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Anchit Jain 2012B3A7570P

Moser Baer India Ltd, Greater Noida

A Practice School I Station of


July 2014

Networking Architecture
A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that
allows computers to exchange data. In computer networks, networked
computing devices pass data to each other along data connections. The
connections (network links) between nodes are established using either cable
media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet.

Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are
called network nodes. Nodes can include hosts such as personal
computers, phones, servers as well as networking hardware. Two such devices
are said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange
information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection
to each other.

Computer networks support applications such as access to the World Wide
Web, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines,
and use of email and instant messaging applications. Computer networks differ
in the physical media used to transmit their signals, the communications
protocols to organize network traffic, the network's size, topology and
organizational intent.
Basic terminologies in networking are
1. Node
2. Host
3. Client
4. Peer-to-Peer

In communication networks, a node is either a connection point, a redistribution
point or a communication endpoint (some terminal equipment). The definition
of a node depends on the network and protocol layer referred to. A physical
network node is an active electronic device that is attached to a network, and is
capable of sending, receiving, or forwarding information over a
communications channel. A passive distribution point such as a distribution
frame or patch panel is consequently not a node.

Computer Network Nodes :-In data communication, a physical network
node may either be a data communication equipment (DCE) such as
a modem, hub, bridge or switch; or a data terminal equipment(DTE) such as a
digital telephone handset, a printer or a host computer, for example a router, a
workstation or a server.
If the network in question is a LAN or WAN, every LAN or WAN node (that
are at least data link layer devices) must have a MAC address, typically one for
each network interface controller it possesses. Examples are computers, packet
switches, xDSL modems (with Ethernet interface) and wireless LAN access
points. Note that a hub constitutes a physical network node, but does not
constitute a LAN network node, since a hubbed network logically is a bus
network. Analogously, a repeater or PSTN modem (with serial interface) is a
physical network node but not a LAN node in this sense.

Telecommunication Network Nodes: - In the fixed telephone network, a
node may be a public or private telephone exchange, a remote concentrator or a
computer providing some intelligent network service. In cellular
communication, switching points and databases such as the Base station
controller, Home Location Register, Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
and Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) are examples of nodes. Cellular
network base stations are not considered to be nodes in this context.

A network host is a computer or other device connected to a computer
network. A network host may offer information resources, services, and
applications to users or other nodes on the network. A network host is a network
node that is assigned a network layer host address.
Computers participating in networks that use the Internet Protocol Suite may
also be called IP hosts. Specifically, computers participating in the Internet are
called Internet hosts, sometimes Internet nodes. Internet hosts and other IP hosts
have one or more IP addresses assigned to their network interfaces. The
addresses are configured either manually by an administrator, automatically at
start-up by means of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), or
by stateless address auto configuration methods.
Every network host is a physical network node (i.e. a network device), but not
every physical network node is a host. Network devices such
as modems, hubs and switches are not assigned host addresses (except
sometimes for administrative purposes), and are consequently not considered to
be network hosts. Devices such as network printers and hardware have IP
addresses, but since they are not general-purpose computers, they are sometimes
not considered to be hosts.
Network hosts that participate in applications that use the client-server model of
computing, are classified as server or client systems. Network hosts may also
function as nodes in peer applications, in which all nodes share and consume
resources in an equipotent manner.

A client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service
made available by a server. The server is often (but not always) on
another computer system, in which case the client accesses the service by way
of a network. The term applies to programs or devices that are part of a client
server model.
A client is a computer program that, as part of its operation, relies on sending a
request to another computer program (which may or may not be located on
another computer). For example, web browsers are clients that connect to web
servers and retrieve web pages for display. Email
clients retrieve email from mail servers. Online chat uses a variety of clients,
which vary depending on the chat protocol being used. Multiplayer video
games or online video games may run as a client on each computer. The term
"client" may also be applied to computers or devices that run the client software
or users that use the client software.
A client is part of a clientserver model, which is still used today. Clients and
servers may be computer programs run on the same machine and connect
via inter-process communication techniques. Combined with Internet sockets,
programs may connect to a service operating on a possibly remote system
through the Internet protocol suite. Servers wait for potential clients to initiate
connections that they may accept.
The term was first applied to devices that were not capable of running their own
stand-alone programs, but could interact with remote computers via a network.
These dumb terminals were clients of the time-sharing mainframe computer.
1. Fat - A fat client, also known as a rich client or thick client, is a client
that performs the bulk of any data processing operations itself, and does
not necessarily rely on the server.
2. Thin - A thin client is a minimal sort of client. Thin clients use the
resources of the host computer. A thin client generally only presents
processed data provided by an application server, which performs the
bulk of any required data processing.
3. Hybrid - A hybrid client is a mixture of the above two client models.
Similar to a fat client, it processes locally, but relies on the server for
storing persistent data. This approach offers features from both the fat
client (multimedia support, high performance) and the thin client (high
manageability, flexibility).

Peer-2-Peer (P2P)
A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a type
of decentralized and distributed network architecture in which
individual nodes in the network (called peers") act as both suppliers and
consumers of resources, in contrast to centralized clientserver model where
client nodes request access to resources provided by central servers.
Networks in which all computers have equal status are called peer-to-peer or
P2P networks.
In a peer-to-peer network, tasks (such as searching for files or streaming
audio/video) are shared amongst multiple interconnected peers who each make
a portion of their resources (such as processing power, disk storage or network
bandwidth) directly available to other network participants, without the need for
centralized coordination by servers.
The most commonly known application is file sharing, which popularized the
technology like torrent, DC++.
Some other uses are:-
Instant messaging and online chat networks.
Bitcoin and alternatives such as Peercoin are peer-to-peer-based digital
The U.S. Department of Defense is conducting research on P2P networks
as part of its modern network
warfare strategy.

A P2P network