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Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka

A Sanskrit treatise on Ynn medicine


Part II: Text and commentary of selected verses from
Section II with an annotated English translation
1, 2
JAN MEULENBELD
Bedum, the Netherlands
Section two is the most valuable part of the Hikmatpraka from the point
of view of an yurvedicus interested in interactions between yurveda and
Ynn ibb and exchanges with regard to their materia medica, an area that
has received insufcient attention. Borrowing from the Islamic pharmacopoeia
has a long history in Sanskrit medical literature. A survey of these develop-
ments has not yet been written. The reverse, the infuence of yurveda on
Islamic medicine, in particular in South Asia and adjoining regions, has not re-
mained unnoticed. A famous early example illustrating this is abars Firdaus
al-ikma, a treatise that has extensively been studied by a number of excellent
scholars.
3
The vegetable and mineral drugs mentioned in it form the subject of
a monograph by Werner Schmucker.
The Hikmatpraka covers vegetable drugs, drugs of animal origin, and in-
organic substances without assigning them to particular groups. Their names
are arranged according to the order of the letters in the Arabic alphabet.
Section two of the Hikmatpraka has some features in common with an
yurvedic nighau though difering from it in other respects. yurvedic
nighaus arrange medicinal substances into groups, usually called varga, of
items related to each other: trees, fruits, fowers, fragrant drugs, etc., a principle
not adopted in Islamic medical literature.
1
This paper is part of the Proceedings of the Symposium Ayurveda in Post-Classical
and Pre-Colonial India, International Institute for Asian Studies, Leiden, 9 July 2009.

2
I would like to express my thanks to Willem Floor (Bethesda, Maryland), in recognition
of his help as an Iranist in identifying a number of Arabic and Persian words in ngar
script. Our joint eforts were unsuccessful in a number of cases, indicated in the annota-
tions.

3
See, for example, the publications of A. Siggel.
eJournal of Indian Medicine Volume 5 (2012), 135294
JAN MEULENBELD 136
A nighau enumerates the names of a medicinal substance frst, which the
Hikmatpraka does not do, only giving some names in the heading. Its verses
begin with listing the properties and actions of a drug, in the same way as a
nighau does after the list of names, and proceeds with giving information
on the appropriate dose of the single drug or the drug in combination with
other drugs. In most cases it adds substances mitigating the action of the drug
dealt with, mentioning moreover suitable substitutes. The last three features are
completely absent from yurvedic nighaus. Lists of substitutes do occur, not
in nighaus, but in works on treatment and deal with substitutes for drugs that
are not easily procurable or cannot be found at all in the region where the physi-
cian lives and in the drug markets accessible to him. The information given in
the verses of the Hikmatpraka is incomplete in many cases which makes the
commentary, supplementing the material lacking, indispensable.
The majority of the verses are lokas. Longer metres do occur but are in-
frequent.
The language of section two is mostly Sanskrit, interspersed with Persian/
Arabic names of drugs, their faculties, i.e., actions, names of diseases, and oth-
er words of Persian or Arabic origin. The terms for drug actions are systemati-
cally borrowed from Arabic.
The commentary (k) on section two is much more elaborate than that
on the other sections. The larger part is written in a mixture of Sanskrit and
Persian in varying proportions. The length of the comments diminishes as the
work proceeds and they are often absent in the later portion of section two.
The section opens with a short introduction in three verses:
yathvan nmarp dravy guavaranam /
bayna mufridt jeya sakepea nigadyate // (1)
mufrid murakkiba dve sta saje sarvauadhigate /
kevala svasvarpastha tan mufrida udhtam // (2)
kodvalehaprabhti tan murakkiba sajakam /
gubhidhna etasya pacd varakramd gaa // (3)
The appropriate description of the properties of medicinal substances,
known as the description (bayn) of single drugs (mufridt), will be exposed
briefy. (1)
Two terms exist in the domain of substances used as a medicine: mufrid and
murakkib. That which pertains to the outward appearance of each single
medicinal substance is called mufrid.
4
(2)

4
A mufrid is someone who does any work alone.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 137
Powders, electuaries, etc., bear the name of murakkib.
5
The enumeration of
the properties will follow (now); (the substances) are arranged in groups ac-
cording to the order of the letters (of the Arabic alphabet). (3)
Section two is divided into twenty-eight chapters.
The verse or verses on a particular substance are preceded by a heading with
some names of the substance to be dealt with. These headings are in most cases
indispensable because the name of the substance that will be described is not
found in the verses that follow. Exceptions to this rule do occur, but are rather
rare. Some examples are: bans (2.2.7), gvar, i.e., cows milk (2.2.329),
jundabedustara (2.2.352). Usually, one or more Persian/Arabic names come
frst, followed by one or more names in Sanskrit and/or Hind. The presence
of a Sanskrit or Hind name means that the medicinal substance is known to
yurveda, in a number of instances only to late or very late yurvedic texts.
When only one or more Persian names are provided this need not imply that
the item is completely absent from yurvedic treatises. Late yurvedic texts
use many drugs under their Persian names. Examples of such texts are the
Siddhabheajamaiml, a nineteenth-century work by Karma, the twen- ma, the twen- ma, the twen-
tieth-century Siddhabhaiajyamaj by Jayadeva strin, the twentieth-cen- strin, the twentieth-cen- strin, the twentieth-cen-
tury Siddhaprayogalatik by Gulrjarmamira, the Viikhnupraveavijna
by the same author, and the twentieth-century Lakbhaiajyamaiml by
ryadsa Kumrasiha. The important Arkapraka, ascribed to Rvaa and
of uncertain date, also contains material borrowed from Islamic medicine.
The most important characteristics of section two can best be illustrated by
means of examples.
My transliteration supplies vowels when a virma is absent. The author of
the Hikmatpraka wants these vowels to be pronounced on behalf of the me-
tres and the number of syllables they require. For the sake of consistency this
procedure is also followed with regard to the headings of verses and the prose
of the commentary.
An easily intelligible group of verses, entirely in Sanskrit and dealing with
an important drug, is found at 2.2.321325:

5
A murakkib is a compound medicine.
JAN MEULENBELD 138
sma,
6
sra
7
lahasana,
8
rasota
9

uas triguita rkas tathaiva parikrtita //
balsaksanikhilapavamnmaypaha //
iphpatrakaye sya sthitir rtavasri /
jaryu jaharasth ca nisrayati vegata //
so tiyukta irala vidhatte raktakopana /
nirto badala prjair palur asitetara //
yathdoa smt mtr darpaghna palala smtam //
(Garlic)
10
is declared to be hot to the third degree and dry to the same
(degree).
11

6
Abhinavanighau, p.222: Arabic name som. Achundow 175176 (99) and 359 (81):
thm, Allium sativum L. [this is a valid name]. Ainslie I, 150151: thm, the Arabic
name of Allium Sativum (Lin.) and II, 475476. Al-Biruni 102 (15): Arabic name: thm
and 104, n.16: Allium sativum L. Daljt Siha, 619: Arabic name: sm. Encyclopaedia
of Islamic medicine 45: m, Allium sativum. The correct Arabic name, given by Al-
Kindi (251), the Encyclopaedia, and Schmucker (135), is m.

7
Abhinavanighau, p.222: Persian name r. Achundow 359 (81): sr. Ainslie I, 150151:
sr, the Persian name of Allium Sativum (Lin.). Daljt Siha, 619: the Persian name is
sr. Schlimmer 27: sr, Allium sativum. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, V, 86: the drug Seer
(Lahsan) consists of bulb of Allium sativum Linn.

8
A common name of garlic in Hind is lahsun, the equivalent of Sanskrit launa, as well
as lahsan (see Abhinavanighau, p.222., Dymock et al. III, 488491, and the Unani
Pharmacopoeia I, V, 86) and lehsan (Hamdard, p.76).

9
Rasot is the Hind name of rasjana and never designates garlic; it may be an error
for Sanskrit rasona, a frequent name of garlic. Sanskrit names are absent, but rasota,
if actually an error for rasona, could be meant as a Sanskrit name. The probability that
this must be the case increases when taking into consideration that rasot as the Hind
equivalent of rasjana is separately dealt with at 2.2.414.

10
Allium sativum Linn.

11
The Abhinavanighau (p.222), Achundow (176), Daljt Siha (620) and The Unani
Pharmacopeia (I, V, 87) agree. Carakasahit, Strasthna 27.176: hot and moist.
Dhanvantaryanighau 4.67: hot and moist (snigdha). Rjanighau 7.95: hot.
Nighauratnkara 170: hot and moist.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 139
It removes phlegm,
12
cough
13
and the whole (group) of wind diseases
(pavamnmaya).
14
The fow of the menstrual discharge is made to continue
15
when (the bulb
is kept) in a decoction (kaya) of the leaves on top of it (iphpatra).
16
It
drives out with force a placenta that stays within the womb.
17
Overuse, leading to excitement of blood, gives rise to a violent headache.
Wise men decided that white onions are a substitute.
18

12
Confrmed by Achundow (177) and Daljt Siha (620): lemanisraka.
Dhanvantaryanighau 4.68: kaphmayn hanti. Rjanighau 7.95: kaphavtanud.
Nighauratnkara 171: kaphavinaka.

13
Daljt Siha (620) agrees. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 45: expectorant in whoop- t Siha (620) agrees. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 45: expectorant in whoop- t Siha (620) agrees. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 45: expectorant in whoop-
ing cough and asthma. Nighauratnkara 171: ksa jayet.

14
Confrmed by Achundow 175 and Daljt Siha 620. Carakasahit, Strasthna
27.176: it is vtaghna. Compare Abhinavanighau, p.222: pakavadha, ardita aur
kampko gukart. Dhanvantaryanighau 4.68: anilasda hanti. Nighauratnkara
171: vtaghna. See on wind diseases: Mdhavanidna 22.

15
See Abhinavanighau, p.222: it is called rtavapravartak. Confrmed by Daljt Siha
(220): mtrrtavak pravartan kart, i.e., it brings about the fow of urine and menstrual
discharge. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 45: it is emmenagogue. This is an action
of wild growing garlic according to a source used by Achundow (176).

16
Daljt Siha (620) remarks that both the bulb and the leaves of garlic are used medici- t Siha (620) remarks that both the bulb and the leaves of garlic are used medici- t Siha (620) remarks that both the bulb and the leaves of garlic are used medici-
nally.

17
The actions of garlic, listed in The Unani Pharmacopoeia, are: externally: jali (jl,
detergent), mohallil (muallil, resolvent), muqarreh (muqarri, vesicatory); internally:
muqawwie meda (muqaww mi`da, stomachic), musakkine alam (musakkin alam, reliev-
ing pain) [it may be that the spelling of this term is wrong at 2.2.885: musasvina.],
muqawwie bah (muqaww bh, aphrodisiac) (bh means virility) [it is vya and vryada
in the Nighauratnkara (170).], mudirre baul wa haiz (mudirr baul wa ai) (diuretic
and emmenagogue), muqatte akhlate ghaliza (muqai` alt gal, stopping of thick/
corrupted humours). Actions mentioned in the Abhinavanighau, p.222: othako
layakart (resolving swellings), kntiprada (bestowing beauty), mayak snigdhatko
oakarnevl (drying up the moisture in the stomach), mtrapravartak (diuretic),
sardk karapko lbhakart (useful in earache by the cold), svsthyak sthitikart
(it maintains a healthy state), etc. Carakasahit, Strasthna 27.176: launa is krimi-
ghna, kuhaghna, kilsaghna, gulmanana (see on gulma: Mdhavanidna 28), and
vya. Compare Encyclopaedia of Islam 45 on the actions and uses of garlic. Compare
the commentary on 2.2.478: ksarariyha galja duavtnulomanam, it regularizes
corrupted wind.

18
The Abhinavanighau (p.222) mentions onions (pyj) as the substitute. Daljt Siha
JAN MEULENBELD 140
Tradition says that the dose depends on the doa (involved)
19
and that ground
sesame (palala) is a corrective (darpaghna).
These verses exhibit a number of characteristic features of the descriptions of
the materia medica in section two though this description is incomplete and a
number of features are absent.
Mention of the degrees of hot, cold, moist and dry in a particular substance
is standard. The same can be said of the actions on symptoms and disorders of
the substance itself and in a particular combination or preparation.
Absent here is the enumeration of the actions (akti) of the substance, other-
wise usually present. In such cases the commentary may enumerate them, but
here comments are altogether absent, a rather frequent occurrence.
Daljt Siha (620) mentions as actions: resolvent (muallil)
20
and heat-gen-
erating (musakhkhin badan), (uatjanana).
21
Standard too is the reference to a substitute (Hind badal or Sanskrit prati-
nidhi) and a counteracting substance, a corrective (darpaghna). Substitutes and
correctives may be absent from the text and provided in the commentary or the
commentary gives additional substitutes and correctives.
Correctives mentioned by Daljt Siha are: almond oil, roasted coriander
seeds (skh dhaniy), salt,
22
and boiling in water. The Abhinavanighau
(p.222) enumerates as correctives: katr, coriander seeds, and almond oil.
Islamic medicine acknowledges the existence of four morbifc entities,
called doa in the Hikmatpraka:
23
blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm,
24

whereas yurveda recognizes three such entities, wind (vta), bile (pitta) and
phlegm (kapha or leman). Each of them possesses two properties in Islamic
medicine: blood is (like the element air) hot and moist, yellow bile is (like the
element fre) hot and dry, black bile is (like the element earth) cold and dry,
phlegm is (like the element water) cold and moist.
25
Each drug is hot, cold,
moist or dry to the frst, second, third or fourth degree, which determines its
(620) regards wild onions as a substitute.

19
Achundow (176) explains that the action of garlic depends on ones constitution. The
Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, V, 87) gives 23 g as the dose.

20
Called discutient in the Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine (431).

21
musain means heating; badan is a Persian word for body.

22
See on kinds of salt: Hikmatpraka 2.2.10641068; Hand Book 492494, 501507; E.
Wiedemann I, 712713.

23
See 1.1.67ab.

24
See 1.1.7cd.

25
See 1.1.1011.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 141
actions.
26
Apart from this, each drug has a number of actions, called akti in the
Hikmatpraka. These actions, indispensable in any medical system that is
practised, are, for example, obstructing and de-obstructing, dissolving, pro-
moting blood-clotting, pain-relieving, etc.
27
A characteristic of Islamic medicine is the distinction made between the ac-
tion (akti) itself and its efect. Two diferent technical terms are employed to
designate a particular power and its efect. All these terms are of Arabic origin
and each pair is derived from a common Arabic root with its skeleton of three
consonants.
Mention of one or more substances called darpaghna is standard in the de-
scriptions of the Hikmatpraka. The meaning of darpaghna required in this
text is absent from the Sanskrit dictionaries. Literally, it might mean `break-
ing someones pride. A synonym, darpatana, occurs in the commentary on
2.2.373374. The use of darpaghna is very frequent in the Hikmatpraka and
it has no Persian or Arabic equivalent. Its sense is nowhere explained in the text
or its commentary and has to be deduced from the context. My interpretation
that a counteracting substance, a corrective, is intended is confrmed by Daljt
Siha, who, in his Ynn Dravyagudara, employs the terms darpaghna
and nivraa (= opposing) as synonyms. Further corroboration can be reached
by comparing the properties and actions of the particular darpaghna referred
to in the case of garlic, namely sesame paste, with those of garlic.
Substitutes, in a number of cases called pratinidhi, as in Sanskrit, are not
infrequently enumerated in the commentary when absent from the text or the
commentary may provide additional substitutes.
The action of garlic on phlegm is based on its hotness and dryness for
phlegm is cold and moist. Cough may be regarded as a phlegmatic disease
here. Remarkable is the action on all wind diseases. Though wind is not a
doa in Islamic medicine, wind diseases are repeatedly mentioned in the
Hikmatpraka.
28
In yurvedic medicine, on the other hand, wind diseases
form an important category with many varieties.

26
See 1.1.2023.

27
See 1.1.3557.

28
Examples are: 2.2.736 and 845 (vtaroga), 2.2.1061 (pavanmaya), 3.16 (vtavydhi),
3.27 (vttaka), 3.95 (anilaroga), 3.364 (vtavikra), 3.553 (samraghna).
JAN MEULENBELD 142
This description of garlic in the Hikmatpraka raises the question to which
extent it conforms to what is found in treatises on Islamic medicine and to
which extent it agrees with yurveda.
yurvedic texts like the Dhanvantaryanighau and Rjanighau regard
garlic as heating; the former calls it moist (snigdha) instead of dry. Both trea-
tises consider it to counteract phlegm (kapha), the latter also as counteracting
wind (vta). The other actions mentioned in the Hikmatpraka are not re-
ferred to in the Indian nighaus. Garlic is, however, a very important drug in
yurveda.
29
The verses on garlic are not accompanied by comments, something which
is not rare at all.
The relationship between garlic and its darpaghna, sesame, has now to be
examined. Sesame is found at 2.2.666667ad:
sima 2 hallakunjada
30
til
31

snigdhoo dvigua vyo bhaa puivardhana /
varyo mrdavakd retovddhidas tvakprasdana /
rajapravartaka keya piikvyaganana //
mulayyan mubah aktir muhallil munaij puna /
uttam prastir mtr badal bharjanamardanam /

29
See, for example the launakalpa of the Bower Manuscript and of the Agasagraha
(Uttarasthna 49.160213).

30
One fnds rarely sima, meaning synonym, with a number, in a heading. kunjad is the
Persian name of a sesame grain, Sesamum indicum Linn. [this is a valid name]. Daljt
Siha, 367368: kujad, Sesamum indicum Linn. Schlimmer 508: kunjid. Al-Kindi
286: it is the Kurdish name. Ainslie (II, 255) gives kunjid as the Persian name. Al-
Biruni 191 (47): simsim, called kunjad in Persian and tilah or til in Hind, and 201, n.106:
Sesamum indicum L. Hand Book: absent. The Arabic name, simsim (see Achundow
217, Al-Biruni 191 and Al-Kindi 285) or sumsum (Ainslie II, 255), is absent here, but
occurs at 2.2.1129. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 582: simsim, Sesamum orientale.
Schmucker: absent. Compare on oleum sesami: Flckiger and Hanbury 425427.

31
The Sanskrit name of a sesame seed is tila. See Dymock et al. III, 2633.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 143
It is moist and hot to the second degree,
32
aphrodisiac,
33
and roborant;
34
it
enhances a well-nourished appearance,
35
is benefcial to ones complexion,
gives softness (to the bowels), increases the quantity of sperm, and provides
brightness to the skin;
36
it makes the menses appear, is good for the hair of
the head,
37
and removes boils and spots on the face.
38
Its faculties are laxative (mulayyan),
39
aphrodisiac (mubah),
40
resolvent
(muallil),
41
and munaj.
42
It should be administered in the dose of a prasti.
43
As a substitute one can
employ roasted or crushed (grains).
44
A series of other descriptions will now be discussed as illustrations of the
structure of section two.

32
Abhinavanighau, p.127: hot and moist to the frst degree. Achundow 217 (314): hot and
moist to the frst degree. Daljt Siha 367: hot and tara (snigdha, i.e., moist) to the sec-
ond degree. Carakasahit, Strasthna 27.30: hot and moist. Dhanvantaryanighau
6.123: hot and moist (snigdha). Rjanighau 16. 193: moist and slightly hot (soa).

33
Achundow 217 (314): mit Leinsamen und gerstetem Mohn eingenommen vermehrt es
den Samen. Daljt Siha (367) agrees (vjkara).

34
Abhinavanighau, p.127: sarrko bhaakart. Daljt Siha (367) agrees (bhaa).
Carakasahit, Strasthna 27.30: balya. Dhanvantaryanighau 6.124: balya,
promoting strength. Rjanighau 16.193: balavddhijanana, generating increase of
strength.

35
Daljt Siha (367) agrees: (isse arr paribhit, pua hot), the body becomes well
nourished by it.

36
Dhanvantaryanighau 6.124: it is tvacya. Rjanighau 16.193: it is varavddhijanana.

37
Carakasahit, Strasthna 27.30 and Dhanvantaryanighau 6.124: it is keya, good
for the hairs of the head. Rjanighau 16.193: it is keya.

38
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.127: kle dgok nak, removes black spots.

39
This corresponds to mrdavakt.

40
This corresponds to vya.

41
I.e., causing the resolution of a swelling. Compare Abhinavanighau, p.127: othako
layakart, resolving swellings.

42
This term, mun`i, corresponds to retovddhida and means: causing an erection.

43
The dose is 7 to 12 gm according to Daljt Siha (367).

44
The Abhinavanighau (p.127) mentions roasted grains and honey as correctives. Li-
num usitatissimum Linn. [this is a valid name] (atas) is the substitute according to the
Abhinavanighau (p.127) and Daljt Siha (367).
JAN MEULENBELD 144
hirmila
45
hujuja;
46
halhula;
47
rasjana; rasota
48

2.2.414:
sama vryadvaye rka ekadh netrayor hitam /
muhallil kabja hvis dam aktitrayasamanvitam //
The two vryas are present to the same degree. It is dry to the frst degree
49

and benefcial to the eyes.
50
It is provided with three actions: resolvent
(muallil),
51
astringent (kabja), and styptic (hvis) with respect to blood
(dam).
52

45
The plant name hirmil is problematic in this context. armal denotes the seed of the wild
rue, commonly identifed as Peganum harmala Linn. [this is a valid name], a poisonous
plant; this plant, however, does not suit the context, which requires a non-poisonous sub-
stance that can safely be applied to the eyes. Peganum harmala is described at 2.2.411,
where the name hirmila recurs.

46
This may the same as uu, the name of a plant. Achundow 187 (139): huzuz, Rhamnus
infectorius [the valid name is Rhamnus saxatilis Jacq. = Rhamnus infectoria Linn.], Ly-
cium gallicum of the old pharmacopoeias, and 363 (114): Rhamnus infectorius. Ainslie:
absent. Daljt Siha 385: Arabic alhuzuz, Berberis asiatica Roxb. [valid name: Berberis
asiatica Roxb. ex DC.], Persian huzuz-e-hind. Al-Biruni 256257: flzahraj (elephant
bile): there are three varieties: one is the Indian variety, the second is that which is made
from zarishk, while the third is the Arab variety; the last is rasaut, and 262, n.108 and
111 (zarishk is Berberis aristata DC.); see also 4243 (91): ambarbrs, Berberis vul-
garis Linn. uu hind = an extract of Berberis lycium [valid name: Berberis lycium
Royle]. Compare Al-Kindi 259 (78): ua, identifed as the juice of Lycium afrum Linn.
[Lycium afrum Linn. is a valid name]. rasjana is also a Berberis product. Schmucker
167168 (246): ua, ein sehr vielseitiger Terminus, der aber meist von Rhamnus in-
fectorius L. (Rhamnaceae), Berberis lycium und Verwandten, jedoch auch von deren
Saft gebraucht wird. See also on ua: E. Wiedemann II, 106, 118. See on Rhamnus
saxatilis: Schlimmer 305, s.v. graines de Perse.

47
This word resembles ilil = a wild onion, which, however, does not suit the context.

48
rasot or rasaut is the Hind name of Berberis aristata DC. [this is a valid name]. Com-
pare on Berberis: Dymock et al. I, 6468; Flckiger and Hanbury 3335.

49
Daljt Siha, 386: dry and cold to the frst degree. The Hand Book (191) records that
Peganum harmala is hot to the third degree and dry to the second degree, which indi-
cates that the verses apply to a diferent plant.

50
Daljt Siha (II, 386) agrees.

51
Daljt Siha, 386: vayathuvilayana, resolving swellings.

52
Compare the commentary ad 2.2.689690: akti hvisadam rudhirvaraty artha,
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 145
commentary:
dam khn darpahn nargasa. badal ffala sandala ahamara mm akki
y jfar.
(Arabic) dam = (Persian) n.
The corrective
53
is nargasa.
54
Substitutes are ffal,
55
red sandalwood,
56

the action is styptic, i.e., it covers/restrains blood. The Hand Book (191) lists completely
diferent actions of Peganum harmala.

53
Daljt Siha (386) mentions bijaur or nrag k ark; bijaur designates Citrus medi-
ca var. medica [Citrus medica Linn. var. medica is a valid name] (Daljt Siha 522524)
and nrag denotes Citrus aurantium Linn. [this is a valid name] (Daljt Siha 413);
compare Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 156: nranj, Citrus aurantium. An arka is
obtained by distilling; see on arkas: Arkapraka and yurvedyavivakoa I, 580593.

54
naragasa is described at 2.2.1089. nargas or nargis is the name of a narcissus.
Abhinavanighau, p.143144: Persian name nargis, Arabic name narjis. Achundow 279
(553): nardschis, Narcissus poeticus [valid name: Narcissus poeticus Linn.] and 406:
nardschis, Narcissus. Ainslie: absent. Al-Biruni 321 (16) and 326, n.39: Narcissus tazet-
ta L. [this is a valid name]. Al-Kindi: absent. Daljt Siha 406407: Narcissus tazetta
Linn. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 484: narjis, Narcissus pseudonarcissus [valid
name: Narcissus pseudonarcissus Linn.]. Hand Book: absent. Schlimmer 395: nargas,
Narcissus tazetta. Schmucker 766 (506507).

55
Abhinavanighau, p.246: sup, Persian name popil, Arabic name fofl, Sanskrit name
pga. Achundow 240241 (434): ffal, Areca catechu [valid name: Areca catechu Linn.].
Ainslie I, 6366: catechu from Acacia Catechu (Willd.) and II, 268271: ffal, Areca
Catechu (Lin.). Al-Biruni 256 (47): fawfl and 262, n.106: fufal or fawfal is betle-nut.
Al-Kindi 313 (224): fawfal, betel nut, the seed of Areca catechu Linn. Daljt Siha
690691: Arabic name faufal. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 73: faufal, Areca cat-
echu. Schlimmer 50: ffal, Areca catechu. Schmucker: absent. Unani Pharmacopoeia I,
I, 28: Areca catechu Linn., Arabic name ffal. E. Wiedemann II, 295. ffal is described
at 2.2.891892. Compare Flckiger and Hanbury 607609: semen arecae.

56
sandala ahamara = sandal-e-amar. Achundow 227 (368): sandal, lignum santalinum;
es giebt rothes (von Pterocarpus santalinus) [valid name: Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.f.]
and weisses Santelholz (von Santalum album) [valid name: Santalum album Linn.] and
382 (286). Ainslie I, 376379: Arabic name andal abya, Santalum album (Lin.) and
385386: Arabic name andal amar, Pterocarpus Santalinus (Koen.). Al-Biruni II,
99: andal, Pterocarpus santalinus L. and Adenanthera pavonina L. [this is a valid
name]; I, 206207 (18) and 209, n.35: andal, Santalum album L. Al-Kindi 298299
(183): andal, Santalum album L. (white) and Pterocarpus santalinus L.F. (red). Daljt
Siha, 283284: Arabic name sandal ahmar, Persian name sandal sur, Pterocar-
JAN MEULENBELD 146
mm,
57
akkiy,
58
(and) safron (jfar)
59

The commentary provides in numerous instances the Persian equivalent of a
Sanskrit or an Arabic word. On this occasion it gives khn as the Persian word
for blood, which is dam in Arabic.
The corrective(s) are added in the commentary since they are absent from
the verses.
pus santalinus Linn. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 570: andal, Santalum album.
Hamdard 412: safaid sandal, the Urdu name of Santalum album Linn. Schlimmer: 499:
andal safaid, Santalum album, andal sur, Santalum rubrum. Schmucker 282283
(461): andal abya and andal amar; 284-286. See on sandal in the Muslim world:
E. Wiedemann II, 910, 252254, 263, 270271, 377. Compare Flckiger and Hanbury
540545: lignum santali; Hobson-Jobson 789790; Maclean 782783.

