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BAHAGIAN PENDIDIKAN GURU

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

INSTITUT PENDIDIKAN GURU MALAYSIA


KAMPUS TUANKU BAINUN
14400,BUKIT MERTAJAM,PULAU PINANG.

ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY - ACADEMIC COMPONENTS


KURSUS PERSEDIAAN PROGRAM IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA
PERGURUAN (PPISMP)
(SEMESTER 2 / 2011)

STUDENT NAME

: MUHAMMAD NAZRIN BIN CHE YA

MATRIX NUMBER : 2010302310168


IC NUMBER

: 920908-08-6329

UNIT

: MATH / PI / B2

SUBJECT

: ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY - ACADEMIC


COMPONENTS

SUBJECT CODE

: PI 2311 P5

LECTURER

: ENCIK AZIZAN BIN ARIFFIN

DATE OF

: 21 FEBRUARY 2011

SUBMISSION

TASK 1 A
PORTFOLIO
(INDIVIDUAL)
Your portfolio should be a compilation of learning resources, evidence of the
process of your writing (drafts/sketches) ,video clips, book reviews, pictures, etc.) based
on the novel Animal Farm the purpose of this task is to :

Provide continuous support and monitoring

Create an avenue for you to improve their reading proficiency in the English
language

Enrich and enhance your learning experiences and language skills, and foster
your learning how to learn skills.

ADVERB CLAUSE
Introduction
An adverb may be a single word such as quickly, here or yesterday (see the
page Adverbs), or a phrase such as the day before yesterday or to see my
mother (see the page Adverb Phrases). However, adverbs can also be clauses,
containing a subject and a full verb. This page will explain the basic types of
adverb clauses (sometimes called "adverbial clauses") and how to recognize
them.

Adverbs, adverb phrases, and adverb clauses


Look at these sentences:

I saw the movie yesterday.


I saw the movie on Friday.
I saw the movie before I left for Calgary.
In the first sentence, "yesterday" is a one-word adverb, "on Friday" is an adverb
phrase, and "before I left for Calgary" is an adverb clause. All of them answer
the question "When?", but the adverb clause has a subject ("I") and a full verb
("left"). It is introduced by "before", so it is a dependent clause. This means that
it cannot stand alone: "Before I left for Calgary" would not be a full sentence. It
needs a main clause ("I saw the movie"). An adverb clause, then, is a
dependent clause that does the same job as an adverb or an adverb phrase.

Types of adverb clause

There are many types of adverb clauses. Here are some examples of the most common
types:

Type

Question answered

Example

Place

Where?

Wherever there are computers,


there is Microsoft software.

Time

When?

After the fruit is harvested, it is


sold at the market.

Cause

Why? (What caused


this?)

I didn't call her because I'm shy.

Purpose

Why? (What was the


reason for doing this?)

She took a computer course so


that she could get a better job.

Concession

Why is this unexpected?

Although Jay has a Master's


degree, he works as a store
clerk.

Condition

Under what conditions?

If you save your money, you


will be able to go to college.

As you can see from the examples above, most adverb clauses can be recognized
because they are introduced by a particular word or phrase (such as "when", "so that",
etc.). These words and phrases are called subordinating conjunctions, and there are
many of them, including these:

Subordination
conjunctions
after, before, until, while, because,
since, as, so that, in order that, if,
unless, whether, though, although,
even though, where

Adverb Clauses

Paragraphs and Topic Sentences


A paragraph is a series of sentences that are organized and coherent, and are all
related to a single topic. Almost every piece of writing you do that is longer than a few
sentences should be organized into paragraphs. This is because paragraphs show a
reader where the subdivisions of an essay begin and end, and thus help the reader see
the organization of the essay and grasp its main points.
Paragraphs can contain many different kinds of information. A paragraph could contain
a series of brief examples or a single long illustration of a general point. It might
describe a place, character, or process; narrate a series of events; compare or contrast
two or more things; classify items into categories; or describe causes and effects.
Regardless of the kind of information they contain, all paragraphs share certain
characteristics. One of the most important of these is a topic sentence.
TOPIC SENTENCES
A well-organized paragraph supports or develops a single controlling idea, which is
expressed in a sentence called the topic sentence. A topic sentence has several
important functions: it substantiates or supports an essays thesis statement; it unifies
the content of a paragraph and directs the order of the sentences; and it advises the
reader of the subject to be discussed and how the paragraph will discuss it. Readers

generally look to the first few sentences in a paragraph to determine the subject and
perspective of the paragraph. Thats why its often best to put the topic sentence at the
very beginning of the paragraph. In some cases, however, its more effective to place
another sentence before the topic sentencefor example, a sentence linking the
current paragraph to the previous one, or one providing background information.

Although most paragraphs should have a topic sentence, there are a few situations
when a paragraph might not need a topic sentence. For example, you might be able to
omit a topic sentence in a paragraph that narrates a series of events, if a paragraph
continues developing an idea that you introduced (with a topic sentence) in the previous
paragraph, or if all the sentences and details in a paragraph clearly referperhaps
indirectlyto a main point. The vast majority of your paragraphs, however, should have
a topic sentence.

PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE
Most paragraphs in an essay have a three-part structureintroduction, body, and
conclusion. You can see this structure in paragraphs whether they are narrating,
describing, comparing, contrasting, or analyzing information. Each part of the paragraph
plays an important role in communicating your meaning to your reader.

Introduction: the first section of a paragraph; should include the topic sentence and
any other sentences at the beginning of the paragraph that give background information
or provide a transition.

Body: follows the introduction; discusses the controlling idea, using facts, arguments,
analysis, examples, and other information.

Conclusion: the final section; summarizes the connections between the information
discussed in the body of the paragraph and the paragraphs controlling idea.

The following paragraph illustrates this pattern of organization. In this paragraph the
topic sentence and concluding sentence (CAPITALIZED) both help the reader keep the
paragraphs main point in mind.
SCIENTISTS HAVE LEARNED TO SUPPLEMENT THE SENSE OF SIGHT IN
NUMEROUS WAYS. In front of the tiny pupil of the eye they put, on Mount Palomar, a
great monocle 200 inches in diameter, and with it see 2000 times farther into the depths
of space. Or they look through a small pair of lenses arranged as a microscope into
a drop of water or blood, and magnify by as much as 2000 diameters the living
creatures there, many of which are among mans most dangerous enemies. Or, if we
want to see distant happenings on earth, they use some of the previously wasted
electromagnetic waves to carry television images which they re-create as light by
whipping tiny crystals on a screen with electrons in a vacuum. Or they can bring
happenings of long ago and far away as colored motion pictures, by arranging silver
atoms and color-absorbing molecules to force light waves into the patterns of original
reality. Or if we want to see into the center of a steel casting or the chest of an injured
child, they send the information on a beam of penetrating short-wave X rays, and
then convert it back into images we can see on a screen or photograph. THUS ALMOST
EVERY TYPE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION YET DISCOVERED HAS BEEN

USED TO EXTEND OUR SENSE OF SIGHT IN SOME WAY.


