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2.

0 Structural Behaviour
The objective of section design is to get a safe section dimension b x d and safe reinforcement area to support
the ultimate design moment by utilizing the full strengths of both materials. The section analysis is based on
the following assumptions:
i) The section remains plain before and after bending.
ii) The deformation is small.
iii) The strain-stress within the elastic range obeys the Hookes law.
iv) The concrete tensile strength is negligible.
beam section which is in e!uilibrium under an e"ternal bending moment M will have its faces in
compression and tension on either sides of neutral a"is. The depth of neutral a"is depends on the section
geometry and material composition or the strengths of both sides of the section as shown in #igure $.% below.
The compression and tension sides will yield simultaneously if the strength of both sides are e!ual. & of a
symmetrical strain& c and tensile strain& t of symmetrical and homogeneous sections will reach the yield
strains or fail simultaneously& while for unsymmetrical or inhomogeneus sections the strains distributions are
depending on internal resistances of each part. #igure $.% below shows the strain distributions of various
renforce concrete sections of a reinforced concrete beams subjected to bending moment& M. The concrete on
the tension side is assumed ineffective due to its low tensile strentgh and is drawn in broken lines.
Therefore& from the above point of view& a section may fail in any one of the following modes depending on
the strengths of the compression and tension sides.
i. Tension failure - tension side reaches the yield strength before the compression side.
ii. 'alanced failure - tension and compression sides reach the yield strength simultaneously.
iii. (ompression failure - compression side reaches the yield strength before the tension side.
%)
2 SECTION DESIGN
F
c
x
c
= d
-
*
-
*
-
*
b+ ,ymmetrical section c+ -nsymmetrical section

Figure 2.1 Strain distriution.
a) Bent!u" ea#
M
x
c
= d
..
b
d
x
c
= d
F
c
F
c
F
s
F
s
F
s
b
b
#igure $.$ shows the types of failure or failure modes of reinforced concrete sections. The member is
modeled by springs and stiff plate as shown in /a+.
The depths of the neutral a"es xc and xt are depending on the properties of the springs. That is
x d
x
s
c


c
s
s c
c
1
d d
x

or d . x
/$.%+
0!n. /$.%+ shows that the depth or strain of the compression side can be controlled by adjusting the strength
of the tension side. 1f s approaches 0 than x approaches d. This means the section is over crowded with
reinforcement or large amount of As has to be used. 2n the other hand if the ratio s3c increases than x
reduces indicating the section will undergoes tension type failure. 1t can be shown as an e"ample that by
substituting the typical values for cu = 0,0035 and yd = 0,00217 for for fyk = 500 N/mm
2
steel& the theoretical
depth of the compression is x 4 1,67d (i.e. 4 0,167).
However& 0($ has limited the ma"imum strength of the compression (concrete) side corresponding to a depth
x = 0,45d and the stress block to s = 0,8x. This is to avoid overcrowding the tension side with reinforcement
and to allow tension type failure. The types of failure& hence the types of sections according to 0($ are
shown in figure $.5 below.
The ma"imum strength of a section corresponding to the depth of neutral a"is x = 0,45d is known as the
ultimate moment of resistance of the section& Mu.

%%
Figure 2.$ T%"es o& section.
a) -nder-reinforced section b) 'alanced section c) 2ver-reinforced section
b b b
cu
sy
As > As bal
d
x = 0,45d
x < xbal
< cu
sy
As < As bal
d
(M < Mu) (M =Mu) (M > Mu)
A!
xbal
= 0,45d
cu
sy
As bal
d
!s

s
x
d " x
fyd fyd fyd
fcd fcd fcd
xc < d
xc = d
xc > d
a+ 6odel b+ ,ection c+ Tension failure d+ balance failure e+ (ompression failure
Figure 2.2 Failure #odes.
*
M
-
F
c
= f
cd
A
c
F
s
= f
yd
A
s
Fc1
Fc$
Fc5
Fs 4 fydAs1
Fs 4 fydAs2 Fs 4 fydAs3
b
d
As
2.1 'lti#ate (o#ent o& )esistance
(onsider a balanced rectangular reinforced concrete section b " d of a beam subjected to an e"ternal moment
M as shown in figure $.7 below. The strain and e!uvalent rectangular stress distributions at failure according
to 0($ (0. %88$-%-%:$))7 clause 5.%.9) are shown in (c) and (e).
#rom (e)
(ompressive force
bs f 567 , 0 bs
f
F
c#
c
c# cc
c

