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2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 1 Release14.

0
14.0Release
ANSYSFLUENT
AdvancedRotatingMachinery
Lecture6
SlidingMeshModel(SMM)
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 2 Release14.0
Outline
IntroductiontoSlidingMeshModeling
TheNavierStokesEquations:MovingMeshForm
SlidingMeshSetup
GridInterfaces
MeshPreview
ChoosingaTimeStep
TroubleshootingSlidingMeshProblems
AcceleratingandEmbeddedReferenceFrames
Summary
Appendix
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 3 Release14.0
Therelativemotionofstationaryandrotatingcomponents
inarotatingmachinewillgiverisetounsteady
interactions.Theseinteractionsaregenerallyclassifiedas
follows:
Potentialinteractions flowunsteadinessduetopressure
waveswhichpropagatebothupstreamanddownstream
Wakeinteractions flowunsteadinessduetowakesfrom
upstreambladerowsadvectingdownstream
Shockinteractions fortransonic/supersonicflows,
unsteadinessduetoshockswavesstrikingdownstream
bladerow
BoththeMRFandMixingPlanemodelsneglectunsteady
interactionentirelyandthusarelimitedtoflowswhere
theseeffectsareweak
Ifunsteadyinteractionscannotbeneglected,wecan
employtheslidingmeshmodeltoaccountfortherelative
motionsofthestationaryandrotatingcomponents
Introduction
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 4 Release14.0
IllustrationofUnsteadyInteractions
wakeinteraction
shockinteraction
potentialinteraction
stator rotor
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LiketheMRFmodel,wedividethedomaininto
rotatingandnonrotatingzones
Theinterfacesmustbenonconformal,andmust
adheretothesamerestrictionsaswiththeMRF
model
interfacesmustbesurfacesofrevolutionaboutthe
axisofrotation
interfacescanberotationallyperiodic,butadjacent
zonesmusthaveequalperiodicangles
UnliketheMRFmodel,thezonesmoverelativeto
oneanother,andthustheproblemisinherently
unsteady
Foreachtimestep,themeshesaremovedandthe
fluxesattheslidinginterfacesarerecomputed
WhatistheSlidingMeshModel?
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 6 Release14.0
TheslidingmeshinFLUENTusesthegeneralmoving
meshformulation
Themotionsofmovingzonesaretrackedrelativetothe
stationaryframe
MeshesdoNOTdeform,butremainrigidthroughoutrange
ofmeshmotion
Fluxtransferoccursacrossslidingmeshinterfaces
NOTE:Nomovingreferenceframesareattachedtothe
computationaldomain
Themotionofanypointinthedomainisgivenbya
timerateofchangeofthepositionvector()
isalsoknownasthegridspeed
Notethatforrigidbodyrotationofthemeshatconstant
speed
NavierStokesEquations:MovingMesh
Formulation
r

U r r

= =e
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 7 Release14.0
MovingMeshIllustration
x
y
z
stationary
frame
axisof
rotation
t) (t r +

MovingCFDdomain
) (t r

2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 8 Release14.0


( ) | |
( ) ( )
g b
Q
0 ) (


+ =
+ V V = V +
+ V + V = V +
= V +
V F
V V p T k e U V
dt
e d
F p V U V
dt
V d
U V
dt
d
t
t
b
t