George Harrison, Faith and the Scientist

COHERENCE
In a coherent paragraph, each sentence relates clearly to the topic sentence or
controlling idea, but there is more to coherence than this. If a paragraph is coherent,
each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent
paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make
the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader.
Along with the smooth flow of sentences, a paragraphs coherence may also be related
to its length. If you have written a very long paragraph, one that fills a double-spaced
typed page, for example, you should check it carefully to see if it should start a new
paragraph where the original paragraph wanders from its controlling idea. On the other
hand, if a paragraph is very short (only one or two sentences, perhaps), you may need
to develop its controlling idea more thoroughly, or combine it with another paragraph.
A number of other techniques that you can use to establish coherence in paragraphs
are described below.

Repeat key words or phrases. Particularly in paragraphs in which you define or


identify an important idea or theory, be consistent in how you refer to it. This consistency

and repetition will bind the paragraph together and help your reader understand your
definition or description.

Create parallel structures. Parallel structures are created by constructing two or


more phrases or sentences that have the same grammatical structure and use the
same parts of speech. By creating parallel structures you make your sentences clearer
and easier to read. In addition, repeating a pattern in a series of consecutive sentences
helps your reader see the connections between ideas. In the paragraph above about
scientists and the sense of sight, several sentences in the body of the paragraph have
been constructed in a parallel way. The parallel structures (which have been

emphasized) help the reader see that the paragraph is organized as a set of
examples of a general statement.

Be consistent in point of view, verb tense, and number. Consistency in


point of view, verb tense, and number is a subtle but important aspect of coherence. If
you shift from the more personal "you" to the impersonal one, from past to present
tense, or from a man to they, for example, you make your paragraph less coherent.
Such inconsistencies can also confuse your reader and make your argument more
difficult to follow.

Use transition words or phrases between sentences and between


paragraphs. Transitional expressions emphasize the relationships between ideas, so
they help readers follow your train of thought or see connections that they might
otherwise miss or misunderstand. The following paragraph shows how carefully chosen
transitions (CAPITALIZED) lead the reader smoothly from the introduction to the
conclusion of the paragraph.
I dont wish to deny that the flattened, minuscule head of the large-bodied "stegosaurus"
houses little brain from our subjective, top-heavy perspective, BUT I do wish to assert
that we should not expect more of the beast. FIRST OF ALL, large animals have
relatively smaller brains than related, small animals. The correlation of brain size with
body size among kindred animals (all reptiles, all mammals, FOR EXAMPLE) is
remarkably regular. AS we move from small to large animals, from mice to elephants or

small lizards to Komodo dragons, brain size increases, BUT not so fast as body size. IN
OTHER WORDS, bodies grow faster than brains, AND large animals have low ratios of
brain weight to body weight. IN FACT, brains grow only about two-thirds as fast as
bodies. SINCE we have no reason to believe that large animals are consistently
stupider than their smaller relatives, we must conclude that large animals require
relatively less brain to do as well as smaller animals. IF we do not recognize this
relationship, we are likely to underestimate the mental power of very large animals,
dinosaurs in particular.
Stephen Jay Gould, Were Dinosaurs Dumb?

To show addition:
again, and, also, besides, equally important, first (second, etc.), further, furthermore, in
addition, in the first place, moreover, next, too

To give examples:
for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrate

To compare:
also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly

To contrast:
although, and yet, at the same time, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in
spite of, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, though, yet

To summarize or conclude:
all in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is,
therefore, to sum up

To show time:

after, afterward, as, as long as, as soon as, at last, before, during, earlier, finally,
formerly, immediately, later, meanwhile, next, since, shortly, subsequently, then,
thereafter, until, when, while

To show place or direction:


above, below, beyond, close, elsewhere, farther on, here, nearby, opposite, to the left
(north, etc.)

To indicate logical relationship:


accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if, otherwise,
since, so, then, therefore, thus
Paragraph Transitions

Transitional words and phrases connect sentences and paragraphs to each


other. Paragraph transitions suggest a particular relationship between one idea and the
next. Within a paragraph, transitions provide coherence: a sense that the paragraph
contains one main argument or idea. Between paragraphs, paragraph transitions help
with the flow of writing from beginning to end, as well as the sense of the coherence of
the whole essay. Transitional words and phrases often occur at the beginning of a
sentence and, for more formal writing, transitional expressions are set off with a comma.
Some transition words (for example, "too" or "as well") more often occur at the end or
even in the middle of a sentence, however.
Paragraphs represent the basic unit of composition: one idea, one paragraph. However,
to present a clear, unified train of thought to your readers, you must make sure each
paragraph follows the one before it and leads to the one after it through clear, logical
transitions. Keep in mind that adequate transitions cannot simply be added to the essay
without planning. Without a good reason for the sequence of your paragraphs, no
transition will help you. Transitions can be made with particular words and phrases

created for that purpose--conjunctive adverbs and transitional phrases--or they can be
implied through a conceptual link.

Conjunctive Adverbs and Transitional Phrases


Conjunctive adverbs modify entire sentences in order to relate them to preceding
sentences or paragraphs; good academic writers use many of them, but not so many
that they overload the page. Here is a list of some of them, courtesy of The Brief Holt
Handbook:

accordingly

meanwhile

also

moreover

anyway

nevertheless

besides

next

certainly

nonetheless

consequently

now

finally

otherwise

furthermore

similarly

hence

still

however

then

incidentally

thereafter

indeed

therefore

instead

thus

likewise

undoubtedly

Transitional phrases can perform the same function:

in addition

of course

in contrast

as a result

for example

in other words

for instance

as a result

Use them wisely and sparingly, and never use one without knowing its precise meaning.