/$.$+
,ubstituting s = 0,8x bx f 454 , 0 F
c# c

/$.$a+
Tensile force
s y# s
s
y#
s
A f 87 , 0 A
f
F

/$.5+
The moment of resistance of the compression and tension sides are obtained by taking the moment
e!uilibrium about the centroids of the tension and compression sides.
:rt. (ompression side bx$ f 454 , 0 $ F M
c# c c

/$.7+
2r
2
c# c
bd #f M /$.7a+
where
1
]
1


2
x 8 , 0
1 454 , 0 #


:rt. (ompression side
$ A f 87 , 0 $ F M
s y# s s

/$.;+
#or balanced sections& the ultimate moment of resistance& Mu 4 Muc 4 Mus& since both sections fail
simultaneously. #or under-reinforced and over-reinforced section& the ultimate moment of resistance& Mu is
always the resistance of full compressed compression side at (x = 0,45d). Therefore the ultimate moment of
resistance can be defined as the resistance of balanced section& i.e Mu 4 Mbal.
%$
x = 0,45d
yd
As

b
Figure 2.* Balanced section stress!strain distriutions+ , 1.0 , 0+-
d
a) S"ring #odel ) Section c) Strain d) Stress e) E.uivalent stress.
*
M
-
fcd
fyd
Fs
Fc
s = 0,8x
M
$= d " s/2
ccfc# /c = 0,567fc#
Fc
Fs
fy# /s= 0,87fy#
,ubstituting xbal 4 0.45d into 0!n. ($.7) and ($.;) and Muc = Mus = M& we get
0!n. ($.7): -ltimate 6oment of resistance wrt. concrete:

2
c#
2
c# bal
bd f % # bd f 167 , 0 M
/$.<+
( 167 , 0 % # )
0!n. ($.;):
bal y#
&d
bal s
f
M
A
z =9 & )

/$.9+

( )
d 82 , 0
2
d 45 , 0 8 , 0
d
2
s
d $
bal
$bal = 0,82d
0!uations ($.<) and ($.9) are used to determine the section type and reinforcement area respectively.

)e&. Calculations Out"ut
E/a#"le 2.2.1 (1 )
rectangular beam $;) " 5=) mm section has to support an
e"ternal moment M of %;) k.m. 1dentify the type of section
and determine the reinforcement area for the section.
ssume fc# 4 $; .3mm
$
and fy# 4 ;)) .3mm
$
. ,ketch the
section detail. >etermine also the depth of the neutral a"is&
xbal.
Solution

(heck the moment of resistance wrt. concrete

2
c#
bd f
M
#
4
166 , 0
380 x 250 x 25
10 x 150
2
6


% # 'ala(c)d s)c*+,(
( ) mm 6 , 311 380 82 , 0
2
d 45 , 0 x 8 , 0
d $
bal


bal y#
bal s
$ f 87 , 0
M
A
4
6 , 311 x 500 x 87 , 0
10 x 150
6
= 1106,6 mm
2


%5
-l .
..2.1.1(1)
-l .
..2.1.1(3)
4 , 128 380 x 250
500
6 , 2
26 , 0 d b
f
f
26 , 0 A
*
y#
c*m
m+(
s

0,003b*d = 285 mm
2
2
c
x a m
s
mm 3800 380 x 250 x 04 , 0 A 04 , 0 A
)e&. Calculations Out"ut
-l .
..2.1.1(1)
-l .
/0,1+d) 4220 As = 1257 mm
2
3) d)4* ,f *) ()u*0al ax+s xbal =0,45d = 0,45 x 380
= 171 mm

