I:lades), but i n di fferent ways,
I m~ul s e Turbine
, ..
Figure 4-2,i l ustrates the operating princtples of an impulse turbine. Steani entcrs an irnpulsk turbine
through a stationary nozzle that expands the s'eam and creates a s!eam jet. The steam jet strikes the roi or
buckets (blades). Each set of nozzles and rotor buckets is i i i l l ed a stage. The graph in i igdre 4-2 illustrates
that al l the pressure drop i n the stage occurs at the nozzles, and the vel oci ty and volume of t he steam
!
increase in the nozzles.
I Faulj Kabirwala
I Power Company
I Limited
The expanded steam strikes the buckets, forcing them to rorate aqd reducing the vel oci ty of the jet of 1
n. Thef orce of the steam on the buckets ~r oduces t he mechanical energy needed to turn the generator. i
mechanical energy comes f rom the jet of s:eam which has its veloci:y reduced co~si derabl y.
!
NOZZLE
, I I I
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PIAUT FUNDANENTALS
COMBI ME~ CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
VELOCI ~Y A? ' ? PRESSLRE
RI LAT' CYSHI PS
0
File: , ccf
DI APha ' CMS
Fi gure 4-2 In~pulse Turbine Principle
i n l a r g e moder n power pl an+s, t her e is con:iderable t hermal ener gy in e a c h pound of s t e a m de:;"ered
t o [he t ur bi r , e it i s impri, ciica\ and i neffi ci ent t o build a single nozzle and rotor large e nough t o convcrt
st eaml s thermal enemy i nt o useful wor k, Therefore, l arge modern turbines ar e usually mul t i -st aged. *ci:'
tach s t age conver t i ng pa? of t he s t e a m' s thermal ener gy t o mechani cal energy. in a basi c mul t i -st ased
sl eam
steam ent er s t h o u g h J h e fi rst -st ag? nozzle, whi ch conver t s Part of t he therlnal ener gy i n t he
i l l t o k i n e t i c e n e r g y he stear; jet f r om t he lirst-stage nozzle st ri kes t he fi rst -st age rotor b u c k c ~ ~ .
Af t er ieavjn<l t he f i r st - st aqs ro.or b ~ c k e t s , t he s t e a m pas s es t hr ough t he s econd- s t age noz z l e Sornc
l t l e
r e ma i n i l , g : t a r ma \ energ!! is t hen conver t ed t o kinetic energy. The s econd- s t age rotor bucket s ar e for,:ed t o
r ot at e by thl: st earn jet 1e;lving t he s econd- s t age nozzles.
Impulse turbines c a n be multi-staged in t wo ways . One of t he s e wa ys is referred t o a s t he Ra' eau \ or
pressure comoounded) s t nge . A Rat eau turbine c oi s i s t s of a seri es of nozzles a nd buc ke t s ; wi t h eact j et of
nozzles and bucket s ma k i ~ g up one s t age. The turSine previously illustrated in Figure 4-2 above is an
e
exampi e of ij four s t age, pr essur e compounded, irnsulse turbine. As s hown, t he s t e a m pressure in a seri es
Ra:eau s t a ge s dr ops in s t e ps t hrough each s e t of n?zzles.
The zeccnd wa y t ha t impulse turbine st a!?es may be
arranged is :he Curtis (or delocity compounded) s t nge s hown in
Figure 4-3. A velocity cornpourtded s t a ge ha s one s e t of nozzles
with t wo or :nore r ows of rnoviclg bucket s. Ther e er e st at i onary
, I I 1 1
bucket s bet t veen each r o w of moving bucket s.
Each s e t of
nozzles and tiuckets makes up cne s t age.
NOZLLC
In passing from tho nozzl? exi t through one set of bucket s,
t he velocity cf t he s t eam c e c r e a s e s becaus e of t he ::ark it doe s
on t he buck?t s. The s t e a m t hen pa s s e s througi) a r ow of
stationary bucket s-t hat c h a ~ g e t h e direction of t he st.-,am wi t hout
I
~ h a n p i n q 1". v-.rarra&rrs nrf5pnnr(,
The new srwim riir&~l.i9n is
$\p,$$;;.~,!! J&<~!I..~,, f a - r eli I t t y
VJ . ' Vl q I At# 1 1 , 4 l ~ wmb l t J f : f*;t, 'lpd 1 1 1 ~
w ! t ) ! > ' , ?,'te; t t 1 ~ k f ,Y ~ ~ f l r 2 : ~ ~ \ ~ r ~ ~ . ~ ~ c!i ,364, 1 i t., H F ~ i i t
a t t t c c ; : \ ~ t l t c, rr\c .:nmn whoe! ;-; h f , ' - ~ t row, 1 t:ir, , - , , , , CeS5. , mny . 1 I-1 '
repeat ed tilro!lg:7 as ma ny as f our r ows of m.,vinq buckets i n
: ;,-;a,-:
1 ;.?; -1 ;- 1
On e s t a ge , h'lsst Zbrtis St ages, l owr ve r , are limi;sd .o t wo rows A % I I - i
of moving bJ';i:ers.
ML0:llr * r o P n r a s ~ a c
RCLATICWS<IPS
4-3 also s h o ws t hat in a n ideal Cur t i ; s t age, the
ent i r e Presscrt' drop occur s t hrough t he nozzle, and t i ~ e pressure
r e ma i ns cons: sgt acr oss t h~? bcrckets. This is a char, -crer; st ; c of
r ~ r b i r ' ~ ? ~ .
The velocity, c n t he ot her hand, dr c. ~ps in steps
a s i t Pas s es t1:rough I he mcvi ng buckets.
I n a sense, Cur t i s st agi ng is not mulitstagir17,
j-his i s
a s pointed out above, no ,matter how ma - , y rows of
.
buciccts a Curtin Gtaqe has, it IS still only one
it is
poss' b' e, ho' ~' ever , t o have
second Curtis s t age behi; d the first. Figure 4-3 Curtis lmpu,se ~ ~ ~ b i ~ ~
. --.
Many old, mul t i st age, impulse t urbi nes consisl :f bot h Rat eau (pressure c ompounde d) and Cur : .
(velocity corny l a nde d) s t a g ~? s . i sual l y, t he first s:;; ( and s omet i mes t he s econd s t a ge ) is a velocit,
: onpounded s: agc izitti t v i i r ows of movino bucket s ?n its wheel . The remaining s t a ge s ar e t hen pr i : i ur e
c o~npounde d 5: ages s s s hown i r 'igure 4- 4 Newer t i hi ne s sel dom us e Ccr:is st agi ng. however , 0th.: ::;se
t he mul t ~-st agi r-g i s t i l e s e mi . I t s no: unusual t o h a . ; . a s many a s 20 s t ages i n an impulse turbine.
Hevi 5i 0i i :
File: \cc
Fauji KaSi r wai a
Power Company
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS . . .
~ OMB~ NED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
Limiteci
-
1 - FACILI'Y QVERVI E\ A~ AraD P! ,l!'J?-
Power Go m, ~ . ~ : y
---A -
~Q>JB!?!E)? CVCLF
----- ------.- ,.--...-------
I I I l l I I l I I
I
PRESSURE I 1 I 1 I
I i I l l I I
;7 I I -. -! -. +
--
I I I 1 I ! I I I I - ; - - %. : !
, - - + + - 3 , - .r---*-.-l +--- ---
- --C---+--t - - - I . - - - +- - - ! - - + ,--I-+-+--
I I
NOZZLE
I 1
Figure 4-4 Combi nat i orl of Curti s 2nd R3t eau St ages .
Figure 4-5 i l (ustratcs rl:,, basi c oper:ting pri rl ci pi es of an i deal react i on t u r t ne. The rurbi ne r ot or i s
f cr ccd t o t ~ l r i by t l ~ e act : . / e f:;rr:!: ~f tLle r t l t ar n j et lt-!ri;,inc~ :hc no~zi c: I n an i deal r eact i on turbi ne, :i: rrr.,./lr:r_:
I l uckcr s woulcl be ti;,? on!,{ rli: . . 1 %~ . There. 2re, al l t i l e sted-17 e::$anslorl woul d occur ;n t he rnovln!) : ) ~ ~ c k , - : . .
Ti : s is 117-lpra:ricaI in I,-.r(jc: It:i.::i~\r:s :)ecc-lus i l i s l i i ! f ~cul t t o 2cl:iil C ! E ~ ~ I t o ni svi r ( . nozzl es. Thus, s:gc
t i ~r bi nes use f i x c i ! nozzles !o ai j ;ni t steal-:I 1 I n ~ o v i n g nn;.zi,:s. Theretore, przct i ct i l , large react i on t ~. L) i r l e> u: i
: J : or nbi ~ai i on of ~mpui se ;in:! rcactici:i prir;,.iples.
-
I h e t; p i c a r~; ! ~: ! i orl : ur bi i e !>a'; s:.^j:ionc?ry ~( : ~z z I c . s and f;l ovi :~] nozzles. movi ng nozzles Err:
-.,-..c(] 5 ,,,.. -
- , ..i. l I $ , r t a r f i t I A ( ! j 3ct i:t t ) i i ~ k % ~ i ~ { LI , U~I I Y cal l ed t > l ~ ~ j : : i . iri ..;;!I
:i:'Jines! JS : , h o \ ~ n i n F.'lglll.ct .!-f;. r\,?a(:ti:i?. ! ~ r b i n c s can b; l .:I~~si fi ccl hy t i l epe~c ent ag? of t he er:e. 3 ;
C : I V ~ ~ S on t i i s1 pc c ~l r s i ; ; llli: F ~ J V ~ ~ I S r:;;:-i:s. Typ.:a!ly, t,;rbi:-;,is 1!1 1: arf: ~ i j l i i l 3 r3aciii3n turbi nes I , !I::.'
2C'?6 rc:sc;:;lii a : ~ d 5C40 ifi:i~l:l;~. TurLirii::. ,.ihic:, ,:he a c o. , . Li ~~. ~; i i j ! - ~ 2' i r l ~p~l s c : 2r.d :t?actior, pri:,cl;, C ; a- - :
c)I!e!? r ~' cr r ( ?~: l ;O ~ i i : l i ! I ~ a!; rci 2ct i , 3r~ 11.110 7.. ; !a U I S ~ . , : ~ , ~ : I ~ ~ : I ~ I !+l , !::- !LO:. ti l e i rnpci se 1orL1if)c:;.
ROTATI ON
ppppppppppppppppppppppppp-ppppp--------------------------------- -
BUCKETS
Figclre 4-5 Exampl e of React i on Nozzl es Fi gure 4-6 React i on Turbi ne
Rev~si on:
Faull Kabirwala
Power Company
Figurc? 4-7 shows z1 series of r eact i on t ur bi n~! stages. Each st age consi st s of a set of f i xed nozzl es an;
a set of moving nozzles. The pressgre drop occurs over both t he f i xed and movi ng nozzles.
Reacti orl
turbi nes arc mul t i -st aged
al t ernat i ng set s of f i xe ' and movi ng nozzles and are basi cal l y pressure
cornpounded turbi nes wirh react i on. Each pair of f .xed and movi ng nozzles makes up one stage.
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY O\,ERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
PRESSURE
1 Limited
Figure 4-7 Reacti on Turbi ne Characteri sti cs
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
File: ,c ,
Many ti mes, r eact i on t urbi nes have one C, ~r t i s i mpul se stage as the f i rst st age of t he turbi ne, and
react i on bl adi ng on t he remai ni ng stages. Figure 05-8 shows a t ypi cal arranqement.
Faull Kabirwala
Power Company
Llrnlted
REACTI O- SI ACCS
CURTIS STAG5
f
-
- - - - - -
/ *
r/'
PRCSSURE +
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY O'JERVIEW AND PLANT CUNDAMEYTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNOAP~ENTALS
Figure 4-8 Combi nati on; Curti s & React i on Turbi ne
Revi si on 0
File: \ ccf
3 1.3 Cl assi fi cati on of Turbi nes
In the previ ous sect i on, t urbi ne t heory and - he t wo basic turbinct t ypcs wer e descri bed. Impul se an;;
i
react i on turbi nes can be f ur t ner di vi ded i nt o a laroc- vari et y of t ypes usi ng i rrport ant charact ?ri st i cs. Each v i
: I - ? s: x characteri sti cs di scussed bel ow is ppl i cahl l ? t o bot h i mp u l ~ e and rea;!ion t urbi nes. These
:haracteristics are:
Condcnsi -,g vs. Non-Condensi r.9
Extracti orl vs. Non- Ext r act i on
Single Pressure vs. Mul t i pl e Pressure
Reheat vs. Non-Reheat
Single Cat i ng vs. Compound
* Exhaust Fl ows
Condeqsing Versus 'don-Condensing
-
One cliaracteristic for classifying steam turbi rns is whether they are condensing or non-condensing.
In a condensirlg turbine, tho steam is exhausted i nto a condenser. By condensing the steam, the turbirle
exhaust pressure and temperatures can be very l ow. Low exhaust pressure al l ows the turbine t o make
maxi mum use of the thermal energy i n the steam ani! makes the power plant more efficient.
Nearly all large
steani turbine: are of the condensing type.
- - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
In non-condensing turbines, the exhaust st earl is not condensed. Instead, the exhaust steam is often
collected in a 5iping system and used for another pro:;ess. In this application, the steam turbi ne can provide
an effi ci ent method of reducing high pressure steam 'o l ow pressure stearn; i.e, pressure l et down deS.fice.
If a
non-condensing turbine exh3usts to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, i t is referred to as a
oackpressure i :ni t. The implementation of this type c f turbine is becomi ng common at larger cogenera!;on
facilities whi ch provide l owi rnedi um pressure steam t . ~i a steam host.
Extraction Versus Non-Extraction
A seco..,d way t urbi n. 2~ can be classified is by (l xtracti on or non-extraction. Extracti on turbines ~ j i
sometimes calisd "bleeder" :urbi res. An extracti on tcrbine is a multi-stage turbine where sorlle of the S ~ G U ~ O ~
is exhausted, or bled, from bet weer~ turbine stages at extraction poi nts. This extracti on steam may b.2 ,ised
for feedwater !!eating, or as an alternate source of LP steam t o the plant, or many other purposes.
File: \ ccf
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- - - - - -
Single Pressure vs. Multiple Pressure
Fauli Kabjrwala
C___
Power Comoany
Limitec'
FAost turbines have .c,;esm r.dm~tted to the first stage from a single source. Some turbines Iiav;, :earn
at a l ower pres.;ure admitted to tt e steam path at son (3 point after the first stage. This arrangement is
comrilon in sterim turbines u,;ed i I cor-nbined cycl e pla7:ts because i t is common t o have Heat Recover,: 5tcai n
Generators ( KRSG' s) that op?rat: wi t h more tk,sn one 7ressure.