Implied or Conceptual Transitions


Not every paragraph transition requires a conjunctive adverb or transitional phrase;
often, your logic will appear through a word or concept common to the last sentence of
the preceding paragraph and the topic sentence of the following paragraph. For
example, the end of a paragraph by Bruce Catton uses a demonstrative adjective,
"these," to modify the subject of the topic sentence so that it will refer to a noun in the
last sentence of the preceding paragraph:
When Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee met in the parlor of a modest house at
Appomattox Court House, Virginia,...a great chapter in American life came to a close.
These men were bringing the Civil War to its virtual finish.
In this transition by Kori Quintana in an article about radiation and health problems, the
connection between the paragraphs resides in the common term of "my family":

What I did not know when I began researching the connection between radioactivity and
genetic damage was that I would find the probably cause of my own family's battle with
cancer and other health problems.
Hailing from Utah, the state known for its Mormon population's healthy lifestyle, my
family has been plagued with a number of seemingly unrelated health problems.
The first paragraph outlines the origins of Quintana's research into the connection
between radiation exposure and disease, and ends with the revelation that her own
family had been affected by radiation. The next paragraph discusses her family's health
history. Each has its own singular purpose and topic, yet the first paragraph leads to
the topic of the second through a common term.
Paragraph transitions can expand the range of discussion as well as narrow it with an
example, as Quintana's transition does; this selection from an article by Deborah
Cramer on the ecological impact of the fishing industry shows how a single instance of
overfishing indicates a world-wide problem:
....The large yearly catches, peaking at 130 million pounds from the Gulf of Maine in
1942, wiped out the fishery. It has yet to recover.
The propensity to ravage the sea is by no means unique to New England. The
northern cod fishery in Canada is closed indefinitely. In Newfoundland more than
20,000 fishermen and fish processors were abruptly put out of work in 1992 when the
government shut down the Grand Banks...
Here, the transition alludes to the entire preceding section about New England fishing.
Although Cramer managed this transition in a single sentence, transitions between large
sections of an essay sometimes require entire paragraphs to explain their logic.
Proofreading Paragraph Transitions
At some point in your editing process, look at the end of each paragraph and see how it
connects to the first sentence of the paragraph following it. If the connection seems
missing or strained, improve the transition by clarifying your logic or rearranging the

paragraphs. Often, the best solution is cutting out a paragraph altogether, and replacing
it with the right one.

How to Use Paragraph Transitions


A Guide to Transitional Words and Expressions

When writing a paragraph or essay, just as proper grammar and spelling are important,
paragraph transitions are also important.

Transitional words and phrases connect sentences and paragraphs to each other.
Paragraph transitions suggest a particular relationship between one idea and the next.
Within a paragraph, transitions provide coherence: a sense that the paragraph contains
one main argument or idea. Between paragraphs, paragraph transitions help with the
flow of writing from beginning to end, as well as the sense of the coherence of the whole
essay. Transitional words and phrases often occur at the beginning of a sentence and,
for more formal writing, transitional expressions are set off with a comma. Some

transition words (for example, "too" or "as well") more often occur at the end or even in
the middle of a sentence, however.
The function and importance of transitions
In both academic writing and professional writing, your goal is to convey information
clearly and concisely, if not to convert the reader to your way of thinking. Transitions
help you to achieve these goals by establishing logical connections between sentences,
paragraphs, and sections of your papers. In other words, transitions tell readers what to
do with the information you present to them. Whether single words, quick phrases or full
sentences, they function as signs for readers that tell them how to think about, organize,
and react to old and new ideas as they read through what you have written.

Transitions signal relationships between ideas such as: "Another example coming
upstay alert!" or "Here's an exception to my previous statement" or "Although this idea
appears to be true, here's the real story." Basically, transitions provide the reader with
directions for how to piece together your ideas into a logically coherent argument.
Transitions are not just verbal decorations that embellish your paper by making it sound
or read better. They are words with particular meanings that tell the reader to think and
react in a particular way to your ideas. In providing the reader with these important
cues, transitions help readers understand the logic of how your ideas fit together.

To help you practice transitional words, here is a transition word list that shows the
relationship the transitional words or phrases indicate. As a transition word exercise,
revise a paragraph adding the appropriate transition word or phrase.

Relationship

English Transition Words and Phrases

Adding

also, and, as well, besides, equally important, finally, furthermore, in

information

addition, moreover, then, too

Comparing ideas in like manner, in the same way, likewise, similarly


Conceding a point agreed, certainly, granted, obviously, of course, to be sure
at the same time, but, conversely, even so, even though, however, in
Contrasting ideas contrast, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the one hand, on the other
hand, still, yet
Providing an

as an illustration, as can be seen by, for example, for instance, in

example

other words, namely, specifically, to illustrate


afterward, before, currently, eventually, finally, first, (second, third,

Relating time and fourth, fifth?), immediately, in the future, in the past, later, less
order of ideas

important, meanwhile, most important, next, often, sometimes, soon,


subsequently, then, today, when

Resulting from
the previous idea
Showing relative
location

accordingly, as a result, consequently, so, thereby, therefore, thus


adjacent, at the side, between, here, in the back, in the background,
in the distance, in the foreground, in the front, nearby, there, to the
side

Summarizing

finally, hence, in brief, in conclusion, in short, in summary, that is,

ideas

that is to say, to sum up

In summary, use a variety of good transition words within your paragraphs to create
coherent paragraphs. Use good paragraph transition words in essays to help your ideas
flow throughout the essay, as well. In these ways, transition words serve as a sort of
writing glue. Yet, don't use the same transition repeatedly, unless you are doing so for a
specific effect. Remember, you can always check grammar, spelling, and writing style
with WhiteSmoke's free online grammar checker.

FICTION

Fiction is any form of narrative which deals, in part or in whole, with events that are not
factual, but rather, imaginary and invented by its author(s). Although fiction often
describes a major branch of literary work, it is also applied
to theatrical, cinematic, documental, and musical work. In contrast to this is non-fiction,
which deals exclusively in factual events (e.g.: biographies, histories).
Non-fiction or nonfiction is an account, narrative, or representation of a subject which
an author presents as fact. This presentation may be accurate or not; that is, it can give
either a true or a false account of the subject in question. However, it is generally
assumed that the authors of such accounts believe them to be truthful at the time of
their composition. Note that reporting the beliefs of others in a non-fiction format is not
necessarily an endorsement of the ultimate veracity of those beliefs, it is simply saying
that it is true that people believe that (for such topics as mythology, religion). Non-fiction
can also be written about fiction, giving information about these other works.
Non-fiction is one of the two main divisions in writing, particularly used in libraries, the
other being fiction. However, non-fiction need not be written text necessarily, sincfact]].
This presentation may be accurate or not; that is, it can give either a true or a false
account of the subject in question. However, it is generally assumed that the authors of

such accounts believe them to be truthful at the time of their composition. Note that
reporting the beliefs of others in a non-fiction format is not necessarily an endorsement
of the ultimate veracity of those beliefse pictures and film can also purport to present a
factual account of a subject.