57
This may be mm. See on this plant in the Muslim world: E. Wiedemann II, 115116.
Achundow 272273 (524): mmt, Glaucium corniculatum Curt. [valid name: Glau-
cium corniculatum (Linn.) Rudolph], and 403: mmt, mmth, Glaucium. Ainslie:
absent. Al-Biruni II, 61: mmth, Glaucium favum L. [valid name: Glaucium favum
Crantz]; I, 300 (6) and 313, n.12: mamth, Argemone mexicana [Argemone mexicana
Linn. is a valid name] and Glaucium corniculatum Kust. Al-Kindi 332 (279): identi-
fed as Glaucium corniculatum. Daljt Siha 575576: mms, Glaucium. Schlimmer:
absent. Schmucker 453454: idem, identifed as Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt. or
Glaucium favum CR. or Glaucium luteum Scop. [Glaucium luteum Scopoli is a valid
name = Chelidonium glaucium L.].

58
Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. [valid name: Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile = Acacia ara-
bica (Lam.) Willd.]. See Achundow 153 (41): aqqij, succus acaciae: es giebt zwei
Arten: rothen und schwarzen; diese beiden Arten sind ausgepresst aus Mimosa nilotica
[valid name: Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile subsp. nilotica = Mimosa nilotica Linn.];
243 (448): qaraz, Mimosa nilotica. Al-Biruni 3738 (80) and 64, n.245: aqqiy, sev-
eral species of Acacia. Al-Kindi 234 (19): aqqiy. Daljt Siha 493494: Acacia ara-
bica. Schmucker 83 (61): aqqiy, Acacia arabica Willd. var. nilotica Del. Compare
yurvedyavivakoa I, 1416.

59
See on safron: 2.2.561564.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 147
jdadarakhta
60
darakhtanhaka
61
/ picumanda
62
/ nmba
63

2.2.46:
tetaro dviguita rkatriguita tath /
tvag asya srotas rodhahar asava srad //
It is hot to the second degree and dry to the third degree.
64
Its bark removes
obstructions to the channels and bestows their essential power to the chan-
nels transporting vital breaths.
65

60
Steingass: zddirat (the free tree), no identifcation. Achundow (152 (36)) describes
Melia azedarach [valid name: Melia azedarach Linn.] as zdracht; this is noteworthy
for that tree is usually called mahnimba, whereas Melia azadirachta is an old botanic
name of nimba. See on Melia azedarach Linn.: Dymock et al. I, 330332. Ainslie II,
453457: Melia Azadirachta (Lin.). Al-Biruni 2123 (35) and 58 (95) identifes zd
dirakht as Melia azedarach L. Al-Kindi: absent. yurvedyavivakoa (II, 914): zd
darat, Melia azedarach Linn., mahnimba and zd-darat-hind, Melia Azadi-
rachta Linn., nimba. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 453: zddarat, Melia aze-
darach. Schlimmer (366) records under Melia azedarach none of the names in this
heading. Schmucker: absent. E. Wiedemann II, 374: zdaracht, Melia azedarach.

61
This name is absent from my sources.

62
This is a synonym of nimba and mahnimba and can also designate the plant usually
called kirtatikta, Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) H.Karsten.

63
nimba is generally identifed as Azadirachta indica A.Juss. = Melia azadirachta Linn.
See, for example, Dymock et al. I, 322330 and Flckiger and Hanbury 135137. The ac- ckiger and Hanbury 135137. The ac- ckiger and Hanbury 135137. The ac-
tions and indications mentioned by Mahdevadeva resemble more those of mahnimba
than those of nimba. The absence of any reference to the bitterness of nimba supports
this view.

64
Abhinavanighau, p.167: mahnimba is hot and dry to the third degree. Unani Phar-
macopoeia I, IV, 101: hot and dry. Dhanvantaryanighau 1.30 and Rjanighau 9.45:
nimba is cold. Dhanvantaryanighau 1.32 and Rjanighau 9.47: mahnimba is cold.
Sohalanighau, Guasagraha 127cd: mahnimba is dry and cold.

65
The Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, IV, 101) records the following actions of the bark: mo-
hallil (resolvent), musakkin (relieving/sedative), mulaiyin (laxative), munzij (coctive),
musaf (purifying), daf-e-bukhar (removing fever, bur; see on fevers in Islamic
medicine: Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 268276.), daf-e-tafun (removing fetid-
ness, ta`afun), qatil-e-jaraseem (qtil-e-jarsm, killing pleurisy, jirsm), qatil-e-kirm-
e-shikam (qtil-e-kirm-e-ikam, killing intestinal parasites).
See on parasites: Mdhavanidna 7. See on intestinal parasites and their treatment in
Islamic medicine: Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 330332. The action called mu-
JAN MEULENBELD 148
commentary:
tvak posta / asava sirasabaddh cevhinyo dhamanya.
(Sanskrit) tvac (is the same as Persian) post.
66
The asava are channels of the head, carrying (the impulses to make) move-
ments.
2.2.4748:
kvtho sya patrasabhta klant keakatm /
nirantara vidhatte tha laghno mkiknvita //
kalko sya maricai pta kaghna piikpaha //
A decoction of its leaves blackens the hairs of the head immediately when
used for washing (them) and, mixed with mkika,
67
cures piercing pain. Its
paste, drunk together with marica,
68
removes itching and drives away boils.
commentary:
la klija / asfd julriss suped kagar.
A piercing pain is (called) qlinj (in Persian).
sakkin may be related to musaskhin, explained diferently in the comments ad 2.2.691:
kuvvat musaskhin arromapravardhin aktir ity artha, i.e, the action (kuwwat is the
Arabic equivalent of akti) (called) musaskhin consists of increasing the body heat.

66
Both terms mean bark (of a tree).

67
Iron pyrites. See on mkika: Hand Book 459460; Nadkarni II, 6667.

68
Piper nigrum Linn. Described at 2.2.881883.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 149
Lead carbonate,
69
(the substance) containing lead,
70
(designates) lead car-
bonate
71
from Kashgar.
2.2.4950:
asto viuddha veta ca surabh rkatala /
trigua dvigua cpi klita tavri //
sitopalena sayukto netrayor ajito nbhi /
dhakajalasrvanana odhana param //
It is recommended after purifcation, when white, fragrant, dry and cold.
After washing with cold water it is (dry and cold) to the third or also to the
second degree.
When white sugar
72
is added to it, it annihilates, applied to the eyes as a col-
lyrium, a burning sensation, itching. and a watery discharge.
commentary:
sitopala nabtta mir.
sitopala is an Egyptian plant (nabtt).
73

69
Achundow 153 (38): isfddsch, Cerussa, Bleiweiss, and 315 (4): isfddsch, Cerusa,
Bleiweiss. Ainslie I, 534535: asfdj, the Arabic name, sufdah, the Persian name of
plumbi subcarbonas, white oxide of lead, or cerusse. Hand Book 476: Arabic name
isfedaj. Nadkarni II, 8586: plumbi carbonas, white lead, Arabic name isfedaj, Persian
name sufeadba. Steingass: isfedj, white water, ceruse, a paint used by women. E. Wi-
edemann I, 712: isfdg; II, 16; 272: Bleiweisz, isfdq.

70
Achundow 319 (3): rass, Plumbum, Blei; das Wort Rass bedeutet im Arabischen
Zinn und Blei, welche Metalle durch einen Zusatz von abjaz (weiss) oder aswad (schwarz)
von einander unterschieden werden. Hand Book 474: ressas is the Arabic name of lead.
Steingass: ri is lead or tin. Compare on ra: E. Wiedemann I, 702703. Lead is
described at 2.2.1819: nra suruva / . l-ri is literally the possessor of
lead.

71
Hand Book 476: sufeadba is its Persian name. Steingass: safed, white lead.

72
See on sugar: Achundow 375376; Ainslie I, 407411; Flckiger and Hanbury 649657.
See on the history of sugar: Wiedemann II, 137146; 178; 305313; 408414.

73
This implies that cane sugar was imported from Egypt.
JAN MEULENBELD 150
srna
74
tagara
75

2.2.5254:
mla tavieasya rkoa trigua smtam /
sugandhi granthila asta tanuntanupcakam //
othdn layakd visphodn ca pkakt /
mtr dirama misklvadhir etasya krtit //
muslih mabja saprokt hy aneke badala
76
smt /
This root
77
of a particular kind of grass
78
is traditionally said to be dry and
hot to the third degree.
79
It is recommended when fragrant
80
and knotted,
81


74
Achundow 148, nr. 17: asrn, Asarum europaeum [Asarum europaeum Linn. is
a valid name]; two kinds: black and white, with a preference for the black type, and
339340. Ainslie I, 2324: srn, Asarum Europaeum (Lin.). Al-Biruni I, 23 (37):
asrn and 59, n.109: Asarum europaeum L. Al-Kindi 227 (4): Asarum europaeum
L. yurvedyavivakoa I, 753754: asrn, Asarum europaeum. Daljt Siha 4647
(asrna): Asarum europaeum Linn. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 7778: srn,
Asarum europaeum. Hamdard 415: asarun, identifed as Valeriana hardwicki De. [this
name is not valid; valid name: Valeriana hardwickii Wall.]. Hand Book: absent. Schlim-
mer 60: srn m, Asarum Europaeum. Schmucker 62 (20): asrn, Asarum euro-
paeum L. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 15 and II, I, 220221: the drug Asaroon consists
of the dried rhizomes of Asarum europaeum Linn.

75
Daljt Siha gives praska tagara as its Sanskrit name. Hamdard 415: taggar is an
Urdu name of asarun. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI,, 15: taggar is the Hind name of
asrn. Absent from Sherif. Hamdard identifes tagara as Valeriana hardwickii, i.e.,
Valeriana hardwickii Wall., the Unani Pharmacopoeia as Valeriana jatamansi Jones
[valid name] = Valeriana wallichii DC. See on Valeriana wallichii DC. as the Indian
kind of srn in Islamic medicine: Dymock et al. II, 238240. Asarum spp. are not
known from yurvedic literature and are not indigenous to India.

76
This should be a plural.

77
Daljt Siha also regards the roots as the part used in medicine.

78
This qualifcation does not agree with the identifcation as Asarum europaeum, which
plant belongs to the Aristolochiaceae.

79
Achundow (148 and 340) agrees. The yurvedyavivakoa calls it hot and dry to the
end of the second degree; it adds that others regard it as hot to the third and dry to the
second or third degree. Daljt Siha describes it as dry and hot to the second degree.
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 16: hot and dry.

80
Achundow (148) mentions that the most fragrant kind is the one with thin stalks.

81
See Watt I, 337: the root is knotted and twisted.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 151
and it does not maturate the body when having a thin (stalk). (?)
(srn)
82
dissolves swellings
83
and similar (disorders) and matures blisters,
etc.
Its dose is said to be from a dirham up to a miskl.
84
(Its) actions are corrective (muslih) and mabj.
85
Several substitutes are
known.
te ca yath
tanmtrrdhapramena vackarcrangaram //
These (substitutes) are as follows: vac,
86
karcra
87
and ngara;
88
they are

82
See on the uses in India of this plant, not indigenous to the country and imported from
Iran: Ainslie I, 24 and Watt I, 337338.

83
Achundow (148): es unterdrckt Schwellungen der Leber und der Milz. Daljt Siha
agrees in regarding it as vayathuvilayana, resolving swellings. The yurvedyavivakoa
(I, 754) expresses a similar opinion.

84
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 16: its dose is 3 g. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 444:
a dirham is 3.125 gm, a miql is 4.464 gm.

85
This may be an error for mub, aperient. Ainslie mentions that it is mufatti, i.e., de-
obstruent and muallil, i.e., resolvent. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 16: its actions are
moharrik-e-asab (muarrik-e-`aab, nerve stimulant), mudirr-e-baul (diuretic), mudirr-
e-haiz (emmenagoue). Compare yurvedyavivakoa I, 754.

86
Usually identifed as Acorus calamus Linn. [this is a valid name]. Achundow (281) re-
gards this plant as Iris pseudacorus [valid name: Iris pseudacorus Linn.]. Schmucker
(528) remarks that Iris pseudacorus L. and Calamus asiaticus should also be considered
as possible identifcations. See on vac: Abhinavanighau, p.168; Achundow 281 (564):
wadsch; Ainslie I, 416419: vudge, Acorus calamus (Lin.); Al-Biruni 334 (2): wajj and
338, n.2: Acorus calamus L.; Al-Kindi 343344 (316): Arabic name wajj, Acorus cala-
mus L.; Daljt Siha 483485: Arabic name al-wajj; Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine
29: al-wajj, Acorus calamus; Hamdard 354: Acorus calamus Linn., Arabic name vaj;
Schlimmer 9899: waj, Calamus asiaticus; Schmucker 528530 (796): Arabic name
wajj. vac is described at 2.2.11151119: vaja vac / khursn. Compare on Acorus
calamus: Flckiger and Hanbury 613616.

87
Usually identifed as Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe [this is a valid name], some-
times as Hedychium spicatum Buch.-Ham. [this is a valid name]. yurvedyavivakoa
III, 1908: karcra, zarambd, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe, Curcuma zerumbet Roxb.
See: Daljt Siha 405: the same as the Persian jarambda. Compare Achundow 329
(14): zarwr, an error for zadwr, radix Zedoariae.

88
The rhizome of Zingiber ofcinale Roscoe, ginger.
JAN MEULENBELD 152
taken in half the quantity referred to.
89
commentary:
jarabda karcra jajabla ngara v aaaparimit hamm
bheajaviea. kirdamn y havvavalas y nisfavajana khlij ity
ete pratinidhaya kryavieapar lepena akti salvat tihla yne
saratsiyarja plha (sic!) pruya tpatill tigada prathita akti
mufattiha sudd musakkin irakunnis gdhras rghaa nmmayas
tadvedannana ca. vajrulvarak dardasurna kainitambajaghanap
tannibarhaa ca.
jarabda
90
is (Sanskrit) karcra

89
Achundow (148) mentions as substitutes Iris pseudacorus, together with half the quan-
tity of Nardus indica [valid name: Microchloa indica (Linn.f.) P.Beauv. = Nardus in-
dica Linn.f.], and Artemisia absinthium [valid name: Artemisia absinthium Linn.]. The
yurvedyavivakoa (I, 753) enumerates as correctives: kulijana and uh.

90
Achundow 213214 (293): zirwend, Aristolochia longa [this is not a valid name] and
Aristolochia rotunda [valid name: Aristolochia rotunda Linn.], and 374375 (234):
zirwend, Aristolochia (with a discussion of the various types distinguished). Ainslie II,
298302: no Persian or Arabic name, Aristolochia indica (Lin.) [valid name: Aristolo-
chia indica Linn.]. Al-Biruni II, 9495: zarwand, Aristolochia bracteata Retz. [valid
name: Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. = Aristolochia bracteata Retz.]; II, 107 (9): jadwr
and 116, n.16: Curcuma zedoaria L. Al Kindi 273274 (123): zarwand mudarij, Aris-
tolochia rotunda L. Daljt Siha 326327: identifed as Aristolochia indica Linn. and
Aristolochia bracteolata Lam.; the former is known as kamr, the latter as var in
Sanskrit; both are used in yurveda. Aristolochia indica is also regarded as the yurvedic
nkul and gandhankul (see Singh and Chunekar 219). Encyclopaedia of Islamic medi-
cine 74: zarwand, Aristolochia. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, V, 109: the drug Zarawand
hindi consists of dried root of Aristolochia indica Linn. (cf. II, II, 266); II, I, 259 and II,
II, 266: zarawand taweel consists of the tuberous rhizomes of Aristolochia longa Linn.
See on Aristolochia indica Linn.: Dymock et al. III, 158163, on Aristolochia bracteata
Retz.: Dymock et al. III, 163166. Hamdard 380381: zhadvar is the Arabic and Persian
name of Delphinium denudatum Wall. [valid name: Delphinium denudatum Wall. ex
Hook.f. et Thomson]. Hand Book: absent. Schlimmer 556: jarambd, Zedoaria zerum-
bet. Schmucker 139 (189): jadwr, Curcuma zedoaria [valid name Curcuma zedoaria
(Christm.) Roscoe = Curcuma zerumbet (Berg.) Roxb.]. Cf. Ainslie I, 490: zarambd,
Curcuma Zerumbet, the same as Sanskrit karcra and 490494: jadwr, Curcuma Ze-
doaria (Roxb.), which is the same as Sanskrit nirvi. Daljt Siha 405406: Curcuma
zedoaria (Christm.) Rosc. Used in yurveda. See on Curcuma zedoaria: Dymock et al.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 153
and jajabla,
91
or
92
(Sanskrit) ngara,
93
or hamm
94

in the measure of a sixth part (constitute) a particular medicine.(?)
95

Substitutes are kirdamn,
96
havvavalas,
97

III, 399403. See also E. Wiedemann II, 14: zurunbd. jadavraka, the same as jadwar,
is found in the Siddhabhaiajyamaj (jvara 81) (see G. Jan Meulenbeld IIA, 401 and
note 344 on 412). The Siddhaprayogalatik (8.16) is also acquainted with jadavra.

91
See 2.2.571574.

92
I.e., is identical with.

93
See 2.2.571574

94
Achundow 185 (135) and 362 (110): amm, Amomum der alten Griechen, Cissus vi-
tiginea L. [this is a valid name]. Al-Biruni 129 (69): umma and 136, n.84: humm
or hamm, Dionysia diapensiaefolia Boiss. [valid name: Dionysia diapensiifolia
Boiss.]. Daljt Siha 716717: Dionysia diapensiaefolia Boiss., the Amomum of Ynn.
Schmucker 171 (252).

95
Noteworthy is the absence of vac in this enumeration of drugs.

96
Achundow 245 (461): qardamn, Lagoecia cuminoides [valid name: Lagoecia cumi-
noides Linn.], Hasenkmmel, and 392 (348) (with a discussion of its identity and the
possibility of confusion with qardann, a variously identifed plant). Ainslie: absent.
Al-Biruni 266 (18): qardimn, qurdimn, or qirdimn and 273, n.46: hemlock, Co-
nium maculatum L. [this is a valid name]; compare on this plant: Flckiger and Han- ckiger and Han- ckiger and Han-
bury 266267. Al-Kindi: absent. Daljt Siha 191 (kirdimn): the wild type of kury,
Carum carvi Linn. [this is a valid name]; compare on this plant: Flckiger and Han- ckiger and Han- ckiger and Han-
bury 271274. Hand Book: absent. Schlimmer: Persian name of Carum carvi is zirah
siy. Schmucker 338339 (565): qardamn, Lagoecia cuminoides L., wilder Kmmel,
Hasenkmmel. Unani Pharmacopoeia II, I, 259 and II, II, 267: zeera siyah consists of
the seeds of Carum carvi Linn.

97
Achundow 165166 (71) and 199200: balasn, Amyris gileadensis [valid name: Com-
miphora gileadensis (Linn.) C.Chr. = Amyris gileadensis Linn.]; 351352 (58): balasn:
Balsam von Mekka oder von Gilead, stammend von Balsamodendron Opobalsamum
Kth. [valid name: Commiphora gileadensis (Linn.) C.Chr.] d.h. von einer Variett der
Amyris gileadensis L. s. Balsamodendron gileadense Kth.; 351353. Ainslie I, 2628
and 277280: bulsn, Amyris giliadensis (Lin.). Al-Biruni II, 7980: balasn, balm
from Commiphora opobalsamum Engl. [valid name: Commiphora gileadensis (Linn.)
C.Chr. = Commiphora opobalsamum (Linn.) Engl.], Balsamodendron Gileadense, or
Balsamum judaicum; I, 7375 (23) and 84, n.53: balasn, balm of Gilead, balsam of
Mecca tree, Commiphora opobalsamum Engl. Al-Kindi 245 (43): balasn, balm of
Gilead, Commiphora opobalsamum Engl. Daljt Siha 499500: valas is identi-
fed as Commiphora gileadensis (Linn.) C.Chr. = Commiphora opobalsamum (Linn.)
Engl. Hamdard 363: akulla-balasan is the Arabic name of the balm from Balsamoden-
JAN MEULENBELD 154
half a wazn
98
of khlij
99
are highly able to perform particular actions in an
ointment.
The action on hardness (albat) of the spleen (il) or
100
of the spleen,
roughness of the spleen, tpatill,
101
,
102
is well known. Its actions
103
are
104

deobstruent (mufatti)
105
with regard to obstructions (sudd), relieving
(musakkin) with respect to the disease irakunnis, called (gdhras)
106
and
dron opobalsamum Kunth. Schlimmer 72: balasn: balsamum. Schmucker 118 (139):
balasn, Mecca balm, Commiphora opobalsamum Engl. E. Wiedemann II, 121122:
balsn, 374375: balasn.

98
nisfavajana. Daljt Siha: absent. See 2.2.165, commentary: nisfavajana rughassa.
vajana is Persian wazn, a measure of weight; nisf is a half. Achundow 218 (318): ss,
Glycyrrhiza glabra [valid name: Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.]. Ainslie I, 199200: uul
ss, liquorice root, Glycyrrhiza glabra (Lin.). Al-Biruni 195196 (62): ss and 203
(147): the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Al-Kindi 288289: ss, Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Daljt Siha 584586: alss, the Arabic name of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Encyclopae-
dia of Islamic medicine 406407: `irq al-ss, Liquiritia ofcinalis. Hamdard 387388:
soos, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Schmucker 253 (409): ss, Glycyrrhiza glabra. Schlim-
mer 347: rubbus-ss, extract of liquorice. See on rubb: E. Wiedemann II, 123. Compare
on radix glycyrrhizae and succus glycyrrhizae: Flckiger and Hanbury 156162.

99
Achundow 196 (179): chlindschn, Alpinia galanga [valid name: Alpinia galanga
(Linn.) Sw.]; compare 390 (342): qust. Ainslie I, 140142: linjn, Alpinia galanga
(Lin.). Al-Kindi 265 (93): lanjn, Alpinia ofcinarum Hance [this is a valid name].
Daljt Siha 192194 (kulajana), identifed as Alpinia ofcinarum Hance. Encyclopae-
dia of Islamic medicine 303: lajn, Alpinia ofcinarum. Hamdard 357358: khulan-
jan is the Urdu name of Alpinia galanga Willd. Hand Book 250256: Alpinia galanga
(Linn.) Sw. Schlimmer 3: lanjn, Alpinia galanga. Schmucker 188 (285): linjn,
Alpinia ofcinarum. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, II, 67: khulanjan consists of the dried rhi-
zomes of Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Sw. Compare Flckiger and Hanbury 580582: (rhi-
zoma galangae).

100
I cannot interpret saratsiyarja.

101
Induration or enlargement of the spleen, attended with or preceded by fever, splenitis
(Platts).

102
The meaning of tigada is not clear.

103
Compare Achundow (213214), Daljt Siha (326327) and Hand Book (255) on the
therapeutic uses.

104
Compare Hand Book 254.

105
The Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine (432) interprets this term as aperient.

106
The Sanskrit name of sciatica.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 155
rghaa,
107
removing the pain those give rise to. vajrulvarak
108
removes
pain (dard) in the region of hips and buttocks (surn).
109
2.2.55:
vikrn aityasabhtn irobaddhairbhavn /
aanl lepand dhanti nhram iva bhskara //
It annihilates morbid changes arising from cold and located in the channels
of the head by ingesting it (or) applying it as an ointment, in the same way as
the sun drives away the fog.
commentary:
vikra illat irobaddhairaitya vandata asabn (jnatantu).
110
The disorder
111
is coldness of the vessels connected to the head, relaxation
112

of the nerves (threads carrying information).
2.2.5657:
miskla tritaya cra mlasalasayutam /
sndralemavirekrtha hita prokta kriyparai //
yne varya isahl vste dtasvalmlajuj /
myulasala umbhakaudrasayogasdhitam /
pravartaka ca mtrasya rajasa ca nigadyate //
Its dose is three miskl as a powder to which asal
113
water is added.

107
alhaa mentions raghi as a popular name of sciatica.

108
Al-Biruni II, 87: the seeds (bajr) of barakah, Nigella sativa Sibthorp [valid name: Ni-
gella sativa Linn.] or Agrostemma githago L. [this is a valid name]. Ainslie does not
record the name varaka for Nigella sativa (I, 128). Another plant called varaka may
be described at 2.2.1130: varaka - somana / varaga jambak; jambuk is the rose-apple,
called jamb in Sanskrit, and identifed as Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels [this is a
valid name]; waraq, however, is a Persian word for the leaf of a tree.

109
surn is followed by Sanskrit terms for the same region: hips (kai) and hinder parts
(nitamba and jaghana). Both nitamba and jaghana denote the hinder parts.

110
Persian/Arabic `asab means sinew, tendon, nerve. muscle.

111
`illat is a term for disease.

112
vandat may be related to the verb wan, to be sluggish, to relax.

113
Daljt Siha 471: asal is the Arabic name of Tamarix articulata Vahl [valid name: Tama-
rix aphylla (Linn.) H.Karst.]. Ainslie: absent. Al-Biruni 16 (14): al and 56, n.34: Tama-
JAN MEULENBELD 156
The experts in treatment declare it to be benefcial with a view to the expecto-
ration of viscid phlegm, or with regard to a moderate
114
form of diarrhoea,
115

when amla
116
The water of asal, prepared by adding hot water and honey,
117
is said to pro-
mote urination and the appearance of the menses.
anyac ca
Another preparation
2.2.58:
pia gopayas bastau jaghane ca pralepant /
retastambhakara cpi kusumeu pradpanam /
phupphusasya smta vaidyair bhyiha doakrakam //
Crushed with cows milk and applied as a paste on bladder and hinder parts
it brings about the retention of semen and excites sexual desires.
The vaidyas regard it as mostly deleterious to the lungs.
118
commentary:
phupphusa aa phepa bhym
The lungs (phupphusa) are called u (in Persian) and phepa
119
in the
vernacular.
rix dioica Roxb. [valid name Tamarix dioica Roxb. ex Roth]. Al-Kindi 229230 (9): `asal,
a kind of rush; it may be Juncus acutus L. [this is a valid name], others identify it as
Arundo festucoides Desf. [this is not a valid name] and Arundo tenax Vahl [valid name:
Ampelodesmos mauritanicus (Poir.) Durand et Schinz = Arundo tenax Vahl]. Schlimmer
528: abb al-al, Tamarix mannifera [valid name: Tamarix nilotica (Ehrenb.) Bunge =
Tamarix mannifera (Ehrenb.) Bunge]. asal has to be distinguished from `asal, honey. Al-
Biruni II, 100: asal, honey; II, 225 (16): asal, honey. Al-Kindi 304 (200): asal, honey.

114
war`, war`at = moderate.

115
ishl = diarrhoea (see yurvedyavivakoa II, 14201421).

116
I cannot interpret dtasvalmlajuj. juz` means a part or portion (of amla).

117
asal, honey, will be meant here, not the tree called asal.

118
Daljt Siha (327) mentions the spleen, not the lungs.

119
This is the Hind term for lung.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 157
ustkhadasa
120
hasapharam
121
psaphulakhha pupaviea
122

2.2.5961:
uam ekagua rka dvigua praktau smtam /
aktir mulattifa prokt mufattih musalih tath //
saud doasya nitar mukavv dil mufarraha /
asta rakta mank kicit pla tiktaka rase /
diramadvayam
123
etasya mtr v diramatrayam /

120
Achundow 147 (15): ustuchudus, identifed as Lavandula stoechas [valid name: Lavan-
dula stoechas Linn.], and 339 (13) (with a discussion on its identity). Ainslie: absent.
Al-Biruni II, 72: askhdhus, Lavandula stoechas Linn.; I, 2324 (38): astkhuds and
59, n.114: Lavandula stoechas L. Al-Kindi: absent. Daljt Siha 9091: ustkhu(kh)
ds, identifed as Lavandula stoechas Linn. yurvedyavivakoa II, 16741679: usto-
khddas, ustokhds, Lavandula stoechas Lavi. Hamdard 397: the Arabic name of
Lavandula stoechas Linn. is ustukhudusa, the Urdu name ustukhuddus. Hand Book:
absent. Schlimmer 342: usds, Lavandula stoechas. Schmucker 66 (28): usds,
idem. Lavandula stoechas is absent from classical yurvedic literature; it is described as
ustakhudds in the Abhinavanighau (p.25).

