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TOPIC TO REMEMBER

TENSES
PRESENT
TENSE
PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS
TENSE
FUTURE TENSE
Action now Action past Action continue Action coming
VERB (SHOW ACTION) Kata Kerja
PRESENT
TENSE
PAST
TENSE
CONTINUO
US
FUTURE
S P S P
be is are was were
VERB do does do did doing will do
to have has have had having will have
plays play played playing will play
REGULAR walk
s
walk walked walking will walk
VERB talks talk talked talking will talk
goes go went going will go
IRREGULAR buys buy bought buying will buy
VERB swim
s
swim swam swimming will swim
NOUNS (SHOW THINGS) Kata Naa
1 Person (orang) Ahmad, boy, girl, father, people, teacher
Parts 2 Place (tempat) Kedah, Alor etar, stadium, canteen
of !ouns " Animal (binatang) cat, cow, goat, chicken, camel, horse
# $hings (benda) car, bag, lorry, house, knife, umbrella
NOUNS (SHOW NUMBERS)
SINGULAR NOUN PLURAL
NOUN
%ommon !oun boy boys %ountable !oun
Proper !oun &n Ahmad %ountable !oun
%ommon !oun 'ungle 'ungles %ountable !oun
%ommon !oun glass glasses %ountable !oun
%ommon !oun bus buses %ountable !oun
%ommon !oun lorry lorries %ountable !oun
Proper !oun Alor etar %ountable !oun
%ommon !oun milk milk (ncountable !oun
%ommon !oun hair hair (ncountable !oun
%ommon !oun water water (ncountable !oun
%ollective !oun a brood of chickens a shoal of )sh a litter of kittens
PRONOUNS
PERSONAL
PRONOUN
POSSESSIVE
PRONOUN
REFLE!IVE
PRONOUN
ub'ect *b'ect Ad'ective Pronouns ingular Plural
he him his his himself
S she her hers her herself
it it + its itself
,(am) me mine my myself
P you you yours your yourself yourselve
s
we us ours our ourselves
they them theirs their themelve
s
ARTICLE (TO SHOW ONE)
a an the
singular a,e,i,o,u singular-plural
ARTICLE WITH UNCOUNTABLE NOUN
a bowl of soup a glass of water a cup of tea a bunch of bananas
"UANTIFIERS (SHOW MAN#)
%ountable !oun (ncountable !oun
a few (sedikit) a little (sedikit)
many (banyak) (not) much (tak banyak)
several (beberapa)
some (beberapa)
a lot of (banyak)
plenty of (banyak)
(not) any (tak ada)
CON$UNCTION (TO $OIN SENTENCES)
and but so because although or
dan tetapi jadi sebab walaupun atau
as since after therefore if unless
sambil semenjak selepas oleh itu jika kecuali
PREPOITIONS (TO SHOW LOCATION)
%& o& '&(er )et*ee&
dalam atas bawah diantara
a)o+e a,a%&-t a.ro-- t/ro',/
atas sandar melintas melalui
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%& 0ro&t o0 )e-%(e o+er '12(o*&
dihadapan ditepi melepasi atas/bawah
to a3o&, %&to o't
ke sepanjang kedalam keluar
PREPOSITIONS OF TIME
at %& ('r%&, -%&.e
night the morning the holidays 2../
!o /, $mn mewah august the day last week
a0ter 0ro )4 o&
dinner now " o0clock 1ridays
school this time noon undays
A5$ECTIVES (TELL MORE ABOUT A NOUN)
tall short big small pretty hot cold ugly
tinggi pende
k
besar kecil cantik panas sejuk hodoh
COMPARISON OF A5$ECTIVES
the most 2223 $the 22233est more 2223than
the most popular the prettiest lady more beautiful than
as 222 as 22233er than
as strong as bigger than
&4ample
Ad'ective %omparative uperlative
good better than the best
busy busier than the busiest
big bigger than the biggest
A5VERB (TELL US MORE ABOUT VERBS)
A(+er) o0 a&&er (To (e-.r%)e a& a.t%o&)
softly 5uickly angrily correctly loudly carefully
perlahan cepat marah betul kuat cermat
A(+er) o0 13a.e (To (e-.r%)e */e& a& a.t%o& /a11e&-)
here there nowhere everywhere up down
disini disana tak kemana semua tempat atas bawah
A(+er) o0 t%e (To -/o* */ere a& a.t%o& %- (o&e)
now soon after since seldom already