VOLUHE 1 - FACILITY OVESVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CVCLE FUNDAMENTALS
Reheat \fersus Non-Rrhe; t
A third ):Jay that t ur hi ~es can 5e classified is re eat or non-reheat. A reheat Turbine is a mul t i st aj e
. turbine i n \ vhi cb the s;eam is direc!ed 'rom some inter ~nediate stage of the turbine back t o the boiler. I r l the
boiler, the stear-I is reheated 3nd t5en ?iped back to t t + t turbine. Some large turbines return the steam tc, the
'
boiler to be reheated a secon;d timr?. T ~ i s is called a double reheat turbi ne.. There are t wo advantages !,-
reheating stearl . First it rnak?s thl? power plant more l ~f f i ci ent thermodynamically. Second, i t delays ~ i f
star; of steam c2ndensation i.1 the rurbine. Nearly all r - 9der n large steam turbines use reheat.
Single Casing Versus Compound
Another ,vay to classif,, turbines is as single cas ng or compound turbines. A single casing turbi?,: has
sll the stages of :?e turbine i r one casing as shown sl -I ?matically in Figure 4-9(a). As turbines beccrne
larger, it is not ~, r act i cnl to ha\/e all :he stag(-s i n one c: :sing. Therefore, they are divided i nto t wo or m:jis
casings. TI-ese :nachines are kno-n as cornpound t ur t nes. There are t wo di fferent types of cornpour3
turbines, tandem-compound s ~ d cross-compound.
A tandem-compound : L rbine is shown i n Figure . : - 9( b) . The turbine sections are i n line wi t h one
another and the :ecti ol >s ar c CI the sarre shaft. The t i . ! dem cc-?p;und turbine shown has t wo di ffere. !
suct1cn5. L;!rge r?o?crn \i ni ts .n?y I ~ave as rr1ar:y as fivt 5epara;e r!?ctions.
A cross-(:( n7pound turt? c r is sha'vn in Figure 4-5 c) . In i h. s case, the di fferent turbine sections : .: c:
different shaf:s. For power pl; nt s, :$is [near;s :hat t wo :eparate generators are used. This can be a7
advaniage far v r y large t urbi r? gellerat3rs since it may ?e easie~ tc build and ship t w3 half-size genc;rz.~-s
' I Fauji Kabirwala I VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PUNT FUNDAMENTALS I R e v i s i o n :
Power Company
1 Llrnifed
I
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS File: , (
tnan one very large generator. Some large crcss-compound uni ts have r wo or more turbine sections on each
shaft, and thus :hey are a combi nati on of cross-compound and tandem?ornpound.
Nearly all large steam turbines are mul t i ~l e casi ng uni ts. The tanriem-compouncl arrangement is most
common. Cr oss- c~mpound turbines are often desiqned for large [:nits and' i n cases where the advantage in
effi ci ency of a cross-compound uni t over a tandem-compound can be justified.
STEAM IN -+
STEAM E X HA US i
( a) SINGLE CASING
STEAM IN
( 5 TANDEM- COMPOCYD
STEAM IN
Figure 4-9 Si np!e Casing Versus Compound
Exhaust Fl ows
Condensing rurt;ines can be further classif ed by their exh;iust f l ow. A si ngl e-fl oi v condensing t ursl ne
,:asses al l of its exk-us: stc: . : I to the condense: ' hr oug: ~ one exhaust oper - i r g. However, the l ow press~l i e
sections of a I l r g e c3r;:?ounA turbine become so argo tha! t hey T i u s ! be si l l i t up i nto more than one secr ~on
!
Zecause cf design ' ;;l ~l !sti ons. Turbines wi t h as v any as C ~ X f l o~z ; ar c not. Ji cornrnon.
5 0 INTEGRATED COMBI N~D CYCLE OPERATION
-
Combi nec cycl e pl ant npera:ions vary si gni f i cant l y f r om t radi t i onal Ranki ne cycl e power pl ant s.
Al t hough standard operati onal consi derati ons are gi ven r o t he bal ance of pl ant suppor t systems, speci f i c
consi derati ons must be gi ven * o t he cor nbu~t i on turbi ne, heat r ecover y st eam generat or (HRSG), and stearn
turbi ne.
- - - _ - - - - - _ - - p - - p p p p p p - p p p - _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -3-
5. 1 Normal Startup'
Prior t o uni t startup, all suppor t systems, power sources, and cont rol devi ces must be checked and
al i gned f or operati on. Typi cal !y, t hese checks depend CI i ndi vi dual st at i on operat i ng procedures and
requirements, bu! may i ncl ude such areas as correct val,de,alignment, correct power suppl y breaker pos i t i ~ns ,
returni ng tagged out equi pr ne~t t o .etvice, al i gni ng conLr ol syst ems f or startup lop era ti or^, and ensuri ng all
safety equipmen! i s in place and f u! l ct i onal .
Revi si on 0
File: - j ccc
Fauil Kabirwala
Power Cornpant/
I Lfrn~ted
Upon successful compl et i on of the necessary prc,start checks, t he uni t can be st art ed and brought up
to base l oad ope:a:ion. The operati onal sequence f or a (combi ned cycl e pl ant st ar t up consi st s of t he follo<:i- .
maj or steps:
/
VOLUME 7 - FACILITY OVER\~EW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COV'BINEQ CYC'X FUNDAMENTALS
1. Pl a c i ~q the necessary bal ance of pl ant support syst ems i n operati on such as compressed air,
ci rcul ati ng wat er, c83ndensate, boiler feed, et:.
2. St ar t i r g the combt ~r : t i on turbine/HRSG.
3. Generclting st eam.
4. Starti ng the st eal ? t urbi ne
5. Increasing uni t locid
5.1 . I Combust i on Turbi ne St art up
Combusticln turbi ne genzrat o-s are provi ded wi t h di gi tal cont r ol syst ems whi ch are programmed t o
sequentially star: :tie uni t and r l ace i! i n service; general y at t he push of a but t on. The cont r ol syst em al r.3
starts and stops b . 3 ~ mount ed and n~x i l i ar y equi pment \:/hich suppl i es cooling, l ubri cat i on, f uel and
prot ect i on for !he combust i on t i ~r bi n- . and the associ atec generator. Once a st art comr nand i s i ni ti ated, t h ?
cont rol syst em prcjgresses t hr ot ~gh an aut omat i c sequenctc t o bri ng t he combust i on t urbi ne generator f r om LI
standsti l l condi t i o~ t o a presel ecl ed pgi nt of operation, i.6.. synchroni zed and el ectri cal l y l oaded.
Al t hocgh e3ch combus:i,3n t urbi ne manuf act urer I rovi des cont r ol syst ems pr ogr ammed wi t h f ul l
aut omat i c start ca?abilities, i t iz ext remel y i mport ant f or -1perati1g personnel t o be fami l i ar wi t h t he start
sequence and t o be al vare of !he k?y operati ng p;:rametei-s. On :e a st ar t command i s i ni ti ated, t he
combust i on t u r b i ~ v st art i ng dev: ce u i i l spin the t ~ - b i n e tc> a speci f i ed speed t o purge t he HRSG of
coni busti bl e gases. The cornb3;tion :urb;ne is mai nt ai ne at t he purge speed f or a speci f i ed l engt h of t i mt t o
al l ow 3 t o 4 exchsnges of air i n :he HRSG casi ng st ruct u. ~c. Upon compl et i on of t he purge, t he st art i ng
devi ce wi l l de-eqergizeidiseng- allc)!win!: the cornbustio,i t urni ne t o coast down i n preparat i on f or the
startup seqi l encc, . e. i gni t i on, : ccele:aticn, synchroni zat 3n, s nd l oadi ng.
D ~ r i n g t h e I t sr t up sequel ce, z c e the turbi ne increases t o i gni t i on speed, t he Operator shoul d cl osi l y
n:oniior fl anl e prs-s':nce, rate of accel ~rra!i on, and combu: - i on t emperat ure. Combust i on t emperat ure is
t\' pi cal i y monilorec! es ei;her tble ;urbi:~e inlet temperature t urbi ne out l et temperature, or bot h. Combust i nl .
[ ~ r b i n e cont rol svs' cms are proc:rarnn-.?d t o cont rol f uel f l - w t o t he combust or to cont i nuousl y accel er a~e t : ~ e
a
;ursine vi,ithout r.uc o e d n ~ a spe:ific ' i ~r b i l e inlet or exhai s t gas temperature. Duri ng a normal startup, tfmc-
0
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- - GI
I
/ Fauji Kabjrwala I VOLUME 1 - FACILIT" OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS IRevision:
9
combustion temperature wi l l increase at a somewf at qr dual rate. If, Clowever, the combust i on temperature
Increases at an extre?nely accelerated rate, t he Qperator s h o ~ ~ l d no! hwi t at e t o tri p turbine. Thi s may Indicate
a control system mal F~nct i on or a mal functi ori wi t hi n the regulation of fuel f l ow t o t be t urb~ne. As an overall
protecti ve functi on, the control system wi l l t-p th.: turbine i f the t ur b~ve inlet or exhaust temperature exceeds
a specific setpoint.
Power Company
1 Limited
Duri ng the acceleration period of the :tartup, the turbine inlet aqd exhaust temperatures wi l l t i c much'
greater than when the uni t is at.i dl e speed. ' n particular, a cri ti cal peri od i n whi ch over-temperature clamage!
can occur during the startup phase is before :he turbine reaches gover i i ng speed; Duri ng this period of the
startup, air f l ow through the turbi ne has not !.let increased t o a poi nt where the turbine is able t o accel erat~?
away from excess fuel. As the turbi ne approsches idle speed, i.e. the increased rotati onal speed results i n
~
the compressor forcing more air through t he :urbine, the turbine i nl et 2nd exhaust gas temperature ~ 1 1 1
decrease t o a normal operating value. Because an excess amount of heat is required t o accelerate
!
combustion turbines t o idle speed, one start deteriorates the equivalen: of 20 - 30 hours of normal
operational life t o the hot 'gas pat h compone-ts.
h
Once the combusti on turbi ne reaches idle speed, the generator may be synchronized t o the gr,d. VJit
automatic generator synchronization selectet', the control system wi l l read, compare, and adj ust tur-
bine-generator speed and generator vol tage t o match system reqc.iiemf:nts. The generator is then co?ncc:eci
to the system by.closure of the generator breaker. Svnchronization of t he turbine-generator uni t t o tne
distribution system can be automati c, as stated above, or manual. In either case, relaying and contrcl
I
components compare-and display on the con:rol panel, critictll incr2rnia+i3n useful i n :he proper connecti on of
the generator t o the system.
1
In the manual synchronization mode, ' he Operator adj ~ s t s turbine-generator speed and genera:cr
vo!tage before closing the breaker. Manual Inading can be accomplished by gradually incressing the ;peed
setpoint from either the control system CRT, or from the generator cor t r ol panel, Vanufacturers ger~cral l y
deliver "maxi mum loading rate" specification:: wi t h each combust ~on t ~rrbi ne generator. At a maxi mum,
)mbusti on turbine load shcu!d never be char~ged more than 25C; of fill1 load in any one mi nute p e r i ~ d .
COMBINED CYCLE F~~~~~~~~~~~
1.2 HRSG Startup
File: ,ccf
The HRSG, l ocated at the exhaust end of the e.omhjs*ion tur#i'e, effi ci entl y u:ilizes the excess
thermal energy i n the c ombc s i i q turbine exbaust gases to geneia'te .3i3h pressure, xuperheated steam.
Because of i ts location, the HRSG is automatic all^ placed in oper ~t i on : n conj uncti on wi t h the combusti on
turbine.
In some combined cycle plants, a bvp ~ s s stack and d:!mper is iris:alled between the combusti ..n
turbine and the HRSG. In the bypass c o n l ~ , ~ ration, e;:haust gases f r a n the turbine can be di verted ~i i r ~c l l ' ;
to the atmospi-ere inste;:d of passing througl the HRSG. Renardless of !he specific combusti on
turbine1HRSG arrangement, similar considera:ions are applicab>le t!ic startup and operation of all HRSSs.
The HRSG must be prepared for operption prior t o i ni t ~at i ng a st3.t of the conbust i on turbi ne.
Preparing the H?SG for operation consists of fol i owi ng evolutions:
Filling and venti ng \he feedwater .,eater
Esteblistilng deaerator water level and s;ea;n presyure
Filling and ventin? the eco~~omi zei ;
Establishing s!earj; drum v~at er l ei el
Oy,criing the supc:huate: ;:nd reht. i ter venTs and drains
I
Wh e i st ar t i ng t he combust i oq t urbi ne and H9SG f r om col d condi ti ons, a f ocus of pr i mar y conc?r n
must be placed on t he operat i on of ?he HRSG and i t s l i mi t ed physi cal abi l i t y t o wi t hst and a r api d i ncrease of
t emperat ure. i f combust i on t ur bi ne load, i.e. exhaust gas temperature, is i ncreased a t an accel erat ed rate,
excessi ve t hermal stress is i nduced on t he pressure sect i ons of t he HRSG. If t he combust i on t urbi ne exhaust
gas t emperat ! l re is i ncreas(?d si gni f i cant l y above t he HRSG t ube met al t emperat ures, s t e a d wa t e r han1:nering
and met al f at i gue wi l l resul t . Therefore, upon synchronization t o t he el ect ri cal grid, t he combust i on 1~; bi i l e
mus t be r na~nt ai ned at a minimurn megawat t l oad u ~ l t i l t he HRSG is suf f i ci ent l y war med and t he ten-,p?i aturc:
--
of each pr cssl r e sect i on CI.ive stabi l i zed.
A si mpl i f i ed schemst i c o" a si ngl e pressure, r eheat HRSG i s i l l ust rat ed i n Fi gure 5-1. As i l l ustrated, t he
a
HRSG f eedwat er heat er is l ocat ed at t he back of t he casi ng st ruct ure, near t he ex i aus t gas exi t t o t hc st ack.
Thi s l ocat i on is i deal f or t hr> i nt ended purpose of t he f eedwat er heater, whi ch is t o ut i l i ze t he remai ni ng
t hermal energy f r om t he ccmbust i on t urbi ne exhaust t o preheat f eedwat er en r out e t o t he deaerat or. When
desi gni ng a KRSG, t he marufac:urer cal cul ates, conct ruct s, and l ocat es each bank of t ubes t o absor b a
speci fi c amount of t hermal energy f r om t he exhaust gas f l owpat h when t he combust i on t ur bi ne i s o p ~ i s t i n g
at "base l oad". As a resul t of t hese cal cul ati ons, t ho amount of avai l abl e t hermal ener gy at each prosrzssi ve
loca!ion, f r om t he i nl et t o t i e ourl et of t he HRSG, ccn be det ermi ned. The heat exchanger segment s of - - 7 h
pressure sect i on are arrang?d, respect i ve of each otlaer, t o t ake maxi mum advant age of t he tempera:^,?
di f f er ence bet ~aeen t he exk' aust gas and t ube si de t emperat ures.