.ote: 1n practice& a given section is hardly designed as a
balanced section due to the given dimensions b and d
is unlikely match the balanced section criteria.
E/a#"le 2.2.1 (2 )
rectangular beam section has to support an e"ternal
moment M of %)) k.m. >etermine the section dimensions b
" d, 5b = 0,6d) and reinforcement area. ssume fc# 4 $;
.3mm
$
and fy# 4 ;)) .3mm
$
. ,ketch the section detail.
Solution
#or balanced section
2
c#
bd f
M
#
4
167 . 0
d 6 , 0 x 25
10 x 100
3
6


mm 8 , 341 d

b = 0,6 " 341,84 205,1 mm
6ay b " d = 205 " 340 mm
mm 8 , 278 d 82 , 0
2
d 45 , 0 x 8 , 0
d $
bal

bal y#
bal s
$ f 87 , 0
M
A
4
8 , 278 x 500 x 87 , 0
10 x 100
6
=825
mm
2
2
*
y#
c*m
m+(
s
mm 2 , .4 340 x 205
500
6 , 2
26 , 0 d b
f
f
26 , 0 A
b " d = 205 " 340
%7
$;)
5=)
4H$)
%$;9 mm
$
$);
57)
3H$)
875 mm
$
..2.1.1(1) 0,0013b*d .0,6 mm
2
2
c
x a m
s
mm 2788 340 x 205 x 04 , 0 A 04 , 0 A
/0,1+d) 3220 As = .43 mm
2
2.2.2 'nder!rein&orced Section
#or the under-reinforced section where the depth of the compression zone is less than that of the balanced
section& we have
M <( Mu = Mbal ) ,0 # < #!
:here
2
c#
bd f
M
#

/$.=+
The depth of the neutral a"is& x is obtained from

,
_


,
_

2
x 8 , 0
d bs
5 , 1
f 85 , 0
M
c#
The lever $ arm is obtained as follow.
$ s b
5 , 1
f 85 , 0
M
c#

,
_

( ) $ $ 2 d 2 b
5 , 1
f 85 , 0
c#

,
_

$
d
$
1 bd 2
5 , 1
f 85 , 0
c#

,
_


,
_


$
d
$
1 bd f 134 , 1
c#

,
_


2
c#
bd f
d
7
d
7
1 134 , 1 #
bd f
M
2
c#

,
_

,
_

,
_


2
d
$
d
$
134 , 1
0
134 , 1
#
d
$
d
$
2
+
,
_

%;

2
134 , 1
# 4
1 1
a 2
c a 4 b b
d
$
2
t



1
1
]
1

t
134 , 1
#
25 , 0 5 , 0 d $
58 0,.5d9
/$.8+
The lever arm can also be obtained from the e!uation below after having solved the depth of the neutral a"is
x.

2
s
d $
The reinforcement area is obtained from

$ f 87 , 0
M
A
y#
s

/$.%)+
)e&. Calculations Out"ut
E/a#"le 2.2.2 (1 )
rectangular beam section of $;) mm " 5=) mm /b " d9 is
subjected to an e"ternal moment M of %)) k.m. >etermine
the reinforcement area if fc# 4 $; .3mm
$
and fy# 4 ;))
.3mm
$
. ,ketch the section detail.
>etermine also the depth of the neutral a"is& x.
Solution

2
c#
bd f
M
#
4
2
6
380 x 250 x 25
10 x 100
#
= 0,111 < #!
-,m40)ss+,( 0)+(f,0c)m)(* +s (,* 0):u+0)d.

1
1
]
1

+
134 , 1
#
25 , 0 5 , 0 d $
4
1
1
]
1

t
134 , 1
111 , 0
25 , 0 5 , 0 d
= 0,8.d = 338,2 mm

%<
$;)
5=)
4H%<
=); mm
$
-l. ..2.1.1
$ f
M
A
s*
s

4
2
6
s
mm 7 , 67.
2 , 38 3 x 500 x 87 , 0
10 x 100
A
2
*
y#
c*m
m+(
s
mm 4 , 128 380 x 250
500
6 , 2
26 , 0 d b
f
f
26 , 0 A
0,0013b*d = 123,5 mm
2
2
c
x a m
s
mm 3800 380 x 250 x 04 , 0 A 04 , 0 A
/0,1+d) 4216 As = 805 mm
2
3) d)4* ,f *) ()u*0al x +s,
mm 2 , 338
2
x 8 , 0
d
2
s
d $
mm 5 , 104 x
2bserve that the reinforcement area As and the depth of the neutral a"is& x are less than that of balanced
section of the same cross section and moment.
2.2.$ Over!rein&orced Section
s mentioned in the previous section& over-reinforced sections re!uire As ? As bal and compression
reinforcement A!s. The depth of the neutral x is limited to 0,45d. #igure $.; below shows an over-reinforced
section with its corresponding stress and strain distributions at ultimate limit state. The compression
reinforcement A!s is placed at a distance d! from the compression face.
The compression reinforcement is obtained from moment the e!uilibrium about tension reinforcement:

( ) % d d A% f 87 , 0 M % M M M
s y# bal s uc
+ +
%9
x
bal
= 0.45d

cu

sy
A
s
d
bal
$
bal
b
0.87f
y#
F
cc
F
s
0.8x
bal

d!
F!
s
A!
s
Figure 2.0 Stress!strain distriutions o& over!rein&orced section.
0,567f
c#
!
s
M
u
< M

( )
( )
( ) % d d f 87 , 0
bd f % # #
% d d f 87 , 0
M M
A%
y#
2
c#
y#
bal
s


/$.%%+
.ote that A!s in 0!n. ($.%%) is assumed to has yielded& where

38 , 0
d 4 , 0
% d
x
d%
bal

The tension reinforcement is obtained from the e!uilibrium of horizontal forces:

s cc s
% F F F +
s y# cc s y#
A% f 87 , 0 F A f 87 , 0 +
s
bal y#
bal cc
s
y#
cc
s
A%
$ f 87 , 0
$ F
A%
f 87 , 0
F
A + +
s
bal y#
bal
A%
$ f 87 , 0
M
+

s
bal y#
2
c#
s
A%
$ f 87 , 0
bd f % #
A +
/$.%$+
)e&. Calculations Out"ut
E/a#"le 2.2.$ (1 )
rectangular beam section of $;) mm " 7)) mm b " d is subjected
to an e"ternal moment M of $;) k.m. >etermine the reinforcement
area if fc# 4 $; .3mm
$
and fy# 4 ;)) .3mm
$
. ,ketch the section detail.
Solution

2
c#
bd f
M
#
4
2
6
400 x 250 x 25
10 x 250
#
= 0,25 < #!
-,m40)ss+,( 0)+(f,0c)m)(* +s 0):u+0)d.

38 , 0
d 45 , 0
d%
x
d%
bal


400 x 45 , 0 x 38 , 0 % d
6ay 70 mm
d! = 70 mm
%=
9)
$;)
7))
7H$;
%8<5 mm
$
$H$) <$= mm
$
-l. ..2.2.1(1)
-l. ..2.2.1(3)

( )
( ) % d d f 87 , 0
bd f % # #
A%
y#
2
c#
s

4
( )
( )
2
2
mm 2 , 578
70 400 500 x 87 , 0
400 x 250 x 25 167 , 0 25 , 0

2 , 78 5
400 x 82 , 0 x 500 x 87 , 0
400 x 250 x 25 x 167 , 0
A%
$ f 87 , 0
bd f % #
A
2
s
bal y#
2
c#
s
+ +
4 1748,7 mm
2
2
*
y#
c*m
m+(
s
mm 2 , 135 400 x 250
500
6 , 2
26 , 0 d b
f
f
26 , 0 A
0,003b*d = 300 mm
2
2
c
x a m
s
mm 4000 A 04 , 0 A
40,1+d) 4225 As = 1.63 mm
2
; 2220 A!s = 628 mm
2
1n constructions& flanged sections may occur in the forms of monolithic beam-slab and T or @
beams as shown in #igure $.< below. The composite action between flange and web resulting in the
whole section bend as one peace.
%8
2.* F12NGED SECTION
bf
b< b<
f f
d d
Figure 2.3 Flanged sections.
/a+ 6onolithic beam-slab /b+ T-beam /c+ @-beam

slab
b)am
bf
The design of the flanged section is divided into two groups& depending on the depth of the
compression or stress block as shown below.
The depth of the compression zone reflects the concrete resistance to the e"ternal design moment&
M
0d
. Thus the depth of the stress block s& is determined by checking the resistance of the fully
compressed flange& M
f
.
2.*.1 Design o& Flange section ! stress loc4 5ithin the &lange
#igure $.8 shows a flanged section with the stress block within flange and stress-strains distributions.
Cond
n
M
f
6 M
Ed