sekarang tak lama lagi selepas semenjak jarang sudah
SINGULAR AN5 PLURAL NOUNS
Adding 6s to ingular !ouns
SINGULAR PLURAL MEANING
pea peas kacang pea
seal seals anjing laut
heart hearts hati
dragon dragons naga
Add +es to ingular !ouns end (ss-sh-ch-4)
SINGULAR PLURAL MEANING
glass glasses gelas
)sh )shes ikan
leech leeches lintah
bo4 bo4es kotak
Add 6es to ingular !ouns end with +o
SINGULAR PLURAL MEANING
potato potatoes ubi kentang
mango mangoes mangga
Add 6s to ingular !ouns end with 6f
SINGULAR PLURAL MEANING
roof roofs bumbung
chief chiefs ketua puak
pu7 pu7s
%hange 6f or 6fe to 6ves
SINGULAR PLURAL MEANING
calf calves anak lembu
knife knives pisau
%hange to 6ies for nouns ending in 6y
SINGULAR PLURAL MEANING
lady ladies wanita
lorry lorries lori
Add 6s to nouns ending in vowel 8 y
SINGULAR PLURAL MEANING
key keys kunci
tray trays talam
%hange the inside vowels of ingular
SINGULAR PLURAL MEANING
postman postmen posmen
mouse mice tikus
goose geese angsa
Add 6en to ingular !ouns
SINGULAR PLURAL MEANING
child children kanak-kanak
o4 o4en sapi
ome nouns do not change
SINGULAR PLURAL MEANING
deer deer rusa
sheep sheep biri-biri
ome nouns are always in plural
SINGULAR PLURAL MEANING
furniture furniture perabot
clothing clothing pakaian
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ome nouns are used only in plural
spectacles cermin mata
measles campak
pants seluar
scissors gunting
CHANGING PRESENT TENSE TO PAST TENSE
B4 a((%&, e( to t/e +er)
PRESENT TENSE PAST TENSE MEANING
add added tambah
ad'ust ad'usted perbetul
allow allowed benarkan
appear appeared muncul
ask asked tanya
attack attacked serang
bark barked salak
call called panggil
camp camped berkhemah
chill chilled sejuk
clean cleaned bersih
climb climbed panjat
collect collected kutip
colour coloured mewarna
comb combed sikat
construct constructed membina
contain contained mengandungi
cook cooked memasak
cover covered tutup
crash crashed terhempas
crawl crawled merangkak
crush crushed dilenyek
discover discovered menemui
discuss discussed berbincang
display displayed pamer
disturb disturbed ganggu
end ended tamat
en'oy en'oyed gembira
enter entered masuk
e4ist e4isted ujud
e4plain e4plained jelaskan
faint fainted pengsan
fetch fetched mengambil
)nish )nished habis
)4 )4ed pasang
form formed membentuk
gather gathered kumpul
greet greeted menyapa
hand handed menyerahkan
happen happened berlaku
help helped tolong
invent invented mencipta
'oin 'oined sertai
'ump 'umped lompat
knock knocked ketuk
laugh laughed ketawa
learn learned belajar
look looked lihat
match matched pasang
mention mentioned sebut
miss missed tertinggal
need needed perlu
nail nailed mengetuk
order ordered mengarah
paint painted mengecat
pass passed lulus
play played bermain
possess possessed dirasuk
pray prayed sembahyang
pretend pretended berpura-pura
print printed mencetak
protect protected melindungi
5uarrel 5uarreled bertengkar
rain rained hujan
reach reached tiba
record recorded merakam
remember remembered teringat
return returned pulang
roll rolled bergolek
sail sailed belayar
scratch scratched calar
search searched mencari
sew sewed menjahit
sharpen sharpened menajam
shout shouted menjerit
show showed tunjuk
smell smelled menghidu
soak soaked rendam
start started mula
stay stayed tinggal
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sub'ect sub'ected tertakluk
talk talked bercakap
turn turned puing
wait waited tunggu
walk walked berjalan
want wanted hendak
wash washed basuh
watch watched memerhati
water watered menyiram
whisper whispered berbisik
work worked kerja
