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Term Paper

on



Leadership, Perception,
Attitudes, Job Satisfaction,
Conflict & Frustration

8/22/2013


Term Paper
On

Leadership, Perception, Attitudes, J ob
Satisfaction, Conflict & Frustration


Submitted To:

Muhammad Mizanour Rahman
Assistant Professor,
Department of Accounting & Information Systems
Comilla University, Comilla

Submitted By:

Group-03

NO. NAME OF STUDENTS CLASS ID SIGNATURE
1 Priya Saha (Group Leader) 0906004
2 Takia Begum 0906014
3 Balai Chandra Das 0906022
4 Abu Azad 0906030
5 Shakuit Hossain 0906038
6 Mehedi Hassan 0906045
7 Nazia Rahman 0906053

Students of 3rd Year 2nd Semester, 4th Batch
Dept. of Accounting & Information Systems
Comilla University, Comllia
Letter of Transmittal


Date: 22th August, 2013
Muhammad Mizanour Rahman
Assistant Professor,
Department of Accounting & Information Systems,
Comilla University,
Comilla.
Subject: Request to accept the Report

Dear Sir,
It is a great pleasure for us to submit our report on Leadership, Perception,
Attitudes, Job Satisfaction, Conflict and Frustration. We have prepared this
paper as a partial fulfillment of the course Organization Behavior. We have
learnt a lot while preparing this paper. We hope that this will help us in our
future practical life.

In preparing this report, we have tried our level best and worked with most
sincerity to gather information and make it as well structured as possible. We
will be obliged, if you kindly accept this report. We are ready to make you clear
regarding any confusion or further clarification from this report.

Sincerely yours,

-----------------------------
Priya Saha
Group Leader,
On behalf of all members,
Department of Accounting & Information Systems.
Comilla University.








Acknowledgement


One of the most pleasant parts of submitting a Term Paper is
the opportunity to thank them who have contributed for it.
This acknowledgement is no exception.

We most sincerely express our thanks and gratitude to our
honorable course teacher Mohammad Mizanour Rahman for
giving us this opportunity to prepare this Report on
Leadership, Perception, Attitudes, Job Satisfaction,
Conflict and Frustration. Without the assist of dedicated
and cognizant teacher, a student cant be able to nourish
his/her caliber forlorn. A conversant teacher nurtures his
learners judiciously through rendering them his ultimate
excellence. So, we are truly grateful to our honorable course
teacher.

And finally, we would like to say that we have tried heart and
soul to prepare this report accurately. However there might be
some errors and mistake, so we seek your kind consideration
as we are in the process of learning.










Executive Summary

This report has prepared as a requirement of Organizational
Behavior course. The report interests have focused on
Leadership, Perception, Attitudes, Job Satisfaction,
Conflict and Frustration in organization, behavioral
decision making and the development of effective
interpersonal skill.

Here we have only used secondary sources of data. As
secondary sources of data we have collected many books,
journals and magazines & used to gather information in this
report. The report has analyzed the core concept leadership,
attitudes, job satisfaction, conflict & frustration.

The aim of the study is to provide a clear notion about the
concepts and models of leadership, attitudes, job satisfaction,
conflict & frustration. The ideas and skills learned from this
report help us to cope with every aspect of our lives and to
build better organization for a better society.









Content
1. Orientation Of The Study
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Objective of the study
1.3 Methodology
1.4 Scope of the study
1.5 Limitations of the study
2. Leadership
2.1 Meaning of Leadership
2.2 The Nature Of Leadership
2.3 Management And Leadership
2.4 Traits Of Effective Leaders
2.5 Leadership Behavior
2.6 Behavioral Approach Of Leadership Style
2.7 Leader Use Of Consideration And Structure
2.8 Contingencies Approaches To Leadership Style
2.9 A Good manager is not necessarily a good leader- Explain
2.10 Leaders are made, not born- Explain
2.11 Leadership is the Catalyst that transforms potential into
reality- Explain
2.12 All managers are leaders but not all leaders are managers
3. Perception
3.1 Meaning Of Perception
3.2 Nature Or Characteristics Of Perception
3.3 Factors That Influence Perception
3.4 Perception Process
3.5 Steps of Perception Analysis
3.6 Attribution Theory
4. Attitudes
4.1 Meaning Of Attitude
4.2 Main Components Of Attitude
4.3 Does Behavior Always Follow From Attitudes?
4.4 What are the major job attitudes?
4.5 Are These Job Attitudes Really All That Distinct?
5. Job Satisfactions
5.1 Meaning Job Satisfaction
5.2 Measuring Job Satisfaction
5.3 How Satins Feed Are People In Their Jobs
5.4 What Causes Job Satisfaction
5.5 The Impact Of Satisfied And Dissection Feed Employees On
The Work Place
5.6 Job Satisfaction And Job Performance
5.7 Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior
(OCB)
5.8 Job Satisfaction And Customer Satisfaction
5.9 Job Satisfaction And Absenteeism
5.10 Job Satisfaction And Turnover
5.11 Job Satisfaction And Workplace Deviance
5.12 Managers Often Dont Get It
6. Conflicts
6.1 Meaning Of Conflict
6.2 The Traditional View of Conflict
6.3 The Human Relations View of Conflict
6.4 The Interactionism View Of Conflict
6.5 The Conflict Process
7. Frustration
7.1 Meaning Of Frustration
7.2 Causes Of Frustration
7.3 Nature Of Frustration
7.4 Means Of Removing Frustration
7.5 Difference Between The Motivated Behavior And
Frustrated Behavior
8. Conclusion
9.Bibiliography










1. Orientation Of The Study

1.1 Introduction
As a part of our course requirement we have to submit a Report. As we asked to
prepare a Report on Leadership, Attitudes, Job Satisfaction, Conflict &
Frustration we have work as a unit to make this report complete.

1.2 Objective Of the Study

The objective of the study is given below:
To understand nature, concept and approaches of leadership.
To understand nature of attitudes and job satisfaction.
To know the benefits of studying employee attitudes
To understand the concept of conflict and frustration arises in the organization.

1.3 Methodology
To make this report we only used secondary data. To provide relevant information we
focused on books and web information.