121
The occurrence of this name in this context is puzzling; there is no close relationship
between the genera Lavandula and Ocimum though both belong to the same family (La-
miaceae). Abhinavanighau, p.128: hasiparam, the same as suras, Ocimum basili-
cum Linn. or Ocimum tenuiforum Linn. Achundow 226 (362): schhisfaram, Ocimum
minimum. Ainslie: absent. Al-Biruni 346347 (7): shh safaram and 368 (20): Ocimum
basilicum L. Al-Kindi 290291 (163): hsifaram, Ocimum minimum L. [this is a valid
name] or Ocimum basilicum L. [this is a valid name]. yurvedyavivakoa II, 1675:
ha safaram, Lavandula stoechas Lavi. Hamdard 407: shahasfaram, the Arabic name
of Ocimum basilicum Linn. Daljt Siha (372374) records other names of Ocimum
basilicum. Schlimmer 409: hisfaram, Ocymum basilicum [this is not a valid name].
Schmucker 259 (417): hsifaram, Ocimum minimum L. See also E. Wiedemann II,
301 on schaschfaram, rain, abaq and their botanical identities.

122
I.e., a particular fower; the meaning of psaphulakhha is not clear. The Abhinava-
nighau (p.25) gives damanaka as the Sanskrit name of ustakhudds. Classical
yurvedic texts do not mention damanaka. This plant is usually identifed as an Arte-
misia species, mostly as Artemisia sieversiana Willd. [this is a valid name] or Artemisia
indica Willd. [this is a valid name], sometimes as Artemisia vulgaris Linn. [this is a valid
name]. A text acquainted with it is the Kmastra (4.1.29). See on it: Dhanvantarya-
nighau 3.6466; Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 15691570; Rjanighau 10.119
122; Bhvaprakanighau, pupavarga 6768.

123
The edition has the erroneous reading diramadvaya yam, with yam as an extra ninth
JAN MEULENBELD 158
kvthe hafta 7 diram prokt tavkh matbkhanmani //
It is traditionally regarded as being hot to the frst degree, dry to the second
degree with regard to its nature.
124
The actions are attenuant
125
(mulaif )
126
and also deobstruent (mufatti)
127

and corrective (muslih).
The actions tonic (mukavv) with respect to the heart (dil) and exhilarating
(mufarrah)
128
(annihilate) the doa black bile completely.
129
Recommended is the slightly red one and the one somewhat resembling a
pala fower in colour,
130
which is bitter in taste.
The dose of this (drug) is two or three dirham.
131
(The dose) of a decoction, called tavkh and matbkh,
132
is said to be seven
dirham.
commentary:
jond iti ca.
I.e., a decoction (jonda).
2.2.6264:
samaga-arab tu darpaghna katr py athav bhavet /
hamm vrajad v pi mukla v y ikajav //
syllable in the pda.

124
Achundow 147 (15); hot and dry to the second degree. Daljt Siha 91: hot to the frst
degree and dry to the second degree. The yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1675-1676) men- yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1675-1676) men- yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1675-1676) men- yavivakoa (II, 1675-1676) men- yavivakoa (II, 1675-1676) men- vakoa (II, 1675-1676) men- vakoa (II, 1675-1676) men-
tions a series of diferent opinions on the degrees of hotness and dryness.

125
I.e., thinning secretions.

126
The Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine (431) renders this term as assuasive.

127
Daljt Siha 91: pramthin, i.e., producing secretion of the vessels (mufatti). The
yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1676) calls it vilyaka (resolving) and avarodhodghaka (re-
moving obstructions).

128
Hand Book 254: mufarrih = exhilarant.

129
Achundow (147) agrees. Daljt Siha 91: saudvirecanya, i.e., purgative with respect
to black bile. Compare yurvedyavivakoa II, 1676.

130
The fowers of this tree, Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. [this is a valid name] are
orange-red.

131
Achundow (147) agrees. Daljt Siha 91: fve to seven gm (m).

132
Persian/Arabic tab and matb are terms denoting a decoction (see Al-Biruni 117,
n.61).
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 159
badala faslyna sya aftmn karviy thav /
nirdia kualair nna yathsthna bhiagvarai //
duado chirauddhi vidhatte pasmter haram /
sryvartrdhabheddn aann nasyato haret //
Correctives are
133
samag arab,
134
or also katr,
135
or hamm, vrajad,
136


133
Daljt Siha (91) mentions a arbat, a drink, of nb (juice). Al-Biruni: absent. Nb
designates Citrus aurantifolia (Christmas) Swingle [valid name: Citrus aurantiifolia
(Christm.) Swingle] according to Daljt Siha 422423. The Arabic and Persian name
is lmn.

134
Described at 2.2.740743. Achundow 227 (367): samgh, gummi arabicum and 382
(285): samgh-i arab, gummi arabicum. Ainslie I, 160162: ama `arab, Feronia el-
ephantum (Roxb.) [valid name: Limonia acidissima Linn. = Feronia elephantum Corra]
and, as a substitute, Acacia arabica Willd. [valid name: Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile =
Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd.]. Al-Biruni II, 98: sam arab, gum of Acacia arabica
Willd.; I, 206 (17); 3738 (80) and 64, n.245: several species of Acacia give gummi aca-
ciae. Al-Kindi 234 (19): the resin, gum-arabic, as-samgh al-`arab, from Acacia arabica
Willd. var. nilotica Del. Hand Book 383: Acacia arabica Willd. Daljt Siha 493494:
the gum of Acacia arabica Willd. Schlimmer 307: gummi arabicum, sam arab.
Schmucker 282 (460): am `arab. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 66: samagh-e-arabi
consists of the dried gum obtained from Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Del.; II, I, 250
and II, II, 263: the gummy exudates of the branches of Acacia senegal L. [valid name:
Acacia senegal (Linn.) Willd.] Compare on Acacia arabica Willd.: Hamdard 353354.
See on gummi arabicum also: E. Wiedemann II, 237. Compare on gummi acaciae:
Flckiger and Hanbury 206213.

135
Described at 2.2.931932. See Hamdard 375: Cochlospermum gossypium DC.

136
Galbanum; barzad from Ferula galbanifua Buhse [valid name: Ferula gummosa Boiss.
= Ferula galbanifua Boiss. et Buhse], and waa from Dorema ancheri Boiss. Ainslie
I, 142144: Galbanum, Bubon Galbanum (Lin.), called barzad in Arabic and Persian.
Schmucker 171 (252): amm, Cissus vitiginea L. Achundow 244 (452): qinna, gal-
banum, and 391 (344): brzd, Galbanum; nach Schlimmer hat man zwei Arten des
persischen Galbanum wohl zu unterscheiden: das braune Galbanum stimmt von Ferula
galbanifua Buhse und das weisslichgelbe von Dorema aucheri [this is not a valid name;
Dorema ammoniacum D.Don may be meant; see on this plant: Flckiger and Hanbury
288291]. Al-Kindi 239240: brzad, galbanum, resin of Ferula galbanifua Boiss.
or F. rubricaulis Boiss. [valid name: Ferula pseudalliacea Rech.f.] or another species.
Daljt Siha 333334: Arabic qinna, brzad and Persian barzad: galbanum, the resin
from Ferula galbanifua Boiss. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 268: barzad, qinnah,
Ferula galbanifua. Schlimmer 295296: galbanum; barzad from Ferula galbanifua
JAN MEULENBELD 160
mukla,
137
or ikajav.
138
Substitutes are
139
faslyn,
140
gandan,
141

Buhse, and wa from Dorema ancheri Boiss. [this is not a valid name]. See also E.
Wiedemann II, 235236 (17). Compare on galbanum: Flckiger and Hanbury 285288.

137
Achundow 272 (522): muql, bdellium, Harz eines Balsamodendron, and 402403: muql,
ein Produkt mehrerer Species von Balsamodendron seu Heudelotia Burseraceae, na-
mentlich von Balsamodendron mukul Hook. [valid name: Commiphora wightii (Arn.)
Bhandari = Balsamodendron mukul Hook. ex Stocks] dem indischen Bdelliumbaum,
und von Balsamodendron africanum Ar., dem afrikanischen Balsambaum. Ainslie I,
2931: bdellium (source uncertain), Persian name: muql, Arabic name: afn. Al-Kindi
336 (292) and 328329: muql designates the bdellium, sometimes called false bdellium,
which comes from Balsamodendron mukul Hook., blue bdellium, kr azraq, is probably
the resin of Balsamodendron africanum Arn. Daljt Siha 1314: Arabic name d al-
hind. Hamdard 362: moql, the Arabic name of the gum from Balsamodendron mukul
Hook. Schlimmer 73: bdellium, muql azraq. Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, I, 64): muqil-e-
arzaq, the Arabic name, and boo-e-jahoodan, the Persian name of Commiphora wightii
(Arn.) Bhand. Compare on bdellium: Hobson-Jobson 76; Maclean 7879. See om muql
in the Muslim world: E. Wiedemann II, 107, 119; 237 (25): al muql al azraq (das blaue
Muql, Bdellium).

138
Achundow 376: es ist eine Mischung von Zucker oder Honig oder Traubensaft mit
Rothessig in gleicher Gewichtsmenge, die nach langsamem Kochen als eine syrupartige
Flssigkeit erhalten wird. Al-Kindi 284 (149): oxymel, a mixture of vinegar, salt, honey
and water. yurvedyavivakoa II, 901: sikanjabn, oxymel. Daljt Siha 422423.
Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 172: oxymel, sikanjn. Schlimmer 422: oxymel,
sakanjabn. Schmucker 242 (395): oxymel; Schmucker quotes from Achundow 376.

139
Daljt Siha (91) records as substitutes aftmn or, with a view to purifcation, ayrij;
see on iyrij: 3.2830 and 7881 (ayraj). See yurvedyavivakoa I, 525526: ayrij.
See also Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 168169: laxatives, ayrij. Compare Al
Kindi 238 (28): a compound electuary.

140
This may be farsiyn, Marrubium vulgare Linn. [this is a valid name]. Achundow 240
(425): frsiyn, Marrubium vulgare, and 387 (321): frsiyn, Marrubium. Ainslie: ab-
sent. Al-Biruni 249250 (12) and 258, n.23: fursiyn, Marrubium vulgare L. Al-Kindi:
absent. Daljt Siha 470471: farsiyn, Marrubium vulgare Linn. Encyclopaedia of
Islamic medicine 430: farsiyn, Marrubium. Schmucker 315 (523): farsiyn, Marru-
bium vulgare L. The Hikmatpraka describes at 2.2.866869 a drug called farsayna.

141
Al-Biruni (II, 277 and 286, n.15), Daljt Siha (232233) and Schlimmer (27) give
gandan as the Persian name of Allium porrum L. [this is a valid name] Achundow (394)
once refers to Allium porrum L. as gndn, but another name is kurrth (Achundow
249250). The Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, III, 27) identifes gandana as the dried leaves
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 161
koh,
142
aftmn or karviy.
143
The best among competent physicians prescribe it in conformity with the
seat (of the disorder or the doa ?).
It purifes the head from the corrupted doa and removes convulsive disor-
ders.
144
When ingested or applied as an errhine it frees from sryvarta,
145

ardhvabhedaka
146
and similar (diseases).
147
of Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. [this is a valid name]. See on kurr, Allium porrum
Linn.: Achundow 249250 (476), Al-Kindi 323324 (255), Schmucker 386387 (624).
Ainslie has no entry on Allium porrum.

142
Schlimmer 362363: Marrubium vulgare, farsiyn, gandan-ye-kh. Compare
falsiyn. It may well be that gandan koh designates a gandan growing in the moun-
tains (kh).

143
Compare Achundow 248 (472): karawj, Carum carvi [this is a valid name]. Ainslie: ab-
sent. Al-Biruni: 277 (7) and 286, n.13: karuy, caraway, Carum carvi L.. Al-Kindi: ab-
sent. yurvedyavivakoa III, 2237: karviya, the seeds of Carum varvi. Daljt Siha
191192: karviy, Arabic name of Carum carvi Linn. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medi-
cine 120: karwiyah, Carum carvi. Schlimmer 112: zirah siy is the Persian name of
Carum carvi. Schmucker 387 (625): karwiy`, Carum carvi L. Unani Pharmacopoeia
I, I, 92: zeera siyah, karoya, Arabic names of Carum carvi Linn.

144
In conformity with Daljt Siha 91.

145
This disease is described in the Carakasahit, Siddhisthna 9.7983. Cakrapi com- i com- i com-
ments that the pain in the head it brings about increases by the heat of the sun and not
by other forms of heat. It is interpreted as a kind of neuralgia in the translation of the
Gulabkunverba team.

146
This disease is described in the Carakasahit, Siddhisthna 9.7478. It is common-
ly interpreted as hemicrania or migraine. See also yurvedyavivakoa I, 636642:
ardhvabhedaka, akkah, hemicrania, migraine.

147
See on other members of this group of diseases of the head: Carakasahit, Siddhisthna
9.7173 (akhaka), 9.8486ab (anantavta), and 9.86cd87 (irakampa).
JAN MEULENBELD 162
commentary:
dua prakupito doa. khilta fsidagalja apasmra. saraya sudura
davvra-daurnasara sryvartdaya irovydhaya. mujira ua-
doa-kt phupphusasyety artha.
A corrupted doa is an excited one; (this is called) khilta fsidagalja (in
Persian).
148
saraya sudura davvradaurnasara
149
designates diseases of
the head like sryvarta and similar ones. mujira ua means that it brings
about a disorder of the u, i.e., the lungs.

148
Persian ilt fsid corresponds to Sanskrit duadoa; galja may be al, a Per-
sian word for gross and foul or dirty, thus laying stress on dua. Compare the com-
mentary ad 2.2.647648: akhalta fsida r pkasjada, i.e., it purifes corrupted
doas. See also the commentary ad 2.2.8890: muhallila akhalta fsida (is in San-
skrit) duadoavaiamyajit, i.e. overcoming an imbalance of corrupted doas; com-
mentary ad 2.2.686ad: kuvvat munakk akhalta fsida mulattifa (is in Sanskrit)
duadoasaodhan, i.e., purifying corrupted doas.

149
The punctuation of the edition is not correct; read: apasmra saraya. The Persian
term saraya, i.e., ar`, (is the equivalent of Sanskrit) apasmra, i.e., epilepsy and other
convulsive disorders (compare the comments ad 2.2.10711075: saraya is apasmti).
Persian dawwr means turning round, rotating. Persian adr designates the highest part
of anything, chief, principal. Persian daurn-e-sar is swimming in the head.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 163
aspagola
150
vejarakatn
151
sesysa
152
ajakhara
153
savagola
154

2.2.6569:
himas triguita snigdho dvigua comanana /
hanyt tat sndrapnya t vnti virecanam //
gao mukhaoaghno mukhapka hared dhruvam /
sadvidyeva mukhastambha rguror anukampay //

150
See Daljt Siha 7577; he gives aspagola as the Persian name of the drug and adds
to it: ikamadarda (ikam is a Persian word for belly) and asparz (uspurz is a Persian
word for spleen). Abhinavanighau, p.9: aspagola is the Persian, bajarkatn the Ara-
bic name. Achundow (348) mentions bazr-qatn and Asperze as names of semen psyl-
lii, the same as the seeds of Plantago ovata [valid name: Plantago ovata Forssk.]. Ainslie
II, 116117: ispal, Plantago ispaghula (Flem.) [valid name: Plantago ovata Forssk. =
Plantago ispaghul Roxb.]. yurvedyavivakoa II, 14071415: isabgol, Plantago ispa-
ghula Roxb., Plantago ovata Forsk. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 524525: bir
qan, Plantago psyllium. Hamdard 411412: ispagol, the Persian name of the seeds of
Plantago ovata Forsk. Schlimmer (462) mentions the Persian name asfarzah for Plan-
tago psyllium [valid name: Plantago arenaria Waldt. et Kit. = Plantago psyllium Linn.].
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, II, 13: aspaghol consists of the mature, dried seeds of Plantago
ovata Forssk., Arabic name bazr qatuna, Persian name aspghol. Compare Dymock et al.
III, 126127: isbaghol; Flckiger and Hanbury 440441 (semen ispaghulae).

151
Compare Achundow 348 and Schlimmer 462: bazr-e-qan, Plantago psyllium.
yurvedyavivakoa II, 1407: bazr-e-qatn, asfarja.

152
This word has remained unintelligible.

153
This word has remained unintelligible.

154
Daljt Siha (75) gives isavagola and isaragola as its Hind names. The Sanskrit
names he records are: adgola, snigdhajraka and avakarabja. The plant name
snigdhajraka is very rare; it is found in the Mahauadhanighau 6.10 and in the
Vanauadhicandrodaya 1, 150 as a synonym of adgola. The Sanskrit plant name
avakara is rarely applied to a Plantago species, but more often to Dipterocarpus ala-
tus Roxb. [valid name: Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G.Don], Dipterocarpus turbina-
tus Gaertn. [valid name: Dipterocarpus turbinatus C.F.Gaertn.], Shorea robusta Gaertn.
[valid name: Shorea robusta C.F.Gaertn.], Vateria indica Linn. [this is a valid name]
and some more trees (see Thakur Balwant Singh and K.C. Chunekar and other sources).
Singh and Chunekar remark that the drug is absent from the old nighaus and used for
the frst time in the jvartisra chapter of Morevaras Vaidymta (1.22: isabagola). The
Sanskrit names of this drug vary considerably. Another author to identify avakarabja
as the seeds of Plantago ovata is Ydavaarman in his Dravyaguavijna (II, 307, no.
257).
JAN MEULENBELD 164
kustumburusvarasabhvayaitat ambhasiddha vidhya
vanitoasamraroge /
tat klinnatlam atanor bhavane nidadhyn nairujyam u labhate
gadita bhiagbhi //
naro py etasya sndrmbhonihit asvasthamehana /
uavta jayen maku satya siddhavaco yath //
dirama dvitaya v pi traya mtr ane smt /
katr darpahr ca badala praticakate //
It is cold to the third degree, moist to the second degree,
155
and it annihi-
lates heat.
156
It drives away sndrapnya,
157
abnormal thirst,
158
vomiting
and loose stools.
159
In a mouthwash (gaa) it cures dryness of the mouth and it will certainly
do so with respect to infammation of the oral cavity,
160
and also, as (sure
as) true knowledge (sadvidy), with respect to mukhastambha,
161
due to the
compassion of rguru.

155
Abhinavanighau, p.9: idem. Achundow 216: it is cold and dry. yurvedyavivakoa
II, 1410: cold to the frst and moist to the second degree; cold and moist to the second
degree according to another opinion, or cold to the third degree and somewhat moist.
Daljt Siha 76: cold and moist to the third degree or, according to another opinion, cold
to the third and moist to the second degree. ligrmanighaubhaa, p.12181219: it
is cold. Ydavaarman (307): cold and moist to the second degree in Ynn.

156
Supported by the yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1411). Ydavaarman (307): uavaya-
thuvilayana in Ynn.

157
This term designates a condition in which viscid water, i.e., purulent urine, is present.
This is probably gonorrhoea.

158
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau (p.9). Ydavaarman: thara in Ynn. In con- nn. In con- nn. In con- n. In con- n. In con- . In con- . In con-
formity with the yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1411).

159
Achundow 216: (Die Quitte) hlt den Leib an, wenn sie auf nchternen Magen gegessen
wird. The actions are according to the Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, II, 28): mulattif (attenu-
ant), musakkin-e-hararat (allaying fever, arrat), daf-e-sual har (removing the fever
of bronchitis), daf-e-nazla (removing catarrh). Abhinavanighau, p.9: it alleviates the
fever of the summer season (garmk jvar aman kart).

160
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau (p.9): isk kull mukha pk gu krak hai, a gargle
containing it is benefcial in an infammation of the oral cavity.

161
This is not a distinct yurvedic disease, but a symptom, some form of rigidity or insen- yurvedic disease, but a symptom, some form of rigidity or insen- yurvedic disease, but a symptom, some form of rigidity or insen-
sibility of the face or mouth.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 165
The physicians declare that it quickly brings about a healthy state in females
(sufering from) uavta
162
when it, as a decoction prepared by steeping
(the drug) in the fresh juice of kustumburu
163
and fltered through a piece of
wet cloth, is placed in the residence of Kma.
164
A male too, with an unhealthy member, will quickly (and) certainly over-
come, when it is put into its viscid water, uavta, as sacred words (would
do).
commentary:
sndrmbha lvba. uavta sojka.
sndrmbhas
165
is mucus.
166
uavta is sojka.
167

162
In agreement with the yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1410): uavtanaka.

163
Described at 2.2.937941. Coriander, Coriandrum sativum Linn. [this is a valid name].
Abhinavanighau, p.140: Sanskrit name dhnyaka, Persian name kanj, Arabic name
kazburah. Achundow 248249 (474): kuzbara, Coriandrum sativum. Ainslie I, 9192:
kinz, the Persian name of Coriandrum sativum (Lin.). Al-Biruni 278279: kuzbarah
and 287, n.40: Coriandrum sativum L. Al-Kindi 326327 (263): Arabic name kuzbarah,
Coriandrum sativum L. Daljt Siha 399400: Arabic name kazburah, Persian name
kanz. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 194: kuzbarah, Coriandrum sativum. Hand
Book 274280: kazbura. Schlimmer 157158: Arabic name kuzbarah, Persian name
ginz. Schmucker 396397: kuzbarah, Coriandrum sativum L. The Unani Pharma-
copoeia (I, I, 56) records kazbra yabisa as the Arabic, kishneez as the Persian name
of Coriandrum sativum Linn. Coriander is well known in yurveda as kustumburu or
dhnyaka. Compare on coriander: Flckiger and Hanbury 293295.

164
I.e., in the vagina.

165
This Sanskrit term means viscous water.

166
The Persian equivalent of sndrmbhas is lu`b, mucus.

167
Both terms, rather frequent in the Hikmatpraka, denote gonorrhoea. See, for example,
G. Jan Meulenbeld (2000), II B, 392, n.403.
JAN MEULENBELD 166
2.2.69:
The dose on ingestion is said to be two or three dirham.
The corrective is katr.
168
Substitutes are also mentioned.
169
commentary:
safarjal mrfa bihdn y tukhmalisnulhamal y vajarulmrva darata-
varda yne virecanauadhomanikarae dara taratva yne bheajoma-
sambhtaoanibarhae rdradhnyka kaanja tara r svarasa.
safarjal, which is well known, i.e., the seeds of bih, or lisn-ul-amal, or
the seeds of mrva.
170

171
i.e., in arranging
172
the removal of the heat (gen-
erated) by purgative drugs, i.e., in the suppression of the heat caused by
drugs, fresh coriander, kaanj, or the expressed juice of fresh r.
173

168
The yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1410) mentions purifed honey or honey prepared with
sikanjabn.

169
The half-verse 69cd cannot possibly mean that katr is both a corrective and a substi-
tute. Hence my translation. Substitutes are not mentioned by name, but appear in the
commentary.

170
A plant called mrva is absent from yurvedic literature; mrv, on the other hand, is
very frequent. The sources consulted on Ynn do not mention mrva. The substitutes
mentioned in the yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1410) are: seeds of alas, seeds of kanauc
(see yurvedyavivakoa III, 20682069: Salvia Spinosa [valid name: Salvia spinosa
Linn.], Phyllanthus maderas patensis Linn., Wight [the valid name is probably Phyl-
lanthus maderaspatensis Linn.]; two other species have to be taken into consideration:
Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. var. arabicus Mll.Arg. = Phyllanthus maderaspatensis
Forssk., nom. illeg. and Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir. subsp. nummulariifolius =
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Baill., nom. illeg.), bih, brataga, or urf. The last
plant of this series, urf, may be the same as Persian urfah, Portulaca oleracea
Linn. See on it: Abhinavanighau, p.6162; Daljt Siha 195197; Ydavaarman
99100: Portulaca oleracea, Persian name khurf, Sanskrit name bhalloik. See
on bhalloik, Portulaca oleracea Linn.: Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 648. See
on Portulaca oleracea Linn.: Dymock et al. I, 158159. The Siddhabhaiajyamaj
(rjayakman 29) prescribes Portulaca oleracea, calling it kulaph. The Encyclopaedia
of Islamic medicine (530) gives rijlah as the Arabic name of Portulaca oleracea.

171
The meaning of daratavarda has remained unclear.

172
This meaning of dara taratva is not certain; tartb can mean: arrangement, order.

173
The meaning of this word has still to be determined.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 167
malaja
174
malaya.
175
malakam.
176
val
177

2.2.106:
snigdha ta dviguita rka cpi matntare /
plhno vikrakritvd rka snigdha tpaham //
It is moist and cold to the second degree, (but) dry according to another
opinion.
178
It is dry because it brings about morbid alterations of the spleen; being
moist, it drives away thirst.
commentary:
akti kbija mujafka mukavv dimg md mufarraha dil musaliha saud
safar khb syhsurkhmyala ragaymaoamiritavaram.

174
This (mlaj) is the Arabic name. Achundow (146: 12): amladsch, Emblica ofcinalis
[valid name: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. = Emblica ofcinalis Gaertn.] and 338 (10): am-
ladsch, Phyllanthus Emblica Grtn.s. Emblica ofcinalis. Daljt Siha (56). Compare
Ainslie I, 239241: aml, the Persian name of Phyllanthus emblica (Lin.), and II, 244
245: wardi amlaj, the fowers of Phyllanthus emblica (Lin.). Al-Biruni II, 75: amlaj,
Phyllanthus emblica Willd.; II, 42 (90): Arabic name amlaj, Persian name mlah, and
64, n.261: Emblica ofcinalis Gaertn., syn. Phyllanthus emblica L. Al-Kindi 235 (22),
who gives amlaj as the Arabic name of Phyllanthus emblica L. yurvedyavivakoa I,
450: aml and II, 12551269: val, Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Hamdard 383384:
amlaj is the Arabic, amala the Persian name of Emblica ofcinalis Gaertn. Schlimmer
394: Persian name ml. Schmucker 89 (67): amlaj. Hamdard 383384: amlaj is the
Arabic, amala the Persian name of Emblica ofcinalis Gaertn. Hand Book: absent.

175
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, I, 56: Emblica ofcinalis Gaertn. = Phyllanthus emblica
Linn.: amlaj (Arabic), amla (Persian).

176
This is the Sanskrit name. Generally identifed as Phyllanthus emblica Linn. = Emblica
ofcinalis Gaertn. See on this plant: Dymock et al. III, 261264.

177
This is the Hind name.

178
Achundow (146: 12) regards it as cold and dry to the frst degree. The yurvedyavivakoa
(II, 1259) describes it as cold to the frst degree and dry to the second degree; accord-
ing to others it is cold to the second and dry to the beginning of the third degree. Daljt
Siha (57) describes it as cold to the frst degree (to the second degree according to
others) and dry to the second degree (to the third degree according to another opinion).
Carakasahit, Strasthna 27.147cd148ab: dry. The Dhanvantaryanighau (1.216)
describes it as cold (hima), the Rjanighau (11.327) as cold (iira).
JAN MEULENBELD 168
The actions are constipating (kbij),
179
mujafk,
180
tonic (mukavv) with
respect to the brain (dimg)
181
and the stomach (ma`ida), exhilarating
(mufarrah)
182
with respect to the heart (dil), and corrective (muslih) with
respect to black and yellow bile,
183
and relieving/sedative (musakkin), very
(b) black (syh) and reddish (surmil), (i.e.,) of a dark colour mixed
with crimson.
184
2.2.107:
bg udynasabhta kutkd unnamitanam /
cakuya si 3 diram mtr medhya kaudra tu darpaht //
The bg type that grows in gardens makes hungry and increases the quan-
tity of food ingested.
It is benefcial to the eyes
185
and to the intelligence (medh) in a dose of three
dirham. kaudra honey is its corrective.
commentary:
bavsra durnmraparyyau. medhyai hita medhya pvanam
jihan-medhparyya. badal dal r malaja.
bavsr is another name of durnman or aras (haemorrhoids).
186
It is ben-
efcial to the mental faculties, i.e., it is medhya and purifying. jihan is a
synonym of medh.

179
Arabic qbi. See yurvedyavivakoa IV, 40: qabi, astringent, the same as Sanskrit
sagrhin. The Unani Pharmacopoeia agrees. The Carakasahit (Strasthna 4.13)
regards it as a drug helpful in purgation (virecanopaga). The Rjanighau (11.328)
refers to an opinion according to which it alleviates constipation (vibandha).