B4 a((%&, ( to t/e +er)
ac5uire ac5uired memerlukan
agree agreed setuju
approve approved lulus
arrange arranged atur
arrive arrived tiba
bake baked memasak
bathe bathed mandi
behave behaved kelakuan
believe believed percaya
care cared jaga
carve carved ukir
cause caused sebab
celebrate celebrated meraikan
change changed tukar
close closed tutup
compare compared bandingkan
complete completed lengkap
continue continued berterusan
cycle cycled mengayuh
date dated bertarikh
decide decided bercadang
describe described menggambarkan
divide divided mengagih
donate donated derma
e4change e4changed bertukar
hate hated membenci
hope hoped berharap
introduce introduced memperkenal
invite invited menjemput
'udge 'udged dihakimi
like liked suka
line lined garisan
live lived tinggal
love loved suka
measure measured mengukur
move moved bergerak
name named menamakan
observe observed memerhati
organi9e organi9ed menganjur
paste pasted melekat
place placed meletakkan
prepare prepared menyediakan
preserve preserved menjaga
prove proved bukti
provide provided menyediakan
reali9e reali9ed sedar
recogni9e recogni9ed mengecam
reduce reduced berkurang
remove removed mengalih
revise revised semak
save saved selamat
score scored skor
B4 ./a&,%&, 4 to %e(
carry carried bawa
copy copied meniru
cry cried menangis
deny denied menafkan
dry dried kering
fry fried goreng
identify identi)ed mengenali
marry married kahwin
study studied belajar
try tried cuba
worry worried risau
bury buried tanam
B4 (o')3%&, t/e 6&a3 3etter o0 t/e *or(
bar barred menghalang
clap clapped tepuk
clip clipped melekat
drop dropped jatuhkan
:ip :ipped selak
rob robbed rompak
scan scanned imbas
shop shopped membeli-belah
slap slapped tampar
slip slipped gelincir
can canned mengetin
snip snipped menggunting
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spot spotted mengesan
stop stopped berhenti
snap snapped putus
strip stripped melucut
tap tapped mengetuk
top topped menambah
trip tripped tersadung
trap trapped terperangkap
wrap wrapped balut
9ip 9ipped zipkan
Soe +er) rea%&- t/e -ae
cast cast campak
cost cost harga
cut cut potong
hit hit langgar
let let beri
put put letak
set set sedia
shed shed membuang
shut shut tutup
read read baca
B4 ./a&,%&, o&e or ore 3etter-
Irre,'3ar Ver)-
are were ialah/sedang
awake awoke bangun
bear bore bosan
become became menjadi
begin began mula
bend bent bengkok
bite bit gigit
blow blew tiup
break broke pecah
bring brought bawa
build built bina
burn burnt bakar
buy bought beli
can could boleh
catch caught tangkap
choose chose pilih
creep crept merayap
deal dealt berurusan
dig dug gali
do did buat
dream dreamt mimpi
drink drank minum
drive drove memandu
eat ate makan
fall fell jatuh
feed fed beri makan
feel felt rasa
)ght fought lawan
)nd found jumpa
:ee :ed lari
:y :ew terbang
forget forgot lupa
get got dapat
give gave bagi
go went pergi
grow grew tumbuh
hang hung gantung
have had ada
hear heard dengar
hide hid sembunyi
hold held pegang
is-am was ialah/sedang
keep kept simpan
know knew tahu
lay laid letak
learn learnt belajar
leave left keluar
lend lent bagi
lie lay baring
lose lost hilang
make made buat
may might boleh
meet met jumpa
pay paid bayar
ride rode menunggang
ring rang berdering
rise rose naik
run ran lari
say said kata
see saw lihat
sell sold jual
send sent hantar
shake shook goncang
shine shone bersinar
shoot shot tembak
sing sang nyanyi
sink sank tenggelam
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sit sat duduk
sleep slept tidur
smell smelt bau
speak spoke cakap
spell spelt eja
spend spent belanja