(Continuity)
(Momentum)
(Energy)
SlidingMeshEquations(1)
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 9 Release14.0
Thetimederivative(d/dt)representsdifferentiation
withrespecttotimefollowingthemovingcontrol
volume.
Allspatialderivativescomputedrelativetothe
stationaryframe.
Gridrelatedvariablesarenowfunctionsoftime
sincethemeshismoving.
SameequationsareusedfortheMoving/Deforming
Mesh(MDM)modelinFluent,exceptthatwith
MDM,themeshpointshavetheadditionalfreedom
tomoverelativetoeachother.
Hence,theSlidingMeshmodelisasubsettothemore
generalMDMmodel.
Notethatthemeshmotioncanbeconstantspeedor
accelerating theequationsaccommodateboth
situations.
SlidingMeshEquations(2)
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 10 Release14.0
ProsandConsoftheSlidingMeshModel
Advantages
Providesthemostaccuratedescriptionoftheflowfieldforsituations
whereunsteadyinteractionsarepresent
Canhandlemultiplerotatingdomains,eachwiththeirownunique
rotationalaxesandspeeds
UsesFluentsnonconformalmeshinterfacecapability,thusenabling
youtoeasilyswitchbetweenMRFandslidingmesh
Disadvantages
Solutionisalwaysunsteady(evenifsteadysolutionexistsinrotating
frame)
UnsteadysolutionsrequiremoreCPUanddiskspacethansteadystate
solutions
Interpretingunsteadysolutionscanbeawkwardifonlythetime
averagedsteadyflowfieldisdesired
ThisisaddressedwithFluentstimeaveragingoptionforunsteady
calculations
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SlidingInterfaces
Slidinginterfacesaresimplynonconformalinterfaceswhichare
updatedasthemeshesmove
TheymustthereforefollowthesamerulesasMRFproblemswithnon
conformalinterfaces:
Theinterfacebetweenarotatingzoneandtheadjacentstationary/rotating
zonemustbeasurfaceofrevolution withrespecttotheaxisofrotationofthe
rotatingzone
Canemployrotationallyperiodicboundaries,buttheperiodicanglesofall
zonesmustbeequal
Manyfailuresofslidingmeshmodelscanbetracedtointerface
geometrieswhicharenotsurfacesofrevolution!
warpedinterfacesaligned
atinitialtimelevel...
becomemisalignedata
subsequenttimelevel!
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 12 Release14.0
Activatetheunsteady(transient)
solver
Foreachinterfacezonepair,createa
nonconformalinterface(seeMRF
notesfordetails)
SelecttheMeshMotionoptionin
theCellZoneConditionspanelfor
eachmovingzone.
Enterrotationalspeed,axis,etc.inthesame
mannerasSRF,MRF
Boundaryconditionsandphysical
modelsarethesameasSRF,MRF
models
Solverdiscretizations
Firstorsecondordertimediscretization
Secondorderspatialdiscretizations
SeeSRFnotesforadditionalsolverdiscretization
recommendations
SlidingMeshSetup[1]
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Solutioncontrols
Usedefaultsolutioncontrolsfor
unsteadyproblemsandsolver(PB
orDB).
Monitors
Makemonitorsfunctionoftime
step.
Usetransientmonitorstopost
processsolutionhistory(canuse
FFT).
Choosetimestepandmax
subiterations.
ExtrapolateVariablesoptioncan
beenabledtoreducenumberof
subiterationspertimestep.
SlidingMeshSetup[2]
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 14 Release14.0
Fluentprovidesaslidingmesh
previewoptionforcheckingsliding
meshmotion before beginningthe
calculation
Tousethisfacility:
Specifythetimestepandnumber
oftimesteps
ClickonPreview
Youcandisplaythegridmotion
andoptionallysavehardcopy
imagesofthegridmotionforlater
animation
NOTE:Saveyourinitialcaseand
datafilespriortorunningMesh
Previewsoyoucanstartfromyour
originalmeshpositions
SlidingMeshPreview
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ChooseappropriatetimestepandMax
IterationsPerTimesteptoensuregood
convergencewitheachtimestep
Advancethesolutionuntiltheflow
becomestimeperiodic (pressures,
velocitiesetc.oscillatewitharepeating
timevariation)
Usuallyrequiresseveralrevolutionsofthe
gridforrotatingmachinerycases
Goodinitialconditionscanreducethe
numberoftimestepsneededto
achievetimeperiodicity
YoucanuseeitheranMRFormixingplane
solutionasaninitialcondition
DataSamplingforTimeStatisticscan
beenabledtohaveFluentsavetime
averagedflowfieldvariables.
SolvingSMMProblems
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 16 Release14.0
SamplingInterval
Howoftenthedataaresampled
(intimesteps)
SamplingVariables
Shear,HeatFlux,WallStatistics
CustomFieldFunctions(NEWin
R14)
Note:Previousversionof
FLUENTautomaticallysampled
velocity,pressure,temperature.
Youmustnowdefineall
sampledscalarsusingCFFs.
TimeSampled=flowtime
overwhichsampleisaveraged
ResetsamplingintheTUI
solve/initialize/init-
flow-statistics
DataSamplingOptions
