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SECTION 8

LIGHTING CALCULATIONS
Engineering work in lighting as in all other fields requires the application
of mathematical or graphical techniques to the solution of many different
types of problems.
At best, cut-and-try methods are inefficient. Often they are inaccurate
and expensive. They are not likely to provide the best practical solution
of even the most simple problem.
Fortunately, it is possible to solve most lighting application problems
without using anything more complicated than addition, subtraction, multi-
plication, or division. Frequently, some of these operations may be
avoided, if it is so desired, by using simple graphs and tables. A number
of these time-saving short cuts are included in this section or in the Appen-
dix, and others will be found in the references. It usually is necessary to
compromise with accuracy to a certain extent when short-cut methods are
used and this should be considered when choosing a method for solving a
problem. In many cases, however, the short cuts save a great deal of time
and provide reasonably accurate results.
In addition to the methods of solving application problems given in this
section, assistance in the solution of design and development problems will
be found in the references at the end of the section and in the reference
division.
AVERAGE ILLUMINATION
Many present-day interior lighting designs have as their major objective
the provision of a certain average maintained general illumination level.
Appendix Table A-l, page A-l, includes illumination levels (footcandles)
representative of good practice in many commercial, industrial, educational,
recreational, and home areas.
1
The Lumen Method
The method of calculation most frequently used to estimate the number
and type of lamps or luminaires, or both, which will maintain a given aver-
age illumination level in service in a particular interior is based on the
classic experiments of Harrison and Anderson
2
who established a rela-
tionship between the candlepower distribution characteristics of luminaires,
their mounting height, and the room proportions.
'-The required number
of
lamps of a particular type will equal the total
initial light flux F divided by the rated lumen output of that type.
- The required rated lumen output per lamp, when the number of lamps is
fixed by the desired spacing, type of fixtures, or other consideration, will
eoual the total initial light flux F divided by the number of lamps.
Note: References are listed at the end of each section.