$)
N.A
N.A
M&d
M&d
/i+ (ompression3,tress block within flange /ii+ (ompression3,tress block in the web
Fcc
Fcc
Fs* Fs*
x
x
Figure 2.7 Flanged section 5ith stress loc4 5ithin &lange s = 0.8x = f.
x s = f
As
b<
f
bf
Fs*
Fcc
0,567fc# cu
y#
$ = d " f /2 d
M0d
s
s
( )
f f f c# f
5 , 0 d b f 567 , 0 M
/$.%5+
3) s)c*+,( +s d)s+=()d as a 0)c*a(=ula0 s)c*+,( ,f b
f
" d.
C
a
E
/
A
>
e


$%
)e&. Calculations Out"ut
-l. ..2.1.1519

-l. ..2.1.1539
Solution
3) m,m)(* ,f 0)s+s*a(c) ,f *) fla(=)

( )
f f f c# f
5 , 0 d b f 567 , 0 M

9 100 x 5 , 0 350 5 100 x 400 x 25 x 567 , 0

Nm 10 x 1 , 170
6

Mf > M&d s*0)ss bl,c# <+*+( *) fla(=).


>)s+=( as a 0)c*a(=ula0 b)am ,f bf " d?
2
f c#
&d
d b f
M
#
4
2
6
350 x 400 x 25
10 x 120
#


%
# 0.8 , 0 <
-,m40)ss+,( 0)+(f,0c)m)(* +s (,* 0):u+0)d.

1
1
]
1

+
134 , 1
#
25 , 0 5 , 0 d $
4
1
1
]
1

+
134 , 1
0.8 , 0
25 , 0 5 , 0 350

mm 315 d . , 0
$ f 87 , 0
M
A
y#
&d
s

4
2
6
s
mm 876
315 x 500 x 87 , 0
10 x 120
A
2
*
y#
c*m
m+(
s
mm 6 . .4 350 x 200
500
6 , 2
26 , 0 d b
f
f
26 , 0 A
0,0013b*d = .1 mm
2
2
c
x a m
s
mm 2800 350 x 200 x 04 , 0 A 04 , 0 A > >
/0,1+d) 3220 As = .42 mm
2

mm 315 $
b
f
= 400

f
= 100
d

= 350
b
<
= 200
400
100
350
200
5H$) 87$ mm
$
The flange width bf in the design e!uations is the effective flange width& beff. 0($ clause ;.5.$.% specifies beff
as follow:
i+ beff 4 beff ,+ ; bw b for monolithic cast beam-slab.
where
beff ,+ 4 0,2b+ * 0,1l, *) m+(+mum ,f 0,2l, ,0 b+
l, +s *) d+s*a(c) b)*<))( 4,+(*s ,f $)0, m,m)(*s.
*,ee figures ($.9) and ($.=) below for notation.
ii+ True width bf for T or @ beam.
)e&. Calculations Out"ut
E/a#"le 2.* (2 ) 8 Flanged Bea#
part of floor plan of a general retail shop building is shown
in the figure below. The beams and slabs are monolithically
cast in-situ. The design data are as given below.
>etermine the effective flange width b)ff for the beams
'(3 % to < .
$$
l
1
l
2
l
3
l
0
= 0,8l
1
= 0,15(l
1
; l
2
) 4 0,7l
2
l
,
= 0,15l
2
; l
3
Figure 2.9 De&inition o& l
0
+ &or calculation o& e&&ective &lange 5idth.
b
%
b
%
b
$
b
$
b
%
b
%
b
eff %
b
eff $
b
w
b
eff
b
w
b
Figure 2.- E&&ective &lange 5idth "ara#eters
$
;
)

"

;
)
)
5
)
)

"

<
;
)
$
;
)

"

;
)
)
$
;
)

"

;
)
)
5
)
)

"

<
;
)
5;) " <;) 5;) " <;)
$;) " ;)) $;) " ;))


$.) m $.) m $.) m $.) m $.) m
B
A
C
<
.
)

m





















$
.
)

m

E/a#"le 2 )etail sho" &loor "lan.
5;) " <;)
$
;
)