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TimePeriodicFlow
Flowunsteadinessbecomes
periodicafterinitialtransient
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ChoosingaTimeStepfortheSMM
Recommendedtimestepsizeisbasedontheprincipalthatthe
timestepshouldbenolargerthanthetimeittakesfora
movingcelltoadvancepastastationarypoint
Anestimateforthetimestepcanthusbecalculatedas:
moving
V
s
t
A
~ A
As =meshspacingatslidinginterface
V
moving
=velocityofthemovingzone(=eR for
rotatingzones,whereR=meanradius
ofinterfacezone
cellsattimet
cellsattimet+Dt
movingmeshzone
As
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TroubleshootingSlidingMeshProblems
Ifproblemsareencounteredattheslidinginterfaces
Makesurethemeshqualityisasgoodaspossibleatthe
interfaces
Breakupcomplicatedinterfacesintoaseriesofsmallerones
Someotherthingstoconsiderfortroublesomecases
Makesurethezonemeshqualityisgood(maxcellskewness<0.9
0.95)
Ifhighaspectratioorskewedcellsexistinyourmodel,youmaywant
torunthecaseusingdoubleprecision
UseanMRFsolutiontostartyourcalculation
Reduceunderrelaxationfactorsand/orCourantnumbers
Reducethetimestepand/orincreasethenumberof
subiterationspertimestep
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 20 Release14.0
Translationaland/or
Rotationalspeedsare
functionsoftime.
FLUENTprovidesfortime
dependentinputsforall
movingmeshparameters.
Rotationalaxes,velocity
Translationalvelocity
Inputscanbespecifiedby
usingaprofilefileorUDF.
TheZoneMotionFunctioncan
beemployedtopermitall
inputstobedefinedinasingle
UDFfunction.
AcceleratingSlidingMeshCases
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Example:FlappingAirfoil
Oscillating inner zone
Stationary outer zone
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UDFusestheTRANSIENT
_PROFILEmacroto
prescribethesinusoidal
oscillationofthedomain.
FlappingAirfoilUDF
/**********************************************/
/* flap.c */
/* UDF for specifying a time-varying omega */
/* */
/* Simulates +/- 8 deg flapping with cycle of */
/* of 1 sec. */
/* */
/* Version 13.0 */
/* */
/**********************************************/
#include "udf.h"
#define PI 3.141592654
DEFINE_TRANSIENT_PROFILE(speed, time)
{
real ampl = 2.0*PI/15.0;
real freq = 2.*PI;
real omega;
omega = 2.0*PI*ampl*cos(freq*time);
return omega;
}
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 23 Release14.0
FlappingAirfoilAnimation
Velocity magnitude contours
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 24 Release14.0
NewfeatureinFLUENT13/14
Permitstheuseoflocalzonereference
framesthatcanbereferredtootherzone
referenceframes
Thecombinedeffectsofthemultipleframemotions
areimposedonthefluidintheembeddedframe
zone
CanbeappliedtoMRF(steadystate)orslidingmesh
(unsteady)models
FramemotionscanbecontrolledthroughUDFs
EmbeddedReferenceFrames(ERF)
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 25 Release14.0
EmbeddedReferenceFramesExample
fluidouter
fluidcircle
fluidrotor
meshinterfaces
e
2
e
1
+
x
2
x
1
y
1
y
2
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ANSYSFLUENTInterfaceforERF
fluid-circle fluid-rotor
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MRFComparisonwithERF
e
1
= 0 e
1
= 1 rad/s
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 28 Release14.0
OscillatingFanExample
Interfaces Fan Geometry
Rotation
occurs about
two axes
This example uses the sliding mesh model
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 29 Release14.0
VelocityField(t=0.3367sec)
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 30 Release14.0
Summary
Theslidingmeshmodelprovidesthemostaccuratedescription
offlowsinvolvingbothstationaryandrotatingzones
Unsteadyinteractionincapturedwithnoapproximationsat
theinterfaces
ThecostfordoingthisistheincreasedCPUtimerequiredfor
theunsteadysolution
Slidingmeshisrelativelyeasytosetup,especiallyifyoustart
withanexistingMRFcase
YoucanusetheMRFsolutionasaninitialconditionforthe
slidingmeshcalculation
Themeshpreviewoptionallowsyouthecheckthemesh
motionpriortorunthecalculation
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 31 Release14.0
AppendixA:SlidingMeshExamples
2Dturbinestage
2Dblower
1.5stageresearchturbine(ERCOFTACU1)
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 32 Release14.0
2DTurbineStage
2Dsubsonicturbinestagetestcase
Planargeometrysimulatesmidspanstreamsurface
Equalbladecountsforstatorandrotor
Motionofrotormodeledusinglinearyvelocity(29.445
m/s)
Boundaryconditions
StageInlet
Ptotal=1atm,Ttotal=300K,TU=5%