Animal Farm Summary


Animal Farm is a satirical fable set on Manor Farm, a typical English farm. Orwell
employs a third-person narrator, who reports events without commenting on them
directly. The narrator describes things as the animals perceive them.
Old Major calls a meeting of all the animals in the big barn. He announces that he may
die soon and relates to them the insights he has gathered in his life. Old Major tells the
animals that human beings are the sole reason that No animal in England is free and
that The life of an animal is misery and slavery. Therefore the animals must take
charge of their destiny by overthrowing Man in a great Rebellion. He relates his dream
of rebellion.
Old Major dies soon after the meeting and the other animals prepare for the Rebellion
under Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealers leadership. One night, Mr. Jones passes out
drunk, creating the perfect opportunity for the animals to rebel. They are so hungry that
they break into the store-shed. When Jones and his men try to whip them into
submission, the animals run them off the farm. The animals burn all reminders of their
former bondage but agree to preserve the farmhouse as a museum. Snowball
changes the name of the farm to Animal Farm and comes up with Seven
Commandments, which are to form the basis of Animalism. They are:
1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.

3. No animal shall wear clothes.


4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
5. No animals shall drink alcohol.
6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
7. All animals are equal.
The pigs milk the cows, and then the animals go out to begin the harvest. When they
return, the milk has disappeared mysteriously. The first harvest is a great success. The
animals adhere to the tenets of Animalism happily, and with good result. Each animal
works according to his ability and gets a fair share of food.
Every Sunday, Snowball and Napoleon lead a meeting of all the animals in the big barn.
The pigs are the most intelligent animals, so they think up resolutions for the other
animals to debate. Soon after, the pigs set up a study-center for themselves in the
harness-room. Snowball embarks on various campaigns for social and economic
improvement. Napoleon opposes whatever Snowball does. Because most of the
animals lack the intelligence to memorize the Seven Commandments, Snowball
reduces them to the single maxim, Four legs good, two legs bad. The sheep take to
chanting this at meetings.
As time goes by, the pigs increase their control over the animals and award themselves
increasing privileges. They quell the animals questions and protests by threatening Mr.
Joness return. During this time, Napoleon also confiscates nine newborn puppies and
secludes them in a loft in order to educate them.
By late summer, Snowballs and Napoleons pigeon-messengers have spread news of
the Rebellion across half of England. Animals on other farms have begun lashing out
against their human masters and singing the revolutionary song Beasts of England.
Jones and other farmers try to recapture Animal Farm but fail. The animals celebrate
their victory in what they call The Battle of the Cowshed.
The animals agree to let the pigs make all the resolutions. Snowball and Napoleon
continue to be at odds and eventually clash over the windmill. Snowball wants to build a
windmill in order to shorten the work week and provide the farm electricity, but Napoleon

opposes it. Napoleon summons nine fierce dogs (the puppies he trained) to run
Snowball off the farm. Napoleon announces that Sunday meetings will cease and that
the pigs will make all the decisions in the animals best interest. At this
point, Boxer takes on his own personal maxims, I will work harder and Napoleon is
always right. In the spring, Napoleon announces plans to build the windmill, claiming
that it was his idea all alongrewriting history.
Building the windmill forces the animals to work harder and on Sundays. Shortages
begin to occur, so Napoleon opens up trade with the human world. Through Squealer,
he lies that no resolutions against interaction with humans or the use of money had ever
been passed. Napoleon enlists Whymper to be his intermediary, and the pigs move into
the farmhouse. Squealer assures the animals that there is no resolution against this, but
Clover and Muriel discovers that one of the resolutions has been changed to: No
animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets. Squealer convinces her that there was never a
resolution against beds at all.
One night, strong winds shake the farm and the animals awake to discover the windmill
destroyed. Napoleon blames Snowball and sentences the expelled pig to death.
In the winter, as conditions become worse on Animal Farm, Napoleon deceives the
human world into thinking Animal Farm is prospering. He signs a contract for a quota of
four hundred eggs per week, inciting a hen rebellion that results in several deaths.
Around the same time, Napoleon begins negotiating with Frederick and Pilkington to sell
Animal Farms store of timber. He also spreads propaganda against Snowball, claiming
that Snowball was always a spy and a collaborator while Napoleon was the true hero of
the Battle of the Cowshed, and Squealer warns against Snowballs secret agents.
Four days later, Napoleon holds an assembly in which he makes several animals
confess to treachery and then has the dogs execute them. The dogs try to get Boxer to
confess but leave him alone when they cannot overpower him. Afterwards, Clover and
some other animals huddle together on a hill overlooking the farm. They reminisce
about Animalisms ideals and consider how much they differ from the violence and terror
of Napoleons reign. They sing Beasts of England, but Squealer informs them that the
song is useless now that the Rebellion is completed and that it is now forbidden. The

new anthem begins with the lyrics: Animal Farm, Animal Farm, / Never through me
shalt thou come to harm!
Another commandment is changed to read: No animal shall kill any other
animal without cause. Clover and Muriel convince themselves that the commandment
has always been this way. Squealer begins reading the animals statistics regularly to
convince them that production is increasing. Napoleon seldom appears in public. The
animals now call him our Leader, Comrade Napoleon. They attribute all misfortunes to
Snowball and all success and luck to Napoleon.
Napoleon continues to negotiate with the farmers and eventually decides to sell the
timber to Mr. Pilkington. At last, the windmill is finished and named Napoleon Mill.
Soon after, Napoleon announces that he will sell the timber to Frederick, quickly
changing his allegiance and disavowing his earlier vilification of Frederick. Napoleon
says that Pilkington and Snowball have been collaborating. Frederick pays for the
timber in fake cash, and the next morning, Frederick and his men invade the farm and
blow up the windmill. The animals manage to chase the humans off, though many die or
are injured in what they call The Battle of the Windmill.
After the battle, the pigs discover a case of whisky in the farmhouse. They drink to
excess and soon, Squealer reports that Napoleon is dying and, as his last action, has
made the consumption of alcohol punishable by death. But Napoleon recovers quickly
and then sends Whymper to procure manuals on brewing alcohol. Squealer changes
another commandment to No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.
Napoleon plans to build a schoolhouse for the thirty-one young pigs he has parented.
Towards the end of the winter, Napoleon begins increasing propaganda to distract the
animals from inequality and hardship. He creates special Spontaneous
Demonstrations in which the animals march around and celebrate their triumphs.
In April, Napoleon declares the farm a Republic and is elected unanimously as
President. The animals continue to work feverishly, most of all Boxer. One day, Boxer
collapses while overexerting himself. Napoleon promises to send him to the veterinarian
in Willingdon. A few days later, a horse-slaughterer takes Boxer away in his van. The