180
The spelling of this unintelligible term is probably wrong.

181
The Unani Pharmacopoeia agrees.

182
Steingass: mufarrih, exhilarating. Hand Book 254: mufarrih = exhilarant.

183
The Unani Pharmacopoeia adds: tonic (mukavv) with respect to the heart (qalb). Com-
pare yurvedyavivakoa II, 1260: gives strength to the heart (hdaya ko aktipradn
kart hai). The Rjanighau refers to an opinion that regards it as counteracting the
heat of pitta. Carakasahit, Strasthna 27.147cd148ab: kaphapittahara.

184
The reading of the text may be incorrect. I emend to: -myalaragam. The colour names
are given twice, in Persian and in Sanskrit.

185
Daljt Siha (5758) agrees.

186
See on haemorrhoids and their treatment in Islamic medicine: Encyclopaedia of Islamic
medicine 335. See on haemorrhoids in yurveda: Mdhavanidna 5.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 169
Substitutes are dal
187
and r malaj.
188
amb.
189
najaka.
190
mraphalam.
191

2.2.119120:
apakvam amla iira ca rka guadvaya grhi tomananam /
susvdu pakva dvigua tathoa guatraya snigdhatama
sukntidam //
puiprada kohamdutvakraka pittvirodhi prathita balsakt /
damgar kuvvata dhahc chiiro balaprada musliha rakandatat //
No commentary.
The unripe (fruit) is sour
192
and cold; it is dry to the second degree,
193


187
Unidentifed.

188
This is an error for sr amlaj, fnding its origin in the confusion of r, the Persian
word for milk, and sr, an Indian word according to some sources. See on this subject:
Achundow 146 (12). Al-Biruni (42) regards r not as an error and explains it as a syn-
onym of h. See on r ml: Daljt Siha 57. The yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1259)
mentions as a substitute a mixture of equal parts of kbul ha, myrobalans from Kbul,
mle k ras, and bhun hu halel syh, parched black myrobalans. See on hara kbil:
Abhinavanighau, p.255, on hara syh, black myrobalans: Abhinavanighau, p.256.

189
Achundow: absent. Ainslie: absent. Al-Biruni II, 77: anbaj, Mangifera indica Linn. [this
is the valid name]; I, 46 (101): ambaj and 65 (293): mango, Mangifera indica L. Al-
Kindi: absent. yurvedyavivakoa II, 10101027: m, mba, Mangifera Indica Linn.
Daljt Siha 5556: amb. Hamdard 400402: Mangifera indica Linn. is called ambaj
in Arabic, amba in Persian. Hand Book: absent. Schlimmer 357: anbah. Unani Pharma-
copoeia I, IV, 3: anbaj (Arabic), anbah (Persian).

190
Unidentifed. Hamdard 400401: one of the Persian names of Mangifera indica is
naghzak.

191
The Sanskrit name of the mango, the fruit of Mangifera indica Linn. See Dymock et al.
I, 381385.

192
Confrmed by Dhanvantaryanighau (5.4), Rjanighau (11.5), and Nighauratnkara
(6).

193
Abhinavanighau, p.18: cold and dry to the frst degree. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, IV, 4:
cold and dry. The Dhanvantaryanighau (5.4) regards the young fruit as sour and dry.
The Rjanighau describes it as sour. Nighauratnkara (6): blmra is hot and dry.
JAN MEULENBELD 170
constrictive,
194
and removes thirst and heat.
When ripe it is very sweet to the second degree and hot
195
to the third de-
gree; it is excessively moist
196
and bestows beauty.
197
It brings about a well-nourished appearance
198
and a soft state of the bow-
els.
199
It is known as neutral with regard to bile
200
and excites phlegm.
201
It strengthens the brain, removes a burning feeling,
202
is cold, gives strength,

194
Nighauratnkara (6): blmra is grhin.

195
Abhinavanighau, p.18: the ripe fruit is hot and dry. Daljt Siha 55: hot (ua).
Surutasahit Strasthna 46.139140: sour and hot. Dhanvantaryanighau 5.5:
sweet with an astringent after-taste. Nighauratnkara (7): madhura, kicid amla;
ripe uttammra is hot.

196
Daljt Siha 55: snigdha. Nighauratnkara (7): ripe uttammra is moist.

197
Nighauratnkara (7): pakvmra is kntikara; ripe uttammra is kntida.

198
yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1015): a ripe mango gives strength (balakraka), is roborant
(bhaa) and bestows a fne complexion (it is varya). Daljt Siha 55: bhaa,
i.e., roborant. Carakasahit, Strasthna 27.139: balaprada. Dhanvantaryanighau
5.56: varakara, balaprada, bhaa. Rjanighau (11.5): datte dhtupracayam,
i.e., it bestows an accumulation of the dhtus, kntikrin, i.e., it bestows beauty.
Carakasahit, Strasthna 139: msaprada. Nighauratnkara (7): the ripe fruit
is pauika, msabaln vardhaka; ripe uttammra is balakara, dhtupuikara.
Abhinavanighau, p.18: the ripe fruit gives strength to snyu, pra, ojas, vkka, basti,
pakvaya.

199
yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1017): it is mdurecaka. Daljt Siha 55: sara, causing soft-
ness of the bowels (kohamrdavakara).

200
yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1015): a ripe mango does not excite pitta (it is apittala).
Surutasahit, Strasthna 46.139140: it is pittala. Dhanvantaryanighau 5.6: it re-
strains pitta (pittvarodhin). Rjanighau 11.5: the young fruit is doatritayaamana, the
ripe fruit is, according to some, productive of pitta, anila and kapha. Nighauratnkara
(7): the ripe fruit is pittahantar, a ripe uttammra is pittpaha.

201
yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1015): it increases phlegm (kapha bahnevl hai).
Surutasahit, Strasthna 46.139140: kaphotkleakara. Nighauratnkara (7): the
ripe fruit is kaphakraka; a ripe uttammra is kaphaprada. The Dhanvantaryanighau
(5.8) disagrees in regarding the ripe fruit as subduing phlegm.

202
Nighauratnkara (7): the ripe fruit is dhaamana. and gives strength to the head; its
action is corrective (muslih). Unani Pharmacopoeia I, IV, 4: its actions are: naf-e-sozak
(i.e., naf`-e-sojk, benefcial to cases of gonorrhoea), qabiz (i.e., qbi, constipating),
habis (i.e., bis, confning/retaining) and mudammil-e-qurooh (mudammil-e-qur,
cicatrizant with respect to ulcers); mudammilkurha is explained in the commentary
on 2.2.137 as katdn sandhigartdipraka, i.e., flling up the gaps (by loss of
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 171
is corrective, and
ahalelaja,
203
asfara,
204
halapajarda.
205
hartak
206

2.2.121:
aiiryam ekaguita raukya ctra guadvayam /
ast gurv haridrbh ivkhy ivakri //
It is cold to the frst degree,
207
dry to the second degree.
208
Recommended are (fruits) that are heavy (guru)
209
and that have the colour
of haridr;
210
they are called iv because they
211
give prosperity.
tissue), etc., in traumatic lesions, etc. See on qar, ulcer, sore, the singular of qur:
yurvedyavivakoa III, 22962297.

203
Ainslie I, 237239: Arabic name: hallaj kbul, Persian name: hallah kaln (kaln is
a Persian word for big), Terminalia chebula (Willd.) [valid name: Terminalia chebula
Retz.] and II, 128129. Al-Biruni II, 80: ballaj, Terminalia belerica Roxb. [valid name:
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.], Terminalia Chebula L., or Combretacea termina-
lia [this is not a valid name]; Al-Biruni II, 104: hallaj, the fat, large Kbl embelic is
considered superior in Afghanistan; the black is the best among Indian kinds. Al-Biruni
I, 329330 (16): hallaj and 332 (21): Terminalia chebula Retz. Daljt Siha 711713:
Terminalia chebula Retz.; Arabic name: halailaj. Al-Kindi 342 (314): hallaj, probably
Terminalia chebula Retz. or Terminalia citrina Roxb. [valid name: Terminalia citrina
(Gaertn.) Roxb. ex Fleming]. Hand Book 130136: halelaj aswad. Schmucker 522 (787):
Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia citrina Roxb. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, I, 32:
Terminalia chebula Retz., Arabic name: halelaj, Persian name: halelaj kbul. Wiede-
mann II, 120.

204
Schmucker 522: hallaj afar is Terminalia citrina Roxb.

205
Unidentifed. Probably a Persian name for the yellow (zard) type.

206
This is one of its Sanskrit names, very frequent in yurvedic texts. See on it: Dymock
et al. I, 15. The variety from Kbul is mentioned in the Siddhaprayogalatik (2.24) as
kbul abhay.

207
Hand Book 134 agrees.

208
In agreement with Daljt Siha 712 and Hand Book 134. The Dhanvantaryanighau
(1.207) describes it as dry, the Rjanighau (11.309) as hot. It is hot and dry according
to Bhvaprakanighau, hartakydivarga 19.

209
In agreement with Bhvaprakanighau, hartakydivarga 28.

210
The rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn., which is yellow in colour.

211
iv is one of the general names of hartak in yurveda; see Bhvaprakanighau,
JAN MEULENBELD 172
commentary:
akti musaliha safar mukavv dil md cre mtr diram y paja 5
diram kaye hafta 7 diram y daha 10. darpaghna kanda turajav
vagaram kvthe unnba sipist pratinidhi postaanr.
The actions are corrective (muslih) of the yellow bile,
212
tonic (mukavv)
with respect to the heart (dil)
213
and stomach (mi`da),
214
muqaww-e-dimagh
(brain tonic),
215
musakkin (relieving/sedative), musaww-e-shar.
216
The dose is one to fve dirham in a powdered form or seven to ten dirham in
a decoction.
217
Correctives
218
are kanda,
219
turajav,
220

hartakydivarga 7, not one of its seven types (ibid. 810).

212
Terminalia chebula subdues all three doas according to yurvedic treatises:
Dhanvantaryanighau 1.207.

213
yurvedic texts agree: the Dhanvantaryanighau (1.209) calls it hdy.

214
The Dhanvantaryanighau (1.209) has a related statement: satarpaaktn rogn
pryo hanti. The Hand Book (134) regards it as: muqawwi-e-dimagh (brain tonic),
musaf-e-dam (blood purifer) and qabi (constipating). Unani Pharmacopoeia I, I, 32
33: muqaww-e-basar, tonic for eyesight (baar), which is in conformity with yurveda:
the Dhanvantaryanighau (1.208) calls it cakurhit.

215
yurvedic sources are in conformity: it is medhy according to the Dhanvantarya-
nighau (1.208).

216
This expression is not clear. musaww with respect to the head (ir) (?) I did not fnd a
suitable meaning of musaww.

217
Hand book 135: the dose is 912 gm. vagaram, i.e., b-e-garm, means hot water and is
an equivalent of Sanskrit kvtha, decoction.

218
Hand Book 135: correctives are honey and almond oil.

219
This may be a form of sugar; see Daljt Siha 236. Ainslie (II, 460) regards Arabic qand
as the equivalent of Sanskrit gua, jaggery.

220
See on this substance, turajabn: Abhinavanighau, p.128. Achundow 173 (91):
Tarandschubn, ros melleus, eine Zuckerart, and 355 (76), 3: Terengebin exsudirt aus
einem Dornstrauch, Namens Al-hadsch, Alhagi maurorum, A. manniferum Desv. [this
is a valid name] und A. camelorum Fischer. Al-Biruni II, 82: turanjubn, manna lichen,
Lecanora esculenta Eversm. Al-Kindi: absent. Schmucker: absent. Sherif 37: Arabic
and Persian turanjabn = (manna of) Alhagi maurorum Tourn. [valid name: Alhagi mau-
rorum Medik.]. Daljt Siha 236: turanjabn = yavsaarkar. Hamdard 388389: Urdu
turanjbin designates Hedysarum alhagi Linn. [valid name: Alhagi maurorum Medik. =
Hedysarum alhagi Linn.] E. Wiedemann II, 239. See on yavsa: Daljt Siha 334336,
identifed as Alhagi camelorum Fisch. [valid name Alhagi maurorum Medik. = Alhagi
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 173
hot water,
221
unnb, and sipist
222
The substitute is the rind of the pomegranate.
223
2.2.122123:
gulba ghnayanjitena hanyj jalasrvam athomaoatm //
misaklamit toye t pittabalsayo /
anulomanakartrya rakhita yut bhavet //
Crushed in rose water (gulb)
224
and applied as a collyrium to the eyes, it
will annihilate a watery morbid fow (jalasrva) from the eyes, as well as
heat and redness.
In a dose of a miskl and boiled in water it will regularize bile and phlegm
when rkhist
225
is added.
camelorum Fisch.] and Alhagi maurorum Baker; Hamdard 388389: jawasa is the Urdu
name of Hedysarum alhagi Linn.

221
b-e-garm.

222
Achundow 329330 (17): reference to Schlimmer. Ainslie II, 466467: Cordia Myxa
[valid name: Cordia myxa Linn.], no Persian/Arabic names. Al-Kindi 279 (138):
sabastn, Cordia myxa L. Daljt Siha 616617: sapist, Cordia obliqua Willd. [this
is a valid name]. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 193: sabastn, Cordia sebestena
[valid name: Cordia sebestena Linn.]. Hamdard 376: sapistan is the Persian name of
Cordia latifolia Roxb. [valid name: Cordia obliqua Willd. = Cordia latifolia Roxb.].
Maclean 802803, s.v. sebesten: Persian mane sapistn, Cordia spp. Schlimmer 157:
sipistn, fructus Cordiae myxae. Schmucker 227 (364): sibistn, fructus Cordiae
myxae L. Unani Pharmacopoeia II, II, 263: sapistan, the dried fruits of Cordia dicho-
toma Forst.f. [valid name: Cordia dichotoma G.Forst. = Cordia myxa Roxb.], Cordia
latifolia Roxb., Cordia obliqua Willd.

223
See on this medicinal substance: Flckiger and Hanbury 257259.

224
See on rose water: 2.2.10261028.

225
Abhinavanighau, p.233: Sanskrit name yavsaarkar; this is the manna from yavsa.
Achundow 173 (91): tarandschubn, 265 (510): ros melleus (species mannae), eine Zuc-
kerart; seine Wirkung ist hnlich der des Schr-Chisht (einer andern Mannaspecies) and
272 (520): Mann. Manna; sie hnelt dem Ros melleus den Eigenschaften nach, 355358
(76): tarandschubn, ros melleus, eine Manna-Art; Achundow describes eight types of
manna and their sources, none of them being from a Fraxinus or Cotoneaster species;
Fraxinus ornus [valid name: Fraxinus ornus Linn.], called Manna-Esche, is desribed un-
der no. 510, as lisn ul-asfr; see on the latter: Achundow 400401. Ainslie I, 208213:
manna, tarinjabn; sources of various types of manna: Hedysarum alhagi [Hedysarum
alhagi Linn. is an old name of Alhagi maurorum Medik.], Fraxinus ornus, Fraxinus ro-
JAN MEULENBELD 174
commentary:
rakhita daha diram.
The dose of rkhist is ten dirham.
ahalela asvada
226
halelaya yhajagharra
227

2.2.124126:
iiraikagu rk dviguo matntare /
musahil aktisayukt atapuprasjit //
diprasdajanan ku saud virecan /
aras dhvasin lepn netrmayavidri //
tundifolia [valid name: Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl subsp. syriaca (Boiss.) Yalt.], Fraxi-
nus excelsior [valid name: Fraxinus excelsior Linn.], Fraxinus parvifora [this is not a
valid name]. Al-Biruni 90 (15): taranjubn and 99, n.30: identifed as Alhagi camalorem
(sic!) Fisch.. Al-Kindi: absent. Daljt Siha 641643: manna; plant sources mentioned:
Cotoneaster nummularius Fisch. et C.A. Mey. [this is a valid name], Fraxinus ornus
Linn., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl subsp. syriaca (Boiss.) Yalt. = Fraxinus rotundifolia
Mill. Hand Book: absent. Schlimmer 357360: taranjabn, manna from Hedysarum al-
hagi and 358: rit, manna from Atraphaxis spinosa [valid name: Atraphaxis spino-
sa Linn.]. Schmucker: absent. Wiedemann II, 239 (9): tarangubn (Manna). See on types
of manna and their sources: Flckiger and Hanbury 366374, Schlimmer 357360, E.
Wiedemann II, 239. An yurvedic treatise employing rkhist under a related name is
the Siddhabhaiajyamaj (raktapitta 13): svdukhist, called sre khista in the com-
mentary.

226
Achundow 145 (11): ihlladsch, Myrobalane; die dritte Art ist die schwarze Myrobalane,
von welcher man noch zwei Sorten unterscheidet: die eine besitzt Samen, die andere
nicht. Ainslie I, 237239: the black myrobalan is the unripe, dried fruit of Terminalia
Chebula (Willd.). Al-Biruni 329 (16): hallaj and 332 (21): Terminalia chebula Retz.
Al-Kindi 342: hallaj, Terminalia chebula Retz or Terminalia citrina Roxb.; sometimes
called ahllaj aswad in Arabic. Daljt Siha 711714: ihlailaj or halailaj in Arabic,
Terminalia chebula Retz. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 480: ihlailaj, myrobalan.
Hand Book 130: halelaj aswad is Terminalia chebula Retz. Schlimmer 394: hallah,
myrobalani chebulae. Schmucker (522) regards hallaj aswad as the unripe fruits. See
on myrobalans: Hobson-Jobson 607610. See on myrobalans in the Muslim world: E.
Wiedemann 679680; II, 1415, 120.

227
The Sanskrit name of this important yurvedic drug is hartak. One of its Hind names
is harr.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 175
darpaghna kaudram uddia halelah kval badal /
guai ym ivys tu sad spi sambhavet //
It is cold to the frst degree and dry to the second degree,
228
but hot according
to another opinion.
It is provided with the action agogue (mushil)
229
when besmeared with
the juice of atapup
230
and will then bring about clarity of vision; when
crushed it will drive out black bile.
As an ointment it will annihilate haemorrhoids and destroy eye diseases.
231

Honey is taught to be a corrective
232
and halela kval
233
is its substitute.
commentary:
s kval nmn
It is called kval.

228
Achundow 145 (11): die dritte Art ist die schwarze Myrobalane; ihre Kraft nhert sich
der aus Kabul und ihre Wirkung ebenfalls; nur wirkt sie auf die schwarze Galle strker;
die zweite Art ist Halla-i Kabul = Myrobalane aus Kabul: sie ist kalt und trocken in
der Mitte des zweiten Grades; sie besitzt ebenfalls eine gewisse Menge von Hitze. Hand
Book 124 agrees with the text. Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 223: hot and dry.

229
Achundow 145 (11): die Myrobalane aus Kabul fhrt die schwarze Galle und den
Schleim ab; sie frt auch die gelbe Galle ab, aber bedeutend schwcher als die andere
(die gelbe Myrobalane). Its actions are according to the Hand Book (134): muqawwi-e-
dimagh (brain tonic), musaf-e-dam (blood purifer), and qabiz (astringent).

230
Achundow 223 (341): schibit, Anethum graveolens [valid name: Anethum graveolens
Linn.]. Ainslie I, 109110: buzralibbit, Anethum Graveolens (Lin.); atapup is not
mentioned as one of its Sanskrit names. Al-Biruni II, 88: az`, ibbi, Anethum gra- `, ibbi, Anethum gra- `, ibbi, Anethum gra-
veolens L. or Selinum anethum Roth; II, 348 (12): Arabic name ib and 369, n.34:
dill, Anethum sowa Kurz [this is a synonym of Anethum graveolens Linn.], synonym:
Peucedanum graveolens Benth. [valid name: Anethum graveolens Linn. = Peucedanum
graveolens (Linn.) Hiern]. Al-Kindi 292 (166): Anethum graveolens L., dill, Arabic
name aba. Daljt Siha 703705: Arabic name ibitta, ibbitta, Anethum graveo-
lens Linn. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 57: abat, Anethum graveolens. Schlim-
mer 4041: Anethum graveolens, ibi. Schmucker 261262 (420): ibitt, ibi.
Compare on Anethum graveolens: Flckiger and Hanbury 291293.

231
Compare on the actions: Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 223234.

232
Hand Book 135 agrees.

233
The kbul variety will be meant. Hand Book 134: halela kabuli is its substitute.
JAN MEULENBELD 176
2.2.126:
ata pthak kath nsy kathit tu vipacit //
The wise man has not told a separate story about it.
aphayna
234
tiryka
235
ahiphena
236
aphm
237

2.2.134136:
ta caturguo rkas triguo viasanibha /
akti mukhardira prokt muskin aujya eva ca //
mtr adasasakd dvigu param bhavet //
kukkuadravair lept pia kuhaghnam ritam //
It is cold to the fourth degree
238
and dry to the third degree;
239
it resembles
poison.

234
Abhinavanighau, p.9: Sanskrit name phka, Persian name afyn, Arabic name luban-
ul-khakh. Achundow 155156 (49): afjn and 195 (173). Ainslie I, 271277: Arabic
name afyn. Al-Biruni II, 56: khashkhsh, Papaver somniferum [valid name: Papaver
somniferum Linn.], II, 3637 (76): afyn and 63, n.240: Papaver somniferum L. Al-Kin-
di: prescribed several times, not described. Daljt Siha 460465: Arabic name afyn.
Hamdard 408410: afyun is the Persian name for opium. Schlimmer 414: tiryk, afyn.
Schmucker p.83 (60). See also on opium: R.N. Chopra et al. (1984), 172183; Dymock
et al. I, 73108; Flckiger and Hanbury 4060; Maclean 3637 (s.v. aphainam). See on
opium in the Muslim world: Al-Biruni I, 3637; E. Wiedemann II, 106, 115.

235
Daljt Siha 360: Persian name tiryk. Not to be confounded with tiryq (see Al-Biruni
II, 8182 and I, 8788 (4)). Flckiger and Hanbury 46: the strongest opium is called in
Persia teriak-e-arabistani.

236
This is one of the common Sanskrit names for opium.

237
This is the Hind name.

238
Achundow 155: cold to the third degree.

239
Achundow (155) agrees. Abhinavanighau, p.9: cold and dry to the fourth degree.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 177
Its actions are narcotic (mukhardir),
240
allaying (muskin)
241
and aujya.
242
The highest dose is twice that of an adasa.
243
Crushed with the fuid contents from a hens egg it is said to cure kuha
244

(when used) as an ointment.
commentary:
adasa masra. darpaghnni tavakrjye flflena yne kaoae dracn
ikajav bajrulkarapsa yne ajamoda jundavedustaratriguito vajarul- ikajav bajrulkarapsa yne ajamoda jundavedustaratriguito vajarul- bajrulkarapsa yne ajamoda jundavedustaratriguito vajarul- bajrulkarapsa yne ajamoda jundavedustaratriguito vajarul- ne ajamoda jundavedustaratriguito vajarul- ne ajamoda jundavedustaratriguito vajarul-
baja yne pratinidhi. ajavyana khursn.
rogan vanafa rogan bdma. dvayor ekatarea samirithiphena
karanikipto tivedanpaha syt.
An adasa is a masra.
245
Correctives are tavakra
246
and ghee with flfla,
247

or ka,
248
a,

240
Correct term: muaddir. Abhinavanighau, p.9: nidr utpanna kart, it is soporifc.
The Rjanighau (6.191) calls it mohada, causing mental confusion.

241
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau, p.9: sapra poko ntiprada. The Ency-
clopaedia of Islamic medicine interprets muskin as anodyne.

242
The meaning of this term is not clear.

243
Achundow 155: one miskl (6 gm).

244
See on kuha in yurveda: Mdhavanidna 49.

245
Schmucker 479 (p.296). The Arabic name of a lentil, Lens esculenta Linn., is `adas, its
Sanskrit name is masra.

246
See 2.2.751756.

247
Achundow 239 (422): fulful, Piper nigrum [valid name: Piper nigrum Linn.]. Ainslie I,
302305: flfl aswad is the Arabic, flfl siy the Persian name of Piper nigrum (Lin.);
I, 308310: dr flfl is the Arabic name, flfl darz the Persian name of Piper longum
(Lin.). Al-Biruni 253254 (34): flfl and 260, n.56: Piper longum L. [valid name: Piper
longum Linn.]. Hand Book 92100. Al-Kindi 266267 (97): dr flfl, long pepper, Piper
longum L. and 311312 (221): flfl, pepper, Piper nigrum L. Schlimmer 460: flfl siy,
Piper nigrum. Schmucker 320 (538): flfl aswad, Piper nigrum L. Unani Pharmacopoeia
I, IV, 38: Piper nigrum, Arabic name: flfl aswad, Persian name: flfl siyah. See on pep-
per in the Muslim world: E. Wiedemann II, 1213, 378379, 396. Compare on Piper
nigrum: Flckiger and Hanbury 519524, on Piper longum: 524526.

248
In yurvedic treatises ka is a synonym of pippal, Piper longum Linn..
JAN MEULENBELD 178
dracn,
249
ikajav,
250
bajrulkarapsa,
251
ajamoda,
252

three times the amount of jundavedustara,
253


249
Abhinavanighau, p.134. Achundow 205 (253): dr-sn, Laurus Cinnamomum, Zimt.
Ainslie 5860: drcn, Laurus Cassia (Lin.) [valid name: Neolitsea cassia (Linn.) Kos-
term. = Laurus cassia Linn.] and I, 7274: Persian drcn and Arabic drn, Laurus
Cinnamomum (Lin.) [valid name: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl], cinnamon. Al-Biruni
II, 9293: dr n, Cinnamomum cassia Blume [valid name: Cinnamomum aromaticum
Nees = Cinnamomum cassia Blume] or Cinnamomum ceylanicum Nees [valid name:
Cinnamomum verum J.Presl = Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume]; II, 156 (4): dr n,
and 160 (7): cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Al-Kindi 265266 (96): dr
n, cinnamon, bark of Cinnamomum ceylanicum Nees, Cinnamomum cassia Bl., and
others. yurvedyavivakoa III, 2104: Cinnamomum Zeylanicum Nees. Daljt Siha
388390: cinnamon, the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. Encyclopaedia of Is-
lamic medicine 153: dr n, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, 399: Laurus cinnamomum L.
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, I, 26: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. See on drsn in the
Muslim world: E. Wiedemann II, 13. Compare on cortex cinnamomi: Flckiger and
Hanbury 466474.

250
Hamdard 85b.

251
See on karapsa: Achundow 246 (469): karafs and 393 (355): karafs (with discussion on
the identity of two types), Apium petroselinum [valid name: Petroselinum crispum (Mill.)
Nyman ex A.W.Hill, one of its synonyms is Apium petroselinum Linn.] oder graveolens
[valid name: Apium graveolens Linn.]. Ainslie: absent. Al-Biruni 277278 (9): karafs
and 286, n.20: Apium graveolens L. Al-Kindi 324325 (257): Apium graveolens L. and
others. Daljt Siha 1416: karafs, Apium graveolens Linn.; Hind ajmod, but ajmod
= Trachyspermum roxburghianum Craib. [valid name: Trachyspermum roxburghiamum
(DC.) Craib.]. Hamdard 360361: ajmod is the Urdu name of Apium graveolens Linn.
Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 64: karafs, Apium graveolens. Hand Book: absent.
Schlimmer 4546: karafs, Apium graveolens. Schmucker 388390 (627): karafs, Api-
um graveolens L. and acc. to some, Petroselinum sativum [valid name: Petroselinum
crispum (Mill.) Fuss = Petroselinum sativum Hofm. ex Gaudin]. Unani Pharmacopoeia
I, II, 93: the drug tukhm-e-karafs consists of the dried seeds of Apium graveolens Linn.
E. Wiedemann II, 293.

252
The same as kamn; see 2.2.947952.

253
Achundow 180181: dschundbdester, castoreum. Ainslie I, 6263: castor, called kund-
baydastar in Persian. Al-Biruni II, 86: jundbdhastar, castoreum; I, 112113: jundiba-
dastar (with discussion of its identity). Al-Kindi 254 (66): jundubdastur, castoreum.
Hamdard 371372: jundbedastar is the Persian name of castoreum. Hand Book 539:
kundbadastar, castoreum.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 179
bajrulbaja,
254
or, as a substitute, ajavyana khursn.
255
Opium, mixed with oil of violets
256
or almond oil
257
and put into the ears will
destroy violent pain.