Revi sLon:
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-
Ci8uBuST IN
TUR?:N'
i X h < L %'
9-
-
CO~DENSATF
. -
8 . C. ' J.
Ul hl L' JU L. c V
FLC r
Fauji Ka b l r ~ a j a
Power Companv
l i mi ted
Figure 5-1 Sirnplifie 1 Schema I[: of HRSG
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-. PI. L - .
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VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
'
COMBINED CVCLE FUNDAMENTALS
A basic l aw of thermodynami cs stntes that the rate o f heat transfer from hot t o col d is depend ! qt
upon the temperature difference between the objects. HRSGs are designed on t he basis of this
t hermodynsm~c pr~ncl pl e. During base l o- d operation, wi t h sToam and wat er f l owi ng through the respcctl ve
boiler tubes, t he temperature of the combusti on turbi ne exhaust decreases as i t progresses through thr?
HRSG. By t he ti me the exhaust gas reaches the feedwater heater, the exhaust gas temperature has b;.en
reduced t o less than 300F. As per desig? calculations, the feedwnrlter heater i s sized wi t h the appropl i ate
heat transfer surface t o obtai n a specific water outl et temperature when the uni t is operati ng at base I ~ 3 d .
As illustrated i n Figure 5-1, the pre-heatec' wat er is routed t o the d~aer at or .
.
Upon i ni ti al startup of the combust on turbine, the hot e x h a ~ s t gases pass through the HRSG w thout
a significant reducti on i n temperature. Ev~?n t hough each pressure r ect i on absorbs ' some" heat f r om the
exhaust gases duri ng startup, none of the absorbed heat is removec from the HRSG i n t he f or m of steam.
Upon combusti on turbi ne startup, t he temnerature of t he gases at the exhaust stack i s nearly equal t o the
temperature of the gases at the combusti on turbine exhaust. There'ore, the startup peri od can be basicallv
considered a "preheat stage" i n whi ch the temperature difference between the exhaust gas and the boiler
tubes decreases, i.e, t hey eqdalize. Althoiegh thi s preheat stage is rcquired i n order t o prevent excesslv?
thermal stress t o the boiler tubes and st ear l drum, t he feedwater hester temperature eventual l y i ncr cas~s t o
wel l above i ts designed, base load, i nl et ternperature of 300F.
RevihiOn:
File: ,cc+
FaWi Kabirwala
' ~ o w e r ~or npany
Limited
Throughout the preheat stage, the "hi gh exhaust stack temperature" condi ti on remains present ?den
as
turbine generator load is inc-eased and t he HRSG begins t o generate steam. Unti l the steam
drum begins t o develop si gni fi cant steam f l ow, the removal of tClermnl energy (steam f l ow) from the ~ R S G is
inappreciable. Likewise, Ceedwater makeup t o the sream drum i s at n mi ni mum duri ng thi s period and
therefore, the economizer is absorbing verv l i ttl e thermal energy f rom the exhaust gas f l owpat h. During thi s
period, makeup wat er t o t he deaerator i s bvpassed around :he feedwater heater t o prevent exposing ti -~e
",highor thnfl narmml Oaf4 !iIpperrrlUrer 131 t he exhaunt stnrk. If the wat er were all.owed lo ca5s
\lt~f41i$..,lil !, , / (r' i +p~y~ 1 F ! i n I f . i I t - 4 ~ ~ U l ~ n;?hfnrh r n~J r 1 ) i h ~ s t t t l r ? qnt ta el thm wrS*t wnu\d fbmct, into - t h r r T ,
*n' er' ' 8.E~lrifi~f i - l . i y V .. li t i i i u ccfidit,e!, rea,,lt g. xaess prF5sYie ,he dsaera,u5
I hr ' 'i;esign'' l cnperature l i mi tati ons b f the loiler feed pumps M,ould i,e exceeded resul ti ng in acceleraitc
\Year ane damage t o the pump internals.
VOLUME I - FACILITY OVER VIE.^ AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
. ..
.' COMSINED CYCLE FUNPAMENTALS
Once the HRSG begins t o generate s.eam, :he l oad cn the combusti on turbi ne generator can be
grsdually increased at the programmed rate ,f approxi matel v 3 7 0 10 negawat t s per mi nute. As more iosd is
placed on the combusti on turbine generator the exhaust gas ternperblure increases proporti onatel y, a o i tne
result is increased steam producti on. When the combusti on turb ne gt7nerator reaches 40-50% of bass load,
the transfer of thermal energy through the h9SG wi l l have increased t 1 a poi nt where the exhaust gas
temperature at the feedwater heater is near .ts normal operating value At this poi nt, the feedwater heater
inlet isolation valve can be opened, and the
ypass closed.
When i ncr easi n~ combusti on turbine load, and consequently HRSG steam producti on, the rate of
t e~i per at ur e rise ( O F per mi nute) wi t h the ste- rn drums shoul dbe cl osety moni t or ed HRSG manufactur:rs
of t en provide specific l i mi tati ons. Accal ei ati r-g t'le terl perature rise be,i ond the manufacturers
recommendations wi l l cause undue stress t o :he steal71 drums and heat transfer comsonents. If an exc,.isive
temperature di fference is noted, changes i n c.~mbusti o? turbine load should cease unt i l the i emperatures
stabilize.
St eam Generatior:
Steam f rom the HRSG superheater is s! ppliea t r the steam ??ad( r for use by :he steam supp!y
svstems and the steam turbine. The control c ! steam f : 2w frcrn t hr ? sc3 l i i i eater out i t : i s generally thro;:h 3
motor-operated stop check val ve and s * e e n s: p valve; such as t h ? exar.l l l e i l i u~t r at e~l i n Figure 5- 1. Tr 2
posi ti on of thc v a ! i c ni otor operators is :ypicat , c ont r oed from :he Ope-i t or KeyLocr3 af the DCS.
Power Company
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
[File: ,ccf [-1
/ Limited - ,
I'
During startup of the HRSG, t he mot or operators for the st op check val ve and t he steam st op val ve
are moved t o the OPEN posi ti on before the steam drum begins t o d e v e l ~ p steam pressure. As t he HRSG
I
heats up, steam wl l l f l ow throucih st op check valve and begi n t o war m the steam header. Duri ng this peri od
of the startup, the combusti on turbi ne is mai ntai ned at ml ni mum load. Once the HRSG and t he steam syst em'
piping are compl et-.l y heated a n j pressurized, the combus!ion turbi ne load can be increased t o meet t he
prestart steam requirements of the steam turbine.
In mul t ~pl e unit applrcatrcns, i f the steam header is already pressurized prior t o HRSG startup, the disk
of the stop check valve remains seated due t o the a1read.l pressurized steam header. Once t he steam drum
Increases t o a pressure equal t o t he steam header, the cbsck valve wi l l sl owl y open and steam wi l l begl n t o
f l ow through the sclperheater f r om t he drum. Once stearr f l ow through the superheater and reheaters I S
suf f ~ci ent , the app'cable vent and drain val ves are closed. I t is very i mportant that t he dr um wat er l evel be
closely moni tored dy r k g t@ t r ami t i on peri od when steam i s initiallv delivered t o the system.
'
HRSG Drum Level Control
Mai nt a~ni ns proper stearr drum l evel i s a critical fuqcti on and can not be over stressed. An
excessively hrgh drum level wi l l fl ood the moi sture separators l ocated wi t hi n the steam drum, resul ti ng In
mol sture carry over t o t hs sqplerhqater and a steam t urbi re trip. An excessively l ow d r ~ l m l evel w ~ l l result rn
decreased steam output, over hest ~ng of t he economizer, *.vaporator, and superheater tubes and a combuct ~on
t urb~ne trip.
Drum pressure is a result of dr um l evel combi ned wi t h the generation of steam i n t he evaporator
tubes. T i e drum pressure wi l l fl uctuate wi t h changes of 'crad demands on the steam system. Duri ng a
sudden s:earn load i nceasd, drum pressure wi l l decrease. This wi l l result i n a false hi gh l evel condi ti on
known as "swel l . " During a sudden decrease of steam dc-mand, steam drum pressure wi l l increase and result
' n a false l ow ! eve! condi ti on kr,c wn cis " si r i nk. " In some situations, the tuning of the steam drum level
control loop may nj : respond qui ck enouch t o maintain p-oper drum level during such abnormal condi t ~uns.
In this event, the Clperator may :,c required t o take MANUAL control of the level control valves.
5.1.3 Steam Turb.ne Startup
The next progressive step of bri ngi ng a combi ned cycl e p!ant up t o base l oad operation, is t o preheat
and start the steam rurbine. In qeneral, proper warmup o' the steam turbine may take up t o several hol ~r s. If
an external source 2f steam is a\.tailable, preheating of the steam turbi ne can begin prior t o startup of :.-:e
combusti on t urbi rc :o faci l i tate t h e overal startup procesi;. In some applications however, the HRSG 1:-lay be
!he only means of r?roducing ste3rn a: the pl ant.
Upon startu:) of the comt cl st i cn turbine and HRSG, the steam generated by the HRSG is routed t o the
condenser through the steam turhrne bypass val ve(s). Thp3 bypass val ve is modul ated t o control steam f l o ~
+v
!o the condenser 2nd consequentl v, PRSG steam drum prllssure.
St eam Turbine Prev.lnrniinq . .
One of the rlrirnary conce-ns of ste3m turbine opert -t i on is the gradual and uni form heati ng and coo!i ng
of the rotors, shelis, and val ves. Contvo!!i ng the rat^ .I! m?t al temperature change is necessary t o ensLre
excessive thermal s:resses do n e t occur i n any p o r t i o ~ of 'he turbine metal. Each steam turbi ne manui ac t ~r er '
~r ov i des ztar!;ng 2- r ! !oadrng in:;!rcc:i,,n:: for each specific steam : ~r bi ne application. These i;structioi;~ ai e
ciesigned prinizriiy 1' 3 rninirnize cl cl i c ti ar' l age t o the turbine rotor, but they also have the ef f ect of l i mi t:ng I
cyclic damage :o !tlz t urb~rl e sll-.'l. In g ineral, t k starting and l oadi ng k t r u c t i o n s contai n recornmerrc!rld
: eTer ar ur e r aTF I r r cs, z ~ ? e l n - ? + ~ n v raf+s, soak ~er i ods a ^ different holds, and generator l oadi ng rates. If
r!ro~>erty f::l!ot-:nc!, :l i e starti c? >( d l n a d ' ~ ~ iqstruction:, wil i ncr ease the availability and reliability of t h?
tarbine componen::.
Dur i ng st eam t urbi ne pr ewar mi ng and st art up, t he Operat or must be awar e of t h2 f ol l owi ng l i mi t at i ons: :
r
Fauji Kabirwala
Power Company
Limited
Ther mal stress and di st or t i on
)n
Vi br at i on
Rot or and shel l di f f er ent i al expansi on
Any of t he above l i mi t at i ons may be i nt r oduced by subj ect i ng t he t urbi ne met al t o excessi ve
I
t emperat ure mi smat ches and/ or r at es o{ t emper2t ure change. One of t he above-l i mi t at i ons i s l i kel y t o be
!
reached bef or e t he others, dependi ng on t he t urbi ne desi an and conf:gura' i on, al t hough t he ot her t wo may be
i
present t o a si gni f i cant degree. I
I
.
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY CVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUF~~DAMENTALS
Ramp rat es are mai nt ai ned dur i ng st eam ' urbi ne st ar t up b y car ef ul mat chi ng of t he fi rst st age and
reheat st eam t emperat ures t o t he correspondi ns met al t emperat ures. The steam-to-me:al t emper at ur e
di f f erence shoul d be mai nt ai ned a$ smal l as pos~i bl e. The mai n st eam pressure and t emper at ur e shoul d be
cont rol l ed i n such a wa y t o pr oduce a st eam- t o- met al t emper at ur e di f f er ence of 50 t o 100F. Thi s mat ch, or
sl i ght l y posi t i ve mi smat ch, i s an i mpor t ant f a c t o ~ i s establ i shi ng and mai nt ai ni ng t he desi red r amp rat e.
Proper cont r ol of t he t her mal r amp is pri mari l y achi eved cont rol l i ng t he mzi n and reheat st eam t emperat ure,
and by cont rol l i ng gerrerat,or load upon synchr on zat i on t o t he grid.
Revi si on: o 1
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Fi rst-stage st eam t emper at ur e is af f ect ed not onl y b y t hr ot t l e st eam t emperat ure, but b y boi l er
pressure and t emperat ure, and t he resul t ant t hr ct t l i ng at t he t urbi ne admi ssi on. Lower pressures resul t i n a
hi gher f i rst -st age st eam t emper at ur e at t he sam. i ni ti al st eam t emperat ure.
Mai ntai ni nrr St eam Te r n ~ e r a t i ~ r e and P r e s m
Duri ng t he st eam t ur hne war mup process, t he st eam seals can bi. pl aced i n senl i ce f ol l owed by !ti;
appl i cat i on of t he condenser vacuum syst em. Cnce t he st eam f l ow and 1,:mperature f r om t he HRSG has
stabilized, t he cor nbust i on t ur bi ne generat or loacl can be gradual l y i ncreased t o meet :he st eam t urbi r-~e
prestart requi rement s, i.e. st eam f l ow, pressure, and superheat. Wi t h all .equi rements met , t he st eam t urbi ne
is rol l ed of f t he t urni ng gear and br ought up t o -ynchroni zi ng speed.
As previ ousl y i l l ust rat ed i n Fi gure 5-1, stl:am f r om t he HRSG st eam dr um must be superheat ed t i i a
cont rol l ed t emper at ur e bef or e ent eri ng t he st eanl turbi ne. To accompl i sh this, st eam f r om t he dr um is r oct ed
t hr ough a superheater, wher e i t s t emperat ure is i ncreased above t he sat u-at i on poi nt . 'his i ni ti al
su2erheat i ng of t he st eam bri ngs t he st eam t eni perat ure and pressure t o ' he correct condi t i ons bef or e l l - , e
admi ssi on of spray wat er ( at t emper at i on) whi ch provi des downst r eam t emperat ure cont r ol . Spray wat' er is
admi t t ed i nt o t he at t emper at or based on t he st i - am out l et t emperat ure <r cm t he superheat er. Typi cal l y, a
pneumat i cal l y operat ed t emper at ur e cont r ol val . e is pr ovi ded t o modul ai e spray wat er f l ow i nt o t he
at t emper at or i n a ef f or i t o mai nt ai n t he correct st eam t emperat ure :o t he st eam t urbi ne.