animals are none the wiser until Benjamin reads the lettering on the side of the van. A
few days later, Squealer reports that Boxer died in the hospital despite receiving the
best possible care. He claims that Boxers last words glorified Animal Farm and
Napoleon. He also claims that the van belongs to the veterinarian, who recently bought
it from the horse slaughterer and had not yet managed to paint over the lettering.
Napoleon promises to honor Boxer with a special banquet. But the pigs use the money
from his slaughter to buy a case of whisky, which they drink on the day appointed for the
banquet.
Years go by, and though Animal Farms population has increased, only a few animals
that remember the Rebellion remain. Conditions are still harsh despite technological
improvements. The pigs and dogs continue to do no manual labor, instead devoting
themselves to organizational work. One day, Squealer takes the sheep out to a
deserted pasture where, he says, he is teaching them a song. On the day the sheep
return, the pigs walk around the yard on their hind legs as the sheep chant, Four legs
good, two legs better. The other animals are horrified. Clover consults the barn wall
again. This time Benjamin reads to her. The Seven Commandments have been
replaced with a single maxim: All animals are equal / But some animals are more equal
than others.
The pigs continue the longstanding pattern of awarding themselves more and more
privileges. They buy a telephone and subscribe to magazines. They even wear Joness
clothing. One night, Napoleon holds a conciliatory banquet for the farmers. Pilkington
makes a speech in which he says he wants to emulate Animal Farms long work hours
and low rations. Napoleon announces that the farm will be called Manor Farm again,
the animals will call each other Comrade no longer, and they no longer will march
ceremoniously past Old Majors skull (a practice he denies understanding). He also
declares that the farms flag will be plain green, devoid of the symbols of the Rebellion.
As the animals peer through the windows to watch the humans and pigs play poker,
they cannot distinguish between them.

Character List
Benjamin
The donkey. He is the oldest animal on the farm and stereotypically stubborn and
crotchety. He is also intelligent, being the only animal (aside from the pigs) that can read
fluently. He never laughs, preferring to make cynical comments, especially the cryptic
line, donkeys live a long time. Despite Benjamins unfriendly nature, he has a special
affinity for Boxer. The Rebellion does not change Benjamins personality, although he
eventually helps the animals read the lettering on the side of the van and the maxim that
replaces the Seven Commandments. Benjamin represents the human (and also
stereotypically Russian) tendency towards apathy; he holds fast to the idea that life is
inherently hard and that efforts for change are futile. Benjamin bears a similarity to
Orwell himself. Over the course of his career, Orwell became politically pessimistic and
predicted the overtake of the West by totalitarian governments.
the Cat
The only cat on Manor Farm. She is lazy and indifferent, but she does participate in the
Battle of the Cowshed.
Clover
The female of the two horses on the farm. She is a stout motherly mare approaching
middle life, who had never quite got her figure back after her fourth foal. Clover is
Boxers faithful companion as well as a motherly figure to the other animals. Like Boxer,
Clover is not intelligent enough to read, so she enlists Muriel to read the altered Seven
Commandments to her. She sees the incongruities in the governments policies and

actions, but she is not smart or defiant enough to fight for the restoration of justice.
Clover represents those people who remember a time before the Revolution and
therefore half-realize that the government is lying about its success and adherence to its
principles, but are helpless to change anything.

the Dogs
Nine puppies, which Napoleon confiscates and secludes in a loft. Napoleon rears them
into fierce, elitist dogs that act as his security guards. The dogs are the only animals
other than the pigs that are given special privileges. They also act as executioners,
tearing out the throats of animals that confess to treachery. The dogs represent the
NKVD and more specifically the KGB, agencies Joseph Stalin fostered and used to
terrorize and commit atrocities upon the Soviet Unions populace.
Frederick
The owner of Pinchfield, the small farm adjacent to Manor Farm. He is a hard-nosed
individual who is known for his frequent legal troubles and demanding business style.
He cheats the animals out of their timber by paying for it with fake banknotes. Frederick
represents Adolf Hitler. Rumors of the exotic and cruel animal tortures Frederick enacts
on his farm are meant to echo the horror stories emerging from Nazi Germany.
Fredericks agreement to buy the timber represents the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression
treaty, and his subsequent betrayal of the pact and invasion of Animal Farm represents
the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union.
Jones
The owner of Manor Farm and a drunkard. His animals overthrow him in the Rebellion.
When he tries to recapture his property, they defeat him, steal his gun, and drive him off
again. Mr. Jones dies in a home for alcoholics in another part of the country. He
represents the kind of corrupt and fatally flawed government that results in discontent
and revolution among the populace. More specifically, Jones represents the latter days
of imperial Russia and its last leader, the wealthy but ineffective Czar Nicholas II.

Minimus
A pig with a remarkable gift for composing songs and poems. Under Napoleons rule,
Minimus sits with him and Squealer on the barn platform during meetings. Minimus
composes propaganda songs and poems under Napoleons rule. Though we never hear
Minimus complain about his duties as propaganda writer, he represents the Soviet
Unions artists, who were forced to use their talents to glorify communism rather than
express their personal feelings or beliefs.
Mollie
The white mare that draws Mr. Joness trap. Her personality is superficial and
adolescent. For example, when she arrives at the big meeting in Chapter 1, Orwell
writes, Mollie Came mincing daintily in, chewing a lump of sugar. She took a place
near the front and began flirting her white mane, hoping to draw attention to the red
ribbons it was plaited with (27). Mollie is the only animal not to fight in the Battle of the
Cowshed, instead hiding in her stall. She eventually flees the farm and is last seen,
bedecked in ribbons, eating sugar and letting her new owner stroke her nose. Mollie
represents the class of nobles who, unwilling to conform to the new regime, fled Russia
after the Revolution.
Moses
A tame raven that is Mr. Joness especial pet. He is a spy, a gossip, and a clever
talker (37). He is also the only animal not present for Old Majors meeting. Moses gets
in the way of the pigs efforts to spread Animalism by inventing a story about an animal
heaven called Sugarcandy Mountain. Moses disappears for several years during
Napoleons rule. When he returns, he still insists on the existence of Sugarcandy
Mountain. Moses represents religion, which gives people hope of a better life in heaven.
His name connects him to the Judeo-Christian religions specifically, but he can be said
to represent the spiritual alternative in general. The pigs dislike Mosess stories of
Sugarcandy Mountain, just as the Soviet government opposed religion, not wanting its
people to subscribe to a system of belief outside of communism. Though the Soviet
government suppressed religion aggressively, the pigs on Animal Farm let Moses come

and go as he pleases and even give him a ration of beer when he returns from his long
absence.
Muriel
The white goat. Muriel can read fairly well and helps Clover decipher the alterations to
the Seven Commandments. Muriel is not opinionated, but she represents a subtle,
revelatory influence because of her willingness to help bring things to light (as opposed
to Benjamin).