1.4 Scope of the study
Although there are some limitations, we enjoyed our study. We got all the information
from referred book as instruction of our course teacher. He also gave guide line to
make our effort perfect and convenient.


1.5 Limitations Of The Study
Although it has been tried on the level best to make this report based on complete
information available, there are some limitations that are inevitable. They are
following:

Practical knowledge is absent in this study which could have been much better
than the theoretical knowledge.
We were confined within the books.





2. Leadership


2.1 Meaning Of Leadership
Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically
toward achieving objectives. It is the critical factor that helps an individual or a group
identify its goals and then motivates and assists in achieving the stated goals. The three
important elements in the definition are -
Without leadership, an organization would be only a confusion of people and machines, just
as an orchestra without a conductor would be only musicians and instruments. The orchestra
and all other organizations require leadership to develop their precious assets to the fullest.

2.2 The Nature Of Leadership
The nature of leadership the behaviors, roles, and skills that combine to form different
leadership styles. Behavioral approaches are descriptive, offering a variety of ways in which
the actions of leaders often differ (e.g., leaders can be positive or negative, autocratic or
participative, employee-oriented or task-oriented). Contingency approaches are more
analytical, encouraging managers to examine their situation and select a style which best fits
it. We conclude with a look at some of the newer ideas, such as substitutes for leadership, and
coaching.

2.3 Management And Leadership
Leadership is an important part of management, but it is not the whole story. The
primary role of a leader is to influence others to voluntarily seek defined objectives
(preferably with enthusiasm). Managers also plan activities, organize appropriate
structures, and control resources.
Managers hold formal positions, whereas anyone can use his or her informal influence
while acting as a leader.
Managers achieve results by directing the activities of others, whereas leaders create a
vision and inspire others to achieve this vision and to stretch themselves beyond their
normal capabilities.
Influenc
e/Suppo
rt
Voluntar
y Effort
Goal
Achieve
ment
Leade
rship
Because there is a difference between management and leadership, strong leaders may be
weak managers if poor planning causes their group to move in the wrong direction.

2.4 Traits Of Effective Leaders
Early research tried to identify the traits- physical, intellectual, or a personality
characteristics- that different between leaders and non-leaders or between successful and
unsuccessful leaders. Many cognitive and psychological factors, such as intelligence,
ambition, and aggressiveness, were studied. Other researchers examined physical
characteristics, such as height, body size and shape, and personal attractiveness. The current
research on leadership traits suggests that some factors do help differentiate leaders from
non-leaders. The most important (primary) traits are a high level of personal drive, the desire
to lead, personal integrity, and self-confidence. Cognitive (analytical) ability business
knowledge, charisma, creativity, flexibility, and personal warmth are also frequently desired
but are often seen as secondary in their importance.

2.5 Leadership Behavior
The three broad types of skills leaders use are technical, human, and conceptual. Although
these skills are interrelated in practice, they can be considered separately.

1. Technical skill refers to a persons knowledge of and ability in any type of process or
technique. Technical skill is the distinguishing feature of job performance at the
operating and professional levels, but as employees are promoted to leadership
responsibilities, their technical skills become proportionately less important.




Primary traits
Honesty and integrity
Personal drive and energy
Desire to lead
Self-confidence
Secondary traits
Cognitive ability
Charisma
Flexibility and adaptiveness
Positive activity (warmth)
Creativity and originality
Knowledge of business
Variation in the use of leadership skill at different organization level

100



50





0
Supervisor Middle management Top management

2. Human skill is the ability to work effectively with people and to build teamwork. It
involves a wide range of behaviors- energizing individuals, giving feedback,
coaching, care-giving, demonstrating empathy and sensitivity, and showing
compassion and support for people who need it. It is a major part of leadership
behavior. Lack of human skills has been the downfall of many managers and CEOs.

3. Conceptual skill is the ability to think in terms of models, frameworks, and broad
relationships, such as long-range plans. It becomes increasingly important in higher
managerial jobs. Conceptual skill deals with ideas, whereas human skill concern
people and technical skill involves things.

2.6 Behavioral Approach Of Leadership Style

1. Positive leaders: when the approach emphasizes rewards economic or otherwise
positive leader uses positive leadership. Better employee education, greater for
independence, and other factors have made satisfactory employee motivation
more dependent on positive leadership.


rewards

motivation

independence



Conceptual skill


Human skill





Technical skill
Lea
der
E
E
E
2. Negative leadership: If emphasis is placed on threats, fear, harshness, and
penalties, the leader is applying negative leadership. This approach can get
acceptable short term performance in many situations, but it has high human costs.
Negative leaders act domineering and superior with people.


Threats

Fear

Penalties



3. Autocratic leaders: The way in which a leader centralizes power and makes
decision in themselves. They structure the complete work situation for their
employees, who are expected to do what they are told and not think for
themselves. Autocratic leadership typically is negative, but it can appear to be
positive.



Centralizes Power




Makes Decision




4. Consultative leader: The way in which a leader approach one or more employees
and ask them for inputs prior to making decision. This leader may then choose to
use or ignore the information advice received.

Ask Employee before Decision Making Consider the Advice








Lea
der
E
E
E
Lea
der
E
E
E
E
E E
Lea
der

5. Participative leader: The way in which the leader decentralizes the authority.
Participative decision is not unilateral, as with the autocrat because they inputs
from followers and participation by them. The leader and group is acting as a
social unit.



Decentralize the authority







Work as a Social Unit





2.7 Leader Use Of Consideration And Structure

Two different leadership styles with employees are consideration and structure, also known
as employee oriented and task oriented.

Considerate leader: considerate leader is concerned about the human needs of their
employees. They try to build team work, provide psychological support, and help employees
with their personal problems.

Structured leader: structured leader believes that he gets results by keeping people
constantly busy, ignoring personal issues and emotions, and urging them to produce.

Considerate leader

No Yes
Yes No


Structured leader


No Yes
Yes No


keeping constantly
busy
provide psychological
support
help employees with
their personal
problems
urging them to
produce
Lea
der
E
E
E
E
Black and Moutons Managerial Grid

A popular framework for thinking about a leaders task versus person orientation was
developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in the early 1960s. Called the Managerial Grid,
or Leadership Grid, it plots the degree of task-centeredness versus person-centeredness and
identifies five combinations as distinct leadership styles.