254
Achundow 167 (78): bang, Hyoscyamus. Ainslie I, 167169: bajrul-banj, the Arabic
name of henbane seed, Hyoscyamus Niger (Lin.), and 607608: Hyoscyamus. Al-Biruni
I, 53: banj, Hyoscyamus alba (sic!) or niger L.; II, 7778 (32): banj and 85 (79): the seeds
of Hyoscyamus niger L. Al-Kindi 246247 (45): banj, Hyoscyamus albus L., Hyoscya-
mus niger, and Hyoscyamus muticus [valid name: Hyoscyamus muticus Linn.]. Daljt
Siha 1820: banj is the Arabic, bang the Persian name of Hyoscyamus albus Linn.
and Hyoscyamus niger Linn. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 354: banj, Hyoscyamus
niger. Hamdard 392393: Persian bajrul bang designates Hyoscyamus niger Linn. Hand
Book 5056. Schlimmer 320: banj designates a Hyoscyamus; sources are Hyoscyamus
datura [valid name: Hyoscyamus muticus Linn. = Hyoscyamus Datora Forssk.], Hyo-
scyamus persicus [valid name: Hyoscyamus niger Linn. = Hyoscyamus persicus Buhse],
Hyoscyamus niger, Hyoscyamus pusillus [valid name: Hyoscyamus pusillus Linn.], Hyo-
scyamus cameraru [this is not a valid name], and Hyoscyamus binatifdatus [this is not
a valid name]. Schmucker 121 (147): banj, Hyoscyamus albus L., Hyoscyamus niger L.,
Hyoscyamus aureus L. [this is a valid name]

255
Confrmed by Abhinavanighau, p.9: the substitute is khursn ajavyana. Daljt
Siha 1820: the Hind name of Hyoscyamus albus Linn. [this is the valid name]. Ham-
dard 287: ajwain khurasani, Hyoscyamus niger. Hand Book 5056: the Hind name of
Hyoscyamus niger Linn. Compare on Hyoscyamus: Flckiger and Hanbury 416418.

256
Abhinavanighau, p.170: banaf; Achundow 168 (82): banafsadsch, Viola odorata
[valid name: Viola odorata Linn.] and 354: Viola odorata Linn. und andere Spezies;
Ainslie: absent; Al-Biruni 79 (35): banafsaj and 86, n.91: Viola odorata L.; Al-Kindi
247 (47): banafsaj, Viola odorata L.; Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 737: banaf-
saj, Viola odorata, Viola tricolor; Hand Book: absent; Daljt Siha 491492: banaf,
Viola odorata Linn. and, in northern India, Viola cinerea Boiss. [this is a valid name]
and Viola serpens Wall. [valid name Viola pilosa Blume, with Viola serpens Wall. ex
Ging. as a synonym]; Schlimmer 553: banaf, Viola odorifera or odorata; Schmucker
122 (151): banafsaj, Viola odorata L.; Unani Pharmacopoeia I, II, 41: gul-e-banafsha
(Persian name) consists of the dried fowers of Viola odorata Linn.; I, III, 12 and 14:
the drug banafsha consists of the dried leaves or the dried whole plant of Viola pilosa
Blume. E. Wiedemann II, 384. Violets are known to late post-classical yurvedic trea- yurvedic trea- yurvedic trea-
tises: Govindadsas Bhaiajyaratnval (vanapsik) (see G. Jan Meulenbeld IIA, 336),
the Bhannighauratnkara (1254: vanaps), Karmas Siddhabheajamaiml
(2.55: banaps), and the Siddhabhaiajyamaj (jvara 16: vanaps).

257
See on the almond in Islamic medicine: Hand Book 3642.
JAN MEULENBELD 180
aftmna
258
kavall.
259
amaravela
260

2.2.142145:
rkoatrigua aktir musahil saud prakrtit /
mufattiha muga ca oabj nav var //
mtr kvthe paja 5 diram punar hafta 7 diram par /
asy svarasamtr syd dirama dvitri 2/3 sakhyay //
ruvvaseva katr ca sneho bdmasabhava /
darpaghn badala jey h turbudanmik //
ustukhudsa visphyaj iti cpi prakrtitau //
It is dry and hot to the third degree.
261
It is agogue (musahil) with respect to black bile
262
as an action, as well as

258
Achundow 146147 (14) and 338339 (12): aftmn, Cuscuta Epithymum. Al-Biruni
II, 7374: aftmn, Cuscuta epithymum Murr.; I, 3536 (75): aftmn and 63, n.238:
Cuscuta refexa Roxb. [this is a valid name]. Al-Kindi 233234 (18): afimn, Cus-
cuta epithymum L. [valid name: Cuscuta epithymum (Linn.) Linn.]. Daljt Siha 3032:
aftmn, identifed as Cuscuta europea Linn. [valid name: Cuscuta europaea Linn.].
Schmucker 54 (p.79). Unani Pharmacopoeia I, III, 3: the drug aftimoon consists of the
dried stem and fruits of Cuscuta refexa Roxb. Wiedemann II, 119; 239 (6): aftimn,
Cuscuta Epithymum. Compare on aftimn in the Muslim wold: E. Wiedemann II, 107,
119, 239. See also yurvedyavivakoa I, 392394: aftmn, Cuscuta Epythymum.

259
See on the properties and actions of kavall in yurveda: Rjanighau 3.1920;
Abhinavanighau, p.2; Nighauratnkara 8. This plant is identifed as Cassytha f-
liformis Linn., Cuscuta refexa Roxb., and Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (see M. Abdul Ka-
reem). See on Cassytha fliformis, kavall: Dymock et al. III, 216217, on Cuscuta
refexa and Cuscuta chinensis: Dymock II, 548.

260
This is the Hind name.

261
yurvedyavivakoa I, 392393: hot to the third and dry to the frst degree. Daljt
Siha: hot to the third degree and dry to the second degree (or to the third degree ac-
cording to others).

262
Al-Biruni 36: it exercises a benefcial efect on atrabile (black bile); it is a powerful cho-
lagogue. Hand Book 359: mus-hil-e-sauda = melanagogue. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, III,
4: making black bile fow (mushil sauda). yurvedyavivakoa I, 393: saudb (vtaja)
vydhiyo ko dr kart hai, i.e., it removes diseases by black bile.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 181
deobstruent (mufatti)
263
and nutrient (muga).
264
Fresh red seeds are the best.
265
The dose is fve dirham when a decoction is employed; seven dirham is the
highest dose.
266
The dose of the fresh juice is two to three dirham.
Correctives are the extract (ruvva)
267
of seva,
268
katr and almond oil.
269

263
Daljt Siha (31) agrees. Al-Biruni 36: it is a powerful expectorant. Unani Pharmaco- t Siha (31) agrees. Al-Biruni 36: it is a powerful expectorant. Unani Pharmaco- t Siha (31) agrees. Al-Biruni 36: it is a powerful expectorant. Unani Pharmaco-
poeia I, III, 4: it is (deobstruent as to obstructions) mufatteh sudad, i.e., mufatti suddat.
Compare yurvedyavivakoa I, 393: it is rodhodghak, i.e., it removes obstructions.

264
Hand Book 315: mughazzi = nutrient. The Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, III, 4) adds: mushil-
e-balgham (making phlegm fow), musaf-e-dam (blood purifying), muhallil-e-warm
(resolvent with regard to swellings/anti-infammatory), mudirr-e-haiz (emmenagogue),
mudirr-e-baul (diuretic). Compare yurvedyavivakoa I, 393: it is othalayakartar
(reducing swellings), raktaodhak (purifying blood), prya mastika rogoko
lbhaprada (usually benefcial in brain diseases). Compare on the properties and ac-
tions of kavall: Nighauratnkara 8.

265
Al-Biruni 35: the best variety bears red fowers. According to Daljt Siha all fve parts
and the seeds are used in medicine.

266
The dose is 35 gm according to The Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, III, 4).

267
See on the preparation of a rub, an extract: Hamdard 136.

268
This is Persian sb, an apple, also called tufh. Abhinavanighau, p.248249: Persian
name seb, Arabic name tafh. Achundow 171 (86): tufh, Pyrus Malus and 354 (71): sb,
Pyrus Malus [valid name: Malus domestica Borkh.], apple. Ainslie: absent. Al-Biruni
91 (20): tufa and 99 (40): Pyrus malus L. Al-Kindi: absent. Daljt Siha: 697: Persian
seb, Arabic tufh, Malus pumila Mill. [this is a valid name], syn. Pyrus malus Linn.
[this is another species, not a synonym]. Schlimmer 468: sb, apple. Schmucker 130
(169): tuf, Malus L. E. Wiedemann II, 375: tuf, Apfel; 392. sev is described at
2.2.292296: tufha / seva.

269
Daljt Siha records ksan and uktamadhu (the same as oxymel) (sikajabn) as cor-
rectives in case all parts of the plant are used, but katr and ksan when the seeds have
been employed. The yurvedyavivakoa (I,393) mentions as correctives: sikajavj,
honey, and the seeds of ksan.
JAN MEULENBELD 182
Substitutes are h
270
and the plant called turbud.
271
As such are also
ustukhuds
272
and visphyaj
273
mentioned.
274

270
Achundow 185 (134), identifed as Thymus capitatus Lk. = Satureja capitata L. [valid
name: Coridothymus capitatus (Linn.) Rchb.f., with Thymus capitatus (Linn.) Hof-
manns. et Link and Satureja capitata Linn. as synonyms], a plant that is also hot and
dry to the third degree. Al-Biruni 119 and 133, n.3: either Thymus serpythen L. [this
is an incorrect name] or Thymus vulgaris L. [this is a valid name]; some believe it to
be Thymus zygis L. [this is a valid name] or Satureia capitata L. Al-Kindi 256 (70):
Arabic name , identifed as Thymus vulgaris Linn. Daljt Siha 727728, Arabic
name h, identifed as Thymus serpyllum Linn. [this is a valid name], also dry and hot
to the third degree. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 647: , Thymus vulgaris.
Hand Book: absent. Schlimmer (534) records diferent names of Thymus serpyllum.
Schmucker 153155 (219), identifed as Thymus capitatus or an Origanum sp. Unani
Pharmacopoeia II, I, 232233 and II, II, 259: the dried leaves of Thymus serpyllum Linn.
Compare on Thymus vulgaris: Flckiger and Hanbury 437438.

271
Achundow 174175 (98) and 358 (80): turbud, Convolvulus turpethum [valid name:
Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso = Convolvulus turpethum Linn.]. Ainslie
II, 308 and 382384: turbad, Convolvulus turpethum (Lin.). Al-Biruni 89 (12): turbud,
and 98, n.22: Ipomoea turpethum R.Br. var. Convolvulus turpethum L.; II, 82 turbad,
Ipomoea turpethum [valid name: Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso = Ipomoea
turpethum (Linn.) R.Br.] or Convolvulus turpethum L.; I, 89 (12): turbud, and 98, n. 22:
Ipomoea turpethum R.Br. var. Convolvulus turpethum L. Al-Kindi 249 (52): turbad,
Ipomoea turpethum Linn. Daljt Siha 420421: turbud is the Arabic and Persian name
of Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso. Hamdard 394: turbud is the Arabic and
Urdu name of Ipomoea turpethum R.Br. Hand Book 385390: turbud, the Urdu name of
Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso. Schlimmer 156: turbud, Convolvulus tur-
pethum. Al-Biruni 89 (12): turbud, and 98, n.22: Ipomoea turpethum R.Br. var. Convol-
vulus turpethum L. Schmucker 128 (162): trbd, Convolvulus turpethum L. See on this
plant: Dymock et al. II, 527530.

272
See 2.2.5961.

273
Achundow 164 (67) and 348349 (54): basbjidsch, the Arabic name of Polypodium vul-
gare [valid name: Polypodium vulgare Linn.]. Al-Kindi 243 (37): Arabic name basbyij,
Persian name baspyak, a literal translation of polypodium, meaning many feet, iden-
tifed as Polypodium vulgare L. Hamdard 273: bisfaij, Polypodium vulgare. This plant is
not used in yurveda. See on it: Dymock et al. III, 621622.

274
Al-Biruni (36) mentions as substitute for the expulsion of atrabile (black bile) a mixture
of turpeth and one-third thyme. A mixture of the same amount of Epithymum and one-
third this amount of Convolvulus Turpethum is regarded as a substitute for the expulsion
of black bile as an action of Polypodium vulgare according to Achundow (164). Daljt
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 183
afasanatna
275

2.2.146:
u caikagua rk dvigua triguthav /
praast ptavarbh navmln tathaiva ca //
It is hot to the frst degree and dry to the second or third degree.
276
The recommended type is the yellow one, as well as the fresh and unwilted
one.
Siha regards afsantn as the substitute in case all fve parts of the plant or the seeds are
used. The yurvedyavivakoa (I, 393) regards afsantn and bdarj as the substitutes.
The latter plant is identifed as Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Schmucker 100 (95)) or Cala-
mintha portensis L. [this is not a valid name] (Al-Biruni 68-69 (2): bdrj and 83 (6)).

275
afsantn. Achundow 146 (13): Artemisia absinthium [valid name: Artemisia absinthi-
um Linn.]. Ainslie I, 481483: afsantn, Artemisia Madera-patana (Lin.) [valid name:
Grangea maderaspatana (Linn.) Poir. = Artemisia maderaspatana Roxb.], II, 194196:
afsantn, Artemisia Indica (Willd.) [valid name: Artemisia indica Willd.]. Al-Biruni 21
(31): aramisiy and 58 (86): the Artemisia species implied here in all probability is Ar-
temisia absinthium L. Al-Biruni II, 9798: Artemisia absinthium L. Al-Kindi 233 (17):
ifsintn, a species of Artemisia, probably the absinthium. yurvedyavivakoa I, 396
399: Artemisia absinthium Linn. Daljt Siha 3233: afsantn, Artemisia absinthium
Linn. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 27: Absintium ofcinale. Hamdard 361362:
afsantn, the Persian name of Artemisia absinthium Linn. Ibn-Sina 35 (74) and 63, n.231:
Artemisia absinthium L. and related species. Schlimmer 9: afsann rm, Absynthium
ponticum, syn. Artemisia pontica [valid name: Artemisia pontica Linn.]. Schmucker 80
81 (57). Unani Pharmacopoeia I, II, 3: Arabic afsanteen and khatraq (atraq), Persian
marw and marwah afsanteen rumi are names of Artemisia absinthium Linn. Artemisia
absinthium has no acknowledged Sanskrit name. The identity of marw is controversial.
Achundow 275 (538): marw is the name of Origanum Maru L., and 404 (409): Teucrium
marum [valid name: Teucrium marum Linn.] or Origanum Maru L. Al-Kindi 336 (289):
marw, Origanum maru L. Schmucker 471474 (719): marw, Origanum maru L. [this is
a valid name]

276
Achundow 146 (13): hot and dry to the second degree. yurvedyavivakoa I, 397: hot
to the frst and dry to the second degree. Daljt Siha 33: hot to the frst degree and dry
to the second degree (or to the third degree according to others). Ydavaarman: dry and
hot in Ynn.
JAN MEULENBELD 184
commentary:
akti musahil safar mufattiha sudd mtr kvthe diram 5/7. badala
jdahakayasma daratakabiyat md srna y nmavajana halelaya- dahakayasma daratakabiyat md srna y nmavajana halelaya- dahakayasma daratakabiyat md srna y nmavajana halelaya- ma daratakabiyat md srna y nmavajana halelaya- ma daratakabiyat md srna y nmavajana halelaya- d srna y nmavajana halelaya- d srna y nmavajana halelaya- srna y nmavajana halelaya- srna y nmavajana halelaya- srna y nmavajana halelaya- srna y nmavajana halelaya- rna y nmavajana halelaya- rna y nmavajana halelaya- na y nmavajana halelaya- na y nmavajana halelaya- nmavajana halelaya- nmavajana halelaya- mavajana halelaya- mavajana halelaya-
jarda darpaghne anesn nlofara.
The actions are agogue/cathartic with respect to yellow bile (mushil-e
safra)
277
and deobstruent (mufatti) with regard to obstructions (sudd).
278
The dose is fve to seven dirham of a decoction.
279

277
Achundow (146) agrees: es fhrt die gelbe Galle allmhlich ab.

278
Achundow (146) agrees: es fnet die Verstopfungen. The yurvedyavivakoa (I, 397)
agrees (rodhodghak). Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 27: tonic for brain, heart and
stomach; febrifuge, anthelmintic, and emmenagogue. Actions according to The Unani
Pharmacopoeia I, II, 4: mudirr-e-baul (diuretic), daf-e-humma (daf-e-umm, remov-
ing fever), qatil-e-kirm-e-shikam (qtil-e-kirm-e-ikam, killing intestinal parasites),
mufatteh sudad (mufatti sudd, deobstruent with regard to obstructions), muqawwi-e-
meda (muqaww-e-mi`da, stomachic), mohallil-e-waram (resolvent as to swellings/anti-
infammatory). The yurvedyavivakoa (I, 398) desribes it as balya (giving strength),
sakocaka (contractive), pravartaka/ recaka (purging), jvaraghna (curing fever), udara-
kminaka (killing intestinal worms), mastikottejaka (stimulating the brain). Ydava-
arman (244): according to Ynn it is: mtrala (diuretic), rtavajanana (emmena-
gogue), jvaraghna (curing fevers), kmirogahara (expelling intestinal parasites), benef-
cial in swelling of liver and spleen,

279
Daljt Siha 33: two to fve gm. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, II, 4: 4 to 9 gm.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 185
Substitutes
280
are jdaha
281
and kayasma
282
srna or half a wazn
283
of
yellow (zard) halelaya.
284
Correctives are anesn
285
and nlofar.
286

280
Compare on the substitutes: Achundow 146. The yurvedyavivakoa (I. 397) men- yurvedyavivakoa (I. 397) men- yurvedyavivakoa (I. 397) men- yavivakoa (I. 397) men- yavivakoa (I. 397) men- vakoa (I. 397) men- vakoa (I. 397) men-
tions gfs and asrn as substitutes. The plant called ft or fs is described at
2.2.841845. See also Abhinavanighau, p.65: fs. It is identifed as Agrimonia eu-
patoria Linn. [this is a valid name] and other plants (Al-Kindi 309310 (215)). Achun-
dow (237 (414)) identifes ghfat as Agrimonia Eupatorium. Daljt Siha (242244)
mentions three identifcations of ghfs: Gentiana dahurica Fisch. [this is a valid name],
Agrimonia eupatoria Linn., and Gentiana kurroo Royle [this is a valid name]. See on
Gentiana dahurica: Dymock et al. II, 508509, on Gentiana kurroo: Dymock et al.
II, 510511. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 257: fa, Eupatorium cannabinum
[valid name: Eupatorium cannabinum Linn.]. Schlimmer (23): Agrimonia Eupatoria,
ghfah. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 32: f al-rm, Agrimonia eupatoria.
Steingass: fat, f, swallow-wort, eupatory, agrimony. See on Agrimonia eupa-
toria: Dymock et al. I, 582583.

281
Al-Biruni 35: according to Rz an equal weight of jadah can be used as a substitute
of afsantn. See on jadah: Achundow 180 (115): dchu`da, Teucrium Polium; Al-Biruni
I, 109 (16) and 116, n.31: some regard it as Teucrium polium L. [this is a valid name],
others as the Polium of Pliny and Santolina chamaecyparissus [valid name: Santolina
chamaecyparissus Linn.]; II, 85: Teucrium polium or T. capitatum L. [valid name: Teu-
crium polium Linn. subsp. capitatum (Linn.) Arcang.]. See on Teucrium polium: Dy-
mock et al. III, 125126.

282
Achundow 242 (444) and 389 (337): qaism, Chamaecyparissus squarrosa [valid name:
Chamaecyparis pisifera (Siebold et Zucc.) Endl. forma squarrosa (Zucc.) Beissn.]. Ain-
slie I, 400: qaym, Artemisia austriaca (Lin.) [valid name: Artemisia austriaca Jacq.].
Daljt Siha 204205: kaism, Artemisia austriaca Linn. Encyclopaedia of Islamic
medicine 76: qaym, Artemisia abrotanum. E. Wiedemann II, 389: qaism, Artemisia
Abrotanum [valid name: Artemisia abrotanum Linn.].

283
A wazn is a measure of weight.

284
I.e., the yellow myrobalan.

285
Achundow 146 (13): in agreement. Daljt Siha 33: pomegranate juice (anrk arbat),
ans.

286
The yurvedyavivakoa (I, 397) enumerates: ansn, mastag, nlofar, and arbat
anr.
JAN MEULENBELD 186
bbn,
287
bbnaja,
288
sonahala
289

2.2.149:
uam ekagua rka pna ptaprasnakam /
asta mtr si 3 miskla darpaghna mkika smtam //
It is hot to the frst degree
290
and dry.
291
Recommended is the kind that is large and has yellow fowers. The dose is
three miskl and the corrective is said to be mkika.

287
Abhinavanighau, p.175: Persian name bbn, Arabic name bmbj. Ainslie I, 6768:
bbnah kw, the fowers of Anthemis nobilis (Lin.) [valid name Chamaemelum nobile
(Linn.) All.]. Daljt Siha 513514.

288
Achundow 163 (65) and 348 (52): bbnadsch, Matricaria Chamomilla [valid name:
Tripleurospermum inodorum (Linn.) Sch.Bip. = Matricaria chamomilla Linn.], Kamille.
Al-Biruni I, 3840: babnaj and 64 (246): the identifcation is doubtful: Pyrethrum
parthenium, Matricaria parthenoides Desf. [this is not a valid name], or Matricaria
chamomilla L.; II, 7475: bbnaj, sources: Matricaria parthenium Mill. [valid name:
Tanacetum parthenium (Linn.) Sch. Bip. = Matricaria parthenium Linn.], Chrysanthe-
mum parthenium Pers. [the valid name of Chrysanthemum parthenium (Linn.) Bernh.
is Tanacetum parthenium (Linn.) Sch. Bip.], Anthemis colala L. [valid name: Anthemis
cotula Linn.], Pyrethrum parthenium Smith [this is not a valid name]. Al-Kindi 239 (29):
bbnaj, probably Anthemis nobilis L., camomile. Daljt Siha 513: bbnaj, Matri-
caria chamomilla L. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 60: bbnaj, Anthemis nobilis.
Hamdard 402: babuna is the Urdu name of Matricaria chamomilla Linn. Schmucker
99100 (93): bbnaj, Anthemis nobilis L. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, II, 39: gul-e-babuna
(Persian name) consists of the dried fowers of Matricaria chamomilla Linn., called
zahr-ul-malik in Arabic; see also II, I, 221 (detailed description), 232 (gul-e-babuna, the
foral shoots of the plant), and 257 (tukhm-e-babuna, the foral shoots), II, II, 257, 258,
264: (babuna, the foral shoots). Compare E. Wiedemann II, 303 and 383 on Matricaria
and its names. See on Matricaria chamomilla and Anthemis nobilis: Dymock et al. II,
274276. See also Flckiger and Hanbury 344346: fores anthemidis. A nineteenth-
century yurvedic treatise, Karmas Siddhabheajamaiml (4.52) mentions
bbn (see G. Jan Meulenbeld IIA, 393). See also C.D. Maclean (1982), 63.

289
Hind sonhal means of a gold colour.

290
Abhinavanighau, p.175: hot to the third degree. Achundow (163) and Daljt Siha 514:
hot to the second degree.

291
Abhinavanighau, p.175: dry to the second degree. Achundow (163): dry to the second
degree. Daljt Siha 514: dry to the frst degree.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 187
commentary:
darpaghnam idam ntaropacre, bhyopacre tu rogan gul. pratinidhi
varajsafa asavaraga. aktaya 3 mulattifa mufattiha muhallila.
This is the corrective
292
for internal use. (The corrective) for external use,
however, is rose oil.
293
Substitutes are varajsafa
294
and asavaraga.
The actions are attenuant (mulaif ), deobstruent (mufatti) and resolvent
(muallil).
295
2.2.150:
sodv balgam tapyahara prd udhtam /
amarhdrujomtramtabhrapravartakam //
It is said to remove (feverish) heat by black bile and phlegm when ingest-
ed.
296
It brings about bladder stones,
297
pain in the region of the heart, a fow of

292
Abhinavanighau, p.175: correctives are the fowers of nlofar and a pomegranate po-
tion.

293
See on rose oil (gulrogan): Abhinavanighau, p.71.

294
Daljt Siha 496: barajsif, barajsaf, identifed as Achillea millefolium Linn. [this
is a valid name]. Hamdard 354: Persian name biranjasif, Achillea millefolium Linn.
Unani Pharmacopoeia II, II, 258: biranjasif, the dried fowering tops of Achillea mille-
folium L. The Abhinavanighau (p.175) mentions as substitutes birajsif and nkhn,
called gyahkesar in Persian and aklelulmulk in Arabic (see p.144). See on birajsif:
Abhinavanighau, p.179.

295
The actions are moharrik (muarrik, stimulating), mulaif (attenuant) and ksir-e-riy
(carminative; literally: breaking winds/fatus) in the Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, II, 40).
The Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine (432) also interprets ksir al-riy as carmina-
tive. Compare yurvedyavivakoa IV, 113 on kir riyh, explained as dpanapcana
(stimulating the digestive fre and digestion), vtnulomana (normalizing the course of
the winds), daf`-e-riyh (expelling wind), muka (nutrient) (this is probably an error
for muga). Compare also Abhinavanighau, p.175: the actions are: mukhake rodhako
udghak (deobstruent), othako layakart (resolving swellings), mtrapravartaka (di-
uretic), rtavapravartaka (emmenagogue), etc.

296
Achundow (163) agrees: sie unterdrckt das Fieber, welches von der Zersetzung der
schwarzen Galle oder des Schleims herrhrt. yurvedic texts never refer to fever as
tapya, but this rare term appears to denote a condition with increased body temperature.

297
Achundow: sie verkleinert die Nieren- und Blasensteine. See on amar: yurvedya-
vivakoa I, 711713; Mdhavanidna 32.
JAN MEULENBELD 188
urine
298
and the expulsion of a dead foetus.
299
commentary:
dimgr svar kuvvat dihada.
It strengthens
300
the brain and the vital spirits.
2.2.151153:
irasa irasabaddhair ca balvaham /
bpasyaitat kayasya iras paridhraam /
sadyo netravikraghna doaodhanaprvakam //
siddha sirkdrave kvtho ramadnmkirogaht /
antakto bpabais tad bukhra nirasyati //
It gives strength to the head and to the channels that are connected to the
head.
301
When the head is surrounded by the steam of its decoction, this immediately
annihilates disorders of the eyes, preceded by purifcation of the doas.
A decoction prepared with sirk removes the eye disease called ramad.
302
It drives away fever (bukhr) when fufs of steam (from the decoction) are
inhaled.
commentary:
ramada sarujombhasrva. camar ajabukhra pkagardnada mtr
dhikya galagrahadoakaram.
ramad is (a disorder of the eyes) accompanied by pain and secretion. A
small amount of steam
303
purifes
304
the eyes. An excessive dose causes the
disorder (called) galagraha.
305

298
Achundow 163: sie wirkt diuretisch.

299
Achundow (163): sie fhrt zum Abortus. Compare Abhinavanighau, p.175: hnikart:
ir aur kahako bhr karnevl tath irapprada hai.

300
Persian/Arabic quwwat is strength, force.

301
Achundow (163): es strkt das Gehirn und die nervsen Organe.

302
Conjunctivitis according to The Unani Pharmacopoeia II, II, 12.

303
bura means steam, vapour.

304
pk kardan = to purify.