Prior t o st eam t urbi ne operat i on, HRSG r r um pressure is control l ec t hr ough t he t hr ot t l ed posi t i on of
:he sl eam t urbi ne bypass val ves. Ho~vever , on::? t he st eam i ur bl ne g2ne.-ator is sync9r cni zed and elec!rically
l oaded, t he bypass val ves are modul at ed cl oseti t o provi de f ul l st eani flov! :o bot h t he st eam t urbi ne an3 :he
st eam host . A t t i i s poi nt of t he pl ant st art up, : t eam pressure and f ow i.: cont rol l ed bt! i ncreasi ng t he
el ectri cal l oad o n :he combust i on t urbi ne gener. tor, i . e. i ncreased e>:haust gas temper?:ures r e s ~ l t i n
i ncreased st eam pr oduct i on and st eam super he: t .
! n a -.ombined cycl e power pl ant ar r ang: - ~er . t , I l ~e HRSG anc: conk-cquentl y !he .;tpam t urbi ne i s :otall..,
dependent upon :he gas t urbi ne f or i t s energy i i i put . It i s qui t e c o mn o n :n operat e su':h uni t s wi t h t l i c S! C~I I :
t urbi ne val ves wi de open under all operat i ng cc i di t i ons, and al l ow st eam t urbi ne genera:or l oad t o varc as a
f unct i on of t he st eam pressure avai1:~Sle f r om !be HRSG. Thi s arrangeme?: is cal l ed sl.dir;g (or vari abl e,
pressure operari orl . An advant age ( . f sl i di ng prl ssL!rr: jpc:ration is t l l at i: -educes t hermal stress on tu:t,:ne
ccmponent s as t he st eam t emper at ~r e remai ns el at i vel \ , const::nt oder a ride l oad r ar ge. Tbi s mode io:
operation is also more ef f ~ci ent since there is mi nor energy loss across the control val ves since t hey are l ef t
wi de open. In other words, the steam turbine operates i n t he turbi ne foUow mode wi t h regard t o the Gas
r
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turbine. I
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Power Cornpan y
COMBINED CVCLE FUNDAMENTALS
. ,. . .
5.1.4 Fast Starts
As previously discussed, there are specific poi nts of a combi ned cycl e pl ant startup where propti r
warmup of cornponents mu i t take place; i.e. the HRSG and steam turbine. These war mup periods are ~r i t i c al
t o the life expectancy of the plant equipment and must never be i gnored or bypassed. However, upon a piant
shutddwn or trip, the HRSG, steam turbine, and the ~ssoci at ed pi pi ng and components wi l l already be a t or
ncer operating temperature. Only under these ci r cur r ~t ances, can a fast start be performed. By defini!ion. a
hot restart of ~1 steam turbine is one i n whi ch t he fi rst-stage shell inner metal temperature is greater thzn
7 00" F.
In term: cf
turbine combined cycl c operation, a fast start refers t o the increased r zr - ..:
whi ch the plant load is incre3sed upon a successful sl i i rt and synchronization of the combusti on turbine. It ?
must be noted, there is not ;I means of bypassing or szcelerating the "programmed start sequence* of !he
combustion turbine. The l i mi ti ng factor during a fast .:tart is the abi l i ty of the HRSG t o accept a large ma:
of thermal energy at an accelerated rate. However, i f !he HRSG is already ' ' hot ' f r om recent opera ti or^,
combusti on turbine load can be safely increased. I
During a fast start, ur c e the combusti on turbine generator is synchronized and electrically loadecl, the :
Operator may load the uni t t o either a preselected loaci value or al l ow the uni t t o assume base load. T-I?
actual loading rate is of t en nr egr amr n~d by the manuf;lcturer t o protect the combusti on turbi ne and HRSG
i
i$ r;ramop
F R ~ ~ u ~ f ' j q l ~ , * Iaedlno rs?* of c, mmaaf~~oit* per minut. fsrrot un.cOmmon for ay,
~~*'~~~'~J'ib~[~~:: '?i#!i'l>~r ;!;i'?'~?$; l ~ ~ r ~ ; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ n / ; ~ f ; ; ~ ~ ~ + ~ ~ ~ J l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ A y t F ~ T ~ ~ ~ ~ ; L J r ~ ~ E ~ , ; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ J ~ ~ ~ . ~ .T;2E:
ct ' ' ' ?f ~' i'r'r"bu""' 1
i 1 : ' b ' 7 n r Y . ' I c.r m;'LJ,ar tnknrr -hn *c\lo\., :n3 r,.-a
i nt o cons, dsrol l on~
Vit2! clearances br?tween rotati ng
Therinal fatigue of metal pa-ts
File: \ccf
The ra?e o f differe1:ial cxpa~si on; not onl y : et ween parts of di fferent materials, but bet wec; parts
of di fferent thicknesses
limited
L
5. 2 Operating Modes
The purpose of any combi ned cycle power plant wi t h a OF Status (qualified faci l i ty) is to; 1) sup,2ly
steam :o a t hema! host, a n d 2 ) generate electricity. Tile requirement of suppl yi ng steam t o a thermal l os t
the primary vari i bl e in obtaining a QF status. As such, once the plant is operating, the steam r equi r em~nt s
of the thermal ! ~ c s t must be conti nuousl y tnct in order 1'3 mai ntai n the OF status.
Al though :he steam demands of the thermal host are generally wi thi n speci fi ed l i mi ts, the actliar
demanc may c h i n q e at any gi ~, en time. To facil:tate this variable, the steam turbine stopl control valve ;
typically operated in a sliding header pressure mode; i.e. it serves as a back-pressure regulator. In this
configuration, t he producti on cf steam from the HRSG can remain constant regardless of the steam dei
by t he thermal hc s t Then, as t h e steam demands of tht> thermal host change, the steam turbine stor:i
"alve ni odul ~t es !I mai ntai n he-ider Zresrure a t 2 pr edet ~r mi ned setpoint with the excess steam f l ovi ; n~
the steam t ur b~ne .
5. 2. 1 Base Load
: Jai 1uf , 3c: ~1~?r s ?ublish t h 3 rati ?d oetput of their co. ~bust i on turbine generator sets based on i nd, >: r i al
flalndzrd ol:eri!rlLi (150) condi i i :)ns. TWO of tile major fa::ors defined in an IS0 rati ng are a compress:: !:?let
--
I Faufi Kabirwara / VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS bevi"On: @
temperature of 59F and the specific altitude, wi t h respect t o sea level, whi ch the unit i n installed. Since the
power output of a, combusti on turbine i s v a y sensitive to c5anges i n ambient temperature, the use o r I S0
conditioris hav'k been standardized throughcut' the i ndustry t o insure i j ni form methods of rati ng combusti on
turbine shaft horsepower and generator oucgut,
Power Company
1 Limited
As air cools, i t ' s densi ty increases. Likewise, warmer air decreases i n densitv. Cool, dense air at !he
inlet of the combusti on turbi ne compressor results i n increased mass air f l ow through the turbine and an
increased cooling of the combustor and turbine sections. As a result, during.cool ambient cqnditions,
increasing fuel f l ow t o the combusti on section can be accomplished wi thout exceeding the maxi mum
allow able^ turbine inlet temperature. The c o ~ b i n e d effect of increased mass air f l ow and increased fuel flov+f
(Btu' s) th'rough the turbine section, results ; ? an increase of combustion turbine shaft horsepower.
Consequently, as ambient temperatures increase,.a decrease of shaft horsepower occurs even when the
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turbine inlet temperature i s mai ntai ned at maxi mum allowable value.
. The most critical area of a combusti ?n turbine is t he hot gas f ' owpat h through the turbine section.
Experience has shown that w a r in this are! is directly rel ated to the combifstion gas temperature at the
turbine inlet. Since combusti on turbine gennrators operate at a continuous synchronized. speed, the
combustion gas temperature at the turbine inlet i s a functi on of; 1) tl-e amount of fuel burned, or le:,ul of
. - pawer , anh2) ar nbi ~~t - t emper at ur e.
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Base load operation of a combustion turbine generator is not based on mai n~ai ni ng a constan: pov:er'
output, but on maintaining a constant turbi re inlet temperature and a' l o~vi ng shaft horsepower to vsr y as
changes In ambient temperature occur. W!:.:n base load operation is selected, the cornbustion turbll-,e conlr i l
system increases or decreases fuel f l ow t o : i e combustor ir an effort to maintain t+e maxi mum allo,.vaSle
turbine inlet temperature regardless of ambil-,nt condi:ions. Consequently, the charge of fuel f l o~v, ~ n d
thereby shaft horsepower, results in a corres-ponding change i n generiitor megawat: output.
1
The highest temperature attained i n t'le coni busti on turbine oczurs in the c o ~ b u s t i o n chambers and at
the turbi re inlet. This temperature must be i mi ted by the contrcl syscem t o prevent thermal damagi. to tkie
turbine section. Some combusti on turbine control systems are designed to measur!: and control turbine
exhaust temperature because i t may be impractical to measure tempe-atures i n the combusti on char-i;bers or
at the turbine inlet directly. The indirect c o i t r d o f t urbi rg inlet temperature, called firing terr.peraturi., is
possible through known turbine performanci ~rgl ati nnshi ps. For.n?xamrle, the exhaust temperature alone does
not fully determine firing temperature; the m5asured compressor disci-arge pressure i s also required.
COMB~YED CYCLE FUWDAMENTALS
In addition to exhaust temperature ccntrol, there are several ot i er control ari d protecti ve functions
incorporated i nto the con:busti on turbine cor trols to cnsure safe oper ~t i on of the ur-lit. These include such
variables as shaft vibration, bearing tempere'ures, oil Dressures, r?tc. ,'i!though each of these variablzs are
equally important and critical t o tt.e operat.ic.3 of the comb us ti or^ turbine, exhaust temperature is of j j r i ~ a r y
concern when operating the uni t 2t base ant peak :oatf. It must be ncted; excessiv? firing tenperat~l rr: cc~r-!
damage the turbines hot gas path comporlents.
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When operating the comb~,.;tion t u~i i ~i i e at base load, the contr.11 system cor;)pares the exha(;st
temperature control setpoint wi t h !he actual ,ombustian turtiir,e exhai st temperature as measured iron1
thermocouples mounted i n the exhaust pl r:n~ m. Thes? t her noco~pl es are 1ocati.d cn ?he ci r cu~nf er ei ~ce o i
tPe turbine exhaust and provi de re2resent;lti. e input slgnals :o the c o r t ~ o l system. ' n addition, son:,:
combusti on turbines are equippec! wi t h therr:ocouple:< whi ch sense t ht . ,.vheel sp~ce :ernperatures t c r ;:e?r,
each turbine stage.
Daily readins of the turbinc exhau::t z.id wheel .pace te:nperatu-es aid in r no~i t or i ng the 1urbl;:e's
combusti cn characteristics and in j et ect i r ~g '3ulty t hel r noco~ pies Asij;: from the 3:tual temperatu:?
indications, the "temperature sprezd" bet,~e::n the hi r:' i est and loflest temperatures around t t e
circumference of :he turbine exhalist mur,t bt* closcly 1-nonito-ed.
Thr oughout the l i f e of the combust i on t ur bi nr , i t i s i mpor t ant la def i ne a "baseline val ue' of exl l ausr
temperature spreads wi t h whi ch t o compare f ut ur e rlata. Thi s basel i nedat a i s establ i shed duri ng st eady st at e
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operati on af t er each of t he f ol l owi ng condi ti ons:
Ini ti al starrup of uni t
. Se'ore and af t er a pl anned shut down
Be'ore and af t er schedul ed mai nt enance
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Fauji KaSirwala
Power Company
An i mpor t ant poi nt regardi ng t he eval uat i on r ! an exhaust t emperat ure spread i s not necessari l y t he
magni t ude of t he spread, but changes i n t he spread over a peri od of ti me. Accur at e recordi ng and pl ot t i ng of
exhaust t emperat ures on a dai l y basis can i ndi cat e a devel opi ng probl em. Such probl ems may be t he resul t of
a
faul:y t her r no~oupl es, deteri oratedJdamaged t urbi ne !~la*des, det eri orat edi damaged combust i on liners, or a
bl ockage in t he cool i ng and seal Yng air f l owpat h. Ea.rh combust i on t urbi ne manuf act ur er speci fi es maxi mum
al l owabl e temperature spre2ds ar,;l wheel space t emperat ure operat i ng l i mi t s whi ch can be f ound i n t he
techni cal ref erence materi al s del i i er ed wi t h t he uni t . i n general, an al l owabl e t emperat ure spread may be
bet ween 30F and 105F.
I t is i mpor t ant wher, revi ewi ng exhaust tempc-srature readi ngs t o observe any t r end whi ch may i ~- : a.
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deteri orati on of t he combur:tion syst em. Gradual an :,'or sudden t emperat ure excursi ons shoul d be
i nvesti gated as soon as po::sible t o det ermi ne t he v a di t y of readi ngs.
Limited
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVESVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
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COMBINED CVCLE FUNDAMENTALS
5.3 ' Shut down of Combined Cycl e Plants
5.3.1 Normal Shut down
Similar :o 3 startup, rhe combust i cn tur l i ne c intrc..l syst em decreases generator l oad at a progrdnm::rl
rate duri ng t h ~ shut down i;:qucnce. The rat e , . ~f lea:: reeuct i on is t ypi cal l y t he same as t he pr ogr amnl - d
l oadi ng rat e, ;.e. 3 to 10 118:gawa:ts per ri i nut cl . As : on~bust i on turbi ne l oad decreases, HRSG st eam
product i on decreases pro ,crti onotel y.
With .espect t o ?he -herma1 limitations of t he (:ombustion t urbi ne and HRSG, a l oad r educt i on o, 3 t o
10 megawat t s Der mi nut e can be saf el y performed. Ao~vever , i n combi ned cycl e appl i cati ons, t he st eem
turbi ne t emperat ure ramp rt tes are t k e l i mi ti ng f acl or duri ng the shut down sequence. When decreasi ng
st eam turbi ne l oad, steam flo\;r and temperature musl be gradual l y reduced i n accordance wi t h manuf ~l ct ur er
recommendat i ons. Consequentl y, combust i on turbin': load, and t heref ore st eam product i on, must be
q r n r ( i i ~ I \ ~ dur41~f l 4ed tn R P ~ F ( ~ ! ' ~ ~ B ~ ( R ( I . I ha T b ~ p ~ r ~ t u r i ~ ramp rat er of 1\15 st eam turbine.
Once \ l i e r r e a m t u r t ~ n e 15 at minimum operat i f g load, I t t ri ps on r ever se power . Upon coast i ng 3 c . . 7,
t he s t eam l urk-i ne s ~r nmed a1f::y ol aced on !urning g i r t o pr event shaf t bowi ng.