"

;
)
)
2.*.2 Flange section 5ith stress loc4 in the 5e 8 Singl% rein&orced
:hen the e"ternal bending moment& M is greater than the flange resistance& Mf& the compression will move
into the web. #igure $.%) shows a flanged section with the neutral a"is in the web and its corresponding
stress-strains distributions.
$5
s
x
b
<

f
b
f
F
s*
F
cc f
0,567f
c#

cu

y#
$
<
Figure 2.10 Singl% rein&orced &langed section 5ith stress loc4 in the 5e.
d
M
F
cc <
$
f
A
s
6oment of resistance wrt. concrete
c< cf c
M M M + ( )
< < c# f f < f c#
$ s b f 567 , 0 $ b b f 567 , 0 +

/$.%7+
,ubstituting Mc = Mbal, x = 0,45d into 0!n. ($.%7)& we get for balanced section

( ) ( )( ) d 82 , 0 d 36 , 0 b f 567 , 0
2

d b b 567 , 0 M
< c#
f
f < f l a b
+

,
_



( )
2
< c#
f
f < f c#
d b f 167 , 0
2

d b b f 567 , 0 +

,
_


2
f c#
d b f

f
<
f f
f
< f
2
f c#
l a b
b
b
167 , 0
d

d
d b
b b
567 , 0
d b f
M
+

,
_

,
_

,
_


f
f
<
f f
f
<
b
b
167 , 0
d

d 2

1
b
b
1 567 , 0 +

,
_

,
_


2
f c# f l a b
d b f M

/$.%;+
#or e!uilibrium of moment about flange& we have

( )
< f < c#
f
s y#
$ $ s b f 567 , 0
2

d A f 87 , 0 M

,
_



( )

,
_

d f 87 , 0
$ $ s b f 567 , 0 M
A
f
y#
< f < c#
s
2r
( )

,
_

d f 87 , 0
$ $ s b f 567 , 0 M
A
f
y#
< f < c#
s
for singly reinforced section with neutral a"is in the web.

( )
( )
f y#
f
< c#
5 , 0 d f 87 , 0
2
d 36 , 0
d 45 , 0 x 8 , 0 b f 567 , 0 M

,
_

$7

( )
( )
f y#
f < c#
s
5 , 0 d f 87 , 0
0,36d d b f 1 , 0 M
A

+

/$.%<+
2bserve that $f @ $< or 0,36d @ f represents the distance between the flange and web centroids.
$f @ $< or 0,36d @ f < 0 indicating the neutral a"is is within the flange. Thus 0!n. ($.%<) is only valid for
f 0,36d.
)e&. Calculations Out"ut

-l ..2.1.1519
2
f c# f l a b
d b f % M


2
350 x 400 x 25 x 153 , 0

Nm 10 x 43 , 187
6

-,m4. 0)+(f. +s (,*


0):u+0)d.
( )
( )
f y#
f < c#
s
5 , 0 d f 87 , 0
0,36d d b f 1 , 0 M
A


( )
( ) 100 x 5 , 0 350 500 x 87 , 0
100 0,36x350 350 x 200 x 25 x 1 , 0 10 x 150
6


2
mm 3 , 1184
2
*
y#
c*m
m+(
s
mm 64 , .4 350 x 200
500
6 , 2
26 , 0 d b
f
f
26 , 0 A
0,003b*d = 210 mm
2
/0,1+d) 4220 As = 1257 mm
2

2.*.$ Flange section 5ith stress loc4 in the 5e 8 Doul% rein&orced
:hen M is greater than Mbal& the section re!uires compression reinforcement. #igure $.%% shows a doubly
reinforced flanged section with the neutral a"is in the web (x = 0,45d) and stress-strains distributions.
$;
)e&. Calculations Out"ut
E/a#"le 2.*.2 (1 )
>etermine the reinforcement area for the section in the
above e"ample if the bending moment is increased to %;)
k.m and d is increased to 5)) mm. fc# 4 $; .3mm
$
and fy# 4
;)) .3mm
$
.
BmmC
Solution
M = 150 #Nm > Mf = 170,1 #Nm (s)) 40)1+,us )x.)
6*0)ss bl,c# +( *) <)b.
f
<
f f
f
<
f
b
b
167 , 0
d

d 2

1
b
b
1 567 , 0 % +

,
_

,
_


153 , 0
400
200
167 , 0
350
100
350 x 2
100
1
400
200
1 567 , 0 +
,
_


,
_



b
f
= 400

f
= 100
d

= 350
b
<
= 200
400
100
350
200
7H$) %$;9
mm
$
As
s
x
f
bf
Fs*
Fcc f
0,567fc#
cu
y#
$<
d
M
Fcc <
$f
Fsc
$sc
A!s
6oment of resistance wrt. concrete :