305
A swelling of the throat. See Carakasahit, Strasthna 18.22 and G. Jan Meulenbeld
(1999), IB 21, n.242.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 189
bdarajab
306
y tukhmavlag
307
rmatulasbja
308
2.2.154156:
rkoa dvigua aktir mufattiha muhallila /
mukavv kohairaso manasas tu mufarriha //
musalih saud samkhyta mtr svarasasabhav /
dirammnpy aukasya miskladvitaya 2 bhavet //
muslih samagarav yrvm parikalpita /
avaream phalaprvo v prokta pratinidhir budhai //
It is dry and hot to the second degree.
309
Its actions are deobstruent
(mufatti)
310
and resolvent (muallil),
311
but it is exhilarating (mufarrih) re-
garding the abdominal viscera, head and mind.
It is said to be corrective (muslih) with respect to black bile. The dose of its
fresh juice is one dirham or two miskl when it is not dried.
It has this corrective action when samag arab is chosen as a substance to
assist (yr) (in this action).
312

306
Abhinavanighau, p.211212: rmatulas, Arabic name frajamuk. Achundow 160
(57): bdrdsch, Ocimum basilicum [valid name: Ocimum basilicum Linn.]; 239 (421):
farandschamuschk, Ocimum; 347 (46): bdrandschbja, Melissa ofcinalis. Ainslie
423: the ocymum basilicum would appear to be the bdraj of Avicenna and of Serapio.
Al-Biruni 69 (3): bdranjbyah and 83 (11): identifed as Melissa ofcinalis L. [this
is a valid name]. Daljt Siha 372374: bdarak, a Persian name of Ocimum basi-
licum Linn., and 528529: bdaragby, Melissa ofcinalis Linn. Schlimmer 203:
badranjbyah, Dracocephalum Moldavicum [valid name: Dracocephalum moldavi-
cum Linn.]. Schmucker 100 (95): bdarj, Ocimum basilicum L. Compare footnote to
mmra. See on Ocimum basilicum: Dymock et al. III, 8385.

307
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.177: tukhmablag as the Persian name of a plant.

308
The seeds of rmatulas. This plant is identifed as Ocimum gratissimum Linn. [this is a
valid name] (Bhvaprakanighau, commentary by Rpall J Vaiya on pupavarga
6263). Dymock et al. III, 8586: Ocimum gratissimum Linn. is called ramtuls in
Hind.

309
Abhinavanighau, p.211: hot and dry to the third degree. Achundow 160 (57): hot to the
second degree.

310
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau, p.211: mastikake rodhak udghak.

311
Abhinavanighau, p.211: othako layakart.

312
See 2.2.740743.
JAN MEULENBELD 190
Silk (avaream)
313
or phalaprva
314
are mentioned as substitutes by wise
(physicians).
315
commentary:
khaphakna hauladil hdroga, phavka hikk, jakha ka ity etn
mayn pariharati. valgam saudv marjar mukarrara.
Palpitation (afaqn) is palpitation of the heart (haul-e-dil), fuwq is hic-
cup, jakha is itching; it removes these diseases. Disorders by phlegm and
black bile are unquestionably (muqarrar) its object (marja`) (?).
316
bajrulkarapsa, tukhmakarapsa
317
ajamoda
318

2.2.170173:
rkoa dvigua mtrarajobandhavibhedanam /
srotonmlanakc cpi yakto vkkayor api //
hikk ca vasana cpi ksa vta vinayet /
plhne hitam apasmravate pi iir tmane //
mufattiha muga ca mudirra mubahti ca /
darpaghnam asya mjnagul knha mastag bhavet //
anes badala khyto thav ftrasla-yut /
mtr misklayugma syd dhimenkiravali //

313
avaream is described at 2.2.15. Achundow 153 (37): ibrsam, Seide. Ainslie: absent.
Al-Biruni: absent. Al-Kindi: absent. yurvedyavivakoa I, 410412: abream, raw
silk cocoon. Daljt Siha: absent. Hamdard 364365: abresham, the cocoon of Bombyx
mori. Hand Book 538: raw silk cocoon. Schlimmer 514: abram, silk. See also E.
Wiedemann II, 15: ibarsam. Silk is employed as a medicinal substance in the yurvedic
Siddhaprayogalatik as bareama (21.14; 34.41).

314
This may be a wrong reading for phalapra, on which see 2.2.2021.

315
Abhinavanighau, p.211: the substitutes are log (= lavaga, cloves) and bdarajoriy;
the correctives are banafh and sikajabn.

316
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.211: sodv bisvs kaphaja bisvseko lbhaprada hai.

317
See on karapsa: commentary on 2.2.134136. The author uses two words for seed: the
Arabic bar and the Persian tum.

318
See 2.2.134136.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 191
It is dry and hot to the second degree,
319
loosens obstructions to (the fow of)
urine and menstrual discharge, opens the channels, also those of liver and
kidneys,
320
destroys hiccup,
321
breathing disorders,
322
cough
323
and vta;
324

it is benefcial to the spleen
325
and to someone sufering from a convulsive
disorder; it is cool to the tman.
It is deobstruent (mufatti), nutrient (muga), causes to fow (mudirra) and
is aphrodisiac (mubah).
Its correctives are mjnagul,
326
knha
327
and mastag.
anes is said to be its substitute or added to ftrasl.
328
A dose of two miskl will act as the sun on snow.

319
Abhinavanighau, p.5: idem. Dhanvantaryanighau 2.99: ajamod is hot. Rja-
nighau 6.152: hot and dry.

320
Abhinavanighau, p.5: yakt aur plhake rodhako khaan kart.

321
Confrmed by the Dhanvantaryanighau 2.99.

322
Abhinavanighau, p.5: vs ko gu kart.

323
Abhinavanighau, p.5: it is benefcial in a dry cough.

324
Abhinavanighau, p.5: vyu laya kart. Dhanvantaryanighau 2.99: ajamod is
vtajit.

325
Abhinavanighau, p.5: plhake rodhako khaan kart.

326
A ma`jn is an electuary. Many mjn recipes are found in chapter 3.19. See on this
preparation: E. Wiedemann II, 109110: ber die Sirupe (Scharb), Latwergen (Ma`gn)
und was dazu gehrt, 123.

327
This item remains unidentifed.

328
Al-Biruni 252 (24): fur asaliyn and 259 (39): identifed as Apium graveolens Linn.
Daljt Siha 476: phitarsliyna: the drug sold under this name in Bombay is Prangos
pabularia Lindl. [this is a valid name]. Dymock II, 138141: Prangos pabularia Lindl.,
fturasaliyun (Indian Bazars). See on Prangos pabularia: Dymock et al. II, 138141.
Compare Achundow 153154 (43): zarjn, Calendula ofcinalis; Al-Kindi 226 (3):
ariyn, Calendula ofcinalis Linn. [this is a valid name].
JAN MEULENBELD 192
bajrulbarbj,
329
nnukulga,
330
tukhmagulakhairkal
331

2.2.174:
catuprktabhedeu sada gaurava hda /
antrakata vedan ca hared u nievat //
It is of a similar degree as to the four types of prakti.
332
Its use makes heaviness of the heart, lesions of the intestine
333
and pain
quickly disappear.
commentary:
bastikarma. hukan paryya. rearndah antrakatam
(Administration) by means of a clyster (is intended). uqnah is a synonym
(of clyster). rearndah (means) lesion of the intestine.
334

329
The seeds of barbj, a name not found in the dictionaries.

330
See Abhinavanighau, p.6061 and 146: Persian name nnkulg, Arabic name
ubbj. Daljt Siha 225: nnekul, Malva sylvestris Linn. [this is a valid name].
Steingass: nni kul, name of a herb growing in marshy places, camomile fowers,
crows foot.

331
Daljt Siha 211212: gulakhair, Althoea rosea Linn. [valid name: Alcea rosea Linn.].
The identity of gulkhairkal remains unsettled. Malva sylvestris and Alcea rosea
are two diferent plants. Persian kaln means great, big, which may mean that another
species is meant than Alcea rosea. Compare the gulakhairkhurda, the small type, men-
tioned in the heading of 2.2.176177.

332
Daljt Siha 225: cold and moist to the frst degree.

333
Confrmed by Daljt Siha 226.

334
r is a Persian word for wound. rndah has not been identifed.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 193
bujrulkhatam,
335
tukhmakhatam,
336
gulakhairkhurda
337

2.2.176177:
rk t caikagu ast pakv sitetar /
pittaksapraaman mtr syd diramadvayam //
gulakhair kal prokta etatpratinidhir budhai //
It is dry and cold to the frst degree.
338
The recommended kind is the ripe
one, dark in colour.

335
Error for bajrulkhatam.

336
See on khatm or khitm, identifed as Althaea ofcinalis Linn. [this is a valid name]:
Achundow 195 (176) and 369 (134): chathm, Althaea fcifolia Cav. [valid name: Al-
cea fcifolia Linn.]. Al-Biruni 140 (16): khatm and 151 (34): the accepted orthogra-
phy is khim, Althaea ofcinalis L. Al-Kindi: absent. Daljt Siha 211212; Persian
name atm, itm, Althoea ofcinalis Linn. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 47:
am, Althoea ofcinalis. Hamdard 358: Persian tukhm-e-khatmi denotes the fruit
and carpels of Althaea ofcinalis Linn. Hand Book 237242: Unani Tibbi name khairu,
Urdu name khatmi, Althaea ofcinalis Linn. The seeds of this plant are called in Ara-
bic bajrul khatm, in Persian tukhm-e-khatm. Schlimmer 3: Althaea ofcinalis, am.
Schmucker 185186 (278): am, Althaea fcifolia. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, V, 99: ba-
zre khatmi (Arabic name) or tukhm-e-khatmi (Persian name): the dried seeds of Althaea
ofcinalis Linn. Ydavaarman (113114): Persian khatm is Althoea ofcinalis. This
drug, tukhmakhatam, is known to the Siddhaprayogalatik (8.19) where it is prescribed
against cough and some other disorders. The author of the Siddhabhaiajyamaj
prescribes khatam (jvara 126; ksa 17). Species of Alcea have no recognized Sanskrit
name. Compare on Alcea: Dymock et al. I, 201204 (s.v. Althaea ofcinalis); Flckiger
and Hanbury 8486.

337
See Daljt Siha 211212: Hind gulkhair, Persian khair is identifed as Alcea rosea
Linn. = Althaea rosea (Linn.) Cav. Hamdard 400: Urdu gulkhair designates Malva syl-
vestris Linn. [this is a valid name]. A small (urda is a Persian word for small) type of
the plant is meant. See on Malva sylvestris: Dymock et al. I, 204205.

338
Abhinavanighau, p.56: cold and moist. Achundow 195: hot to the frst degree. Hand
Book 240: hot and dry to the frst degree. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, V, 100: moderately
cold and moist.
JAN MEULENBELD 194
It alleviates cough
339
arising from pitta; its dose is two dirham.
340
Wise (physicians) regard gulakhair kal as its substitute.
commentary:
snigdheti kecit. aktaya 4 mulayyana mulattifa mufattiha muhallila. dar-
paghne 2 kaudrabadarphale pratinidhir apara nlofara.
Some consider it to be moist (instead of dry). Its actions are four in number:
laxative (mulayyan), attenuant (mulaif ), deobstruent (mufatti), and resol-
vent (muallil).
341
There are two correctives: honey
342
and jujube fruits.
343
A substitute is
nlofar.
344

339
Abhinavanighau, p.56: benefcial in cases of dry cough. Achundow 195: der ausge-
schlte Same unterdrckt den Husten. Daljt Siha 212: the chief actions of the roots are
against swelling and cough. The Hand Book (237 and 241) records that the seeds are the
part used and mentions bronchitis as one of their indications. Encyclopaedia of Islamic
medicine 47: emollient and sedative in cases of gingivitis and infammation of the mu-
cous membrane of the mouth and throat. Ydavaarman (113): used against cough and
swellings.

340
Hand Book 241: the dose is 510 gm.

341
Abhinavanighau, p.56: othako layakart. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, V, 100: mohallil
(resolvent), munafs-e-balgham (expectorant), rade (Arabic rdi`, driving away.), mura-
khhi (relaxant), munzij (coctive).

342
Agrees with Abhinavanighau (p.56), Daljt Siha 212 and Hand Book 241.

343
The Abhinavanighau (p.65) mentions sof (= Sanskrit atapup). Daljt Siha (212)
and Hand Book (241) mention Foeniculum vulgare Mill. [this is a valid name]; compare
on this plant: Flckiger and Hanbury 274276.

344
Described at 2.2.10901093: nlofar indvara. Compare Abhinavanighau, p.151. Ac-
hundow 279 (552): nlfar, Nymphaea alba [valid name: Nymphaea alba Linn.]. Ainslie
II, 410411: Nelumbium Speciosum (Willd.) [valid name: Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. =
Nelumbium speciosum Willd.]. Al-Biruni 323324 (31): nlfar and 327 (71): Nymphaea
caerulea L. [valid name: Nymphaea caerules Savigny] and N. lotus L. [this is a valid
name] . var. alba. Al-Kindi: absent. yurvedyavivakoa III, 21592173: Nelumbium
speciosum Willd. Daljt Siha 129: nlfar, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. [this is a valid
name] (Sanskrit padma, kamala). Hamdard: absent. Hand Book 347354: Nymphaea
alba Linn. Hand Book 241 records also as a corrective Berberis aristata DC. Schlim-
mer 407: Nymphaeae (seu Ipomeae) cyanosae semen, nilloufar. Schmucker 516517:
nnfar, nlfar, Nymphaea spp. E. Wiedemann II, 300: nailfar, Nymphaea. The sub-
stitutes mentioned in the Abhinavanighau (p.56) are khubbj and nlofar. The author
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 195
bajrullida
345
/ tukhmatartejaka
346
candrara
347
/ hlo
348

2.2.183184:
rkoa trigua mtrakcchraghna vryavardhanam /
balada puida vtavydhidhvasanakraam //
katr darpahr syn mtr syd diramdvayam /
gandan badala jeyo lepd ghtatodanut //
It is dry and hot to the third degree.
349
It removes dysuria (mtrakcchra),
350

increases manly vigour (vrya), provides strength and a well-nourished
appearance,
351
causes the disappearance of wind diseases (vtavydhi).
352
of the Siddhabhaiajyamaj prescribes khubbj (ksa 17). The plant is employed as
khabbj in Vivevaradaylus Siddhaprayogalatik (45). See on Nelumbium specio-
sum: Dymock et al. I, 7073.

345
Achundow 183184 (129): urf, Lepidium sativum [valid name: Lepidium sativum
Linn.], Gartenkresse; das Hurf, auch Habbul-raschd genannt. Ainslie I, 95: rid, the
Arabic name of the garden cress, Lepidium sativum (Lin.). Al-Kindi 257258 (73): urf,
abb ar-rad, Lepidium sativum L. Daljt Siha 726: habburrida, an Arabic name
of Lepidium sativum L. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 484: urf, rad, Nastur-
tium ofcinale [valid name: Nasturtium ofcinale W.T.Aiton]. Schmucker: absent.

346
Ainslie I, 95: turah-tezuk, the Persian name of the garden cress. Al-Biruni 125 (52): urf,
tukhm-i-tirah-tizak and 135 (47): Lepidium sativum L. Daljt Siha 226: tukhmatara-
hatejaka, a Persian name of Lepidium sativum L. Schlimmer 343: Lepidium sativum,
tarahtizak. The drug called tukhma tarahatejaka is mentioned at 2.2.710, but not ex-
plained in the comments.

347
Mentioned for the frst time in the Bhvaprakanighau, hartakydivarga 9697 and
identifed as Lepidium sativum Linn. Known to many later yurvedic texts. See on Lepi-
dium sativum: Dymock et al. I, 120121.

348
Ainslie I, 95: hlim, Duk. name of the garden cress. Daljt Siha 726727: hlim,
hlo, Hind names of Lepidium sativum L. Schmucker 163164 (239): urf, Lepidium
sativum L. Ydavaarman (91): hlo is the Hind name of Lepidium sativum. Dymock
et al. I, 120: halim is a Hind name of Lepidium sativum.

349
Achundow 183 (129): hot and dry to the end of the second degree. Daljt Siha 226: the
same.

350
See on this disease Mdhavanidna 30.

351
Daljt Siha 226: it is puikara, gives a well-nourished appearance. Bhvapraka-
nighau, hartakydivarga 7677: balapuivivardhana. Sohalanighau, Guasa-
graha 291cd292ab: balya, puikt.

352
Bhvaprakanighau, hartakydivarga 7677: vtagadadvein. Sohalanighau,
JAN MEULENBELD 196
Its corrective is katr
353
and its dose two dirham.
Its substitute is gandan, which drives away, as an ointment, pricking pain
due to a blow.
bajrulfajala
354
tukhmaturaba
355
mlakabjam.
356

2.2.191194:
uam ekagua rka dvigua pvara varam /
mukay mukav akt 2 mtr diram 2 yugmakam //
lemtaka ca kaanj arkar darpahria /
badal havvarida syd yakddoakara bahu //
mukhyavyaga ca sidhmna kuha nnvidha katam /
misklayugma dun kn viananam //
rajapravartaka dootpdaka yakto bhavet //
The heading employs two diferent words for seed: bar and tukhm; this
means that the verses are about the seeds of fujl and turub.
It is hot to the frst degree,
357

Duasagraha 291cd292ab: vtalaghna.

353
Achundow 184: the corrective is almond oil.

354
Abhinavanighau, p.203: Arabic name fajl. Achundow 238 (419) and 386 (315): fud-
schl, Raphanus sativus [valid name: Raphanus sativus Linn.]. Ainslie: absent. Al-Biruni
249 (11): fujl and 258 ((20): Raphanus sativus L. Al-Kindi: absent. Daljt Siha 510:
the Arabic name is bajrulfujl. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 554: fujl, Raphanus
vulgaris [this is not a valid name]. Schmucker 315 (522): Raphanus sativus L., Arabic
name: fujl. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, V, 103: fazl is the Arabic name of Raphanus sativus
Linn.

355
Abhinavanighau, p.203: Persian name turb. Daljt Siha 510: the Persian name is
tukhme turb. Schlimmer 481: Persian name of Raphanus sativus: turub. Unani Pharma-
copoeia I, V, 103: the drug Turb consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn.

356
The seeds of mlaka, the Sanskrit name of Raphanus sativus Linn. See on the plant:
Dymock et al. I. 129130.

357
Abhinavanighau, p.203204: mlaka and its seeds are hot to the second degree.
Achundow 238: it is hot. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, V, 104: idem. It is, when boiled
(svinna), hot according to the Dhanvantaryanighau (4.34). The Kaiyadevanighau
(oadhivarga 670) and Rjanighau (7.52) regard it as hot. The Nighauratnkara
(158) calls it hot in all stages: bla, pakva, jra. Ydavaarman 9192: hot in Ynn.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 197
dry to the second degree;
358
a thick one is the best. It possesses two faculties,
vomitive (muqayyi)
359
and restorative (muqav).
360
Its dose is two dirham.
A contrary efect
361
have lemtaka,
362
kaanj and sugar. havvarida
363
is
its substitute, (but this drug) causes considerable damage to the liver. mlaka
seeds annihilate brown spots on the face (vyaga),
364
sidhma,
365
the various
kinds of kuha, and wounds, as well as the poison of corrupted kas
366
in a
dose of two miskl. It promotes the appearance of the menses
367
and brings
about disorders of the liver.
368

358
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, V. 104: idem. Ydavaarman (9192): dry in Ynm.
Abhinavanighau, p.203204: mlaka is moist to the frst degree, but its seeds are dry.

359
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau (p.204): the seeds are called vamanaprada.

360
Unani Pharmacopoeia 104: its actions are mulattif (attenuant), hazim (digestive), ka-
sir-e riyah (carminative), mudirre baul (diuretic), mohallile warme tihal (muallil
warm-e-til, resolvent with regard to swelling of the spleen). The correct spell-
ing of hazim is him, also interpreted as digestive in the Encyclopaedia of Islamic
medicine (432). Ydavaarman (92): pcana, mtrala, plhaothanana in Ynn.
The Nighauratnkara (158) calls it pcaka. Actions of mlaka according to the
Abhinavanighau (p.203): hrko pcanakart (digestive), bavsrko lbhaprada
(useful against haemorrhoids), vkka aur bastik patharko tokar niklneval, (brea-
king and expelling stones in kidney and bladder), pliyko lbhaprada (useful in cases
of jaundice), vtala (productive of wind), etc.; actions of the seeds: othako layakart
(resolving swellings), etc. Compare on the actions: Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga
669674ab.

361
The Abhinavanighau (p.203) mentions salt and jraka as the correctives.

362
Daljt Siha 616617: Persian name sipist, Cordia obliqua Willd. [this is a valid
name] and Cordia myxa L. [valid name: Cordia dichotoma G.Forst. = Cordia myxa sen-
su Cl.]. Compare the comments ad 2.2.604606: sarpistna sagapistna sipist /
lemtaka.

363
Achundow: absent. Hamdard 102: Solanum gracilipes [valid name: Solanum gracilipes
Decne.].

364
See on vyaga: Mdhavanidna 55.3940ab. The reading mukhya may be an error for
mukha. Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau (p.204): mukhak ymat, jh aur kle
dgoko dr karnevle.

365
This afection of the skin, one of the forms of kuha, is often identifed as pityriasis
versicolor; see G. Jan Meulenbeld (1999) IB, 108, n.189.

366
The Dhanvantaryanighau (4.35) calls it viahara, expelling poison.

367
Abhinavanighau, p.203: rtavapravartak hai.

368
The Abhinavanighau (p.203) records another opinion about mlaka: yaktke rodhak
JAN MEULENBELD 198
The heading learns that the drug to be described consists of the seeds of
mlaka, Raphanus sativus Linn. Two Persian names of this plant are given:
fujl
369
and turub.
370
The degrees of action are mentioned frst. Two weights are referred to: dir-
ham
371
and miskl.
372
Contrary efects have lemtaka,
373
ksanj,
374
and sugar.
udghak hai, and its seeds: yaktk taothako guprada.

369
See Biruni 249 (11): fujl and 258 (20): Raphanus sativus L.

370
tum-e-turub = radish seeds.

371
The weight of the standard dirham is 3.125 g (see H. Kamal, 444).

372
The miql weighs 4.464 (see H. Kamal, 444) or 4.60 g (see Schlimmer, 465). The
miskla is defned at 2.2.11cd.

373
This is an yurvedic drug, often identifed as Cordia gharaf Ehrenberg ex Asch. [valid
name: Cordia sinensis Lam. = Cordia gharaf Ehrenberg ex Asch.], but also as Cordia
dichotoma G. Forst. [this is a valid name], Cordia obliqua Willd. [this is a valid name]
var. tomentosa (Wall.) Kazmi, and Cordia obliqua Willd. var. obliqua. See on Cordia
myxa and Cordia obliqua: Dymet al. II, 518519.

374
ksanj may be the same as ksan or kasnj, Persian names of Cichorium intybus
Linn. [this is a valid name]. Achundow (282) describes Cichorium intybus under the
Arabic name of hindub, adding that its Persian name is kasn; 408 (425): hindab,
kasn. The Hand Book (222) gives similar information: Arabic name hindba, Urdu and
Hind name: kasni. Al-Biruni II, 60: karwah, hidub`, Cichorium intybus L. Al-Kindi
342343 (315): hundab`, Cichorium endivia L. [this is a valid name]; compare 244 (40):
baql, Cichorium endivia L. and 301 (188): alaqq, Cichorium, species not cer-
tain. yurvedyavivakoa (IV, 122123) interprets ksan, called hindab in Arabic,
as Cichorium Endivia Linn. Daljt Siha 165167: Cichorium intybus Linn., Persian
names ksan, kasnj. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 152: hindib, Cichorium inty-
bus. Hamdard 372373: kasni is the Persian, hindyba the Arabic name of Cichorium in-
tybus Linn. Hand Book 222230. Schlimmer 137: ksn. Schmucker 524525: hindab,
Cichorium endivia L. or Cichorium intybus L. Unani Pharmacopoeia II, II, 265: tukhm-
e-kasni, the seeds of Cichorium intybus Linn. E. Wiedemann II, 391: hindib, Zichorie,
Endivie, heiszt persisch ksn. See on Cichorium intybus: Dymock et al. II, 311313.
The author of the nineteenth-century Siddhabheajamaiml is acquainted with ksin
(2.45), as well as the author of the twentieth-century Siddhabhaiajyamaj (jvara
125).
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 199
The substitute
375
is a abbat, a pill containing rida.
376
One part of section two
(2.2.368391) is wholly devoted to many kinds of pills.
377
commentary:
vahaka sidhm saiva. kalafa namaa. vyagam syasamudbhavam. jh
iti loke.
The commentary provides the Persian word for (the skin disease called) sidh-
ma, i.e., vahaka frst, followed by words for vyaga: kalaf, freckle, and nama
= being marked with spots on the skin, exact equivalents for the Sanskrit
vyaga. It adds that vyaga arises on the face and that it is commonly known
as jh.
378

375
The Abhinavanighau (p.203) mentions algam as the substitute. See on this plant:
Achundow 223 (340): schaldscham, Brassica Rapa; Al-Biruni 356357 (53): shaljam
and 372, n.111: turnip, Brassica campestris Linn. [this is a valid name]; Daljt Siha
637: Persian name algam, Arabic and Hind name salgam, Brassica rapa Linn. [this
is a valid name]; Schmucker 270 (436): aljam, Brassica rapa Linn.; Unani Pharma-
copoeia I, III, 99102: Arabic name luft, Persian name shalghum, Brassica rapa Linn.
Its Sanskrit name is sarapa. See on Brassica campestris and other species of Brassica
called sarapa: Dymock et al. I, 122129.

376
Absent from vargas 2.10 and 3.5.

377
See on pills: Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 173174.

378
The Hind word for freckle is indeed jhi.
JAN MEULENBELD 200
balelaja
379
valelaya / vibhta
380
- baher
381

2.2.246247:
iiro dvigua rkas trigua lemaoaa /
diprasdano dua uttarrdhe sya varmaa //
darpaghnam agavna syt arbat paja 5 diram bhavet /
badal jag ivkhyt pratcbhiaj mate //
It is cold to the second degree and dry to the third degree
382
and dries up
kapha.
383
It clears eyesight
384
when the upper half of this body is corrupted.
385
Its corrective is agavna
386
as a potion in a dose of fve dirham.

379
Achundow 166167: balladsch, Terminalia belerica Roxb. [valid name: Terminalia bel-
lirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Ainslie I, 236237: Persian name balaylah. Al-Biruni 7677 (30):
ballaj, and 85 (76): Terminalia belerica Roxb. Al-Kindi: absent. Daljt Siha 504505:
Persian names: ballaj, balailaj, Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Hamdard: absent.
Hand Book: absent. Schlimmer: 394: ballah, myrobalani bellericae. Schmucker 120:
ballaj, Terminalia bellerica Roxb. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, I, 1718: balelaj, Terminalia
belerica Roxb.

380
This is the Sanskrit name of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. See on this plant: Dy-
mock et al. II, 511.

381
bahe is the Hind name of Terminalia bellirica.

382
Abhinavanighau, p.172: cold to the frst and dry to the second degree. Achundow
166167: cold and dry to the end of the frst degree. Daljt Siha 505: cold to the frst
and dry to the second degree. Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 243244: hot and dry.
Dhanvantaryanighau 1.213214: hot and dry according to some. Nighauratnkara
139: hot and dry.

383
Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 243: kaphpaha. Dhanvantaryanighau 1.214:
kaphajit according to some. Nighauratnkara: it is kaphanud.

384
Daljt Siha 505: it increases eyesight (divardhak). Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga
244: cakuya. Dhanvantaryanighau 1.213: akirogaghna. Rjanighau 11.324:
cakuya. Nighauratnkara 139: it is cakuya, netrarug nakam. Compare Abhi-
navanighau, p.172: it is called svacchatprada.

385
Compare on the actions: Abhinavanighau, p.172173: mayabalaprada, pittajamalk
recak, mastikabalaprada. Achundow 167. Daljt Siha 505. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, I,
18: muqawwi-e-meda (stomachic), qabiz (astringent), munafs-e-balgham (expectorant),
muqawwi-e-dimagh (brain tonic), muqawwi-e-basar (promoting eyesight).