Napoleon
One of the leaders among the pigs, Napoleon is a large, rather fierce-looking Berkshire
boar that is up for sale. He is the only Berkshire boar on the farm. He is not much of a
talker and has a reputation for getting his own way (35). Napoleon expels Snowball
from the farm and takes over. He modifies his opinions and policies and rewrites history
continually to benefit the pigs. Napoleon awards special privileges to the pigs and
especially to himself. For example, he dines on Mr. Joness fine china, wears Mr.
Joness dress clothes, and smokes a pipe. As time goes on, Napoleon becomes a figure
in the shadows, increasingly secluding himself and making few public appearances.
Eventually, Napoleon holds a conciliatory meeting with the neighboring human farmers
and effectively takes over Mr. Joness position as dictator. Napoleon represents the type
of dictator or tyrant who shirks the common good, instead seeking more and more
power in order to create his own regime. Orwell reflects Napoleons greed for power
with a name that invokes Napoleon Bonaparte, the very successful French leader who
became Emperor and brashly invaded Russia before being defeated by Russia. But
Napoleon the pig more directly represents Stalin in his constantly changing policies and
actions, his secret activities, his intentional deception and manipulation of the populace,
and his use of fear tactics and atrocities.
Pilkington
The owner of Foxwood, the large, unkempt farm adjacent to Manor Farm. He is an
easy-going man who prefers pursuing his hobbies to maintaining his land. At the books

end, Mr. Pilkington offers a toast to the future cooperation between human farms and
Animal Farm. He also says he plans to emulate Animal Farms low rations and long
work hours. Pilkington can be seen to represent the Allies. Allied countries explored the
possibility of trade with the Soviet Union in the years leading up to World War II but kept
a watchful distance. Ominously, as Friedrich Hayek points out in The Road to
Serfdom (1944), communist principles had strong proponents among many Allied
nations as well. Pilkingtons unwillingness to save Animal Farm from Frederick and his
men parodies the Allies initial hesitance to enter the War. Napoleons and Pilkingtons
poker game at the end of the book suggests the beginnings of a power struggle that
would later become the Cold War.
Pinkeye
A pig that Napoleon enlists as his taster, lest someone try to poison him.
the Sheep
The sheep are loyal to the tenets of Animal Farm, often breaking into a chorus of Four
legs good, two legs bad and later, Four legs good, two legs better! The Sheep--true to
the typical symbolic meaning of sheep--represent those people who have little
understanding of their situation and thus are willing to follow their government blindly.
Snowball
One of the leaders among the pigs, Snowball is a young pig that is up for sale. He is
more intelligent than Napoleon but lacks Napoleons depth of character. He is also a
brilliant orator. Snowball, who represents Leon Trotsky, is a progressive politician and
aims to improve Animal Farm with a windmill and other technological advances, but
Napoleon expels him before he can do so. In his absence, Snowball comes to represent
an abstract idea of evil. The animals blame misfortunes on him, including the windmills
destruction, and entertain the idea that he is lurking on one of the neighboring farms,
plotting revenge. Napoleon uses the animals fear of Snowball to create new
propaganda and changes history to make it seem as though Snowball was always a spy
and a traitor. Snowballs name is symbolic in this way. Napoleon encourages the
animals fear of him to grow or snowball so that it becomes so great it is almost
palpable. Snowballs name may also refer to Trotskys call (following Marx) to

encourage a revolution outside the Soviet Union that would snowball into an
international proletariat revolution. Snowball can more generally be said to represent
systems of belief outside of communism, which the government demonizes in order to
lionize its own system.

Squealer
The best known of the porker pigs, Squealer has very round cheeks, twinkling eyes,
nimble movements, and a shrill voice. He is also a brilliant talker who is talented in
the art of argument. The other pigs say Squealer could turn black into white (35).
Under Napoleons rule, Squealer acts as the liaison to the other animals. He lies to
them, rewriting history and reading them encouraging, but false, statistics. Squealer is
especially good at playing on the animals ignorance and gullibility. He represents the
propaganda machine of a totalitarian government.
Whymper
A solicitor in Willingdon who acts as Animal Farms intermediary to the human world. He
is a sly-looking little man with side whiskers. He visits the farm every Monday to get
his orders and is paid in commissions. Mr. Whympers business-minded attitude
towards Animal Farm, which allows him to ignore the injustices and atrocities committed
there, make him a parody of nations that conducted business with the Soviet Union
while turning a blind eye to its internal affairs.
Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher
The dogs. When Bluebell and Jessie give birth to puppies, Napoleon confiscates them
and secludes them in a loft, where he transforms them into fierce, elitist guard dogs.

Boxer
The male of the two horses on the farm. He is an enormous beast, nearly eighteen
hands high, and as strong as any two ordinary horses put together. A white stripe down
his nose gave him a somewhat stupid appearance, and in fact he was not of first-rate
intelligence, but he was universally respected for his steadiness of character and
tremendous powers of work (26). Boxer has a special affinity for Benjamin. With his
determination to be a good public servant and his penchant for hard work, Boxer
becomes Napoleons greatest supporter. He works tirelessly for the cause of Animal
Farm, operating under his personal maxims, I will work harder and Napoleon is
always right. The only time Boxer doubts propaganda is when Squealer tries to rewrite
the story of Snowballs valor at the Battle of the Cowshed, a treachery for which he is
nearly executed. But Boxer recants his doubts when he learns that the altered story of
the battle is directly from Napoleon. After Boxer is injured while defending the farm in
the Battle of the Windmill, Napoleon sends him to be slaughtered for profit. The pigs use
the money from the slaughter to buy themselves a case of whisky. Boxer is not
pugnacious despite his name, but he is as strong as his name implies. In this way,
Boxer is a painfully ironic character. He is strong enough to kill another animal, even a
human, with a single blow from his hoof, and the dogs cannot manage to overpower him
in Chapter VII. Still, Boxer lacks the intelligence and the nerve to sense that he is being
used. Boxer represents the peasant or working class, a faction of humanity with a great
combined strength--enough to overthrow a manipulative government--but which is

uneducated enough to take propaganda to heart and believe unconditionally in the


governments cause.

Old Major
A prize Middle White boar that the Joneses exhibited under the name Willingdon
Beauty. He is, stout But still a majestic-looking pig, with a wise and benevolent
appearance (26). In addition to his laurels in the exhibition world, Major is highly
respected among his fellow farm animals. His age is twelve years, which makes him a
senior among them, and he also claims to have had over four hundred children. He is
the one who calls the meeting in the first chapter to discuss his strange dream. Major
claims to understand the nature of life on this earth as well as any animal now living
(28). Months after his death, the pigs disinter his skull and place it at the base of the
flagpole beside the gun. Major symbolizes two historical figures. First, he represents
Karl Marx, the father of Marxism. Marxs political hypotheses about working-class
consciousness and division of labor worked infinitely better in theory than in practice,
especially when corrupt leaders twisted them for their personal gain. Second, Major
represents Vladimir Lenin, the foremost of the three authors of the Russian Revolution
and the formation of the Soviet Union. Lenin died during the Soviet Unions early years,
leaving Trotsky (Snowball) and Stalin (Napoleon) to vie for his leadership position.