M M M M
sc c< cf
+ + ( )
sc s y# < < c# f f < f c#
$ % A f 87 , 0 $ s b f 567 , 0 $ b b f 567 , 0 + +

'ut for over reinforced section& Mcf ; Mc< 4 Mbal sc s y# l a b
$ % A f 87 , 0 M +

nd $sc 4 d @ d%
Thus we get

( )
( ) % d d f 87 , 0
M M
% A
y#
l a b
s

/$.%9+
:here
2
f c# f l a b
d b f % M
and d! should be chosen so that d!/x 0,38.
#or e!uilibrium of horizontal forces

( )
s y# < c# f < f c# s y#
% A f 87 , 0 s b f 567 , 0 b b f 567 , 0 A f 87 , 0 + +

( )
s y# < c# f < f c#
% A f 87 , 0 d b f 204 , 0 b b f 567 , 0 + +

( )
s
y#
f < f c# < c#
s
% A
f 87 , 0
b b f 567 , 0 d b f 204 , 0
A +
+


/$.%=+
)e&. Calculations Out"ut
E/a#"le 2.*.$ (1 )
>etermine the section reinforcements for the T-section below
if it is subjected to e"ternal bending moment of $)) k.m.
ssume d! 4 ;) mm& fc# 4 $; .3mm
$
and fy# 4 ;)) .3mm
$
.

BmmC
Solution
F0,m 40)1+,us )xam4l)s?
M = 200 #Nm > Mf = 140,74 #Nm

$<
b
f
= 400

f
= 100
d

= 350
b
<
= 200
b<
Figure 2.11 Doul% rein&orced &langed section 5ith stress loc4 in the 5e.
M = 200 #Nm >Mbal = 187,43 #Nm
-,m40)ss+,( 0)+(f,0c)m)(* +s 0):u+0)d.
a) -,m40)ss+,( 0)+(f,0c)m)(*?
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
6
y#
l a b
s
mm 3 , .6
50 350 500 x 87 , 0
10 43 , 187 200
% d d f 87 , 0
M M
% A

Su##ar% &or &langed section design


The design of flanged sections can be summarized as shown in #igure $.%$ below.
2.0 Design chart
$9
)e&. Calculations Out"ut
b) 3)(s+,( 0)+(f,0c)m)(*?
( )
s
y#
f < f c# < c#
s
% A
f 87 , 0
b b f 567 , 0 d b f 204 , 0
A +
+

( )
3 , .6
500 x 87 , 0
100 200 400 25 x 567 , 0 400 x 200 x 25 x 204 , 0
+
+


2
mm 1686
/0,1+d) 2210 A!s = 157 mm
2
4220 ; 1225 A!s = 1748 mm
2


400
100
100
350
200
7H$) * %H$;

s
4 %97= mm
$
$H%)

s
4 %;9 mm
$
Figure 2.12 Su##ar% o& &langed section design.
b
f
x


f
d
b
<

f
M M
f
M
f
= 0,454f
c#
b
f

f
(d @
f
/2)
,ingly
M
bal
=
f
f
c#
b
f
d
2
M
f
D M M
bal
,ingly T
M
f
= 0

f
D x


f
M ? M
bal
>oubly T
1nstead of using lengthy e!uations and formulae& the calculations can be simplified by means of design charts.
The charts normally in used are the lever arm $ versus M/fc#d
2
or #. The construction of chart for rectangular
sections is briefly e"plained in the ne"t paragraph.