386
The Abhinavanighau (p.172) lists kha and honey. Daljt Siha (505) mentions
honey and sugar.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 201
Its substitute is honey (angabn) according to the opinion of western physi-
cians.
387
bildara
388
bhalltaka
389
bhilve
390

2.2.248:
rkoas trigua vahnijvltko hy arukara /
kmasadpano retovddhida puida para
valpalitakhlityajar jr karoty asau //
arukara
391
is dry and hot to the third degree
392
and harsh like a fame of fre.
It excites sexual desire,
393
increases the amount of semen,
394
and gives a

387
The Abhinavanighau (p.172) lists malak and kl hara. Daljt Siha (505) mentions
the fower buds of mehnd, Lawsonia inermis Linn.

388
The Arabic and Persian names are bildur or baldur. Abhinavanighau, p.187: Persian
name baldar, Arabic names habbulkam and habbulkalab. Achundow 166 (73) and 353
(59): beldur. Ainslie II, 371372: bildar, Semecarpus anacardium (Lin.) [valid name:
Semecarpus anacardium Linn.f.]. Al-Biruni 72 (18): baldhar, and 84, n.39: Semecar-
pus anacardium L.f. Daljt Siha 553555: Semecarpus anacardium Linn.f., Persian
names baldur, bildur. Hand Book: absent. Schlimmer 37 (Anacardii longifolii semen,
blador). Schmucker 117 (137): balur, Semecarpus anacardium L. Unani Pharma-
copoeia I, IV, 15: Arabic name: abb-ul-fahm, abb-ul-qalb, Persian name: baladur.

389
This is the Sanskrit name of Semecarpus anacardium Linn.f. See on this tree: Dymock
et al. I, 389392.

390
The usual Hind name is bhilv.

391
This is one of the Sanskrit synonyms of bhalltaka.

392
Abhinavanighau, p.187: hot and dry to the second degree. Achundow (166) agrees. Daljt
Siha 553: the fruit is dry and hot to the fourth degree; its marrow is hot to the second de-
gree and dry to the frst degree. Some yurvedic texts regard the ripe fruit of bhalltaka
as hot: Bhvaprakanighau, hartakydivarga 229; Dhanvantaryanighau 3.144;
Rjanighau 11.203. The Kaiyadevanighau (oadhivarga 497) classifes the ripe fruit
as cold and dry.

393
This is an action of the marrow according to Daljt Siha. The Kaiyadevanighau
(oa-dhivarga 55cd) and Bhvaprakanighau (hartakydivarga 231) also describe
the marrow as vy.

394
The Kaiyadevanighau (oadhivarga 498) and Bhvaprakanighau (hartakty-
divarga 232) call bhalltaka fruits in general ukrala, promoting the production of se-
men.
JAN MEULENBELD 202
well-nourished appearance to a very high degree.
395
It brings about the disappearance of wrinkles, grey hair, baldness and old
age.
396
commentary:
ustarakh sava irasabaddhacevhiniraithilya, nasiyna far-
mo vismti, flija pakavadha lakkrditam, ity mayn nihanti. prati-
bhvied buddhivilsa taduddpaka, hfj medh taddhakara ca
marjadamgratbarjyalrdnad irortigatalemntakanivraa.
ustarakh sava is faccidity of the channels connected to the head that
transport movements, nsiyna farmo
397
means loss of memory (vismti);
flija
398
is pakavadha,
399
hemiplegia; lakk is the same as ardita, facial pa-
resis.
400
It conquers these diseases.
401
Through a particular kind of understanding it stimulates playful actions of
the mind (buddhivilsa) and strengthens its retentive faculty (fa).

395
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, IV, 16: its actions are: muqawwi-e-asab (muqaww-e-`aab,
nerve tonic), muqawwi-e-zahn wa hafza (muqaww-e-ahn wa fa, tonic for the
intelligence and memory.), muqawwi-e-qalb (cardiac tonic), daf-e-amraz-e-balghami
(daf-e-amr-e-balgam, driving away diseases by phlegm). Actions enumerated in
the Abhinavanighau (p.187): garmko utpannakart (generating warmth), vyuko
layakart (annihilating wind), pakavadha, ardita, kampa, mtrakcchrako lbha-
prada (it is benefcial in cases of hemiplegia, facial paresis, tremor, and dysuria), ojko
bahnevl (increasing the amount of ojas). It cures diseases by phlegm according
to the Bhvaprakanighau (hartakydivarga 232), Dhanvantaryanighau (3.144)
and Rjanighau (11.203).

396
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.187: it brings about sanipta and insanity.

397
Persian nisyn and farmo mean forgetfulness, oblivion.

398
flij is a Persian term for paralysis.

399
See on pakavadha: Mdhavanidna 22.39cd41.

400
See on ardita: Mdhavanidna 22.4437; yurvedyavivakoa I, 630634.

401
Achundow 166 (73): es ntzt gegen Lhmungen, Facialis paralyse, und Gedchtniss-
schwche. Daljt Siha 553: the fruit increases the memory (smtivardhaka). Al-Biruni
(72): its confection, majun anqry is especially useful in diseases due to paralysis,
nerve and facial paralyses, and amnesia. Hamdard 258: majuns are semisolids prepared
from the qiwam (sugar syrup) of white sugar or honey and a medicinal sufuf (powdered
drug). See on the preparation of a qiwam: Hamdard 302. yurvedic texts mention that
bhalltaka cures wind diseases: Dhanvantaryanighau 3.144; Rjanighau 11.203.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 203
It averts
402
coldness (ratba) of the region (marz) of the brain (dimg) and
wards of phlegm that stays in the head and causes headache.
403
2.2.249:
atiyuktas tu saudv marjasapdako drutam /
janna cittavikepo jujm vtsranmakam //
Overuse quickly brings about diseases (mar) of black bile. janna
404
is the
same as absence of mind (cittavikepa),
405
jujm is vtsra.
406
commentary:
tadvidhyaka cpi sparata othakakara. ngaroddhlana ca
kaothakledaoaa ca. atyanta upaviasada.
Handling it, even by touching, brings about swelling and itching
Sprinkling with dried (and powdered) ginger dries up itching, swelling and
exudations (kleda).
It resembles very much a secondary poison (upavia).
407
2.2.250:
nrikelatilashacaryato yadvad akuavakto gaja /
ki ca gavyaghtasevana mahkopahr gadita bhiagvarai //
Accompanied by coconut and sesame it (subdues) in the same way as the
elephant-drivers hook (subdues) an elephant.
Excellent physicians also declare that a violent excitation is eliminated by
the use of cows ghee.
408
commentary:
athav havvasamanaya rogan bdm vihdn mtr 1 adada.

402
lardnad is an error for gardnad from the Persian verb gardndan.

403
The meaning of rjya is not clear.

404
junn means madness.

405
Achundow 166: es kann zur Verrcktheit fhren. Al-Biruni: it stimulates melancholia.
Daljt Siha 554: it causes insanity (unmdajanaka).

406
vtsra is the disease usually called vtarakta; see about it, for example, Mdhavanidna
23. Achundow 166: es kann das Blut verbrennen.

407
Al-Biruni 72: it is counted among the poisons.

408
Compare Achundow 166; Daljt Siha 554.
JAN MEULENBELD 204
Or havvasamanaya,
409
almond oil, and seeds of vih in the dose of 1 unit.
410
bla
411
rphala
412
anra.
413
Hind bilvam
414

2.2.251252:
sama sarvtman sadyo tsragrahaharam /
vtaghnam antarbalakc chirpruyananam //
sevand dhanti satata chardipakavadhrditam /
mtr diramayugma 2 syd darpaghno dpyaka smta //
It is completely neutral.
415

409
See 2.2.370371ab: havvasamanaya / priylamajj / ciroj. This tree is identifed
as Buchanania lanzan Spreng., called priyla in Sanskrit and ciroj in Hind. Daljt
Siha (301) gives as its Persian name habbussiman.

410
The Abhinavanighau (p.187) mentions as correctives: tj nriyal (fresh coconut),
safed til (white sesame grains), and jau (barley); it mentions as substitutes: oil of bils
and fndak. See on the oil of bils: Abhinavanighau, p.215.

411
Al-Biruni 71 (16): bull, an unidentifed Indian medicine. Hamdard 356357: bel is the
Urdu name of Aegle marmelos Corr.; Schmucker 117 (136): Arabic bul, Persian bil or
bl: Aegle marmelos Corr. Daljt Siha (539) gives beh hind as the Persian name, but
Achundow (381: 279) identifes bih-i-hind as Cydonia indica [valid name: Cydonia in-
dica Spach.].

412
One of the Sanskrit names of the bilva fruit.

413
This name is remarkable; it usually designates a pomegranate.

414
Generally identifed as Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Corra. Compare on this tree: Dymock
et al. I, 277281; Flckiger and Hanbury 116118; Hobson-Jobson 47.

415
Abhinavanighau, p.183184: hot to the frst and dry to the second degree. Daljt
Siha 539: cold to the second degree and dry to the third degree. Carakasahit,
Strasthna: hot and moist. Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 21cd22ab: hot and
moist. Dhanvantaryanighau 1.109 and Nighauratnkara 139: the fruit is hot. The
Rjanighau (11.138) describes the ripe fruit as hot. Nighauratnkara 139: the fruit
is dry.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 205
It immediately cures diarrhoea and chronic diarrhoea.
416
It annihilates wind,
417
gives strength to the interior (of the body), and re-
moves roughness of the vessels.
By using it one is always freed from vomiting, hemiplegia and facial paresis.
Its dose is two dirham;
418
its corrective is dpyaka.
419
commentary:
pratinidhi sagrahae viaye tukhmatamara hind.
Its substitute as to its astringency consists of the seeds of the tamarind.
420

416
Abhinavanighau, p.183184: baddhak, jrtisr k baddhak. Daljt Siha (539)
agrees. The Dhanvantaryanighau (1.108110) calls the unripe fruit astringent
(sagrhin) and the ripe fruit constipating (viambhakara). The fruit cures diar-
rhoea according to the Rjanighau (11.136), which treatise also calls the unripe
and ripe fruit astringent. The Nighauratnkara (139) describes the young fruit as
grahayatsranaka and the ripe fruit as viambhakrin. The fowers cure diarrhoea
according to the Kaiyadevanighau (oadhivarga 23cd). See also Flckiger and Han- ckiger and Han- ckiger and Han-
bury 116118.

417
Carakasahit, Strasthna 27.138: the young fruit is vtajit. The unripe fruit cures
wind diseases: Dhanvantaryanighau 1.109. Nighauratnkara (139): the tarua
fruit is described as kaphavyo ca nakam. The ripe fruit conquers the three doas:
Rjanighau 11.138. The Kaiyadevanighau regards the young fruit as vtakaphpaha
and the ripe fruit as doala (oadhivarga 22ab and 23ab).

418
Daljt Siha: two to three gm. The Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, I, 2122): idem.

419
dpyaka is a synonym of ajamod, Apium graveolens Linn. Abhinavanighau, p.184:
kha is the corrective. Daljt Siha II, 539: sugar is its substitute.

420
Tamarindus indica Linn. [this is a valid name], amar hind. Achundow 173 (90)
and 354355 (75). Ainslie I, 425428 and II, 327. Al-Biruni II, 98. Al-Kindi 251 (58):
amar hind, Tamarindus indica L. Daljt Siha: absent. Encyclopaedia of Islamic
medicine 639: tamr hind, Tamarindus indica. Schlimmer 528: tamr hind. Schmucker
131132 (173): tamr hind, Tamarindus indica L. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 81: tamar
hindi consists of the fruit pulp without seeds of Tamarindus indica Linn. See on tama-
rind in the Muslim world: E. Wiedemann II, 106. Compare on the tamarind: Dymock
et al. I, 532536; Flckiger and Hanbury 197200; Hobson-Jobson 894895; Maclean
873874.
JAN MEULENBELD 206
tamarahind
421
/ amlik
422
/ iml
423

2.2.300303:
pakv pt praast syd rdr t guatrayam /
rk ca dvigua dagdhado syd virecan //
vieata ca pittaghn kutprabodhakar puna /
pakvayasya balakd vntitnivri //
vaikalya varmamanaso kmal hdruja jayet /
atiyukt phupphusasya doakt samudrit //
muslih arbat banaf y arbat khakha v puna /
safar mustarik dagdha pitta prokta bhiagvarai //
The ripe fruit is recommended in a potion. When fresh, it is cold to the third
degree and dry to the second degree.
424
It eliminates burnt doas.
425
It counteracts in particular pitta
426
and stimulates a feeling of hunger. It gives
strength to the receptacle of digested food
427
and wards of vomiting
428
and
thirst.
429
It overcomes weakness of body and mind, jaundice and pain in the
cardiac region.
430

421
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 81: tamar hindi consists of the fruit pulp without seeds of
Tamarindus indica Linn.

422
yurvedyavivakoa I, 511517: the Sanskrit name of Tamarindus Indica Linn.

423
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 81: the Urdu name.

424
Abhinavanighau, p.21: cold to the frst and dry to the second degree. Achundow 173
(90); cold and dry to the second degree. yurvedyavivakoa I, 514: cold and dry to the
second degree; others are of the opinion that it is cold to the frst and dry to the second
degree or cold and dry to the third degree. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 82: hot and
moist.

425
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau, p.21: dagdha doo ko atsr dvr recankart.

426
Abhinavanighau, p.21: pitta ko recankart. Achundow 173 (90): unterdrckt die gelbe
Galle. The Dhanvantaryanighau (1.34) and Rjanighau (11.38) difer and call it
pittakt.

427
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau,p.21: may ko balaprada.

428
Achundow 173 (90): beseitigt das Erbrechen. yurvedyavivakoa I, 514: apn sagrh
akti se vaman k nirodh kart hai, it suppresses vomiting by its astringent action. Con-
frmed by The Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, VI, 82), which also mentions polydipsia and
nausea.

429
Achundow 173 (90) and 354355: stillt den Durst. yurvedyavivakoa I, 514: apn
talat ke kra pipshar hai, it suppresses thirst by its coldness.

430
The actions are according to The Unani Pharmacopeoia (I, VI, 82): mushil-e-safra (pur-
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 207
Overuse excites disorders of the lungs.
431
The corrective is a potion (arbat) of violets or also of poppy seeds.
432
The best of physicians declare that safar mustarik is burnt bile.
commentary:
andoha manovaikalyam khria ka para tannin ca. yark
kmal, mtr diram 7/10 badal ujjsa.
andoha is mental weakness,
433
ri is itching; it annihilates these com-
pletely. yarq is jaundice.
434
The dose is 710 dirham.
435
Its substitute is ujjsa.
436
gative of yellow bile) and musakkin (relieving/sedative).

431
Achundow 173 (90): ist schdlich fr die Lungen.

432
Abhinavanighau, p.21: correctives are unnb and banafs. The yurvedyavivakoa
(I, 514) mentions as correctives: a, banaf, unnb, or something sweet.

433
Compare the commentary ad 2.2.629: kaya gaiyna andoha tinag rada, (i.e., in San-
skrit) vntyutkledavaikalyodanypradam ityartha, it brings about (prada, rad) thirst
(udany, tinag) due to the weakness (vaikalya, andoha) on account of the moisture
(utkleda, gaiyna) (lost) by vomiting (vnti, kaya).

434
See on jaundice in yurveda: Mdhavanidna 8.1723. See on jaundice (yaraqn) in
Islamic medicine: Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 381382.

435
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 82: dose 410 gm.

436
Probably the same as ijj. Achundow 142 (2): idschs, Prunus, Pfaume. Al Biruni I,
1718: ijjs and 56 (40): plum, Prunus domestica L. [this is a valid name]. Al Biruni II,
70: ijj, pear tree, Pyrus communis Linn. [this is a valid name]. Al-Kindi 225: ijj,
plum. Daljt Siha 6162 (49): ijjs, Prunus domestica Linn. Schmucker 54 (7): ijj,
Prunus domestica L. The yurvedyavivakoa (I, 514) mentions lbur as a sub-
stitute. See on this item: II, 11981203: Prunus communis Huds. [this is a valid name]
and Prunus insititia Huds. var. bokariensis [valid name: Prunus insititia Linn.]. It is
mentioned in the Siddhabhaiajyamaj (t 1) as lvakhraphala. See on this
tree: Dymock et al. I, 568570.
JAN MEULENBELD 208
cobacn
437

2.2.349351
rko cottam garkcobacn /
sohhan vicrit samyag rjrh kmavardhin //
mtr prayogayogy syd drcn badala smta /
bandobasta-prayuktaik khuls cpar mat //
muraggam orav darpanodano sy prakrtita /
lemnilaghn hemante vary kntotsavrthad //
Garkcobacn
438
is dry and hot to the highest degree.
439
Properly powdered sohhan
440
is an appropriate aphrodisiac for a king if ad-
ministered in the proper dose.
441
The dose is that appropriate to the type of application.
442
The substitute is
drcn.
443

437
Arabic and Persian names are omitted. Daljt Siha 312 records these names.
Abhinavanighau, p.106: Sanskrit name dvpntaravac, Persian name covcn, Arabic
name asbulsn. Ainslie I, 7072: Persian name cob cn, Arabic name ub n,
Smilax China (Lin.). Daljt Siha 313: Smilax glabra Roxb. [this is a valid name], Smi-
lax lanceaefolia Roxb. [this is a valid name], Smilax macrophylla Roxb. [this is a valid
name]. Hand Book 6470: Smilax china Linn. [this is a valid name]. Schlimmer 510:
Smilax china, cbcn. Ydavaarman 365: Sanskrit name dvpntaravac, Hind name
cobcn, Smilax china. See on Smilax: Dymock et al., III, 500503; Flckiger and Han- ckiger and Han- ckiger and Han-
bury 639647. yurvedic texts mention cobacn from the sixteenth century onwards:
Bhvapraka (used in the treatment of syphilis), Harakrtis Yogacintmai (323), etc.
The name dvpntaravac is found in the Bhvaprakanighau (hartakydi 107
108), Mevrmas Vaidyakaustubha (7.102), etc.

438
The meaning of gark is uncertain. arq = submerged.

439
Daljt Siha 313: hot to the frst degree according to the Lahore physicians. Hand Book
68: hot and dry to the frst degree. Bhvaprakanighau, hartakydivarga 107: hot.
Nighauratnkara, quoted in the ligrmanighaubhaa (p.154): hot.

440
The meaning of this term is not clear.

441
It is vjkara according to Daljt Siha 313. It is vya according to the Nighauratnkara,
quoted in the ligrmanighaubhaa (p.154).

442
The dose is 6 gm of the powdered roots/rhizome according to Hand Book 69.

443
drcn is described at 2.2.498503. Abhinavanighau, p.106: the substitute is
uv. Substitute according to Hand Book 68: ushba maghrabi, Smilax aristolochae-
folia Miller, a plant with the valid name Smilax aristolochiifolia Miller. Compare
yurvedyavivakoa II, 16541658: ub maghrab, Smilax ofcinalis [valid name:
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 209
This is one method of application; khuls
444
is regarded as another one.
Anointing (the body) (muraggam)
445
with orav
446
is proclaimed to be a
corrective.
447
It annihilates phlegm and wind in the winter season, is benefcial for a good
colour of the skin and is suitable to the pleasure of lovers.
448
havvalgra
449

2.2.375377:
rkoa trigua hikk pakghtrdita haret /
misklayugala 2 mtr aithilynhananam //
tamadduda migsarh phlija lakknidanam /
taddarpaghna bihdn guavedibhir dta //
mala kohavta prand dhanti satvaram /
Smilax regelii Killip et C.V.Morton = Smilax ofcinalis auct.] and Smilax ornata [Smilax
ornata Hook. is a synonym of Smilax regelii]. Compare on uv: Abhinavanighau,
p.24. This drug is known to the Siddhabheajamaiml (4.477) as usabb. The drugs
called usab (12.3), usav (1.45) and usavv (19.32) in the Siddhaprayogalatik may be
identical with ub.

444
ul, extract, essence.

445
This term may be derived from the verb maraa, to anoint.

446
or is the Persian name of nitrate of potash or saltpetre (Sherif 206; Hand Book 483
485).

447
Punica granatum Linn., the pomegranate, is the corrective according to Abhinava-
nighau, p.106, and Hand Book 69.

448
Compare on the therapeutic uses: Abhinavanighau, p.106, Daljt Siha and Hand
Book 68.

449
Cf. Achundow 237 (413) and 386 (310): ghr, Laurus nobilis [valid name: Laurus no-
bilis Linn.]. Ainslie: absent. Al-Biruni II, 101: r, the laurel tree, Lathyrus nobilis L.
[this is not a valid name]; I, 244: abb al-r, and 246, n.2: probably the larch tree,
Pinus pendula [this is not a valid name]. Al-Kindi 308309 (213): r, Laurus nobilis
L. Daljt Siha 245247: Arabic name habbulgr, Laurus nobilis Linn. Encyclopaedia
of Islamic medicine 398: r, Laurus nobilis. Hamdard 397: hab-ul-ghara is the Per-
sian name of Laurus nobilis Linn. Hand Book: absent. Schlimmer 342: r, laurier.
Schmucker 310 (511): r, Laurus nobilis L. E. Wiedemann II, 376: r, Lorbeer.
Laurus nobilis does not form part of the materia medica of classical yurveda. See on
Laurus nobilis: Dymock et al. III, 214216. abb, plural abb is the technical term for
a pill; see on the preparation of pills: Hamdard 9394.
JAN MEULENBELD 210
badal bdmatalgha syd darpaghna tamara smtam //
It is dry and hot to the third degree.
450
It removes hiccup, hemiplegia
451
and
facial paresis.
452
In a dose of two miskl it cures laxity and hard bowels.
It destroys stretching (of the body) (tamaddud),
453
migsarh,
454
hemiplegia
(flij)
455
and facial paresis) (lakk). The experts on the properties (of me-
dicinal substances) esteem the seeds of bih
456
as its darpaghna.
457
When
ingested, it quickly cures colicky pain (mala) and wind in the intestines.
Its substitute is almond talgha
458
and its darpaghna is the date (tamar).
459


450
Abhinavanighau, p.65: hot and dry to the third degree. Daljt Siha 246: hot and dry
to the second or third degree.

451
In agreement with Daljt Siha 246.

452
In agreement with Daljt Siha 246.

453
This term is explained in the commentary ad 2.2.458459: tamadduda taantuja
dehasydhmnasakocau vtavikrau., i.e., tamaddud and taannuj, infation
and spasmodic contraction of the body are disorders (caused) by wind. The spelling
taantuja is also found at 2.2.1116.

454
Persian magz means brain; rh is wind. This term may denote wind (disease) of the
brain.

455
See the commentary on 2.2.355356a: flija = pakavadha.

456
Cydonia obliqua Mill. = Cydonia vulgaris Pers., the quince. Quinces (bihibja) are
prescribed in the Siddhaprayogalatik (8.19); according to the commentary the seeds
(bihidn) are meant. See on the quince: Abhinavanighau, p.180181; Al-Kindi 282
283 (144): safarjal, quince, Cydonia vulgaris Willd. [this is not a valid name]. Compare
on the seeds of the quince: Flckiger and Hanbury 239241.

457
The Abhinavanighau (p.65) lists as correctives: jarak, katr, and vaalocana.

458
bdm tal = bitter almond. See 2.2.10021003. Daljt Siha 246: substitutes are hab-
bulmahaliba (Daljt Siha 715: mahaliba, Prunus mahaleb Linn. [this is a valid name])
and kave bdmk gir, Prunus amygdalus Batsch var. amara. See on Prunus mahaleb
Linn.: Encyclopaedia of Islamic Medicine 130131: mahlab, Cerasus mahaleb [Cerasus
mahaleb (Linn.) Mill., a synonym of Prunus mahaleb Linn.]. See on Prunus mahaleb
in the Muslim world: E. Wiedemann II, 113. The Abhinavanighau (p.65) mentions
kaloj, Nigella sativa Linn., as the substitute.

459
Compare Al-Kindi 250251 (57): amar al-arf`, gall of the tamarisk, Tamarix gal-
lica [valid name: Tamarix gallica Linn.] or Tamarix nilotica Bge. [valid name: Tamarix
nilotica (Ehrenb.) Bunge]. See on the date palm and the date: Daljt Siha 209210:
Phoenix dactylifera Roxb., Arabic name tamar ratub; Maclean, 413414. The date is
described at 2.2.297299: tamara urm / kharjra / chuhr.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 211
Daljt Siha mentions the jarik.
460
Actions are not mentioned at all.
461
Comments are not given.
hirmila,
462
isabanda,
463
sokhtan
464

2.2.411:
rkoas trigua asta pno raktas tath nava /
dhpant stikbladido pakaraa //
It is dry and hot to the third degree.
465
It is recommended when thick, red,
466


460
Daljt Siha 385: zarik, berberry fruit. Schmucker 214 (343): zarik, Berberis vul-
garis L. [this is a valid name] is its nivraa.

461
See on the actions: Abhinavanighau, p.65.

462
The plant name hirmil is problematic, but armal denotes the seed of the wild rue, com-
monly identifed as Peganum harmala Linn. Achundow 186187 (138) and 362363
(113): harmal, Peganum harmala [Peganum harmala Linn. is a valid name]. Ainslie:
absent. Al-Biruni I, 88: armal, Allium moly L. [Allium moly Linn. is a valid name] or
Peganum harmala L.; II, 125 (51): armal and 135, n.43: Peganum harmala. Al-Kindi
258 (75): armal, identifed as Peganum harmala Linn. Daljt Siha 717: idem. Hand
Book 186193: ispand, the Unani Tibbi name of Peganum harmala Linn. Schlimmer
310: urmal, Harmala ruta [this is not a valid name] = Peganum harmala = Ruta sylves-
tris [this is not a valid name]. Schmucker 164165 (240): armal, Peganum harmala; a
red and a white kind are distinguished.

463
Abhinavanighau, p.16: Persian name aspand, Arabic name harmal. Achundow 186
187 (138): called sapand in Persian. Al-Biruni (I, 88; II, 125) distinguishes two kinds;
the second kind is said to be called isfand in Arabic. Al-Kindi 258 (75): called ispand
in Persian. Daljt Siha 717: called ispand or sipand in Persian. Schlimmer 310: called
ispand in Persian. The Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, II, 59) records ispand as the dried seeds
of Peganum harmala Linn., called hurmul in Arabic. Ydavaarman 125126: Persian
name: ispand, Peganum harmala.

464
This Persian word means `ft to be burnt. See yurvedyavivakoa II, 1418: is-
pand sokhtan, Peganum harmala Linn. Peganum harmala does not form part of
the materia medica of classical yurveda. It is employed in the twentieth-century
Siddhaprayogalatik (22.42) as haramala. See on this plant: Dymock et al. I, 252255.

465
Abhinavanighau, p.16: hot to the frst, dry to the second degree. Achundow (186)
agrees with the text.

466
Achundow (187) refers to the same opinion: am besten ist das rothe Peganum.
JAN MEULENBELD 212
and fresh.
It drives away, used in a fumigation, diseases of the puerperium, childrens
diseases, and the evil eye.
467
commentary:
akt 2 mulattif mumasik. darpaghnam meve tara. badala - tukhmasud v
kirdamn turamatukha.
It has two actions: attenuant (mulaif ) and retentive (mumsik). The correc-
tive is fresh (tar) fruit (mwa).
468
The substitutes are the seeds of sud
469
or
kirdamn
470

471
khaakha
472
aviyaja
473

2.2.453456:
ahiphena sita bja kokanra api smtam //
snigdha ta dviguita rka cpi matntare /
snehayukta parpke rka da bhiagvarai //
raktanihvana hanti kavathu vtapittajam /
pnasa ca pratiyyam atsra nirmajam //

467
Compare the completely diferent actions and uses mentioned in the Abhinavanighau
(p.16).

468
Achundow (187) mentions Astragalus verus. The correctives listed in the
Abhinavanighau (p.16) are: sikajavn and the fresh juice of amarda fruits, Psidium
guajava Linn.

469
The identity of sud is uncertain. tum-e-sd are the fruits of Anethum graveolens
Linn. according to Daljt Siha 703.

470
The substitutes enumerated in the Abhinavanighau (p.16) are: tatil, ajavyan, and
ml seeds. See on tatil: Abhinavanighau, p.122123; Steingass: a species of rue.
ajavyan is the Hind name of yavn, Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague. ml is
the Hind name of mlaka, Raphanus sativus Linn.