With tk,e s:cam t urbi nz r emoved f r om sewi ce, : he cor nbus~i on turbi ne is shut down b y i ni t i at i ng 2 st op
signal at thc onarator control interface. Once initiate^,, a r aut omat i c. shu\ down sequence wi!\ decrease
generamr l oad at a pr ogr ar i n ed rat e. Once t he Seni -;iTor l oad has decreased t o a mi ni mum value, t he
Generator breaker is tri pped c2en an: fuel t o the l ur k :-,.: i:. decreased unt i l f l ame can no l onger be msir,;ained
i n [he conbus: i on chambe; When t he turbi ne spee : decreases :o a standsti l l , t he rot or t urni ng devic: i s
automati cal l y ~ i t i a i e d . Th: ] ~~l ha: l ? - l i e shut dowa se L ~ ~ ~ I C ~ ~ , c o mb ~s t i o n t urbi ne support syst ems wil : JU
act i vst ed or shu:d3v;n as r c ~ i ~ i r e : ~ .
mme d i ~ t e l y f ol l owi n~i $3 si i i vi : ! ~wn, tbc c c l ~ b ; :;or: : ur bi ni r ot or must be t ur ned t o provi de u n ~ ; ~ r nl
cool i ng. Uni f cr m coo!i ng of i:i t ~ r t n e rot or prevent: ralcr bov ' : i ~~, resultan: r ubbi ng and ni bal anr e, ;-,d
rcl;:ed damaq- 1h7t mi ght ; i l ci rnl s3 occur v:hen sub equcr t stnr:s are attemp:ed wi t hodt cooldoi.vn.
T ~ p c a y , a ~ O - ~ ~ L S I I Z I ~ lur!: rlc can br; st art ed and 13: :ieii at any ti me duri ng t he c a o d o wn cycl e.
I Power Company }
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mited
I COMBINE@ CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
After the combusti on turbCine is shutdowv, t he HRSG s t l am pressure should be 7l l owed to decrease
naturally wi thout opening vent s or other i ntenti cnal means of taki ng steam f rom the un.t t o accelerate the
lowering of steam pr evur e. A cool i ng rate excredi ng l QQO* per hour to-150F per hour by excessive
opening of vents shoul 1 be avoi ded t o l i mi t drum di storti r n and the resultrng strain on t he boiler tube j o~nt s
Rapid heating or quenchi ng can cause leaking tube joints i n the steam and ni ud drums.
Throttl ed opening of the superhearer ven' valves oermits steam f l cw through the superheater ariri
permits a modest pressure reducti on wi t hi n the :hove stated temperature Ii ~ni ts, Superheater vents can be
fully opened when the steam pressure decrease<- t o 15-20 psig. Simultaneously, the steam drum vent nwst
be opened to prevent a vacuum f rom formi ng vi thi n 'the HRSG pressure sections. If it s required to dralii the
holler for maintenance, the wat er temperatwe r u s t be al l owed to cool bel ow 200F.
5. 3. 2 Emergency Shut down
Emergency sti utdowns are the least-desirable method of shuttirig t o wn any power pl ant. An
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EMERGENCY STOP or TRIP pushbutton is gener3lly provi ded to simultane2usly trip both the combusti on
turbine and steam turbine. However, a unit trip should onl y be aerformec' if an emergency condi:ion exist
whi ch requires an i mmedi ate shut down. If ti me permits, the electrical load on both generators shoul d-bc
removed 0ver.a period of approxima:e!y 3 mi nutes prior t o tripping the unit. Al though this type of a
shutdown is still considered hi ghl y undesirable, .'t is preferred over 2 hi sh load trip.
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Upon performi ng an emergency shutdown, bot h turbines must be placed on turni ng gear t o prevent
shaft bowi ng. Similar t o a normal shutdown, tho steam turbine bypass valves wi l l open t o route excess
steam t o the condenser.
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6.1 Introducti on
The prirnanj purpose of any power plant install-ition i s t o profi t monetari l y f rom t he generati on of
electricity. .Tl i r profi l abi i i ty of a power plant is di rectl v proporti onal t o the effi ci ency and performance of the
plant and the manner is whi ch is i t operated. It i s the responsibility of the operati ng st af f t o con!inuous!y
moni tor and corl:rol the opersti on of the plant t o achieve opt i mum performance and effi ci ency, whi l e
minimizing losses. Being co~sci ent i ous of the plant's ,~erformance not onl y increases profi tabi l i ty, but v ~ i l l
pay back great dividends i n extended equipment life a ~ d equi pment reliability.
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Fauii KabirwaQ
Power Company
Maxi mum plant performance requires awareness on behalf of the Operators, of t he condi ti ons whi ch
can lead t o reduced plant effi ci ency and output. Thi s awareness demands stri ct at t ent i on t o detai1,conibined
wi t h the abi l i ty t o i denti fy and correct performance r el l t ed probl ems as t hey occur. Upon compl eti on of this
course, the Operator wi l l be aware of the factors that 3ffect pl ant performance and reliability, and the zcti ons
that can be taken t o ensure t he pl ant is operated i n ar effi ci ent and reliable manner.
Limited
VOLUN:E 1 - FACILITY OVEFVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
Before a performance rel ated probl em can be sc:lved, t he ' root cause' of the probl em must be p r e c i ~
identified. This module provi des pl ant personnel wi t h .he required knowl edge t o i denti fy performance rel ated
problems associated wi t h each mzj or component of t h? combi ned cycl e power pl ant. The i nformati on
conveyed i n thir: section is br3ken down i nt o individua sections, each pertaining t o t he f ol l owi ng objec:ij/es:
l dent ~f y the pl anti s enerqy,converei ~n cycl e
. ~ , , r i f - * ttln tqrr?l ' I L ' !forrqonet~' and ha measured,
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1 I I t 1 t 7 0 '&RIS\ n ~ t n \ r RHrl )tnw $hair hb*rat]nn ~ f f a r t + !
' 6.2 Energy Conversion Cycl e
The enerqv conversion cycl e consi sts of those cl mponent r whi ch are responsible f or converti ng one
f orm of energy i >t o another. =or example; converti ng \\l ater i nt o superheated steanl. I n general terms, a
power pl ant can be thought oL as a large energy transfrbr system made up of several smaller energy transfer
systems. FI PU~S 6-1 I S a sl mp' l f ~ed diagram of the enerry conversi on cycl e of a typi cal combi ned cycl e x w e l
plant.
6.2.1 Energy Conversion ,.
A:; I ~ I U: . U: J I I : O i n Fi g~i r ( : 3- 1, ~: al ur al gas or fuel o i is provi ded as :he fuel source t o the gas turbini:.
The fuel provides chemical energy t o t he plant whi ch m-1st undergo several conversions to produce elec.rical
energy t o tne grii-l:
Wi thi n the gas turbine, ~ l l e chemical energy c f the fuel is converted t o thermal energy (heal ). The
r naj or i ; ~ o' this hea: is converted to mechaaliral energy as i t causes the gas turbi ne shaft t o ::)tate.
The ninclianical energy of the gas turbine is :ransmitted t o the associated generator through -3
drive i h a l Wi thi n thi generj tor, rnechanica' energy is converted i nto el ectri cal energy.
Exhau: t heat f rom t3c gas turbine passes thrcugh the HRSG. Wi thi n the HRSG, t he tl i ermal
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enersy from !he gas ~ur bi ne exhaust is used t : ~ convert wat er i nto superheated steam.
Superileat2d steam s [routed to the steam turl i ne, where it expands through the turbine srascs
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cmsi n: !h. shaft ml at e. , he steam turbines :onvert thermal energy i nto mechani cal energ;
TI-e mr chznical energy of the steanl rurbi~'lu i : [ r ansmi ~t eb to the associated generaror ihroti;,; 2
r e a . I l i i t hi n t +r generator, mi:chaniial energy is converted i nto el ectri cal energy.
Tile i t r ? ni rxhaustec! iron1 the steam turbines Is cool ed yondenzed. The condensatelfeedwjtei i s
r ei nt r cduce i nto the qRSS t o repeat the procnss.
Figure 6-1 Energy Conversion Cycle of a Combined Cycle Power Plant
Fauli Kabirwala
Power Company
i i m~t ed
6.2.2 Ener gy Leaving the Plant
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As energy is converted through each s:ago of the power phnt process, losses occur due to t h e
im2ossibility of the systems and the individui.' components to be 100% efficient. These losses are iniierznr
to the design of the plant and occur cont i nuo: ~sl y whi l e the plant i s i n operation. Al though these losszs car1
not be avoided, i; is i mportant t o realize wher ' ? these losses oi,cu: so that they can be moni tored and kept l o ;
a mi ni mum.
7 a
VOLUME I - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PUNT FUND)-MERITALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
In thi nki ng of the power plant as an evergy transfer system, it is,irnportant to realize that most of thc:
energy whi ch enters the pl ant as fuel is no,t cr~~nverted :o a usable enercy form such as electricity. A typi cz!
combined cycl e power plant converts less the? 5096 of the energy in the fuel i nto electrical energy. Thtt rest
of the energy i s ~ s e d wi t hi n t he plant for runr:ing auxiliary eq~i pmr nt or is !ost from the plant cycl e a1 v s r i o ~ s
stzges i n the conversion process. Since ener-.y canno: be desrroji,:d, I he fuel energy that is not c0nvi:ric.d :CI'
electrical energy must leave the power pl ant i.1 some other fop:,: The n?ajc:r areas of energy loss in a pci.:e-
plant cycle are as fol l ows:
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Heat rejected t o t hl circula!ing we.er
Heat rejected ? h r o ~ g h the flue gas ;tack
Jnbcrned combustibles i n the flue ;as
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Cieat !osses to the scrrrou7di ng' atr-,)sphere by radi zti or
Ineffi ci ent equipment performance jue to improper operation a-idior maint;'nance
Fr om t he above l i st of i t ems, :he pr i mar y wa y i n whi c h ener gy i s l ost f r om t he power pl ant i s as heat
i n t he ci r cul et i ng wat er l eavi ng t he condensers. Once t he st eam has gi uen u p i t ' s ener gy to t he t urbi ne, i t
must be r et ur ned t ot t he boi i er t o compl et e i t' s cycl e and st ar t over. Si nce t he st eam i s at a ver y l o w pressure
and wi l l not f l ow back t o t be boiler, i t needs t o be condensed and pumped t o t he boi l er as f eedwat er . The
st eam i s' condensecf by tr;rsfdrrfng i f ' s l at ent heat of vapor i zat i on t o t he ci r cul at i ng wat er passi ng t hr oi i gh
t he condenser tubes. The. ' i eat cont ai ned i n t he circ,.rlating wat er i s di scharged t o t he at mospher e and ~ h u s ,
is l ost f r om t he pl ant cycl e.
Anot her rriajor l oss of ener gy f r om t he pl ant occur s wi t hi n t he HRSG. Al t hough mos t of t he :h?rmal
energy i nsi de t he HRSG is t ransf erred t o t he steam/v.,ater cycl e, a por t i on of t he heat cont ai ned i n t he rl ue
gas is di scharged di rect l y t hr ough t he st ack. Thi s di scharge o f heat t o t he at mospher e t akes pl ace i n
accordance wi t h t he t her mzdynnmi c desi gn of t he bai1e.r b y t he manuf act ur er ; i.e., a cer t ai n amount cf heat
rej ect i on must occur i n or dar t o achi eve reliable HRSG operat i on. Reduci ng t he f l ue gas t emper at ur e bel ow
t he desi gn poi nt can l ead t o pr obl ems wi t h cor r osi or i n t he duct wor k and decrease t he t her mal l i f t (na!ilral
dr af t ) o f t he flue gas t hr ou: l h t he st ack. Therefore, t is necessary t hat t he f l ue gas t emper at ur e exi1ir.g t he
boiler is abovi! a def i ned m ni mum value; general l y b. ?t ween 240-280F dependi ng o n duct fi ri ng. Al t l l ough
this t emper at ur e val ue seems i nsi gni ci cant , i t qui ckl y becomes a maj or f act or when a quant i t at i ve
measur ement of t he r ej ect ed f l ue gas mass f l ow i s t . >ken i nt o account .
I n- addi t i on- t o t he at . ove heat losses, a ver y s- ~r ~al l a ml u n t of energy, i s l ost due to i ncompl et e bxr ni ng
of f uel wi t hi n t he gas t urbi ne. Al t hough t he gas t ur bi ne i s ext r emel y ef f i ci ent , a measur abl e amount of t he
i nj ect ed f uel is not bur ned compl et el y. fncompl ete cor nbust i on of f uel appears as car bon monoxi de i n t he f l ue
gas. Unbur ned combust i bl -t s i ndi cat e t hat al l of t he chemi cal ener gy i n t he f uel is not conver t ed t o k. ej t , and
t heref ore ener-gy is also l ost f r om t he pl ant cycl e.
File: jccf
Fauji Kabjrviaia
Power Compc7n y
Limited
The la:;: form of ent , r gy l oss i s he;.t whi ch is ',35 t t o t l e ambi ent envi r onment . These l osses re>;ilt
f r om t he radi r' t i on of heat f r om pl ant equi i ~ment , mo: o s, elei:trical busses, and pi pi ng. Addi t i onal l o s ~ e s may
be present in t he f or m o! g3s, st eam, or w7t er l eaks. These t ypes of l osses can be mi ni mi zed t hrougl -i t he
use of insula: on on pi pi n? 2nd equi pment , ~ n d b y prl2'-1er ma, l t enance t o pr event l eaks. However , no mat t er
what measur f s a:? t aken, ; i si gni f i cant por t t on of er! , . j y l oss ?s wi l l occur due to r adi at i on.
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY O V E ~ V ~ E W AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
6. 3 Pl ant Peat Rate
Plant t eat rate is a r net hod of showi ng !he pr r f or mance of a power pl ant . I t i s a measur e of ; i i :
amount of he, i t energy needed t o pr oduce one uni t ( f el ect ri cal energy. The heat r at e o f a power p i x : is
general l y rei j srded as a syr 15ol of pri de as i t is 3 me ,sure of t he pl ant s operat i ng ef f i ci ency and is di:c,:tly
r epr esent at i v~ of the har d . vor k, knowl edge, and declication of t he pl ant personnel t o mai nt ai n opt i rnu i i r ' -,t
per f or mznce.
The pl hnt heat rat e 3ccount s f or all i neffi ci en..i ss of t he pl ant i n t ransf erri ng t he heat of c o mb b t i o n
i nt o electric it)^. There are : v ~ o ki nds of pl ant heat ra+o; (1) gross pl ant heat r at e and, (2) net pl ant hear rat e:
-- Gr,>ss Plant Hea' 9at e is def i ned as th; ail?o.Jnt of he;: energy in t he f uel needed t o pr oduce 1
ki l i l ~vat t - hour cf el ect ri ci t \ / at t he generat r ~ t p u t i er n~i nal s.
