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Introduction

Stainless steel grade Duplex 2304 is a duplex stainless steel type with a structure that is
a balance of ferritic and austenitic. It has high strength and toughness, resistance to
stress corrosion cracking, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and easy
fabrication. It is recommended that this steel is not used in areas where the steel would
be exposes to temperatures over 1058C (570F) for prolonged periods.
The following datasheet provides an overview of stainless steel grade Duplex 2304.
Chemical Composition
The chemical composition of stainless steel grade Duplex 2304 is outlined in the
following table.
Element Content (%)
Iron, Fe 72.679
Chromium, Cr 23
Nickel, Ni 4
Molybdenum, Mo 0.20
Nitrogen, N 0.1
Carbon, C 0.02
Sulfur, S 0.001
Mechanical Properties
The mechanical properties of stainless steel grade Duplex 2304 are displayed in the
following table.
Properties Metric Imperial
Tensile strength 600 MPa 87000 psi
Yield strength (@strain 0.200 %) 400 MPa 58000 psi
Modulus of elasticity 200 GPa 29000 ksi
Shear modulus (@temperature 20C/ 68F) 75.0 GPa 10900 ksi
Poissons ratio 0.333 0.333
Elongation at break 25 % 25 %
Hardness, Rockwell C 20.0 20.0
Hardness, Brinell 180 - 230 180 - 230
Other Designations
Equivalent materials to stainless steel grade Duplex 2304 are given below:
ASTM A240
ASTM A276
ASTM A480
ASTM A789
ASTM A790
DIN 1.4362
Manufacturing Process
Machining of stainless steel grade Duplex 2304 is performed at low speeds, and constant
feeds help to reduce its tendency to work harden. This material is tougher than grade
304 and 316 stainless steels due to its long stringy chip. Chip breakers are
recommended. Unlike the 300 series stainless steel, Duplex 2304 steel requires more
pressure while performing forming due to its higher yield strength. Its low ductility
characteristic tends to make it difficult to perform forming operations.
Welding can be performed using most of the traditional methods such as gastungsten
arc welding (GTAW), submerged arc welding (SAW), and gasmetal arc welding
(GMAW). The filler metal should be a balanced of ferrite/ austenite type like 2205 or
2304.
Hot working can be done after heating the material to 954-1093C (1750-2000F),
which is followed rapid cooling. Annealing after working is recommended. For annealing,
the material is heated to 930-1050C (1710-1920F) and then rapidly quenched.
Applications
Stainless steel grade Duplex 2304 is used by various industries including pulp and paper,
coal handling, potash, food and beverage, and waste water.
The specific applications are as follows:
Bridges
Storage tanks
Water heaters
Heat exchangers
Pressure vessels
Feedwater tubes
Heat exchangers
Flue-gas cleaning
Seawater systems
Desalination plants
Parts for structural design
Rotors, impellers and shafts
Firewalls and blast walls on offshore platforms
Cargo tanks and pipe systems in chemical tankers
Piping and instrumentation tubing for general service