Understanding the Model, the Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions:

High Concern for People High Concern for People











Low Concern for Production High Concern for Production

Middle Concern for People










Middle Concern for Production


Low Concern for People Low Concern for People










Low Concern for Production High Concern for Production

9.1 Authoritarian - compliance
leadership
People in this category believe that
employees are simply a means to an end.
Employee needs are always secondary to
the need for efficient and productive
workplaces. This type of leader is very
autocratic, has strict work rules, policies.
5.5 Middle-of-the-Road Leadership
This style seems to be a balance of the
two competing concerns. It may at first
appear to be an ideal compromise.
Therein lies the problem, though: When
you compromise, you necessarily give
away a bit of each concern so that neither
production nor people needs are fully met.

9.9 Team Leadership
This is the pinnacle of managerial
style. These leaders stress
production needs and the needs of
the people equally highly. The
premise here is that employees are
involved in understanding
organizational purpose and
determining production needs.

1.1 Impoverished Leadership
This leader is mostly ineffective.
He/she has neither a high regard for
creating systems for getting the job
done, nor for creating a work
environment that is satisfying and
motivating. The result is a place of
disorganization, dissatisfaction and
disharmony.

1.9 Country Club Leadership
This style of leader is most
concerned about the needs and
feelings of members of his/her
team. These people operate under
the assumption that as long as team
members are happy and secure then
they will work hard.
2.8 Contingencies Approaches To Leadership Style

The positive, participative, considerate leadership style is not always the best style. There are
some exceptions. A number of models have developed that explain these exceptions and they
are called contingencies approaches. These models state the most appropriate style of
leadership depends upon an analysis of the nature of the situation facing the leader. Here
briefly explain Fiedlers Contingencies Theory, Hersey & Blanchard's Approach and
Path-Goal Model.

Fiedlers Contingency Theory
Fiedlers Contingency Theory shows the relationship between the leaders orientation style
and group performance under differing situational conditions. The theory is based on
determining the following aspects.



There is no single leadership style that is effective in all situations. Rather, certain leadership
styles are better suited for some situations than for others. Fiedler found that the effectiveness
of the leader is Contingent upon the orientation of the leader and the favorableness of the
situation.

Fiedlers
Contingency
Theory
Leader-member relations is the degree of
cofidence, tust & respect member have in
their leadre
Task Structure is the degree to wich the job
assignment are procedurized.
Position Power is the degree of influence a
leader has over power variables such as
hiring,firing,discilpline etc.
Leader
Orientation
Relationship Orientated- high LPC leaders are
more concerned with personal relations, more
sensitive to the feelings of others, and better off at
heading off conflict & use their good relations
with the group
Task Orientated- low LPC leaders are more
concerned with the task, and less dependent on
group support. They quickly organize the job and
have a no-nonsense attitude about getting the
work done.










Hersey And Blanchard's Approach
Hersey and Blanchard (1999) and other books suggest leaders should adapt their style to
follower development style (or 'maturity'), based on how ready and willing the follower is to
perform required tasks (that is, their competence and motivation). It is simple and easy to
understand, which makes it particularly attractive for practicing managers who do not want
to get into heavier material.

There are four leadership styles (S1 to S4) that match the development levels (R1 to R2) of
the followers.

The four styles suggest that leaders should put greater or less focus on the task in question
and/or the relationship between the leader and the follower, depending on the development
level of the follower. Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership Model is given below

Leadership style in response to
follower development level
Follower development level
Low High
R4 R3 R2 R1

Task / directive behavior
Low High
Relationship/
supportive
behavior
High
Low


S3
Partici
pating
S2
Selling


S4
Delegat
ing



S1
Telling




S1: Telling / Directing copy
Follower: R1: Low competence, low commitment / Unable and unwilling or insecure
Leader: High task focus, low relationship focus

S2: Selling / Coaching
Follower: R2: Some competence, variable commitment / Unable but willing or motivated
Leader: High task focus, high relationship focus
.
S3: Participating / Supporting
Follower: R3: High competence, variable commitment / Able but unwilling or insecure
Leader: Low task focus, high relationship focus

S4: Delegating / Observing
Follower: R4: High competence, high commitment / Able and willing or motivated
Leader: Low task focus, low relationship focus
Path-Goal Model of Leadership
1. Path-goal theory was initially developed by Robert House to explain workplace
leadership. It states that the leaders job is to use structure, support and rewards to create a
work environment that helps employees to reach the organization goals. The theory builds
heavily on two theories of work motivation: goal setting and expectancy theory.

2. Goal-setting theory suggests that an effective way to motivate people is to set challenging
but realistic goals and to offer rewards for goal accomplishment.

3. Expectancy theory explains why people work hard to attain work goals. People will
engage in behaviors that lead to goal attainment if they believe that goal attainment leads to
something they value (e.g., increase in pay, status, promotion)


























Path-Goal Theory suggests that it is leaders job to assist followers in attaining their goals
and to provide the necessary direction and support ensure that their goals are compatible with
the overall objectives of the group or organization.








Leader Behavior
i.Directive ii. Achievement
Oriented
iii.Participating iv. Supportive

Outcomes
i.Performanc
e
ii.Satisfactio
n
Environment
Contingency Factors
i.Task Structure
ii.Formal Authority
System
iii.Work Group
Personal
Characteristics
i.Factors of control
ii.Experience
iii.Percieived Task
Ability
4. The Process of PathGoal Theory




5. Leadership Styles

Path-goal theory is a contingency theory, proposing that effective leadership is contingent on
the leader's adopting a particular style of behavior to match the needs to the subordinate and
the situation in which the subordinate is working. The theory identifies four main types of
leadership behaviors, each of which can help subordinates attain their goals.