&: ?l ant Heat FLq& is def i ned as t he am( : -pi of heat ener gy i n t he f uel needed t o pr oduce 1
i ci l o~zl att-hour cf el ect r i ci t y del i vered t o t : ~ 1 t ransmi ssi on syst em f or sale t o users. The net ,;Ian!
be. i t rate is r nr s: o f t r n used as ;i bencl ~n- i rk of t he pl ant ' s 9erforrnance.
5. 3. 1 Gross Dlnnt Heat Rate
T?e g - ~ s s pl ant he3- rat e is d, ?t ermi ned by rnr 3:iuring t he ki l owat t s generat ed at t he generato:
:errninals f or ;! gi ven pericci 2' t i n e ( ~ s u a l l y one moi.I.Ci).
Dur i ng :his t i me the amount of f uel bur ned i i !lit.
1 ;auj1 Yabirwala I VOLUME 1 - FACILITY @VERVIEW AND PLANT E ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ h l ~ ~ ~ ~ IRevision: 0 1
gas t ur b~ne and duct burners is al so measured. The heat energy of t he f w l is f ound bv det ermi ni ng i t s
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hnat i ng val ue (HV) i n Btu' s. Nat ur al gas has a nrl rni nal heat i ng val ue of - 1000 Btu' s. The amount of fuel
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used, mul ti pl i ed by t he h h n g Value, det er mi nes t he number of St uns needed t o generat e t he measur ed
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41l owal i - hour s. The rat l o of Bt u' s t o KWH' S i s t be gross pl ant hear rat e. f or mul a i c i l l ust rat ed bel ow:
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Power Company
1 Limited
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(Btu per cul ft of fuel) x (cul ft of el per hour) x ( number of hours) Btu
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(KW electrical output) x ( l umber of hours) KWH
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COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMEWTALS
6.3.2 Net Pl ant Heat Rate
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A por t i on of t he el ectri cal energy generat1.d b y t he pl ant is needed t o dr i ve auxi l i ary pl ant equi pment
such as ci rcul at i ng wl l t er pumps, boi l er f eed pun- ps, gas t prbi ne auxiliarie:, et c. Therefore, not al l of t he ,
el ectri cal energy generat ed is del i vered t o t he sv. i t chyar d f or t ransm; ssi on t o t he gri d. -he auxi l i ary el ect ri cal
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l oad rnay be as much as 6% o f t he t ot al gener at x out put . I f t he s um auxi l i ary l oad is subt r act ed f r om
generator out put , :he resul t is net pl ant heat rati?.
One ki l owat t - hour o f el ect ri cal energy is i q u i ml e v t t o 3 , A 1 3 Stu' s of heat energv. If a power pl ant
wer e 100% ef f i ci ent , i t woul d have a net pl ant !eat r at e of 3,413 Bt u per KWH. A ver y ef f i ci ent , moder n
coal fi red power pl ant uses 8, 500 Bt u of heat er er gy t o produce one k i l ov f ~t t - hour of el ect ri cal eqergy. Early
Dower pl ants wer e ver y i nef f i ci ent and some u s ~ J mor e t $arl 30, 030 Et u :o pr oduce 1 ki l owat t - hgur of
el ectri cal energy. Tho l ower t he pl ant heat rate, t he mor e ef f i ci ent t he pl znt .
6.4 Factors Af f ect i ng Pl ant Perf ormance
Moder n di st ri but ed cor ~t r ol syst ems ( DCS C O I ~ ~ ~ ~ I U O U S ~ ~ csl cu! at e t l ~ e net pl ant heat r at e and provi des
t he i nt or mat i cn t o t he Cont rol Room Operat or. c' ince chgnges i n ambi ent condi t i ons haue a di rect af f ect on
!he per f or mar ce o u ~ p u t of t he gas turbi ne, t he riet pl ant heat ra!c wi l l change accor di ngl y based o n thar
prel n se alone. Over a peri od of ti me, these cl i a i ges wi l l be real i zed as bzsel i ne val ues t o an experi enced
9pera:or. However , si gni f i cant changes i n t he net pl ant heat r at e dur i ng base l oad st epdy- st at e oper at i sn
shoul d be i nvest i gat ed i mmedi at el y. A numer i ce' l y hi gher t han nor mal hez.t r at e val ue i qdi cat es an
unnecessary l oss of energy f r om t he power p l a n cycl e; t hus i ndi cat i ng 2 r educt i on i n p! ant ef f i ci ency ari d
perf ormance.
As previ ousl y i l l ust rat ed i n Fi gure 6- i', eayh maj or compoi ent of t he ener gy conversi on cycl e pl ays a
key role i n t he overal l per f or mance of t he pl ant ; ,?.g., t he gas t u r b i ~ e , HRSG, st eam turbi nes, et c. A
m~ l f u n c t i o n or ab~or r nal condi t i on associ at ed wi th any of these corn3onerlt:: has a di rect i mpact o n t he
overal l pl ant perf ormance. I t is t he Operat ors rc ;ponsi bi l i ty t o be avi are of These pot enri al condi t i ons and
:,ow t3 i dent i f y t hem. Tt i e f ol l owi ng subsectio:! ; di scuss t he ooer at i 3n a r d pur pose of each maj or
component and t he abnormal condi t i ons or r nal f ~~nct i ons wou! d can \ ?ad t, r educed p l a i t perf ormance.
6.4.1 Gas Turbi ne
Gas t urbi ne uni t s are equi pped wi ;h a pr cgr ammed cont rol s1,stem desi gned t o mai nt ai n tb,e t urbi ne at
I num ef f i ci ency duri ng all modes of operat i l rn. Unl i ke t r adi t ~onsl coal or oi l f i r ed boi l ers whi ch requi re
:r:nt Operator at t er t i on t o f uel and cjir r at i c , cornbu:tion tempe:aturf,s, and so f or l h; t he gas turhi r:?
svstern ma nt ai ns peak ocer at i on of t he ( ] ni t ari d does nct al l ow f cr Operat or i nt eract i on on spec. f i c
' unc\~;ns. Thi s rni::hoc of coritrcll is ri cccssar)# . o e!isure ernissi:n pararnr>ters (Nor,) are cont i nuousl y r:~-_.t
2nd !!,c i nt egr i t y c.' t+e gas t urbi ne is ri ot jeopa: l i t ed or damaged.
e
For cxarnpl e: duri ng st ar t up anl i operat i ori of t he sas t ur t i ne uni:, 't:e cont r ol syst em modul at es : he
;:gsi!i,;n of t he fuel valves, cori t rol s t h : operati c.1 of t he bl ow- cf f damger:, and cont r ol s t he posi t i on of :he
~ n ! e t gui de vanes. Precise cont r ol of t 6ese col nponent s i s ext r emel y vi t al t o t he operat i on of t he uni t , 2nd
t hus t hese component s are cont r ol l ed b y t he gas t ur b ne cont r ol l ogi c. . Human i nt er act i on t o t hese c o n ~ r o l s
~ o u l d i nvari abl y resul t i n ur l i ecessar y t her mal st ress -i nd damage t o t he gas t ur bi ne urrit, and possi bl y ..I)
expl osi on or f l ame out .
Al t hough t he cont r ol syst em has pr i mar y c o n t ~ o l over t he gas turbi ne, t her e are condi t i ons whi ci l t he
Operat or must moni t or t o er sur e peak ef f i ci ency and r3erforrnance. The f ol l owi ng can af f ect t he per f or nance
of t he gas t ur b~ne and s houl j be geri odi cal l y moni t orc I:
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Faulj Kabirwa(a
Power Compaw
Llmlted
Compressor Foul i ng
Ci-t.f l nl et Ai r Fi !ters
Evaoorat i ve Cooll?r Mal f unct i on
Blo1.v-Off Damper Mal f unct i on
VOLUWE 1 - FACILITY OVEPVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
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COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
The most common area of per f or mance degra:'ation f or any gas t ur bi ne i s t he cl eanl i ness of t he
compr essor . Over a peri od 3f t i me, t r aces of di r t par' i cl es accumul at e on t he sur f ace of the compr essi ' r
bl ades resul t i ng i n reduced i ! f f i ci ency and compressor out put . ~ s ' t h e per f or mance of t he compr essor
det eri orat es, t ! i e overal l redcl cti on in per f or mance of : , i e gas t ur bi ne uni t i s ver y si gni f i cant . I n gener i l :erms,
a one percent decrease i n c,3mpressor ef f i ci ency r esu' t s i n a t w o per cent decrease i n t ur bi ne out put .
Even wi t h t he gas t urbi ne i nt ake f i l t ers f u n c t i c ~ i n g properl y, compr essor f oul i ng will undoubt edl y occur
over an extenci ed peri od of :ime. I n an i deal si t uat i or , it woul d be desi rabl e t o keep t he gas t urbi ne
compr essor ext r emel y cl ean at all t i r r es. However , i r real l i f e t er ms it is not feasi b!e t o cont i nuousl y M J S ~
t he conl pr esscr i n an ef f or t t o mai nt ai n peak per f c; m, nce f r om t he uni t . Tl i e most c ommon ~ n e t h o d 3 ,
det er mi ni ng w?en an of f l i ne wat er was h of :he cornp:?ssor is requi red, i s b y moni t or i ng t he performanL:.s
o u t p ~ t of t he uni; wi t h resp3ct t o ambi ent condi ti tsns. When a 5% decrease i n uni t per f or mance i s nor i d, a
wat er wash s;-~cul.' be per f or ced dur i ng t he next ~ n i ~ shut down, or an onl i ne wat er wash pei f or med.
dirt^ Inl et Ai r Fi l ters
A n obst r uct i on of air f l ow t o t he gas t urbi ne v, ; l l undoubt edl y resul t i n decreased per f or mance. The
gas t ur bi ne i nl ct air fi l ters are eqc:ipped wi t h a sel f -cl r, ani ng f eat ur e whi ch operat es aut omat i cal l y t o pr t vent
an excessi ve Fressure drop across t h e f i l t er el ement s. Al t hough t hi s i s an aut omat i c f unct i on, t he oper st i on
of t he cl eani n? sequence and t he condi t i on of t he fi!t,->rs shoul d be peri odi cal l y checked t o ensure prop(::
oper at i on. Fa;iure of t he se: f -cl eani ns syst em or t he ! : i gh di f f er ent i al pressure al arni coul d resul t i n red;;c&
per f or mance of t he gas t urbi ne uni t .
i l l e l arl l est single f;~i:tor af f ec' i ng t he :)utput :f a gas turSi ne uni t is t he ambi ent ai r t e mp e r a t ~ r ~ i . As
the t emper at cr e 3f sir i n c r ~ ~ j s e s , i t expands i ! ~ velum!.; t hus decreasi ng i n densi t y. As a resul t , gas tur,>;ne
o u t p ~ t and ef f , ci ency are di cr eased Cue t o t he r educ' i on i n mass air f l ow t hr ough t he compressor. T h s
r educt i on of ai r f l ow resul ts i n less ef f ect i ve cool i ng t he hi gh t emper at ur e areas of t he t urbi ne; t hus , ~ l e l
f l ow t o t he ur t must be de,;reas?d :c prever-t overhe . ~t i ng of t t l e t urbi ne above t he maxi mum f i ri ng
t emper at ur e. To.' i nal i ze t' li; chai n of event s, t he r eci , ct i on of f uel f l ow resul ts i n a cor r espondi ng r ed( :tion
In shaf t ~l or se: - ~o~ver ; t hus t i l e ge-iera:or meclawat'. 01 r put is r ecuced. I n summar y, uni t o u t ~ u t decrea: ~: s as
ambi ent ten:pl.raiures i ncri ' ,i se.
Gas t u[ ol nes ' nstalle,l i i sr?asonally war mer r:,!i :mtes are sc.meti mes equi pped wi t h an evaporati.. r.
cool er t o of ' sct t he i mpact ' hat hi gh ambier!: t emper, : ! ures have c n uni t per f or mance. The e v ~ p o r a t i v ~ cool er
consi st s of a \.:ate: soaked :c!lul3se rnedia t hr ough i, hi ch al l air t o t he i nl et of t he gas t ur bi ne compr essor
;t pass. The evaporative cooler converts seqsible heat i nto l at er t hezt wi t hout changi ng the total heat
content of the mi xture. Thi s incresses the moi sture content and densi-ty of the air fl ow; thus reduci ng the
impact of high ambient temperatures on the pe-formance and efficiency 9' the irnit.
Fauji Kabirwala
Power Company
Limited
During unit operation, the evaporativ'e cool er operates autornaticellv and cannot be visually i nspected
due to i ts installed location. However, i t is the Operator's responsibility to moni tor uni t performance f rom the
gas turbine control system and ensure the evaporative cooler is functi oni ng properly. Secondly, the source of
makeup water t o the cooler must be periodically checked t o ensure i t is conti nuousl y available. A
mal functi on or failure of t he evaporative cooler wi l l result i n an i mmedi ate reducti on in uni t output and
efficiency.
The entire evapprative cooler system shoul d be periodically inspe;ted duri ng uni t shut down t o ensure I
proper opera'tion and t o veri fy that the cel l ul os~ media is i n t act and free of obstructi ons or damage. A tear
or hole in :he media wi l l reduce the effectiveness of the system; thus r e~ul t i ng i n a reducti on i n unit output
and efficiency.
1
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY ~VERVI EW AND PLAP'T FUNDAMENTALS
COMBIMEP CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
Interstaqe Bleed Valve Mal functi on
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Most gas t urb~ne compressors are equipped wi t h interstage blee? valves used t o purge excess air f rom'
the compressor during startup and shutdown; .e, t o prevent a compresyor stall or surge. The bleed valves
'
remain c : ~ s e d w h le the t ur b~ne is i n operation and are not sequenced t c open untd a shut down signal is
generated.
If any one of the i nterstage bleed valves are whol l y or partially o,,en duri ng uni t operation, the
performance and effi ci ency of the gas turbine ,&ill decrease. For moni tcri ng purposes, openlclose indicatLons , # I
are often provided at the gas turbine control s, / st em display. Llov./over, the bleed valves shoul d be visclal'y
checked or1 a periodic basis t o ensure they arc fully closed or are not leaking by. Onf? met hod of cl i ecki ng
valve position is by observing the local positio.1 indications on the . ~al ve actuai or. A second method i nvol vcs
temperature. If the body and discharge piping of one bleed valve is sigrlificantly warmer than the other t wo,
chances are that the valve i s passing air due t 3 leakage or faiiure t o clo,;e con~pl et el y. Any suspected leak;!ge
should be inves:igated at the eaFCiest opporturi ty. i
6.4.2 Heat Recovery Steam Generator . .
The HRSG is an i mportant factor i n tht? energy conversion cycl e of any combi ned cycl e power pl ant.