TASK 2 ORAL
PRESENTATION
(GROUP OF 3 OR 4
STUDENTS)
Write a 350 word synopsis on any one chapter of the novel Animal Farm. In your
groups, take turns to do a 10 minutes oral presentation on the synopsis. Your synopsis
should include :

Plot

Setting

Characters

Themes

TASK 3
REFLECTION
Write a reflection (of not more than 250 words). In your essay, you should :

Highlight the strengths and weakness of task 2.

Explain the actions that you have taken to overcome the weakness.

Discuss the knowledge, experience and skills that you have gained .

REFLECTION
I am very grateful that I can finish this coursework in a timely manner. In this
courserwork, I have identified my strengths and weaknesses in order to complete the
task 2, that is oral presentation.
Task 2 is a team work and from my observations and opinions, my strength was
being able to provide advice to the constructive and helpful to other friends.
Additionally, I was also able to become a vehicle for our group to meet with the lecturers
and ask for opinions of lecturers in the process of preparing this coursework.
Many shortcomings that I found in myself in the process of preparing this
coursework. One of it, is, I cannot give full attention when we was the
running discussion .Other than that, I always come late when discussions are
underway. Besides that ,I always sleepy when we was running the discussion.
I have done some things to solve my problem in order to complete this
coursework . First step, is, I not turned my face to another place in the coursework
discussion in order to not lose focus and take notes during my other friends give their
opinion because trough this way I will not feel sleepy .I also try to
avoid coming late by call another friend earlier and ensure that the time for discussions
In this coursework I have learn many thing such as how to
describe a chapter in a novel became simple and easy to understand and interesting.
Furthermore , I have improve my mastery in English because many new vocabulary
that I found and learn in the novel Animal Farm.

Contents
NO

Title

Declaration

Introduction

Objective

Task 1 A Portfolio

Writing component throughout this course

Related materials about novel Animal Farm

Task 2 Oral presentation


-

Write a 350 word synopsis on any chapter of


the novel Animal Farm.

Task 3 - Reflection

Reference

Conclusion

Pages

Appendix

INTRODUCTION
On 7 February 2011, Mr Azizan had given us an assignment that have three task.
The first task is a portfolio . This task ask us to compile all the completed exercise ,
tasks and materials obtained for the writing components throughout the course .
The second task is oral presentation .This task ask us to write a 350 word
synopsis on any one chapter of the novel Animal Farm. Our synopsis should include
plot, setting, characters, themes.
The third task is reflection .This task ask us to write a reflection not more than
250 words . Our reflection should contain the strengths and weakness of task 2,exlain
the action that you have taken to overcome the weakness and discuss the knowledge,
experience and skills that you have gained.
The due date for this assignment is 21 February 2011 and discussion between my
friend help me to complete the assignment on time and this assignment help me to
understanding more on the novel Animal Farm.

CONCLUSION

For the conclusion ,this assignment help me to understand more about novel
Animal Farm . Thank to my lecturer, En Azizan Bin Ariffin that help me to complete
this assignment.
Also thank to all of my friend that help me to complete this assignment. Lastly,
Im very grateful when I complete this tasks even though in a short period.

NAME

MUHAMMAD NAZRIN BIN CHE YA

LECTURER

AZIZAN BIN ARIFFIN

DECLARATION
We certified that the attached assignment is our original work and there are no part of
this assignment had been copied or reproduced from any person`s work without
acknowledgement. We agree for the department to keep the
copy of our assignment for database.

Student`s signature:

Date submitted: 21/02/11

OBJECTIVE
To enable students to:
I.

Use appropriate forms and functions in the oral presentation ;

II.

Present ideas orally in formal and informal contexts ;

III.

Read critically and respond to different text types (novel) ; and

IV.

Write a reflection

REFERENCE
INTERNET
http://www.gradesaver.com/animal-farm/study-guide/short-summary/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiction

Nowadays, we live in a modern world. But, we also need to remember the effect
of pollution that create by ourself without we notice about it because of the comfortable
live in the modern world. There are many type of pollution now, such as soil pollution,
water pollution and air pollution.
Are we really know about soil pollution ? Or we think this thing is a nonsense thing
to care about ? Soil pollution is a type of pollution that occur when the soil loss it fertility
and level of toxic in the soil increase because of the use insecticide and other poison to
make their plant and crop fertile. This also lead to the water pollution when the toxic flow
into the river.
In 20 year, many thing changes. The air that we breathe now already
contaminated effect from a lot of factory that release a poisonous and dirty gas without
filter it first. Besides that, haze and the combustion of fossil fuel lead to the worse
condition. Industrial development provide us with work and make the country more
develop, but it also affect the health of the living things such as human and animals. In
other words, we must balanced between the industrial development and human health
because if all people sick, no more will run the industrial sector and make all of us in a
losing ness.

WRITING

READING

LISTENING &
SPEAKING

GRAMMAR

THEMES
Major Theme
The major theme of the novel is the sad triumph of evil over good. The animals try to
create a utopia, a paradise where society brings out and develops the best in a being.
Unfortunately, the animals that gain control of Animal Farm begin to act in a manner
similar to the humans that they had kicked off the farm. At the end of the novel, the pigs
cannot be distinguished from the humans.

Minor Theme
Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely is another theme of Animal
Farm. When the animals seize control of the farm, the leaders are corrupted by their
power.

CONFLICT
There are a number of conflicts in Animal Farm such as the animals versus Mr.
Jones, Snowball versus Napoleon, the common animals versus the pigs, Animal Farm
versus the neighboring humans. But all of them are expressions of the underlying
tension between the exploited and exploiting classes and between the lofty ideals
and harsh realities of socialism.

What is a paragraph?
Paragraphs are the building blocks of papers. Many students define paragraphs in
terms of length: a paragraph is a group of at least five sentences, a paragraph is half a
page long, etc. In reality, though, the unity and coherence of ideas among sentences is
what constitutes a paragraph. A paragraph is defined as "a group of sentences or a
single sentence that forms a unit" (Lunsford and Connors 116). Length and appearance
do not determine whether a section in a paper is a paragraph. For instance, in some
styles of writing, particularly journalistic styles, a paragraph can be just one sentence
long. Ultimately, a paragraph is a sentence or group of sentences that support one main
idea. In this handout, we will refer to this as the "controlling idea," because it controls
what happens in the rest of the paragraph.

Noun Phrase
A word group with a noun or pronoun as its head. The noun head can be accompanied
by modifiers, determiners (such as the, a, her), and/or complements. A noun phrase
(often abbreviated as NP) most commonly functions as a subject, object, or
complement.
Examples and Observations:

"The only white people who came to our house were welfare workers and bill
collectors."