6oment of resistance wrt. concrete:
Mc = 0,567fc#bs$
'ut $ = d @ s/2 ,0 s =2(d @ $) Mc = 0,567fc#b2(d @ $)$
6oment of resistance wrt. tension reinforcement:
M = 0,87fy#As$ =0,87fy#As 2(d @ $)$
1ntroducing $ =la d
M = 0,87fy#As 2(d @ la d) la d = 0,87fy#As 2d
2
(1 @ la ) la
fc#bd
2

( )
a a
2
2
c#
s y#
2
c#
l l 1 d 2
bd f
A f 87 , 0
#
bd f
M

( )
a a
c#
y#
l l 1 2
f
f 87 , 0

#or fc# 4 $; .3mm


$
and fy# 4 ;)) .3mm
$
& we get
.ow a graph of # versus la for a group of percentages of reinforcement area& can be plotted as shown in
#igure $.%5.

$=
( ) ( )
a a a a
2
c#
l l 1 8 , 34 l l 1 2
25
500 x 87 , 0
#
bd f
M


2.3 Design Flo5 chart
The flow charts for the section design of rectangular and flanged sections are given in #igures $.%7 and $.%;.
$8
Figure 2.1$ Design Chart ! fck , 20 N:## fyk , 000 N:##
2
.
5)
Figure 2.1* Design &lo5 chart &or rectangular sections 8 #ain rein&orce#ent.
M > Mbal ,0 # > #!
-,m4. 0)+(f. +s 0):u+0)d
M < Mbal ,0 # < #!
-,m4. 0)+(f.+s (,* 0):u+0)d
>ata
M
bal
= 0,167f
c#
bd
2
2r # =M
&d
/f
c#
bd
2
A)s
1
1
]
1

t
134 , 1
#
25 . 0 5 , 0 d $
A
s
=
A
s
=
d!/xbal 0,38B
A
s
=
0nd
$ = d " =0,82d
A!
s
=
d!
0nd
0nd
As > As m+(E
As < AsE
As > As m+(E
As < AsE
As > As m+(E
As < AsE
M&d , b x d C
fc#, fy#,-(,m
M&d = MbalE
D0 # = #!E
;role#s
5%
A)s, s+(=ly 0)+(f,0c)d
Figure 2.10 Design &lo5 chart &or &langed sections
.
E)c*. s)c*+,( 5b
f
x d9
>ata
0nd
0nd
M
f
> ME
%
f
= 0.567

(1 " b
<
/b
f
)( 1 @
f
/2d)
f
/d ;01,67b
<
/b
f
M
bal
= !
f
f
c#
b
f
d
2
M
bal
> ME
N,
A
s
> A
s m+(
E
A
s
< A
s max
E
A)s
A)s
0nd
# = M/f
c#
b
f
d
2

$ = d " =0,82d
A
s
=
A
s
> A
s m+(
E
A
s
< A
s max
E
A)s
N,, d,ubly 0)+(f,0c)d
M
f
= 0,567f
c#
b
f

f
(d " 0,5
f
)
Fx =
f
A!
s
=
A
s
=
; A!
s
A
s
> A
s m+(
E
A
s
< A
s max
E
%. :hat is meant by the followingE
a) tension failure& balanced failure and compression failure.
b) under-reinforced& balanced and over-reinforced sections.
$. rectangular section of a beam is subjected to a bending moment of %7; k.m is shown in the figure
below. >etermine the bending reinforcement for the section if fc# 4 $; .3mm
$
and fc# 4 ;)) .3mm
$
.
5. a) >etermine the main reinforcement for the section in the previous !uestion if the bending moment is
increased to $;) k.m.
G3225 As = 1473 mm
2
H 2216 A
!
s = 402 mm
2
I
b) >etermine the suitable effective depth for balanced section.
G510 mmI
7. flanged section is subjected to a bending moment of 5%$&; k.m.
>etermine the main reinforcement if fc# 4 $; .3mm
$
and
fc# 4 ;)) .3mm
$
.
G3225 As = 1473 mm
2
I


BmmC
;. >etermine the main reinforcement for the section in the previous !uestion if the bending moment is
increased to %)%$&; k.m.
G3232 A!s = 2413 mm
2
H 6232 As = 4825 mm
2
I
5$
$;)
<))
%))
d 4;;)
$5) mm
d 4 7;) mm