stand stood berdiri
steal stole curi
stick stuck lekat
swim swam renang
take took ambil
teach taught ajar
tear tore koyak
tell told beritahu
think thought fkir
throw threw lempar
understand understood faham
win won menang
wear wore pakai
COMPARISON OF A5$ECTIVES
Po-%t%+e Co1arat%+e S'1er3at%+e
busy busier than the busiest
beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful
bad worse than the worst
cheap cheaper than the cheapest
clean cleaner than the cleanest
clear clearer than the clearest
clever cleverer than the cleverest
cold colder than the coldest
cool cooler than the coolest
careful more careful the most careful
comfortable more comfortable the most comfortable
dark darker than the darkest
dear dearer than the dearest
deep deeper than the deepest
dirty dirtier than the dirtiest
dry drier than the driest
dangerous more dangerous the most dangerous
easy easier than the easiest
e4pensive more e4pensive the most e4pensive
fair fairer than the fairest
far farther than the farthest
fast faster than the fastest
fat fatter than the fattest
)ne )ner than the )nest
funny funnier than the funniest
foolish more foolish the most foolish
forgetful more forgetful the most forgetful
great greater than the greatest
green greener than the greenest
good better than the best
happy happier than the happiest
hard harder than the hardest
heavy heavier than the heaviest
healthy healthier than the healthiest
hot hotter than the hottest
high higher than the highest
hungry hungrier than the hungriest
handsome more handsome the most handsome
helpful more helpful the most helpful
honest more honest the most honest
important more important the most important
kind kinder than the kindest
large larger than the largest
late later than the latest
la9y la9ier than the la9iest
light lighter than the lightest
low lower than the lowest
long longer than the longest
lucky luckier than the luckiest
little less than the least
mad madder than the maddest
merry merrier than the merriest
much more than the most
narrow narrower than the narrowest
naughty naughtier than the naughtiest
near nearer than the nearest
new newer than the newest
nice nicer than the nicest
noisy noisier than the noisiest
old older than the oldest
pale paler than the palest
Poor poorer than the poorest
pretty prettier than the prettiest
proud prouder than the proudest
painful more painful the most painful
peaceful more peaceful the most peaceful
pleasant more pleasant the most pleasant
polite more polite the most polite
5uick 5uicker than the 5uickest
rich richer than the richest
red redder than the reddest
ripe riper than the ripest
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sad sadder than the saddest
afe safer than the safest
shallow shallower than the shallowest
sharp sharper than the sharpest
short shorter than the shortest
simple simpler than the simplest
slow slower than the slowest
soon sooner than the soonest
small smaller than the smallest
smooth smoother than the smoothest
strong stronger than the strongest
tall taller than the tallest
sweet sweeter than the sweetest
thick thicker than the thickest
thin thinner than the thinnest
tiny tinier than the tiniest
true truer than the truest
ugly uglier than the ugliest
useful more useful the most useful
warm warmer than the warmest
wealthy wealthier than the wealthiest
wet wetter than the wettest
white whiter than the whitest
wide wider than the widest
wild wilder than the wildest
wise wiser than the wisest
young younger than the youngest
A5VERBS (TELL US MORE ABOUT VERBS)
VERB A5VERBS
act 5uickly wisely