Path-Goal theory
Leadership Style/Situational Factors
Leadership Style Subordinate Environment
Directive - Want to authority leadership
- External locus of control
- Low ability
- Complex or ambiguous task
- Strong formal authority
- Good work group
Supportive - Do not want authority leadership
- Internal locus of control
- High ability
- Simple or structured task
- Weak formal authority
- No good work group
Participative - Want to be involved
- Internal locus of control
- High ability
- Complex or ambiguous task
-Strong or weak formal
authority
- Good or No good work group
Achievement-Oriented - Want to authority leadership
- External locus of control
- High ability
- Simple or structured task
- Strong formal authority
- Good or no good work group

One implication of this approach is that leaders need to adopt multiple leadership styles and
be able to tailor these styles to the characteristics of the subordinate and the situation.
Because of the emphasis on the role of leaders' behaviors rather than their traits, the theory
has many applications for leadership training programs.
Leader identifiese
employee's needs
Appropriate goals
are established
leaders connects
rewards with
goals
leader provides
assistance on
employee path
toward goal
employee become
satisfied and
motivated and
accept the leader
effective
performance
occurs
both employee
&organozation
are better able to
reach their goal
2.10 Leaders are made, not born- Explain

Leader is the person who influences the behavior and work of others toward the achievement
of organizational goal. On other hand, leadership is the art or process of influencing people so
that they will strive willingly and excitedly toward the achievement of group goals.
Leaders are not born but made it is a matter of argument. Some people believe that leaders
are made and some people believe that leader are born. By evaluating the qualities of leader,
we consider the statement. But this sentence Leader is born defeated the whole cause of
creating a leadership quality in masses. If leaders are born then what is the need of education,
institution and knowledge.

To be an effective leader, the following qualities should be possessed by a leader:





On the above mentionable qualities, some acquire by born and some acquire through learning
and experience. The qualities acquire leader through by born is not enough to lead the
followers.
That is why leader should acquire qualities through learning, experience, training, or other
effort.
on that reason, it can be said that Leaders are not born but made.





Characteristics
Initiative
Flexible
A good
communic
ator
Respectful
Well
Educated
Evaluativ
e
Consistent
2.11 Leadership is the Catalyst that transforms potential into
reality- Explain

Leadership is a process that can lead to extraordinary performance and intolerable human
effects. It is the formal art that influences others to work enthusiastically and give all
supportive direction in achieving the stated goals. Leadership is the catalyst that
transforms potential into reality. Without leadership, an organization would be only a
confusion of people and machines

According to Weichrich and Koontz
Transformational leader articulate vision, inspires, and motivates followers and creates a
climate favorable for organizational change

Leadership transforms potentiality into reality by following actions:

Develop a clear and appealing vision.
Develop a strategy for attracting vision.
Articulate and promote the vision.
Act confidently and be optimistic.
Express confidence in followers.























Leader transforms potentiality into reality




Transform potential into
reality.
Transactional
Leader
New expected
achievement by
motivation
Present condition of
expected
subordinate
Highly general
expected
achievement
General expected
achievement by
subordinate
2.12 All managers are leaders but not all leaders are
managers

Leadership doesnt require any managerial position to act as a leader On the other hand ,
a manager can be a true only if he has got the traits of leader in him. The differences
between manager and leader would be resolved this opinion.


By discussing the above mentioned differences we can easily comment that all managers are
leaders, but all leaders are not managers.
Manager Leader
Managers plan activities, organize
appropriate structures, and control
resources.
The primary role of a leader is to influence
others to voluntarily seek defined objectives.
Managers hold formal positions Anyone can use his or her informal influence
while acting as a leader.
Manager achieve results by directing the
activities of others
leaders create vision and inspire others to
achieve this vision and to stretch
themselves beyond their normal capabilities
By virtue of his position, manager has to
provide leadership to his group.
A person can be a leader by virtue of
qualities in him.
A manager has to perform all five
functions to achieve goals, i.e. Planning,
Organizing, Staffing, Directing controlling.
Leadership is a part of these functions.
Manager has got formal rights in an
organization because of his status.
Rights are not available to a leader.
It is more stable. Leadership is temporary.
All mangers are leaders. All leaders are not managers.
Manager is accountable for self and
subordinates behavior and performance.
Leaders have not well-defined
accountability.
3. Perception

3.1 Meaning Of Perception

Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impression
in order to give meaning to their environment.
According to R.W. Griffin-
Perception is the set of process by which an individual becomes aware of as interprets
information about the environment.
According to Keith Davis-
Perception means individuals own view of world.
From the following definitions, the perception consists of following characteristics:-
It is a kind of action
Perception is selective
Meaningful
Presentative
Experienced knowledge
At that we can say that perception refers to the way the world looks, sound, feels, tastes or
smells.

3.2 Nature Or Characteristics Of Perception

Generally, people used to make decision through perception. Right perception is the pre-
condition of a right decision. Perception is all about to see, to feel, to analyze, and to make
decision. The characteristics of perception show by the graph:

Perception is a kind of action
Perception is selective
Meaningful
Representative and re-presentation
Learning based
Well organized
Mixing process
Experienced Knowledge
Habit oriental
Adjustable
Feelings
Distance
Stability
Analysis

3.3 Factors That Influence Perception

It is very difficult to explain that individuals may look at the same thing yet perceive. A
number of factors operate to shape and something distant perception. These factors can reside
in the perceiver in the object or target being perceived or in the context of the situation in
which the perception is made.




3.4 Perception Process

Perception is the experienced view of a particular person regarding any subject or activities.
Perception is the accumulation of consisting activities. For maintaining the overall
consistency, perception activities are expressed by a process.

1. Observation
Observation is the first stage of perception. Individual acquire collects information, news,
or elements by observing their surroundings. We see, smell, touch, and say through eyes,
ear, nose, and hands etc.
2. Selection
It is the second stage of perception. People cannot think or discuss or research the entire
element which they observed. People think and research those things which are needed
according to their demand, merits and demerits, capacity, interest, attraction etc.
3. Organization
Selected elements are being classified, executed and organized in that process. Scattered
elements are shaped by the organization.
4. Details explanations
The fourth stage of perception process is detailed explanation of collected and received
information.
5. Reaction
The last stage of perception process where reaction being expressed. Reaction of a person
creates after observing situations. When people observe negativity then they feel sorry
and when observe positivity then they become joyful. Having seen that, reaction of a
person can be negative or positive after perception.
Finally, perception process becomes completed step by step by applying above elements of
perception.
Perception
Factors in the
perceive
Attitude,Motives
Interests ,Experience,
Expectations

Factors in the target
Novely Motion
sounds,Size
Background,
Proximity,
Similarity
Factors in the
situation
Time,
work setting,
Social setting




































3.5 Steps of Perception Analysis

Steps of perception analysis are given below:

1. Discrimination: Discrimination is the first step of perception analysis. Sensations are
separated by discrimination. Thus, perception becomes complete.