"McSorley's bar is short, accommodating approximately ten elbows, and is


shored up with iron pipes."

"The wells and water table had been polluted by chemical pesticides and
fertilizers that leached into the earth and were washed by rain into the creeks,
where the stunned fish were scavenged by the ospreys."

Prepositional Phrases
In a sentence prepositions show the relation of one word to another word. Prepositions
require an object to complete them, typically a noun or a pronoun. A preposition and its
object is called a prepositional phrase.
The Prepositional Phrase: If a word in the table below does not have an object, then
the word is not functioning as a preposition.
Prepositions do not change form.
Prepositions are not without evaluation challenges. For instance, a preposition paired
with a verb is called a phrasal verb, a preposition can follow, rather than precede its
object.
The words below can be used as a preposition in a prepositional phrase.

about

below

in spite of

regarding

above

beneath

instead of

since

according to

beside

into

through

across

between

like

throughout

after

beyond

near

to

against

but (meaning except)

of

toward

along

by

off

under

amid

concerning

on

underneath

among

down

on account of

until

around

during

onto

up

at

except

out

upon

atop

for

out of

with

because of

from

outside

within

before

in

over

without

behind

inside

past

The words above can be used as prepositions. In order for one of these words to be
considered a preposition, it must be part of a prepositional phrase. Here are some
examples of a prepositional phrase:
over the hill
behind the door
at Mary's house
without your coat
during lunch
a top Mount Everest
Notice that the prepositional phrase contains no verbs. Generally, they contain an
adjective, a noun or pronoun and they can also contain a gerund. The noun or pronoun
is the object of the preposition. Prepositional phrases can also contain conjunctions to
join two nouns or pronouns as in this example:
underneath sand and rock

THE THESIS STATEMENT


THE THESIS STATEMENT IS THAT SENTENCE OR TWO IN YOUR TEXT that contains the
focus of your essay and tells your reader what the essay is going to be about. Although
it is certainly possible to write a good essay without a thesis statement (many narrative
essays, for example, contain only an implied thesis statement), the lack of a thesis
statement may well be a symptom of an essay beset by a lack of focus. Many writers
think of a thesis statement as an umbrella: everything that you carry along in your essay
has to fit under this umbrella, and if you try to take on packages that don't fit, you will
either have to get a bigger umbrella or something's going to get wet.

Topic Sentence
Definition:
A sentence, sometimes at the beginning of a paragraph, that states or suggests the
main idea (or topic) of a passage.
Examples and Observations:

"Teachers and textbook writers should exercise caution in making statements


about the frequency with which contemporary professional writers use simple or even
explicit topic sentences in expository paragraphs. It is abundantly clear that students
should not be told that professional writers usually begin their paragraphs with topic
sentences."

"A good topic sentence is concise and emphatic. It is no longer than the idea
requires, and it stresses the important word or phrase.

Supporting Details
Supporting details are facts and ideas that explain the main idea of a paragraph. They
include key details and minor details. Key details are those that directly explain the main
idea, while minor details are those that add information, offer an example, or further
explain one of the key details. In this chapter you will learn how to recognize the various
types of supporting details and the transitions that signal them. You will also be
introduced to paraphrasing as a way of organizing paragraph information.

Theme
A theme is a main idea, moral, or message, of an essay, paragraph, movie, book or
video game. The message may be about life, society, or human nature. Themes often
explore timeless and universal ideas and are almost always implied rather than stated
explicitly. Along with plot, character, setting, and style, theme is considered one of the
fundamental components of fiction.

Conflict
A conflict is a clash or disagreement, often violent, between two opposing groups or
individuals.
Types of conflict include:
Armed conflict, or war

Peace and conflict studies

Conflict (narrative), the literary element

Conflict resolution, how to deal with conflicts among people

Emotional conflict, clashing and contradictory emotions within a person

Group conflict, cliques that vie with each other

Organizational conflict, conflicts within and between organizations

Workplace conflict, conflicts within a corporation such as between management


and workers

Controversy, public debates and disputes

Irony
Definition:
The use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning; a statement or
situation where the meaning is contradicted by the appearance or presentation of the
idea.
Three kinds of irony are commonly recognized:
1.

Verbal irony is a trope in which the intended meaning of a statement differs from
the meaning that the words appear to express.

2.

Situational irony involves an incongruity between what is expected or intended


and what actually occurs.

3.

Dramatic irony is an effect produced by a narrative in which the audience knows


more about present or future circumstances than a character in the story.

The Adjective Clause


Recognize an adjective clause when you see one.
An adjective clausealso called an adjectival or relative clausewill meet
three requirements:

First, it will contain a subject and verb.


Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun [who, whom, whose, that,
or which] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why].

Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering the questions What


kind? How many? orWhich one?

The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns:


REL ATI V E PRONOUN OR ADV ERB

REL ATI V E PRONOUN AS S UBJE CT

+ SUBJECT + VERB
+ VERB

Here are some examples:


Whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie

Whose = relative pronoun; eyes = subject; pleaded = verb.


Why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie

Why = relative adverb; Fred = subject; can stand = verb [not, an adverb,
is not officially part of the verb].
That bounced across the kitchen floor

That = relative pronoun functioning as subject; bounced = verb.

Avoid writing a sentence fragment.


An adjective clause does not express a complete thought, so it cannot
stand alone as asentence. To avoid writing a fragment, you must connect
each adjective clause to a main clause. Read the examples below. Notice
that the adjective clause follows the word that it describes.
Diane felt manipulated by her beagle Santana, whose big, brown
eyes pleaded for another cookie .
Chewing with her mouth open is one reason why Fred cannot
stand sitting across from his sister Melanie .
Growling ferociously, Oreo and Skeeter, Madison's two dogs,
competed for the hardboiled egg that bounced across the kitchen
floor.
Laughter erupted from Annamarie, who hiccupped for seven
hours afterward.

Punctuate an adjective clause correctly.


Punctuating adjective clauses can be tricky. For each sentence, you will
have to decide if the adjective clause is essential or nonessential and then
use commas accordingly.
Essential clauses do not require commas. An adjective clause is essential
when you need the information it provides. Look at this example:
The vegetables that people leave uneaten are often the most
nutritious.

Vegetables is nonspecific. To know which ones we are talking about, we


must have the information in the adjective clause. Thus, the adjective
clause is essential and requires no commas.
If, however, we eliminate vegetables and choose a more specific noun
instead, the adjective clause becomes nonessential and does require
commas to separate it from the rest of the sentence. Read this revision:
Broccoli, which people often leave uneaten, is very nutritious.