bertindak dengan cepat dengan bijak
answer correctly clearly
jawab dengan betul dengan terang
ask nicely humbly politely
tanya dengan elok dengan sopan dengan sopan
accept readily gratefully
terima dengan hati terbuka dengan rasa syukur
bark )ercely loudly 'oyfully
salak dengan garang dengan kuat dengan gembira
bleed badly profusely
berdarah dengan teruk dengan banyak
blow gently strongly
tiup dengan perlahan dengan kuat
bow humbly respectfully
tunduk dengan sopan dengan penuh hormat
clap loudly 'oyfully e4citedly
tepuk dengan kuat dengan seronok dengan teruja
cry sadly bitterly loudly
tangis dengan sedih dengan sayu dengan kuat
dance gracefully beautifully
menari dengan lancar dengan cantik
drive carefully recklessly slowly
pandu dengan cermat dengan cuai dengan perlahan
eat greedily hungrily
makan dengan gelojoh dengan lapar
e4plain clearly brie:y
terang dengan jelas dengan ringkas
)ght bravely furiously
lawan dengan berani dengan marah
give generously kindly willingly
bagi dengan murah hati dengan baik hati dengan rela hati
greet politely cheerfully
sapa dengan sopan dengan ceria
laugh heartily happily loudly
ketawa dengan sepenuh hati dengan gembira dengan kuat
listen attentively carefully
dengar dengan penuh minat dengan cermat
look carefully shyly lovingly
lihat dengan cermat dengan malu dgn kasih sayang
COLLECTIVE NOUNS (PEN$O5OH BILANGAN)
A cup of tea ecawan teh
A glass of water egelas air
A pail of water ebaldi air
A bo4 of pencils ekotak pensil
A piece of cloth ehelai kain
A piece of cake epotong kek
A pair of shoes epasang kasut
A pair of trousers epasang seluar
A pair of scissors epasang gunting
A pair of shorts epasang gunting
A pair of earrings epasang anting+anting
A pair of socks epasang setokin
A bottle of oil ebotol minyak
A bottle of medicine ebotol ubat
A spoonful of sugar esudu gula
A tin of sardines etin sardine
A tin of cocoa etin koko
A bar of soap ebuku sabun
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A bar of chocolate ebuku coklat
A tin of biscuits etin biskut
A bag of :our eguni tepung
A bag of sugar eguni gula
A sack of rice eguni beras
A bunch of grapes egugus anggur
A bunch of crooks ekumpulan pen'ahat
A comb of bananas esikat pisang
A loaf of bread ebuku roti
A slice of bread ekeping roti
A packet of sweets epaket gula+gula
A choir of singers ekumpulan penyanyi
A swarm of bees ekumpulan lebah
A herd of cows ekumpulan lembu
A herd of bu7aloes ekumpulan kerbau
A herd of cattle ekumpulan lembu ternakan
A herd of elephants ekumpulan ga'ah
A herd of goats ekumpulan kambing
A shoal of )sh ekumpulan ikan
A school of whales ekumpulan paus
A library of books ebilangan buku
A bou5uet of :owers e'ambak bunga
A team of players epasukan pemain
A team of horses ekumpulan kuda
A team of o4en ekumpulan sapi
A forest of trees ehutan pokok
A :eet of ships eangkatan armada
A :ight of steps ebilangan anak tangga
A :ight of doves ekumpulan burung merpati
A clutch of egg egugus telur
A crate of fruits ekotak buah
A troupe of artists ekumpulan artis
A troupe of dancers ekumpulan penari
A gang of thieves ekumpulan pencuri
A gang of labourers ekumpulan buruh
A gang of prisoners ekumpulan banduan
An army of soldiers epasukan askar
A band of musicians ekumpulan ahli mu9ik
A gang of robbers ekumpulan penyamun
A suit of clothes epersalinan pakaian
A :ock of birds ekumpulan burung
A :ock of sheep ekumpulan biri+biri
A crew of sailors ekumpulan kelasi
A bevy of ladies ekumpulan wanita
A bevy of beauties ekumpulan wanita cantik
A :eet of cars ebilangan kereta
A brood of chickens ekumpulan anak ayam