2. Assimilation: In this stage, similarities are being created in the present sensation and
past sensation. Fruitful analysis is possible if the assimilation is pure or clean.



Situation
Knowledgeable sense,
Philosophy, hearing, touch, smell
External
Factors
Intensity, size,
Internal Factor
motives,
education &
personality
Field of
shape
Perception
team
Continuousne
ss
Relatedness
Perception concept
result of primary
concept

Concept of Person and


Object
attributes of behaviour
Inherent
mentality
Motivation
feeling
Open work
Observatio
n
selection
Organizatio
n
Details
Explanatio
n
Reaction


3. Association and reproduction: This is the third step of perception analysis. Each
sensation is related to each other in this step.

4. Objectification and localization: Selection of localization and clear cut idea about
the perception object are collected here.


5. Belief: This is the last step of percept ion analysis. Belief inspires any people to
receive sensation about any object. If the belief of a person and qualities of an object
differ then sensation will be interrupted.

3.6 Attribution Theory
Attribution theory tries to explain the ways in which we judge people differently, depending
on the meaning we attribute to a given Behavior. It suggests that when we observe an
individuals behavior, we attempt to determine depends largely on three factors: (1)
distinctiveness, (2) consensus, (3) consistency.
First discuss the differences between the external and internal causation and then we will
briefly discuss three determining factors.

Internally caused behavior are those we believe to be under the personal control of the
individual.

Externally caused behavior is what imagine the situation forced the individual to.

Distinctiveness: Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different situations.

Consensus: if everyone faces a similar responds in same way, we can say that behavior
shows consensus.

Consistency: Finally an observer looks for consistency in a persons action. The more
consistence in behavior, the more we inclined to attribute it to internal causes.


Discrimination
Assimilation
Association and
reproduction
Objectification
and localization
Belief
One of the most interesting findings of the attribution theory is that error biases distort
attribution. For instance, substantial evidence suggests that when make judgments about the
behavior of other people we tend to understand the influences of internal or personal factors.









Consistency
Consensus
Distinctiveness
Perception
Internal
Internal
External
External
Internal
External
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
4. Attitudes

4.1 Meaning Of Attitude

Attitudes are evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects or people or event.
Encyclopedia of management says, Attitude is an observed expression of thought or
feeling of an individual or group

For example BARD provides transportation service for the employees who come from the
city. It grows a positive attitude to their job.

Attitude can be understood by the following points. The subject of attitude can be personal or
impersonal.


4.2 Main Components Of Attitude

A
t
t
i
t
u
d
e

It creates a tendency to react to a specific event and the
reaction may be positive or negative for that event
Emotions are extremely expressed through attitude.
Attitude is learned, emotionalized predisposition to responding
some consistent way toward an object ,person or situation.
It is a tendency to respond in an evaluative way.
It is the mental state of readiness for need arousal.
Attitude
Cognitive
evaluatio
n

Behavior
al action
Affective
feeling
The components of attitude are stated below:

Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude.
My pay is lowthe statement is the cognitive component. It sets the stage for the more
critical part of an attitude affective component.

Affective component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.
I am angry over how little I am paidthe statement presents the effect of being little paid.

Behavioral Component An intention to behave in certain way toward someone or
something.
I am going to look for a new job that pays better-the action or outcome of attitude.

4.3 Does Behavior Always Follow From Attitudes?

It has been found that behavior always follow from attitudes. Early research on attitudes
assumed that they were casually related to behavior; that is, the attitude people hold
determine what they do. Common sense, too suggest a relationship.

One researcherLeon Festinger argued that attitudes follow behavior. Sometimes people
change what they say so it does not contradict what they do. Fstinger argued that these cases
of attitudes following behavior illustrate the effects of cognitive dissonanceany
incompatibility between two or more attitudes or behavior and attitudes. Festinger argued that
any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and their individuals will attempt to reduce the
dissonance and, hence, the discomfort.

Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes and
between their attitudes and their behavior. They do this by altering either the attitudes or
behavior or by developing a rationalization for the discrepancy.

Festinger would propose that the desire to reduce dissonance depends on the importance of
elements creating it and the degree of influence the individual believes he has over the
elements. The third factor is reward of dissonance; high reward accompanying high
dissonance tend to reduce the tension inherent in the dissonance. While Festinger questioned
the attitudes-behavior relationship by arguing that, in many cases, attitudes follow behavior.
More recent research showed that attitudes predict behavior and confirmed Festingers belief
that certain moderating variables can strengthen the link.
The most powerful moderators of attitudes-behavior relationship are-

The importance of the attitude

Its correspondence to behavior

Its accessibility

Whether there exist social pressure

Whether a person has direct experience with the attitude
4.4 What are the major job attitudes?



Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about ones job resulting from an evaluation of its
characteristics. When people speak of employee attitudes they usually mean of job
satisfaction.

Job involvementThe degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participating
it, and consider performance important to self -worth. High job involvement has been found
to be related to reduce number of absences and lower resignation rates.

Organizational Commitment the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular
organization its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. So high job
involvement means identifying with specific job, while high organizational commitment
means identifying with ones employing organization.




Affective Commitment An emotional attachment to an organization and a belief in its
value.
For Example: IBBL is a banking organization which follows the Islami Shariahs and the
employees are very attached to it.

Continuance CommitmentThe perceived economic value of remaining with an
organization compared with leaving it.
For Example: An employee of Grameenphone who receives a good salary with other
facilities may be committed to the employer and feels it would hurt her family to quit.

Normative Commitment An obligation to remain with an organization for moral or ethical
reason.

job attitudes
Employee
Engagement
Perceived
Organization
al Support
Organization
al
Commitment
Job
involvement
Job
Satisfaction
Organizational
Commitment
Affective
Commitment
Continuance
Commiment
Normative
Commitment
Perceived Organizational Support
The degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares
about their well-being.