StageExit
Pstatic=0.963atm
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 33 Release14.0
2DTurbineStage(2)
Numericalmodel
Coupledimplicitsolver,steadystate,compressibleflow(air)
mesh(total):7917tricells
Realizablekc turbulencemodel
Twocasesexamined
Mixingplanemodel(withmassconservingmixingplane)
Slidingmeshmodel
MPMresultsusedasinitialconditionforSMM
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2DTurbineStage:Mesh
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PressureContours MixingPlaneSolution
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MachNo.Contours MixingPlane
Solution
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StatorPressureDistributionComparison
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RotorPressureDistributionComparison
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 39 Release14.0
2DBlower
Simple2Dmodelofasquirrelcageblower(44blades)
Pressureboundaries(inlettotalpressure=200Pa),2500
rpm
NumericalModel
Segregatedsolver,incompressibleflow(air)
Standardkc turbulencemodel(TU=5%atinlet)
MRFsolutioncomputedfirst usedasinitialconditionforSMM
timestep=0.0001333sec(correspondsto2degrotationofthe
wheel)
Calculationcarriedoutfor10revolutions
Timeaveragedsolutioncomputedforonerevolution
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 40 Release14.0
2DBlower:Grid
interfaces
inlet
outlet
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2DBlower:UnsteadyTotalPressure
time-periodic solution achieved
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2DBlower StaticPressure
MRF Solution SMM Solution
(time-averaged)
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 43 Release14.0
2DBlowerResults
MRFresultsshowreasonableagreementwithSMMforthisoperating
condition
Otheroperatingconditionsmayshowlargerdiscrepancies e.g.lower
flowrates,whereunsteadinessduetoseparation/stallbecomemore
significant
Total Pressure
Rise (Pa)
Outlet Normal
Velocity (m/s)
MRF 532.0 23.8
SMM* 491.3 24.6
Error (%) 8.3 3.3
* time-averaged results
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 44 Release14.0
1.5StageResearchTurbine(1)
Threebladerow(statorrotorstator)turbinestage
36statorblades,41rotorblades
Rotorgeometrymodifiedto40bladestopermitperiodic
boundaries(9statorblades,10rotorblades)
Designconditions:speed=3500rpm,flowrate =8.0
kg/s
Numericalmodel
Coupledsolver,compressibleflow(air),SMM
50subiterations pertimestep,4.3timestepsper
passingperiod
tet mesh 882,000cells
SpalartAllmaras turbulencemodel
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 45 Release14.0
1.5StageResearchTurbine(2)
Results
Unsteadydatatimeaveragedforcomparisonwith
experiments
Computedflowrate =8.04kg/s agreesverywellwith
data
Pitchaveragedprofilesextractedfromtimeaveraged
flowfield at
8.8mmdownstreamoftrailingedgeoffirststatorbladerow
(plane1)
8.8mmdownstreamoftrailingedgeofrotorbladerow(plane
2)
8.8mmdownstreamoftrailingedgeofsecondstatorblade
row(plane3)
Profilesshowgoodoverallagreementwithdata
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1.5StageTurbine:Geometry
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SurfacePressureCoefficientContours
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PitchAveragedYawAngles(1)
Yaw angle at plane 1
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.3
Radial position (m)
Y
a
n
g
l
e
Experiment
CFD
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PitchAveragedYawAngles(2)
Yaw angle comparisons at plane 2
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.3
Radial position (m)
Y
a
w

a
n
g
l
e
CFD
Experiment
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 50 Release14.0
PitchAveragedYawAngles(2)
Yaw angle at plane 3
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.3
Radial position (m)
Y
a
w

a
n
g
l
e
CFD
Experiment
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PitchAveragedMachNumberProfiles(1)
Mach number comparison at plane 1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.3
Radial posit ion (m)
M
a
c
h

n
u
m
b
e
r
CFD
Experiment
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PitchAveragedMachNumberProfiles(2)
Mach number comparison at plane 2
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.3
Radial position (m)
M
a
c
h

n
u
m
b
e
r
CFD
Experiment
2011ANSYS,Inc. March20,2012 53 Release14.0
PitchAveragedMachNumberProfiles(2)
Mach number comparison at plane 3
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.3
Radial position (m)
M
a
c
h

n
u
m
b
e
r
CFD
Experiment