A litter of puppies ekumpulan anak an'ing
A litter of cubs ekumpulan anak rimau
A board of directors atu lembaga pengarah
A class of scholars ekumpulan cendikiawan
A cloud of :ies ekumpulan lalat
A cloud of insects ekumpulan serangga
A company of actors ekumpulan pelakun
A company of soldiers ekumpulan askar
A crowd of people ekumpulan orang
A drove of cattle ekumpulan lembu ternakan
A drove of horses ekumpulan kuda
A dynasty of kings edinasti ra'a+ra'a
A gaggle of geese ekumpulan angsa
A hive of bees ekumpulan lebah
A host of angles ekumpulan malaikat
A nest of ants atu sarang semut
A nest of mice atu sarang tikus
A nest of rabbits atu sarang arnab
A pack of hounds ekumpulan an'ing pengesan
A pack of rascals ekumpulan penyangak
A pack of thieves ekumpulan pencuri
A pack of wolves ekumpulan serigala
A plague of insects ewabak serangga
A plague of locuts ewabak belalang 'uta
A pride of lions ekumpulan singa
A regiment of soldiers ere'imen askar
A sta7 of servants ekumpulan orang ga'i
A sta7 of teachers ekumpulan guru
A stud of horses ekumpulan kuda
A troop of lions ekumpulan singa
A troop of monkeys ekumpulan monyet
A troop of scouts ekumpulan pengakap
A troop of soldiers ekumpulan askar
A troupe of performers ekumpulan penghibur
An album of autographs ealbum tanda tangan
An album of photographs ealbum gambar
An album of stamps ealbum setem
An anthology of plays atu antologi drama
An anthology of poems atu antologi sa'ak-puisi
An anthology of songs atu antologi lagu
An anthology of stories atu antologi cerita
A bale of cotton ebungkusan kapas
A bale of wool ebungkusan benang bulu
A basket of fruits eraga buah
A batch of biscuits e'umlah biskut
A batch of bread e'umlah roti
A bunch of :owers eikat bunga
A bunch of grapes eikat anggur
A bundle of hay eikat rumput kering
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A bundle of rags eikat kain buruk
A bundle of sticks eikat kayu
A chest of drawers ekotak laci
A cloud of dust ekumpulan habuk
A clump of bushes erumpun semak
A clump of trees erumpun pohon
A cluster of coconuts egugus kelapa
A cluster of diamonds egugus berlian
A cluster of grapes egugus anggur
A cluster of stars egugus bintang
A range of mountains ebarisan gunung
A set of china atu set tembikar
A set of tools atu set alatan
A stack of hay etimbun rumput kering
A stack of timber etimbun balak
A stack of wood etimbun kayu
A suite of rooms erangkaian bilik
A suite of furniture erangkaian perabut
A wad of notes usunan wang kertas
A collection of coins atu koleksi duit syiling
A collection of relics atu koleksi barang warisan
A collection of stamps atu koleksi setem
A column of smoke ekumpulan asap
A comb of bananas esikat pisang
A constellation of stars egugusan bintang
A :ight of aeroplanes ekumpulan kapal terbang
A gala4y of stars atu galaksi bintang
A garland of :owers ekalung bunga
A group of islands ekumpulan pulau
A grove of trees ekebun pokok
A hail of blows ;ihu'ani tumbukan
A hail of bullets ;ihu'ani peluru
A hail of )re ;ihu'ani api
A harvest of corn atu tuaian 'agung
A harvest of )re emarak api
A heap of rubbish atu timbunan sampah
A heap of ruins atu timbunan runtuhan
A heap of stones atu timbunan batu
A hedge of bushes epagar pokok renek
A pack of cards atu pek kad
A pack of lies atu pembohongan
A rope of pearls ekalung mutiara
A sheaf of grains eikat bi'irin
A string of beads ekalung manik
A string of pearls ekalung mutiara
A turf of grass elapisan rumput
A turf of hair elapisan rambut
A turf of feathers elapisan bulu
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