Employee Engagement
An individuals involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for, the work he or she
does.


4.5 Are These Job Attitudes Really All That Distinct?

No. These job attitudes are not really all that distinct. If people deeply involved in their
job(high job involvement) it means that they like it.(high job satisfaction).Similarly high
perceived organizational support also leads to the strong organizational commitment.

Evidence suggests that these attitudes are highly related, perhaps to a troubling degree. For
example, the correlation between perceived organizational support and affective commitment
is very strong. The problem is that the strong correlation means the variables may be
redundant. Redundancy is inefficient and confusing.

There is some measure of distinctiveness among these attitudes, but they overlap greatly. The
overlap may exist for various reasons, including


Employees personalitysome people are predisposed to be positive or negative
about almost everything. If someone tells you she loves her company, it may not
mean a lot if she is positive about everything else in her life.

Some organizations are just all around better places than others. This may mean
that if you as a manager know someones level of job satisfaction you know most
of what you need to know about how the person see the organization.








5. Job Satisfaction

5.1 Meaning Job Satisfaction

The term job satisfaction describes a positive feeling about a job, resulting from an evaluation
of characteristics. A person with a high level job satisfaction holds positive feelings about his
or her job while a dissatisfied person holds negation feelings. When people speak of
employee attitudes, they usually mean job satisfaction. In fact the two are frequently used
interchangeably.


5.2 Measuring Job Satisfaction

A persons job is more than just the obvious activities of suffering papers, writing
programming code, waiting on customers or driving a truck. job require interacting with
coworkers and bosses, following organizational rules and policies, meeting performance that
are open less than idea and the like. This means that an employees assessment of how
satisfied he is with the job is a complex summation of a number of discrete job elements.
The two most widely used approaches are

1. The Single Global Rating Method is nothing more than a response to one question, such
as all things considered, how satisfied are you with your job? The single global rating
method seems not likely to achieve a more accurate evaluation of job satisfaction.

2. Summation Score Made is more sophisticated. It identifies key elements in a job and asks
for the employees feeling about each. Typical elements here are the nature of the work,
supervision, present pay, promotion opportunities and relation with coworkers. Responds rate
them on a standardized scale and researchers add the ratings to create an overall job
satisfaction score.


5.3 How Satisfied Are People In Their Jobs

Are most people sates feed with their jobs?
The answer seems to be a qualified yes in most developed Comprises .Independent studies
Conducted among U.S.A workers over the past 30years, for example, generally indicate that
more workers are saris feed with their jobs than are disasters feed. However two caveats need
to so mentioned
First, as we netted earlier job satisfaction Levels in the United States operas to be dropping.
Second, research Shows that satisfaction Levels vary a Lot depending on which facet of job
satisfaction you are talking about.
Single
Global
Rating
Summation
Score Made
5.4 What Causes Job Satisfaction

Think about the best job youve ever had .what made it so?
Chances are you probably Liked the work you did In facts enjoying the major job sates
faction facts enjoying the work is almost always the one most strongly Correlated with high
levels of quall job sates faction . Interesting jobs that pride training, variety, indene dance,
and control satisfy most employees. In other word, most people prefer work thats
Challenging and stimulating over work that is predict able and routine.

you have probably noticed that pray come up often when people discuss job satisfaction
.There is an interesting relationship between salary and job satisfaction .For people who are
Poor or who live in poor contrives pay does correlate with overall happiness .But once an
individual reaches a level of comfortable living ,the relationship Virtually disappears . In
other words people who earn 80000 are on average no happier with their jobs than those who
earn close to 40000. Take a look at exhibits 3-3. It shows the relationship between the
average pay for a job and the average level of job satisfaction. As you can see there is not
much of a relationship there. Jobs that are compensated handsomely have average job
satisfaction levels no higher than those that are paid much less. To further illustrate this point,
One researcher even found no significant deference when he compared the overall wellbeing
of the richest people on the forbs 400 list with that of maasai herdsmen in East Africa.



5.5 The Impact Of Satisfied And Dissatisfied Employees On
The Work Place

There are consequences when employees like their jobs and when they dislike their jobs. One
theoretical model- the exit- Voice- loyalty -neglect framework- is helpful in understanding
the consequences of dissatisfaction.

Exit: The exit response involves directing behavior toward leaving the organization,
including looking for a new position as well as resigning.

Voice: The voice response involves actively and contractively attempting to improve
conditions, including suggestion improvement, discussing problems with superiors and
undertaking some forms of union activity.

Loyalty: The loyalty response involves passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to
improve, including speaking up for the organization in the face of external criticism and
trusting the organization and its management to do right thing.

Neglect: The neglect response involves passively allowing conditions to worsen, including
chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate.



Active



Destructive Constructive
Passive



5.6 Job Satisfaction And Job Performance

Job satisfaction and job performance are mostly related with each other. Researchers believe
that the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is pretty strong. Job
satisfaction can be defined as follows:






Above, the elements of job satisfaction are described. When an employee is satisfied with his
job, he is more courage in his job. He fells joy and happiness in his work and work is always
a play for him. There is a saying that Happy workers are more likely to be productive
workers. When satisfaction and productivity data are gathered for an organization as a
whole, it is found that this organization with more satisfied employees tend to be more
efficient than organizations with fewer satisfied employees.

Example- Mr. X is very satisfied with his salary and the work place. He always feels
comfortable in his work and he tried his best to perform his duty efficiently i.e. he tries to
give his best performance.





Exit Voice
Neglect Loyalty
5.7 Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship
Behavior (OCB)

Organizational Citizenship Behavior can be defined as behavior [by the employee] that is
discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in
the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization. It can also be defined
as non-required contributions that are regarded by the person as relatively less likely to lead
along any clear, fixed path to formal rewards.

Job satisfaction is a major determinant of an employees organizational citizenship behavior.
It is moderately correlated with organizational citizenship behavior. When employees are
satisfied with job, they are more likely to talk positively about the organization, help others,
and go beyond the normal expectations in their job. Besides this satisfied employees might be
more prone to go beyond the call of duty because they want to reciprocate their positive
experiences. Job satisfaction influences employees organizational citizenship through
perception of fairness.