In effect, t7e HRSG is large heat exchanger w hich utilizes hot flue gas 'rom the Gas rurbine exhaust t3
convert feedwater i nto superheated steam. Ti7e i nstal l ati on of an HRSG on the exhaust end of a gas turbine
provides a means of capturi ng waste heat, an,J utilizing thi s heat t o prcduce additional electrical energy.
Hence the term; conl bi ned cycle. Dependi ~g I n the plant, the HRSG rray be equi pp??d wi t h t v ~ o uniqiie
features; ( 1) a bypass damper, and (2) a duct burner.
pass D a m ~ ~ r
As previously illustrated i n Figure 6-1, the bypass damper is ins!a!led between the gas turbine and the
ISG. In the c3mbined cycl e mode, the damper is positioned such t h ~ t i t directs t5e gas turbine exhaust
. ougt ~ the HSSG, This represents the most effi ci ent mode of p!ant o;)cration. In t he simple cycle n~ode, t he
~ ~ d mp e r is posi t ~sned such that it directs the (-.as turbine exhaust ci rect ' y to the at m~~spher e, bypassing the
HRSG. This by far, IS the most inefficient mcde of pl znt operaticn. Di -ecti ng :he turbine exhaust t i i r h?
atmosphere eliriinates the HRSG and the ste:m turbine generator f rom the plants erergy conversion zycle
This mode of o;)eration results i n an enornio:ls reducti on i n overal: ~ l a r t efficiency and a correspond~r-,g
increase in the 7et plant heat rate. The simp e cycle mode of operatio,: should onl y be used during E x t i e me
ci rcumst&rl ces.
Duct E u r n u
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- - - - - - - -
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, .
?he duct burner is i nst al ' ed' i n' t he f l ue gas st r eam at t he i nl et of t he HRSG. The duct burner provi des
a means of i ncreasi ng st eam pr oduct i on and s u p e r h ~a t wi t hi n t he HRSG t hr ough t he i nt r oduct i on of aadi t i onal
thermal energy. When pl aced in opt:ration, t he duct burner i s suppl i ed wi t h nat ur al gas whi ch is combust ed
inside t he HRSG duct wor k and :he resul t ant t her mr l energy is rel eased t o t he boi l er t ube heat transfer
surtaces.
F a ~ l i Kabirwala
Power Companv
Li rn~ted
The d ~ c t burner is generally pl aced i n servi ce whi l e t he gas t ur bi ne i s operat i ng at base l oad.
Parti cul arl y duri ng war m weat her condi ti ons, t he du,t burner provi des a means of i ncreasi ng t he el ect ri cal
out put of t he pl ant b y i ncreasi ng st eam pr oduct i on ' s t he st eam t urbi ne generator.
As a st and al one Item, t he duct burner is not an ef f i ci ent component of t he energy conver si on cycl e.
I n general t erms, HRSG' s i v i t h duct f i r ed burners arc not as ef f i ci ent as unf i r ed HRSG' s because t he f bel
burned i n t he HRSG duct r oes not per f or m any wor:: i n t he gas turbi ne. The overal l ef f i ci ency of energy
conversi on In unf i r ed HRSG' s is t hercf ore hi gher t ha7 i n HRSG' s wi t h duct fi ri ng. However; as l ong as t he
amount of revenue ( $) resul t i ng f r om t he i ncreased out put of t he t urbi nel generat or, mor e t han of f set s t hf
cost of f uel t o t he duct burner, l t' s use is considerec' an asset even t hough t he overal l net pl ant heat r j t e
reduced.
VOLUME 1 - FACIL!TY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
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COMBINED CVCLE FUNDAMENTALS
HRSG Ef f i ci ency
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The most si gni fi can' perf ormance rel at ed f ac43r associ at ed wi t h t he HRSG is t he ef f i ci ency of h a t
transfer across tubes. Pl aci ng ;:I desi gn charact eri st i cs and ot her f i xed vari abl es aside, the, pri mary
i nt eract i on th.2t an Operator has wi t h t he pr r f or mance of t he HRSG is t o ensure t he wat er chemi st r y i5
mai nt ai ned wi t hi n lirnits. Prop1 I . wat sr chemi st r y en,igres i nt ernal cl eanl i ness of t he boi l er t ubes, t hus
pr omot i ng o ~ ' i mt r m heat t r. l ns er.
The tv.,o most i rnporta :t : mpuri t i es whi ch need t o be cont rol l ed wi t hi n t he HRSG f eedwat er ar e- ( 1)
1
oxygen and (2) di ssol ved soi ds. Oxygen causes cor..osion at t ack o n t he i nternal t ube surf aces resul t;r,c~ i n
pi t t i ng and svr:ntilal t ube f3i :ure. Oxt / gen corrosi on i;; not onl y damagi ng t o t he tubes, but i t reduces t : e heat
I
rransfer ef f i ci f , ncy of t he Tubes whi l e i t is occurri ng. Therefore, i t i s ver y i mpor t ant t o t he overal l ef f i c, . : ncv o f '
t h e pl ant t o ensure proper cpera:ion of t he deaerators and t he oxygen scavenger i nj ect i on syst em.
I
Di ssol ved solids are sarti cl es of mat eri al w h i c i readi l y di ssol ve i n wat er . Di ssol ved sol i ds have :\NO
det ri ment al ef rect s on t he tlESG. First, t hey af f ect tL:e aci di t y of t he wat er , t hus cont r ol l i ng t he t enderi c\ l - f
the wat er t o chemi cal l y at : ~ci : pi pe and t ube sur f ace- . Secondl y, di ssol ved sol i ds l eave behi nd a f or r ndt i i . ~ f
deposi ts on t he i nternal t ub-: surfaces af t er t he w a t e is boi l ed-of f and conver t ed t o st eam. When this
occurs, two undesirable effl ?cts can resul t:
1. L'Vber, t he deposi ts adbere tc, t he i nsi de o i Soiler tubes, t hey f or m a l ayer of scale whi ch ret;.rds
: he transfer of %:at f r om t i l e ccrnbust i on !:asses t hrough t he t ube met al t o t he boi l er wat er . Thus,
overheat i ng anr: 'ai!urt? of :he t ubes result . Shut downs are t hen requi red t o repl ace fai l ed : i bes
and possi b!y t o cl ean :he boi l er. Fi gure 2 ! l ust rat es !he obst r uct i on of heat t ransf er across i zul ed
t ub?s.
2. If t i e deposi ts ar.3 carri ed over i n t he stear-i , t hey can become l odged i nsi de t he superheat::; '7:
:i;r,sporred t o tn,? st eam trurbine bl ades. I t he f ormer occurs, overheat i ng and fai l ure of tb,:
sup#?rheater tube,; can resul t . If t he lattf:: i ccurs, t he deposi t s can great l y reduce t urbi ne
ef f i : ; i en~v as wet ; 3 s e-ode t he bl ade suc:a.es.
BTU' , Tr2-8rnht.d p a r Souare Fool 'fl') of eomlar Su?ace per Hour
, , d * ' . q '.
FaNi Kabirwala
Power Company
1 iirnrted
9 Figure 6-2 Effects of Scale on Boiler Tube Efficiency
Because di ssol ved sotids have such a h i g i ~ i mpact o n t he overall ef' i ci ency of tht! YRSG, i t is pert i nent
!hat t he Operator mai nt ai n correct operat i on of ! i e wat er t reat ment systern and cont r ol t he accumul at i on .of
solids in the boiler t hrough correct chemi cal injection5 ::!nd bl owcl owns. Proper wat er t r eat ment i n a power
\
plant is just as i mpor t ant as proper mai nt enance 3nd operat i ng procedures.
!
VOLUME I - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLAVT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINE^ ZYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
6.4.3 Steam Turbi ne I
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Wi t hi n t he st eam t urbi ne, heat energy sto-ed i n the st eam i s c3nvert ed t o mechani cal energy. As t he
-
steam expands t hr ough the turbi ne, 'it causes the t urbi ne shaft t c r ot at e. his r ot at i on is t r ansmi t t ed t o the
;
generator, where t he mechani cal energy i s convcpt ed t o el ectri cal energy. The heat energy l ost f r om t he
steam (equal t o t he wor k per f or med by t he stearr-) appears as a drop i n st cam pressure and t emperat ure ( an
,?nthal py drop) as t h e st eam passes t hr ough t he - ~ r b i n e . The s t e l m i n! et Fressure and t emperat ure plus the
:urbine backpressui e (condenser vacuum) are all ' act ors t hat af f ect ti-e e!i:halpy dr op t hr ough the turbi ne t o
i j erf orm wor k. I
Al t hough t he operat i on of ; st ezm turbi ne is ver y st rai ght foward,:here are several f act ors whict;
af f ect t he ef f i ci ency of the t urbi ne in convert i ng ' +e t hermal ecer sy c ' the ,;:earn i nt o mi t chani cal energy t o
the :urbine shaft. The f ol l owi ng subsec:tions disc ~ s s these performari ce rela:ed f act ors ~ n d h o w t hey af f zct
' ,
:,team turbi ne ef f i ci ency.
i
Condenser bzckpressi . re is tht: most signii::ant f act or t hat af f czt s ~ k e cycl e ef f i ci ency of a st eam
t ~r b i n e . Because tt,t: st eam turbi ne x h 2 u s t s int; t he condenser, it i s desirable t o reduce t he pressure i r i the
candenser as much zs possible, t h ~ s reduci ng the backpressure agai nst v ~ h cb t he t urbi nc must operate. As
backpressure i s decr.:ased, :I.,e pre.<;ure drop acrc,;s t he st eam turbi ne i ncr ~ases and a correspondi ng incri.ase
o' st eam f l ow throu(;n the t urbi ne ~. esul t s. A dec:,iase i n backprersuri: i ~cr cases !I: i:ntt:aipy drop across tt;i?
\
!iirbine; thus improvjnc; : he v.ork c2rf ormed by t h: . st eam its it passes :hrou!+ t oi var a thtm zxhaust end.
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The t wo primary factors whi ch affect condenser backpressure are the operati on of the steam jet air
ejectors and the teniperaturr? of the ci rcul ati ng water. It is very i mpor t a~t that the Operator moni tor thcse
t wo faci ors closely t o ensurq peak performance of t hi l unit. Once pl aced i n service, the air ejectors wi l l
operate as needed t o wi t hdraw air and non-condensible gases f r om the condenser shell. The pri mary variable
i n maintaining condenser vacuum is the temperature of circulating water. Very cool ci rcul ati ng water wi l l
increase the ' quench' effect t hat the condenser has cn the condensing steam; thus resul ti ng in increased
vacuum inside the condenser. War m circulating watt.. reduces the quench effect; thus reduci ng the abi i i ty t o
achieve a high level of vacuum i n the condenser. Controlling the f l ow and temperature of ci rcul ati ng water t o
the condensers, as wel l as cther variables that affect condenser performance; are discussed i n Secti on 6.4.4.
p p p - p p p - p p p p p p - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
--
Leakasc
There are t wo types 3f leakage t hat car1 affec' the operating effi ci ency of a steam turbine; (1) steam
leaking out, and (2) air leakiqg i n. Every seam, joint, 2nd seal on the steam turbine casing has the potenti al
to develop a leak. Periodic i ~ s p e i t i o n by the Operatcr during steam turbine operati on wi l l ai d i n detectli-#g any
leaks and prev17nt reduced performance of the uni t.
+
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rauj i Kabjrwaia
Power Comparl y
Li m~t ed
One area of specific concern i c t he high pressure section of the steam turbi ne. Excessive steam
leakage along the shaft of :he turbine can escape t o "1e gland seal exhauster, taki ng i t s heat energy wi t h it
This leakage reduces s:cam fl ow throl-;gh the turbine, r l ~ u s reduci ng turbine work and effi ci ency. .
VOLUME '1 - FACILITY OVEPV~EW AND P'LANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
Air in-lkakage can oc-ur at the shaft<se; l i ng area of a l ow pressure turbine. A leak of thi s natur.:
draws air i nto the condenser by virtue of the ccndenspr vacuum. The in-leakage of air interferes wi t h
condenser performance caa:;in'g sn i ncease in .:ondenser backpressure. Consequently, turbine work and
effi ci ency are reduced.
Finally, :eakage can cccur interr ally i ns; j e the steam turbine. Steam can leak from a hi gh pressllre
stage, past t h e interstage pzcki ng, t o 2 l ow prtssure i tage. This leakage wi l l not af f ect f l ow t o the tijr!?ine,
but the work produced by :t e turbine wi l l decr.:ase. 3nce again, turbine effi ci ency is reduced.
Blade Fo ~ ~ l i n q
0
T
I he i nternai components cf a steam turbine ar. . precisely machi ned and assembled wi t h close
tolerances. Th: accuracy of these tolerances t83s a gr:at i mpact on the performance and effi ci ency of i'le
mach ne. The ~ ~ o s t cornrnor; cause of l cst effi ci ency .; fouling and erosion of the turbi ne blades and nr r z l es .
Any damage t o the turbine nozzles wh i c : ~ affet:ts thei,- shape or cross-sectional area wi l l result i n lost : ~: bi nn
effi ci ency.
Tesi s Il sve shown th;;t a C.003 it-ich ti? sk depl -si t, u'niformly distributed over the steam pat h of ;
turbine, can de~zrease f l ow t t ~r ough the t ur bi r : ~ by 1% and cause a reduced turbine effi ci ency of 3%
Sieposits cf ::?is type are mo:;t cornmonly caused by p )or water ch2mistr$ i n the boiler. The most pre5,;.r.nt
constituen: which causes sc:llincj end .Je ~osi t : inside - steam turbl oe is silica.
Silica is 3 crystalline wbst ance si ri i l ai o glass ~ n d sand. Next to' oxygen, si!ica is t he most corr rrlon
substance foun:_i in the earth's crust.
W3l er ! ]ken from wells cont ai : ~ hi gh concentrati ons of silica. Prcszr
treatment 3f th.3 water through the catic i ant anion \.:ssels is extremely i mportant t o the pnrformanci: s ? d
ei fi ci ency of :h : steam :urbiues.
!:I gcnttl-al, : irbine s aling can be a\;oided when the feedwater silica ;: 2 2 s
t ha t 0.07 np71
A secclndar) measure cl :ed>:ing silic n is by ccn;rol.i?g the boiler feedwater pH. The
concentrati on of silica i n the-: steam wi l l clecreiise whe the boiler wat ?r pH is increased.
Durini; ur?i: operation, siiica i i a~3r zes ,i the bc cr at high press\ :e and temperature. When the
~, apor ous silicil :3r-i-ies i n con' act i vi t n thl:. cr,r ~er, l ow .:ressure surfaces 3f the turbine, i t 'plates out' f I: ; : . I ? S
a shiny gless-1lL.e laver. Silic;! aeposits 0.1 t l 1 8 turbine )!ading can restric. f l ow through the turbine anu . . LJL. ~.
f l
I'
i' ~ a u i i ~abi r wal a i VOLUME I - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
0
Power Company ,
Limited 1 COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
File: ,ccf 1;
1
a higher than normal first stage shell pressure. 'his is opposi te of the normal trend f or fi rst stage pressure to 1
vary directly wi t h fl ow.