Example: Examples of directly beneficial OCB include volunteerism, assistance between
coworkers, unusual attendance or punctuality, and active participation in organizational
affairs.


5.8 Job Satisfaction And Customer Satisfaction
It is necessary for an organizational manager to focus on increasing employee job satisfaction
as an integral part of creating a positive work environment. Job satisfaction causes an
agreeable emotional condition in the employee that leads to a positive work attitude. This
positive work attitude has an impact on other employees and customers. All employees are
seen as representatives of their company by any average customer. So if a customer sees that
an employee does not have a satisfied, positive, and fulfilled attitude a customer may make
the wrong assumptions leading the customer to question the trustworthiness of the company
and resulting in decreased sales for the company. Job Satisfaction and customer satisfaction
are linked anywhere customers and employees come in contact.
These usually include factors like service promptness, staff responsiveness, and
understanding of the customer's problem.
The relationship of job satisfaction and Customer satisfaction is as follows:


5.9 Job Satisfaction And Absenteeism

Absenteeism can be a major problem for organizations. As pressures increase on the budgets
and competitiveness of companies, more attention is being given to reduce workplace
absenteeism and its cost. Job satisfaction has been noted as one of the factors influencing an
employee's motivation to attend. So there exist a moderate negative correlation between
Absenteeism and job satisfaction.

Example- Organization that provide liberal sick leave benefits are encouraging all their
employees-including those who are highly satisfied-to take off days come free with no
penalties.


5.10 Job Satisfaction And Turnover

Job satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover. So their exist an adverse relation
between job satisfaction and turnover. But in this case the correlation is stronger than
absenteeism. Sometimes when employees are satisfied with their current job, they want to get
more better job than the current one with their high performances.

Labor- market conditions, expectations about alternative job opportunity and length of tenure
with the organization are some important constraints on an employee decision to leave
current job. Besides these the receipt of recognition, praise and other rewards gives them to
do so.


Turnover of Employees






5.11 Job Satisfaction And Workplace Deviance

Job satisfaction includes a lot of specific behaviors such as unionization attempts, substance
abuse, stealing at work, undue socializing and tardiness. So job satisfaction has negative
affect on workplace. Sometimes employee with satisfied job may possess negative behaviors
those are indicators of a broader syndrome deferred as deviant behavior in the workplace(or
employee withdrawal) Or they may possess an absence control policy. They attack the
source of the problem instead of trying to control the different undesirable consequences of
job dissatisfaction.

Example- Surf the Internet during work time take work supplies home for personal use are
examples of workplace deviance.


5.12 Managers Often Dont Get It

Job satisfaction is very essential for every organization. But it can affect even the bottom line
of organizations. Sometimes many managers are unconcerned about job satisfaction of their
employees. Still others overestimate the degree to which their employees are satisfied with
their jobs, so they dont think theres problem when there is. In this situation, managers are
ignorant about the appropriate job satisfaction is very harmful for organizations. So managers
first need to care about job satisfaction and they need to measure it rather than just assume
that everything is going well.


























6. Conflict

6.1 Meaning Of Conflict

Conflict arises from disagreements over the goals to attain or the methods used to accomplish
these goals.
Conflict is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively
affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.

6.2 The Traditional View of Conflict

Conflict was viewed negatively, and it was used such terms as violence, destruction and
irrationality to reinforce its negative connotation.

The traditional view of conflict was consistent with the attitudes that prevailed about group
behavior in the 1930s and 1940s.Conflict was seen as a dysfunctional outcome resulting from
poor communication, a lack of openness and trust between people, and the failure the
managers to be responsive to the needs and aspirations of their employees.

The view that all conflict is bad certainly offers a simple approach to looking at the behavior
of people who create conflict. It is known that the traditional view of conflict specially
indicate that all conflicts is harmful and must be avoided.

6.3 The Human Relations View of Conflict

The human relations view of conflict argued that conflict was a natural occurrence in all
groups and organizations. Because conflict was inevitable, the human relations school
advocated acceptance of conflict.

6.4 The Interactionism View Of Conflict

The interactionism view of conflict encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious,
peaceful, tranquil, and cooperative group is prone to becoming static, apathetic to needs for
change and innovation.

The interactionism view does not propose that all conflicts are good. Rather, some conflicts
support the goals of the group and improve its performance, these are functional,
constructive, forms of conflict. In addition, there are conflicts that hinder group performance;
these are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict.









The evidence indicates that you need to look at the typeof conflict.






6.5 The Conflict Process

The conflict process has five stages which is shown with diagram:






Potential Opposition:
The first step in the conflict process is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for
conflict to arise. They need not lead directly to conflict, but one of these conditions is
necessary.






Task Conflict
Relationship
Conflict
Process Conflict
Potential opposition
Cognition and
personalization
Intentions
Behavior
Outcomes

Cognition and Personalization:
If the conditions cited in Stage-1 negatively affect something that one party cares about, then
the potential for opposition or incompatibility becomes actualized in the second stage.


Intentions:
Intentions intervene between peoples perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior.
These intentions are decisions to act in given way. Intentions are separated out as a distinct
stage because you have to infer the others intent to know how to respond to that others
behavior.


Behavior:
When most people think of conflict situations, they tend to focus on stage-4 because this is
where conflicts become visible. The behavior stage includes the statements, actions, and
reactions made by the conflicting parties.


Outcomes:
As our model demonstrates, these outcomes may be functional in that the conflict results in
an improvement in the groups performance or dysfunctional in that it hinders group
performance.




7.Frustrations

7.1 Meaning Of Frustration

Man does their work with some expectation. When people fail to fulfill his/her expectation,
frustration arises from them. Dissatisfaction leads to frustration. Especially the industrial
workers become frustrated when they do not get their definite salary and better work
environment. Frustration is mental state. The strong need to get anything leads frustration.
So, frustration is the feeling of discomfort and dissatisfaction or insecurity aroused by a
blocking of gratification or by unresolved problem.
Keith Davis said- frustration is a result of motivation being blocked to prevent one from
reaching a desired goal.
Fred Lutherans said- frustration occurs when a motivated drive is blocked before a person
reaching to a desired goal.





So, it can be said that frustration is the negative expression toward any kind of work or
activities.