Erosion
Blade erosion is pr i mad{ caused by excessive moi sture i n the st eaT due t o i nsuffi Gent superheatif
As steam passes through each stage of the turb ne, i t reduces i n pressure and expands. If the steam is not
suf f i c~ent l y superheated, i t wi l l begin t o condence i n the later stages of the turbine. The condensed droplets
of steam implnge on the nozzle and blade surfaces, resulting i n erosion. Erosion can actual l y increase steam
fl ow through the turbine because of the increasr5d nozzle area, but wi l l reduce turbi ne rf f i ci ency because of
~ t s effect on the nozzle pressure ratio.
A secondary forrn of erosion can occur f rom the existence of debris or solids suspended i n the sream. .
This type of steam corl tami nati on can result from the breaking loose of slag or deposits i n the mai n stcam
piping, or from tube exfol i ati on i n the HRSG.. E,foliation is the process i n whi ch the protecti ve i ron oxide fi l m
on the interior surface of the HRSG superheater tubes flakes of f . No matter how clean a steam system is, a
certain amount of erosion wi l l occur over an exL.nded period of time due t o steam con:amination.
Generator Hvdroclen Pressure
*- 7\ .
Some steam turbine generators utilizes a hydrogen atmosphere f or heat transfer and cool i ny.
Turbinelgenerator manufacturer' s utilize hydrogcn as a cool i ng medium bwause i t has a higher heat trarisfcr
coefCi ci ent than air, and i t is also less dense thi,? air. The thi n density of hydrogen minimizes wi ndage losses
inside the generator, and thus the amount shaft horsepowe'r required by the steam turhi ne t o maintain a
defined electrical load. Wi t h all other factors b~, i ng equal, the use c f hvdrcgen cooling in a generator
increases the effi ci ency of the turbinelgenerato- uni t.
The hydrogen pressure i n the generator , as a slight i mpsct on the overall plan! effi ci ency and a major
impact on plant load. The heat transfer ability c,f the hydrogen is di rectl y related i t' s pressure inside the
generator. I f pressure decreases, heat transfer decreases and gencrator cooling wi l l be reduced. If this
occurs, the generator output must then be decreased t o prevent overheating of generator components. F G ~
this reason, i t is very important that the Operator maintain t he generator -1ydrogen pre5sure at the
manufacturer' s design setpoi nt.
' " 4 Main Condensers
The Rankin Cycle porti on of a combined ~ y c l e plant, c o~s i s t s of t t e st canl / wat rr cycl e components;
A
., . . . clude the HRSG, the steam turbine generatj rs, and the condensers. There is no s~ngl e component In the
Rankrne cycle w ~ t h a greater i mpact on the cycle ef f ~ci ency than tho conclenser. Accordi ngl y, the plant
0pera;ors niust have a good ufiderstsriding of ' l 3w the condensers work 2nd the factors whi ch affect their
ef'lclency.
The primary functi on of a condenser is t u condense t he ?urbine ex9aust steam in:o condensate. In
:
th s respect, the condenser serves as the heat sink for the Rankine cycle and consequently, the ~ o i n t c: heat
reject and heat loss from the cycl e. The mcre .:fficient the con.rlens?r is, t'ie less heat :hat is dumped ou: of i
;he cycl e, and thus overall pl ant eff,ci ency is in,-reased.
The ci f f er r nce i n vc' 9~: e Sc >:~een st ear and \Ajar" at c:ndcnsev >=ereti cs ! e~, - er at ur e is rounk' .J Y
twer):y fi ve t h o i ~ ~ ~ n d t o on" i . e. a 99OF a pou,i d of wa:er occgpie:; 0.3161 13 f t 3 wh ~ l e steam occupics
a ~ o u : 404. 484620 i t 3. This r cduct on i n vc!un.r: crcates a ' quench effec:' in the condense: ~ v h e n the s! ezr n
i q ronvert ed from 3 Lapor t o 2 liqi!::. T!ie que:.~ch effect (pressure i.duc7ion) at the tu-Sine exhaust inzrease:,
Ine effi ci ency ai l d is very n7~1ch -espons,bl[: for niaintaining zonc!cnser ,vacuum.
t 1
, - -.
turb
, .
.*
Dur i ng uni! operat i on, th,e st eam j et ai r ej ect ors are responsi bl e f or r emovi ng ai r and non-condec;lblz
gases i nt r oduced i nt o t he condenser shell bv t he exh.2ust st eam, whi l e t he quenchi ng ef f ect of t he ci r cul at i ng
wat er i s t he ~ r i ma r y act i on w h i c i mai nt ai ns c o n d e n s ~ r vacuum. l mpr opkr oper at i on o f t he ai r ej ect ors can
resul t i n an accumul at i on of ai r and non-condensi t?l e gases i nsi de t he condenser shell. If not removed, :hese
gases wi l l t end t o I bl ari ket ' th-e condensi r tubes, r es! r t i ng i n r educed heat t ransf er ef f i ci ency. Cont i nuzd
operat i on undi l r ttIL:se condi t i ons wi l l resul t i n di mi ni shed vacuum and a uni t tri p. For t hese reasons, i r i s ver y
i mpor r ant t!ia! t hc ' 0~er at 3r mai nr ai n cor r ect oper at i cn of t he ci r cul at i ng wat er syst em and t he st eam ji:! air
ej ectors.
RCdisicn! 0
File: ,ccf
--
Fauii Kabirw?la
Power Compzn y
Limited
Condenser per f or maqce has a si gni f i cant i mp i ~ c t on t he overal l ef f i ci ency of t he pl ant . The fol l o~,vi ng
f act or s di r ect l v af f ect condl ?nser per f or mance and mS.!st be cont i nuousl y moni t or ed b y t he Operat or:
VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVESVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMENTALS
COMBINED CYCLE FUNDAMENTALS
Suhcool i ng
w Tube Cl eanl i ness and Foul tng
A' r I n-Leakage
Wat er Box Pri mi ng
Subcool i ng
E,ffi ci er~t oper at ~on oc t he condenser requi res t +at t he exhaust st eam be cool ed onl y enough t o r zmove
11's l at ent he3t , l eavi ng t h ~ resul' ant,-,ondensate at t he sat ur at i on t emperat ure. I t must be kept i n mi nd, t hat
all of t he t hermal energy remove;' f r om t he exhaust .team by t he condenser is dumped f r om t he cycl e by
act i on of t he c~r cul at i ng wat er . Addi t i onal cool i ng of t he condensat e bel ow t he sat ur at i on val ue IS nct
necessary and cnl y serves !o decrease t he ef f i ci ency of t he cycl e. Any unnecrassary heat r emoved fro!)-I t he
cycl e must be rep aced be'c re t he c o ~ d e n s a t e is rei n.roduced i nt o t he HRSG as f eedwat er .
The :eciuction of t he c ~ n d e ' n s a t e t e m~ e r a t u r e i:~elwv t he sat ur at i on poi nt i s r ef er r ed t o as ~ ~ b ~ ~ 3 I i i 7 9 .
Some subcool i ng i s necesszry t o provi de suffi ci r:nt s ~ , c t i s n head t o t he condensat e pumps; however ,
excessi ve su5cool i ng reduces cycl e ef f i ci ency a , ~ d shou d be avoi ded. The pr i mar y f act or s whi c h af f ecl
qndqnspr qi , hqonl i r~q 1rh nl r ni j l a t , n~ 3Nnter flaw and t e nperature. Fr om a n oper at i ng st andpoi nt , what -. . ~er
1 , :;zl!~]l,i\"l" "-"' P<"~rh~~, , ?l f l $ ~ / , ~ ? , y ~ . : ; ~ &~ : t ~ ! ~ ~ y p l d * t et I yhl a9 I I ths spndsnser Ir ~ I I I " t u ~ f i ~ t i r vaovtl rn , will
ccrlcici s - ' s U J ~ ? vai cs " I" .,' I SO I, c or 'ltlon9; I - , I ~ I R 20
183s 0' clrcu13t nc; C V C ~ ~ B T .
The best met hod t o svoi d e x c s s subccol i ng i b y cont r ol l i ng t he ci rcul at i ng wat er f l o w and
t emper at ur e ir an ef f or t t o mai nt ai n t he hot r vt ii at t k . hi nhest t emper at ur e at t ai nabl e, wi t hout experi ar-~ci ng a
r educt i on o! condenser vacuum. An excess o ci r cul ri ng wat er f l o w beyond t hi s poi nt resul t s i n subcbol i nq
of t he hot wel l condensat e. I n ot her ~vor ds, ir creasir, i t he ci rcul at i ng wat er flow af t er t he maxi mum \/t cu
i s at:ained, o r y reduces t h ~ condensat e tern1 er at ur f as it f al l s downwar d i nt o t he hot wel l and does n ~ i h i i : ;
t owar d f u r t h e r r educi ng vacuum.
I n general , i t is desrci bl e t o mi i nt ai n hi l t wel l t mper at ur e equal to, or as near t o ;he t ur bi ne exh3ust
c
$l ean-l t smpar; l t ure as pos5ihie. in pr act i cai 11 rms, i t s not possible t o have t emper at ur es of t ur bi ne exi aust
st eam ari d cor denser h o t ~ ~ c l ! condensat e. PC v e v e r a good rul e o f t humb is no mor e t han 1OoF be[v;::en
si earn and ccr : ?er sat e ! er nr er at ~r es.
I f dn e > : ? ~ ~ i v e Iem:l!ra!u:t: different: l xi st s 1 ?t weei l t he exhaust st eam and t he hof we] l , t he
P : ~ P L r ~ l a l i n ~ ".6t,?v ! ' OW t h r ~ : l f i h t he cor r denser tloul:: I r educed by t he amount necessar y t o equal i ze : ,e
: emoi r s: t i r es T h i may b r Jone by ei ther tt:ri.!tling . l e condenser : irc~i!:ri.; i vat f r out l et val ves or ;. ,iucinil
?k c 1 ~ f T i b e i 0: : i r c, l i i ! i ng vvf i t er p u mp s Reduci ng t hr ci rcul at i ng wa!er fl ow t o equal i ze t he t emperat , rss n31 '
cnl y hel ps t o r ct ai i - heat i n t i e condensat e, bl; atso r duces t he ci rcdl at i ng wat er pump el ect ri cal
co: i si n?pt i or , .
-r7
I' F a w Kabirwala I VOLUME 1 - FACILITY OVERVIEW AND PLANT FUNDAMFNTALS iRevision: 3 1
t Cleanliness and Fouling
I Pawer Co~i ~gany
I limited
I
The internal cleanliness of the condenser tubes has a direct impac*. on the operating effi ci ency of the
condenser. Any foul i ng or build-up of material irlside the tubes acts as an insulating layer whi ch reduces t he
,
rate of heat transfer between the ,turbine exhavst steam and $he ci r c~~l at i ng water. When foul i ng exists,
opti mum condenser vacuum is not attainable dr e- t o the inhibited ab'lity of the ci rcul ati ng wat er t o effi ci entl y i
!
condense the turbine exhaust steam and produce the desired 'quench' ef'ect needed for maxirnutn vacclunl. 1
The net result of foul ed tubes is reduced condenser vacuum and reduced stearn turbinc generator output.
Proper wat er treatment is essential i n m~i nt ai ni ng effi ci ent and reliable operati on of the condenser.
This holds true whether the system is being oporated i n the closed-loop n o d e using the cool i ng tower, or
when recirculating water out of a nearby lake or river. The purpose of i nj ecti ng chemicals i nto the ci rcul ati ng
water is prevent internal scaling and corrosion f rom occurring i rsi de the system components and t o control
the growth of bacterial slime and algae. Not or l y are the chemicals used t o keep the condenser tubes clean,
but also the heat i ransfer 'surfaces of the cool i ng t ower and all other components served by the system. For
example, the gr owt h of micro-organisms i n the circulating wat er system can impair f l ow di stri buti on at the
cooling tower and cause deterioration of the coc~l i ng tower materials. In summary, circulating wat er
treatment must b& closely moni tored and testec' t o ensure the injected cbernicals are effecti ve.
L I
Air In-Leakaoe
. I 'C
Because the condenser operates under ? vacuum, the presence of a leak results i n air being dra\.in i nto
the condenser. The in-leakage of air results jn reduced condenser vacuum, increased steam turbine
backpressure, and decreased uni t effi ci ency.
COMBINEP CYCLE FUNDAMEYTALS
If a reducti on of condenser vacuum is noted during uni t operation, the Operator can determine the
cause of the probl em by checki ng the di scharg~. air f l ow from the steam :et air ejectors. If the air f l o ~ v is
normal, the cause of reduced vacuum can be [ . x ed to the ope-ation of t i e circulating water system. As
previously discussed, inadequate circulating w?t er f l ow or high water temperature can result i n reduce3
condenser vacuurr. If the dischar:_li; f l ow rate 'rorn the ejectors is abnormally hi gh, an air in-leakage ccncliticrl
exists.
File: .,ccf I
Determining t hel ocat i on of an air leak 0-1 a system whi ch is unde- a vacuum presents a unique
problem. If the Icak is of significant size, i t car1 be located by l,tsteninij fc.r an in-rush c f air. However, i nost
leaks are small enough that a more sophisticat; d detecti on method must be used. Cn'? common methzd is 12
admit non-fl ammabl e gas, such as Freon i nto t Le atmosphere around the suspected ar,:a whi l e r noni t or . n~ rhc.
air ejector discharge wi t h a gas detector. Whe.1 gas is detected, the poir!t where (;as :vas released is
identified as having a leak. Once a leak is loc;+.ed, temporary repairs shcul d be made so the turbine
bac<pressure is redilced, and steps should be t j ken to initiate permanent repairs.
The in-leakage of air through the steam turbine casing and relatec components was previously
discussed i n Secti on 6. 4. 3. Inadequate seal s: :am to tCle stearn turbine ,;haft seals is the most ikely cause sf
an air in-leakage problem and should be one thr? first items chelzked by t l ~ e Operator. f the steam seals are
functi oni ng properly, the Operatc: must c0nsid.r the probabilit\:l of a leak at the condenser shell and ail
B
components and piping connected to it. Leaks can originate from any or e of the f o l l o ~ i n g :
Condenser or Hotwel l l nstrurr~entati rl n
Al l Condensate Drain :'ii;ir,s ro i l i e C on3er;sc;
Condensate Pump Shsf: Seals
Vacuum @:eaker Leakage
Hogger Valve Not Coiny,iete!.; Close
~ x ~ a n s i n ' n Joi nt Leak lgi? Cu ? to Cr< cks or G~s k et F.~iluri.
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