7.2 Causes Of Frustration

There are some reasons behind the frustration. They are given below



Frustra
tion
Conflict
Discrimi
nation
High
Ambitio
n
Confict
Of
Motivati
on
Hard
Compiti
on
Deprived
Situation
O
b
s
t
a
c
l
e

Frustration Person Need Goal
1. Conflict of motivation: Motivation creates excitement and pressure. It drives a
person to achieve something. If there is any obstacle for excitement in the way of his
success it creates frustration.

2. Limitation of individual power: Every person have a qualitative limitation. He can
to expand his qualification. So, if he tried to take excess responsibility beyond his
qualification it will leads him to frustration.

3. Environmental obstacle: Environment has a great impact on the life of a person. He
cannot deny his surroundings. When he cannot remain still on his way for his society
and surrounding environment he falls into frustration.

4. High ambition: Man is high ambitious. In his every step of life both personal and
professional he wants to get facilities to make true his expectations. When he does not
get his desired facilities he become frustrated.

5. Conflicts: Life is full of conflictions which never end. These conflictions make a
person frustrated about his life.

6. Deprived situation: If an employee is continually deprived of his basic rights and
needs, he become frustrated.

7. Discrimination: If an employee faces discrimination in his workplace, he falls in
frustration.

8. Hard competition: Every employee has to compete with each other for their
existence in their workplace. Failure in the competition leads a person towards in
frustration.

9. Sickness: Sickness make person frustrated. When a person suffers from a disease for
a long time, he lost his will power to back his professional world.


7.3 Nature Of Frustration

Frustration is mental disorder of a person. When an employee becomes frustrated, some
changes in his behavior are expressed. These are called symptoms or nature of frustration.


The nature and their symptoms of an employee are given in the next page-

An employee alwayz complains. Their tolerance level become low.
Employee involves in crticism aganist othrs employes.
He cannot interact with others and they lost intesrests of work.
Aggression
He wants recall his bygone days and behaves as chiledren.
He cannot control their emotions. He always vehave emotionally.
He trusts his leader bilndly more than themslves & believe in rumors.
Regression
He cannot take the changes easily.
He denes the logic and remains still on his believe.
He constantly does the same thing after being failure.
Abnormal
Fixation
He withdraws his trade union membership.
Anyone cannot request him to do any work.
He leaves station without any notice.
Withdrwal
He denies his liabilities.
He tries to impoes his faults on others.
He tries to influence othres to hide his crimes.
Projection
He does not attend the meeting.
He does not do ant work properly
He requests others not to assign any work.
Resignation
He compromises in his work.
He does works on others' advices.
He criticises himself for his deed.
Compromis
e
He adjusted with the stutaion.
He compromises with the management to get facilities.
He tries to reach his goal by using the easiest way.
Sublimatio
n
He tries to blame the condition to save hinself from failure.
He compensate his failure by doing other assignment.
He thinks that his future work will be the right compensation of past
work.
Rationaliza
tion
7.4 Means Of Removing Frustration

Man can be frustrated by any dissatisfaction and this frustration can be removed. To remove
frustration anyone can follow the following steps.

1. Evaluation frustration behavior: For evaluation frustrated behavior, at first anyone
has to identify the fact f frustration & personality difference.

2. Constructive View: For solving the problem, practical view is needed. Problem of
the frustrated person must be seen with sympathy.

3. Correcting situation: The most effective way to remove frustration is to create an
efficient working environment in the organization.

4. Job evaluation: The management must evaluate the employee appropriately & praise
him for his good work.

5. Two-way communication: Two-way communication reduces the frustration. There
is no scope of any dissatisfaction among the employees in the two way
communication.

6. Counseling: Counselor can idea the workers problem from his experiences and can
adjust the workers with the situation or vice versa.

7. Catharsis: When the problem is solved by discussing the feeling with the worker and
expressing them toward the management is called catharsis.

8. Communication network: If the management introduce the new concept and
communicate it with the workers they can updates themselves. Moreover, they can
consult with the management about their problem and need and if the organization
communicates with the workers, the workers will be optimistic.











Difference Between The Motivated Behavior And
Frustrated Behavior


Subject of
Difference
Motivated Behavior Frustrated Behavior
1.Goal It drives to goal. It doesnt drive to goal
2.Tension
If goal is achieved, excitement
reduces.
If frustration increases,
excitement increases.
3.Punishment
Fear of punishment reduces the
possibility of completion of
work.
Fear of punishment increases
the frustration
4.Flexibility in
behavior
Motivated behavior is flexible
and brings imperative solution of
the problem.
This kind of behavior is static
and unchangeable.
5.Learning
Learning brings the progress in
behavior.
Learning is not so fruitful in this
case.
6.Job satisfaction
Motivated employee remains
satisfied.
Frustration is the expression of
dissatisfaction.
7.Disciplinary
Motivated behavior is regulated,
logical and practical.
Frustrated behavior is
unregulated and conflicted.
8.Stong confidence
Motivated employee possesses
strong confidence.
Frustrated employee possesses
week confidence.
9.problem solution
In this case, the employee seek
solution
Here the employee can behave
imperatively for problem
solution.
10.labor
management
relation
Here labor management relation
is sound.
Labor management relation
doesnt remain sound.
11.Stress reduction
When goal is achieved, it reduces
the stress
When the behavior is expressed,
stress started to reduce.
12.Interest of work It increases the interest of work. It reduces the interest of work.
13.Nature of
behavior
It is constructive. It is destructive in nature.

8.Conclusion

In this term paper, we try to disclose all the affecting factor of Leadership, Perception,
Attitudes, Job Satisfaction, Conflicts & Frustration. We can conclude here that when
leadership involves influencing someone towards goal, then perception is the unique way in
which each person sees, organization, and interprets things. Whereas, attitudes is the
expression of thoughts and feelings towards a person, event or object, on the other way, job
satisfaction is positive attitudes about job. When there is in satisfaction in work place it leads
to frustrations that result from conflicts.






9.Bibliography

Organizational Behavior- ROBBINS & JUDGE
(13th Edition)
Organizational Behavior- KEITH DEVIS & JHON W NEWSTROM
(12th Edition)

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