471
The meaning of turamatukha has remained unclear.

472
Abhinavanighau, p.58: a safed. Achundow 195 (173): chaschchsch, Papa-
ver somniferum [valid name: Papaver somniferum Linn.]. Ainslie I, 326327: khakh,
the white seeds of the poppy. Al-Biruni II, 56: khashkhsh. Schmucker 183184 (273):
a. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, II, 65: khashkaash consists of dried seeds of Pa-
paver somniferum. E. Wiedemann II, 290, 385.

473
This is a spelling of Arabic abya, white.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 213
sitopala kaudram athsya darpaht tath lisnulhamala prakrtita /
ataprasn pi ca mastag para bdmar badala praodita //
The white seeds of Papaver somniferum Linn.
474
are also known as
kokanra.
475
They are moist and cold to the second degree, also dry according to another
opinion.
476
The best among the physicians consider them to be dry when joined to a
fatty substance in a boiling (procedure).
They cure haematemesis, sneezing arising from vta and pitta, nasal catarrh
(pnasa),
477
coryza (pratiyya),
478
and nirma diarrhoea.
479
As their correctives
480
are mentioned white sugar (sitopala) and kaudra
honey,
481
as well as lisnulhamala.
482

474
Achundow 195 (173): es giebt weissen und schwarzen Mohn.

475
Abhinavanighau, p.58: the white seeds of the poppy are called kokinr in Persian;
p.163164: Sanskrit kasatila, Persian kokanr, poppy seeds. Ainslie I, 275: the poppy
plant is called kknr in Persian. Unani Pharmacopoeia II, I, 236 and II, II, 260: ko-
kanar, the opium obtained from dried poppy heads.

476
Abhinavanighau, p.58 and 163: cold to the second, moist to the frst degree. Achundow
195 (173): der weisse Mohn ist kalt und feucht im dritten Grade. Unani Pharmacopoeia
I, II, 66: dry to the frst degree.

477
See on pnasa: Mdhavanidna 58.1112.

478
See on pratiyya: Mdhavanidna 58.1327.

479
Diarrhoea not accompanied by undigested matter. Abhinavanighau, p.163: they are
atisrabaddhaka,vieata rudhiraja aur pittaja atisrk baddhaka. Compare on the
actions Abhinavanighau, p.163 and Achundow 195. See also Nighauratnkara 68
on kasabja.

480
The Abhinavanighau (p.58) regards sugar (misr) and honey as the correctives; p.163:
mastag and kha are the correctives. Achundow 195 (173): zur Correction dient As-
tragalus verus [valid name: Astragalus verus Olivier] und Kamillensaft.

481
See G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 486487 on types of honey.

482
See 2.2.986988. Achundow 265 (508): lisn ul-hamal, Plantago major. Al-Biruni I,
517518: Plantago major Linn., Persian name: brataga, Arabic name: lisnulhamal.
Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 525: lisn al-amal, Plantago major. Schmucker
433 (677): lisn al-amal, sicher eine Plantago, vielleicht P. asiatica [valid name: Plan-
tago asiatica Linn.], aber auch P. major L. [this is a valid name] wird fr dieses in An- r dieses in An- r dieses in An-
spruch genommen. Compare Schlimmer 462 for Persian names of Plantago major. E.
Wiedemann II, 390: lisn al amal, Plantago. Compare also Abhinavanighau, p.176:
Persian name brataga, Arabic name lisnulhamal.
JAN MEULENBELD 214
Substitutes are ataprasn,
483
mastag, and the sweet almond.
484
khakha asvada
2.2.457:
yan mecaka prvasama guai syt smantinsomahara ca puidam /
nidrprada rogana nasyasevant prvodita eam uanti vaidy //
The black (variety) has the same properties as the preceding (white variety).
It removes soma(roga) in women and provides them with a well-nourished
appearance.
The oil is a soporifc when used as an errhine.
The physicians declare that the remaining (properties and actions) have been
mentioned in the preceding (verses).
485
khalla / sirk
486

2.2.468471:
bea bada agr rka tas tridh mata /
pakvayya hitakt para dpanapcana //
gulbayuktagao daanrti haret parm /
majihyukpralepena piikvyaganana //
gaurava karayo othe ptann ndavedanm /
rrti amayet sadya pnyam iva pvakam //
rogan bdma darpaghna arkar v smt budhai //
The kind probably to be preferred is that from grapes;
487
it is thought to be

483
The same as atapup, Anethum graveolens Linn.

484
Abhinavanighau (p.58): the seeds of Lactuca sativa (kh) are the substitute; p.163:
opium is the substitute.

485
See on the actions of the black seeds: Abhinavanighau, p.58; Achundow 195.

486
Abhinavanighau, p.243244: Persian name sirk, Arabic name khala. Achundow 193
(167): chall, Acetum, Essig. Ainslie I, 461463: alla is the Arabic name, sirk is the
Persian name of vinegar. Al-Biruni: absent. Al-Kindi: absent. Daljt Siha: absent.
Schlimmer: all, Arabic name of acetum, vinegar; Persian name: sirkah. Schmucker:
absent. Compare E. Wiedemann I, 684 on diq vinegar.

487
agr is the Persian word for grape, described at 2.2.821823.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 215
dry and cold to the third degree.
488
It is benefcial to the receptacle of digested food; it infames the digestive
fre to a high degree and promotes processes of maturation to a high degree
too.
489
It removes severe toothache
490
as a mouthwash when rose water
491
is added
to it.
In an ointment, when majih is added, it annihilates boils (piik)
492

and brown spots on the face (vyaga).
It removes heaviness of the ears, buzzing and pain when used in ear drops
in cases of swelling.
It immediately alleviates headache, as water does so to fre.
493
Wise (physicians) regard almond oil or sugar as correctives.
494
khumura,
495
arba
496
vru
2.2.472:
agrya praastokt suvar surabhir nav /
madhy cirantan nnguai p tridh bhavet //
It is said that the recommended type is made of grapes, of a golden colour,
497

fragrant, and freshly prepared.

488
Abhinavanighau, p.243244: cold and dry. Achundow 193 (167): trocknend und kalt.

489
Abhinavanighau, p.244: it is pcaka. Achundow 193: macht die Speise leicht
verdaulich.

490
Achundow 193: beseitigt den Zahnschmerz.

491
Rose water is described at 2.2.10261028.

492
An error for piik.

493
Compare the actions listed in the Abhinavanighau, p.244: baddhak, peke kheko
mrkar niklnevl (killing and expelling intestinal parasites), atyant kudhprada
(causing much hunger), rodhak udghak (removing obstructions).

494
Correctives mentioned by the Abhinavanighau, p.244: sweet substances and those that
can be licked (lehya); a substitute is juice from the mountain nimb.

495
amr is a Persian term for spirituous liquor, wine. See Achundow 191193 (166) and
365368 (124): chamr, Wein. Ainslie (I, 472) regards it as the Arabic name.

496
arb has the same meanings as amr. See Achundow 365368 (124); Ainslie I, 472
478; Schlimmer 553: wine. See on preparations called arb: Encyclopaedia of Islamic
medicine 171172. Compare E. Wiedemann II, 123.

497
This may also mean: of a good colour, of a brilliant hue.
JAN MEULENBELD 216
When some years old, it is of medium quality and full of various qualities.
498
Three kinds can be (distinguished).
commentary:
arba hadsa kadma mutavassita atka / kadma paryya / iti kramao
bhedatrayanmni.
Wines are new (dis), old (qadm), average (mutawassi),
499
old (`atq).
qadm is a synonym. These are the names of the three varieties in due order.
2.2.473476:
nisargastmy nii ska sarojnanay ca sevy /
rmasagtavieabodh krodhpah syt piitopada //
nav msik drhya sevann mehanasya ca /
savidhatte para vy madanotsavadyin //
rko dvigua reh madhyamttavatsar /
dpan pcan vary prasann retaso mbudhi //
rko trigua tk turya 4 var cirantan /
balsavsaksaghn vardhin jvanomaa //
It is by nature congenial at night, in the company of a woman.
It arouses the delight in beautiful gardens and music and drives away anger.
It (arouses the delight in) well-prepared relishes.
Regular use of it when new and six months old brings about hardness of
the male member. It is aphrodisiac to a very high degree and makes sexual
activities pleasurable.
It is dry and hot to the second degree; the best kind is that older than half a
year.
prasann
500
stimulates the digestive fre, promotes processes of maturation,
is benefcial to the colour of the skin, and an ocean of semen.

498
I assume that p is an error for pr.

499
This term can also mean: common, ordinary, intermediate.

500
prasanna in its usual meanings does not make sense in the context; it is therefore prob-
ably the name of a particular kind of alcoholic drink, the clear upper portion of sur. See
on prasann: G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 485; Dhanvantaryanighau 6.262.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 217
Old (vru),
501
four years old, is dry and hot to the third degree and harsh
(in its action).
It annihilates phlegm, difculties of respiration, and cough, and increases
the vital heat.
commentary:
jvanom harratagarj dehapui ratiknta vivardhayet.
Vital heat, (called) arrat arz (in Persian), i.e., innate heat, increases
ones well-nourished condition and sexual attractiveness.
2.2.477:
aktaya 5 paca vikhyt mukavv mubah tath /
mufarra munaj ceti mulattifa iti kramt //
One says that it has fve actions, which are, successively: tonic and aphro-
disiac, exhilarating, causing an erection (mun`i), and attenuant.
commentary:
aparer arbarehn prvoktaguakalp / mtr haftd 70 miskla /
darpaghna meve turatara / badala smny sur /
Another kind of wine made with rain
502
has almost the same, already
mentioned, properties.
The dose is seventy miskl. The corrective is acid (tur) fresh (tar) fruit
(mwa). Substitutes are all kinds of sur.
503

501
See on vru: G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 497498.

502
rain = Ocimum basilicum [valid name: Ocimum basilicum Linn.] Encyclopaedia of
Islamic medicine 497: rain, Ocimum basilicum.

503
See on sur: Ainslie I, 451453.
JAN MEULENBELD 218
revandacn
504

2.2.522:
revandacn dviguoark pakvayrti pavanmaya ca /
ast rajany samaoavar hinasti bastyayarecanena //
revandacn is hot and dry to the second degree.
505
The type that has the same crimson colour as rajan
506
is the recommended
one which removes pain in the receptacle of digested food and vta diseases
by purging the bladder.
507
commentary:
aya pakvbhidha.
The receptacle is that called pakva(aya)
2.2.523524:
plhbhivddhi ca tathmala prt pralepd apac vra ca /
sirksamet nayati hy apya kuhn makun vaav yathaiva //

504
Abhinavanighau, p.213214: Persian name bekharevs, Arabic name rvand, Sanskrit
name ptaml. Achundow 373 (225): rwand-i sn, Rheum palmatum. Ainslie I, 342
344: rwand is the Arabic, rwand the Persian name of Rheum palmatum Linn. [this is
a valid name] and Rheum undulatum Linn. [this is a valid name]. Unani Pharmacopoeia
I, II, 91: the drug Rewandchini consists of dried roots of Rheum emodi Wall. [valid
name: Rheum australe D.Don = Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meissn.]. Ydavaarman 310:
Sanskrit names: ptaml, amlapar, Hind name: revandcn, Rheum emodi. Compare
on Rheum spp. in the Muslim world: Flckiger and Hanbury 442451, E. Wiedemann
II, 106, 116. See also Al-Kindi 337 (295): manj, Rheum palmatum L., Rheum rhapon-
ticum L. [valid name: Rheum hybridum Murray = Rheum rhaponticum auct.]. Compare
on Rheum: Dymock et al. III, 153157; Flckiger and Hanbury 442451. Rheum spp.
appear in late yurvedic texts: Vidypatis Vaidyarahasya (prameha 19: revaccn);
ligrmanighaubhaa, p.1215: revacn, Sanskrit names: gandhin, ptamlik,
pt; Bhannighauratnkara (1215: revacn); Siddhabheajamaiml 4.646 and
1107: revat, 2.62: revatik; Siddhabhaiajyamaj (vsa 27): revatasit. The drug
may be mentioned as gandhin in the Siddhabhaiajyamaj (hikk 6).

505
Abhinavanighau214: hot and dry. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, II, 92: hot and dry.

506
rajan is described at 2.2.817820; the Hind name recorded in the heading, halad,
establishes that Curcuma longa Linn., turmeric, is meant and that the colour of the rhi-
zome is here referred to as oa.

507
Abhinavanighau, p.214: vyuko layakart.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 219
samagav tu darpaghno musalih mukay tath /
mudirra aktayas tisra 3 kathit lokastrayo //
Ingested, it makes disappear splenomegalia and piercing pain by ma, as
an ointment it does so with regard to apac
508
and wounds/ulcers; joined to
vinegar (sirk), it lets the forms of kuha disappear,
509
as a mare does with
makuha beans.
510
Its corrective is samagav.
511
According to the common people and to sci-
ence it is said to have three actions: corrective (muslih), vomitive (mukay),
and causing to fow (mudirra).
512

508
See on apac, small local swellings: Carakasahit, Nidnasthna 11.1012 and
Cikitssthna 18.20cd23; Mdhavanidna 38.9cd10.

509
Compare on the actions: Abhinavanighau, p.214. See also ligrmanighaubhaa,
p.1215: revacn kaus tikt baly s mdurecan / dantyajram atsra vahnimndyam
arocakam / visaga tapitta ca duavraavirohi //.

510
makuha is generally identifed as Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marchal [this is a valid
name].

511
This must be an error for samag arav, gummi arabicum. Compare Abhinavanighau,
p.214: the correctives are unnv and the resin of babbla, the substitutes are rose fowers
and roots of semar.

512
The actions are, according to The Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, II, 92): mohallil-e-waram
(resolvent with regard to swellings), musakkin (relieving/sedative), munafs (expec-
torant), muqawwi-e-meda-wa-kabid (muqaww mi`da wa kabd, stomachic and a liver
tonic), mudirr-e-baul (diuretic), mudirr-e-tams (emmemagogue); see the commentary
ad 2.2.3840: tams is Sanskrit rtava, menstrual discharge. Ydavaarman 311: it is,
according to Ynn physicians, othavilayana (reducing swellings), mayko akti
denevl (giving strength to the stomach), yakduttejaka (stimulating the liver), mtrala
(diuretic), and rtavajanana (emmenagogue); in yurveda it stimulates the liver, is as- yurveda it stimulates the liver, is as- yurveda it stimulates the liver, is as-
tringent in a small dose, but laxative in a large dose, stimulates salivation and increa-
ses the amount of gastric juice. Actions enumerated in the Abhinavanighau (p.214):
rkatprada, dooko svacchakart, malko samapakvakart, mtra aur rtava pra- tra aur rtava pra- tra aur rtava pra- rtava pra- rtava pra-
vartaka, rodhak udghaka, dhmnko layakart, tarogko gukart, puke ro-
dhako udghak hai, etc.
JAN MEULENBELD 220
revandakhat
513

2.2.525:
saivpar kicid anuavry haridru bastiviodhan ca /
mtropasarga jvalitoavta kdambinva kapayed davgnim //
Another (variety), somewhat cold as to its vrya, purifes, together with
haridru,
514
the bladder.
It alleviates a urinary disorder and a fery gonorrhoea (uavta), as a long
line of clouds a forest fre.
2.2.526527:
prayoga ca
or kalm, jr sufeda 2, revandakhat 4 sacrya cira sevayet
kodo m kranrnupto madvandva limudgopabhoktu /
mtrghta mtrakcchrapramehn sapthena drvayec copadaam //
aktir ek munakk syn mudirra api cpar /
badal anyonyam uddio bhedayor ubhayor api //
One should use for a long time or kalm,
515
jr, sufeda,
516
and revandakhat,
powdered together.
517

513
Chinese rwand (rwand-e-itay).

514
Identifed as Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) Hook.f. ex Brandis [valid name: Haldina cordi-
folia (Roxb.) Ridsdale = Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) Hook.f. ex Brandis]: Abdul Kareem;
ligrma, p. 706707. Mentioned in Rjanighau, pariia 9, 2627. See on it: Dy-
mock et al. I, 171172.

515
Employed as kalamoraka (1.129), ora (15.8) and oraka (4.41; 30.10 and 18) in the
Siddhaprayogalatik and regarded as potassium nitrate in its English translation.

516
Described at 2.2.272273: bahamatsura sufeda / avagandh bilyat. avagandh
is generally identifed as Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal [this is a valid name].

517
See on or: Abhinavanighau, p.234; Persian name or, Arabic name abkar, Sanskrit
name suvarcik.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 221
The powder of these (substances), (in a dose of) two ma, drives away
urinary retention (mtrghta),
518
dysuria (mtrakcchra) and the types of
prameha, as well as upadaa,
519
within seven days with milk and water as
an anupna and li rice and mudga beans as a daily diet.
It has one action, munakk (munaqq, purifying), and mudirra (causing to
fow) as the other one.
Both varieties are declared to be each others substitutes.
jfar
520
/ kukuma / kesara
521

2.2.561562:
asta kusumbhakusumruatvragandha rkoa
balavardhana ca /
vtmayopaamana nayanbhirma pupeudpanakara
prasave sasukhyam //
mtrakcchrahara bjakara cetaprasdanam /
hsopacayakd retastambhana yakto hitam //

518
See on this disease: Mdhavanidna 31.

519
See on this disease: Mdhavanidna 47 and yurvedyavivakoa II, 15881595: soft
chanker.

520
Achundow 212 (289) and 374 (231): za`farn, Crocus sativus [valid name: Crocus sativus
Linn.], Safran. Ainslie I, 354357: za`farn, Crocus Sativus (Lin.), the stigmas, with
a proportion of the style, of the fowers. Al-Biruni I, 166168 (16): zafarn and 176,
n.35: Crocus sativus L.; II, 95: zafurn, Crocus sativus L. or Crocus ofcinalis Honck
[valid name: Crocus sativus Linn. = Crocus oHicinalis Honck]. Al-Kindi 275276 (127):
zafarn, Crocus sativus L., sometimes the root of Curcuma longa L. Encyclopaedia of
Islamic Medicine 201202: zafarn, the dried stigmata of Crocus sativus. Hamdard
377: zaafran, the Persian name of the stigmas along with the style-tops of Crocus sativus
Linn. Schlimmer 168169: zafarn, Crocus sativus. Schmucker 217 (349); zafarn.
Compare on safron: Dymock et al. III, 453461; Flckiger and Hanbury 601606;
Hobson-Jobson 780; Maclean 775777. See on safron in the Muslim world: E. Wiede-
mann II, 1011, 112113, 127128, 300301.

521
This is not a common Sanskrit name of safron. The Rjanighau (12.21) lists kesara-
vara as one of the synonyms of kukuma.
JAN MEULENBELD 222
The recommended kind is that with a ruddy colour like the fowers of ku-
sumbha
522
and with a penetrating smell.
523
It is dry and hot,
524
and increases
strength.
It alleviates wind diseases,
525
is agreeable to the eyes,
526
stimulates the li-
bido, and facilitates childbirth.
It eliminates dysuria, produces semen, and calms the mind.
527
It promotes the amount of mirth,
528
retains the semen, and is benefcial to
the liver.
529
commentary:
akti muhallil munavvima / khba tje surkharaga tundaboya.
Its actions are resolvent
530
and soporifc. When very fresh (tza) it is of a red

522
Ainslie I, 354: when of good quality, its colour is a deep red. Some synonyms of kukuma
refer to this characteristic. The Dhanvantaryanighau (3.12) mentions: rudhira, asj,
asra; the Rjanighau (11.21) lists the same names and adds to them oita and arua. The
Nighauratnkara (64) distinguishes three kinds of safron: kmrabhmv utpanna
skma rakta prakrtitam // padmagandhi ca vijeyam uttama tat prakrtitam /
bhlkaja pu skma ketakgandhakn matam // tanmadhyama prasika
pura madhugandhikam / adhama tat samuddia sujai kukumavedibhi //,
That kind which has its origin in the land of Kamr is known as subtle and red, it is
known to smell after a padma, and proclaimed to be the best one; the kind that comes
from Bhlka is pale and subtle and thought to smell after a ketak; it is of an average
quality; the Persian type is pale and smells after honey; it is designated as of the lowest
quality by the experts concerning safron.

523
The Rjanighau (12.22) and Nighauratnkara (64) describe it as fragrant (surabhi).

524
Abhinavanighau, p.5152, and Achundow 212: hot to the second, dry to the frst de-
gree. It is hot according to the Dhanvantaryanighau (3.13) and Rjanighau (12.22).
The Nighauratnkara (64) calls it hot and moist.

525
Supported by the Abhinavanighau (p.52): vyu layakart. In agreement with yurveda:
Dhanvantaryanighau 3.13, Rjanighau 12.22. The Nighauratnkara (64) re-
marks: vta nayet.

526
It cures eye diseases according to yurvedic texts: Dhanvantaryanighau 3.13.

527
In agreement with the Abhinavanighau (p.52): cittako prasanna kart.

528
The Abhinavanighau (p.52) describes it as prasannat aur hsya janaka. The
Nighauratnkara (64) calls it nandakraka.

529
Supported by tha Abhinavanighau (p.52): diko sukhaprada. Compare on the actions
and uses: Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 201202.

530
In agreement with the Abhinavanighau (p.52): otha layakart.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 223
colour and strongly (tund) fragrant (boy).
2.2.563564:
praasta navna tathoddmagandha
saoatvam ukta kmrajtam
badal kustar salkh ca aktir
mufattih mufarrah mukavv tridh pi //
anes javri bih darpanapravne pravai prath prpite sta //
It is recommended when fresh and of an intense smell.
The kind originating from Kashmir is said to possess a crimson tinge.
The substitutes are kustar
531
and salkh.
532

531
Described at 2.2.907910: kustar (qus rn)/ pukaramlam / kustabalakha /
kuham / ka. These names indicate that the sweet (rn) type is meant. pukaramla
designates in Sanskrit another plant than kuha; the latter is called k in Hind. The
name kustabalakha needs clarifcation. Achundow 243244 (450) and 390 (342): qust,
kust: man unterscheidet heutzutage in Persien zwei Arten von Kust: eine ssse, weisse
and wohlriechende, welche Kust-i arab oder Kust-i bahr genannt wird, und eine andere,
bittere, schwrzliche und wenig duftende, Kust hind. Ainslie II, 165167: qus, Costus
Arabicus (Lin.) [Costus arabicus Linn. is a valid name]. Al-Biruni 268269 (33): qus and
275 (71): Aucklandia costus Falk. = Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke [valid name: Saussurea
costus (Falc.) Lipsch. = Saussurea lappa (Decne.) C.B. Clarke]; qust-i-talkh is probably
the Persian name for the Indian costus and qust-i-shirin is the qust al-hl of the Arabs
or orris root. Al-Kindi 316 (232): qus, costus, Aucklandia costus Falc.; Saussurea lappa
C.B.Clarke is used today in Iran (qus-i-talkh). Daljt Siha 182186: Arabic name ust,
Persian name kust-e-r, kust-e-safed, Iris sp., orris root, and Saussurea lappa C.B.Cl.
Hamdard 413: Saussurea lappa Clarke, Arabic and Persian name: qust. Schlimmer 160:
Costus albus seu arabicus seu veterum, qus rn, and Costus amarus, seu indicus seu ni-
ger. Schmucker 346347 (576): qus; two kinds are distinguished: an Arabic kind, white,
very fragrant, and mild, and an Indian kind, black and bitter; some authors describe
three types. See on Saussurea lappa: Dymock et al. II, 296303. Compare on qus in the
Muslim world: E. Wiedemann II, 14, 106107, 119.
yurvedic treatises do not confuse, as the Hikmatpraka does, pukaramla and
kuha. The former is commonly identifed as Inula racemosa Hook.f. or Inula royleana
DC. (see Abdul Kareem), whereas the latter is Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch.

532
Achundow 218 (316): salcha, Laurus Cassia [valid name: Neolitsea cassia (Linn.) Kos-
term. = Laurus cassia Linn.]. Daljt Siha 358: salkh, Cinnamomum tamala Nees [valid
name: Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T.Nees et Eberm.]. Encyclopaedia of Islamic
medicine 153: salah, Cinnamomum cassia [valid name: Cinnamomum aromaticum
JAN MEULENBELD 224
Its actions are threefold: deobstruent (mufattih), exhilarating (mufarrah),
and tonic (mukavv).
The two correctives are anes and javri bihi, obtained for the frst
time as efective (drugs) by skilful physicians.
533
jajavla.
534
ngaram.
535
soh
536

2.2.571:
tridhoarka kusumeudpana vtmayaghna ca irortinanam /
ksajvaravsabalsahikkothodaraplhanibarhaa syt
Nees = Cinnamomum cassia Blume] and Cinnamomum zeylanicum [valid name: Cinna-
momum verum J.Presl = Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume]. Schmucker 246247 (399):
sala, Laurus cassia. Unani Pharmacopoeia II, II, 262263: saleekha, the bark of Cin-
namomum aromaticum Blume [valid name: Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees]. salkh is
described at 2.2.656662: salkh, kahal, kahel. See on Cinnamomum cassia: Dymock
et al. III, 203211. The Abhinavanighau (p.52) mentions as substitutes: taj jvitr, i.e.,
nutmeg, Myristica fragrans Houtt. taj is a Persian word for cinnamon.

533
The Abhinavanighau (p.52) mentions as correctives ansn, jarak, opium, and
sikajabn.

534
Achundow 212 (288) and 374 (230): zandschabl, Amomum Zingiber [valid name:
Zingiber ofcinale Roscoe = Amomum zingiber Linn.], Ingwer. Ainslie I, 152153:
zanjabl, Amomum Zingiber (Lin.). Al-Biruni 169 (21; 22): zanjabl. Al-Kindi 277 (130):
zanjabl, ginger, Zingiber ofcinale L. Daljt Siha 700702: zanjabl, the Arabic and
Persian name of ginger, Zingiber ofcinale Rosc. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine
753: zanjabl, Zingiber ofcinale. Hamdard 416: zanjibil, the Arabic and Persian name
of ginger. Hand Book: absent. Schlimmer 152153: zanjabl. Schmucker 222 (355):
zanjabl, Zingiber ofcinale. Unani Pharmacopoeia I, I, 88: Arabic and Persian name of
ginger: zanjabil. See on ginger in the Muslim world: E. Wiedemann I, 680; II, 14. Com-
pare on ginger: Dymock et al. III, 420425; Flckiger and Hanbury 574577; Hobson-
Jobson 374375; Maclean 310311.

535
The Sanskrit name of dried ginger rhizome.

536
The Hind name of dried ginger rhizome, the equivalent of Sanskrit uh = ngara.
Abhinavanighau, p.250: soh, Sanskrit name uh.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 225
It is hot and dry to the third degree,
537
excites sexual desire,
538
destroys wind
diseases
539
and headache.
It eliminates cough, fever, breathing disorders, phlegm, hiccup, swellings,
abdominal enlargement (udara),
540
and disorders of the spleen.
541
commentary:
takaviyat jigan mde kunada irakulis khadara flin tamadduda taannuja,
balgam r dafegardnada akkaya yne darda nmasara r nafarasnada
mtr diram.
It brings about strength (taqawiyat) of the
542
stomach (ma`da); it drives
away (dafe gardnada) sciatica,
543
torpor (adar), paralysis (flij),
544

stretching ones body/yawning (tamaddud) and contraction/spasm (taan-
nuj) by phlegm; it makes fee
545
hemicrania (aqqat, or (in Persian) darda
nmasara).
546
Its dose is one dirham.
547
2.2.572574:
umbhas ptam uyacra tra salmavinana syt /
medhsamddhi vitanoti nitya

irogalastha harate ca aityam //

537
Abhinavanighau, p.250: hot to the second, dry to the frst degree. Achundow agrees.
Daljt Siha 701: hot to the third and dry to the frst degree. yurvedic texts regard it as
hot: Dhanvantaryanighau 2.83; Rjanighau 6.131.

538
Achundow (212) agrees. Daljt Siha 702: aphrodisiac (vjkara).

539
Abhinavanighau, p.250: vyuko layakart. Daljt Siha 702: normalizes wind (vt-
nulomana), dissolves wind (vtavilayana).

540
Daljt Siha 702: used against abdominal diseases (udara). See on udara: Mdhava-
nidna 35.

541
Compare the actions recorded in the Abhinavanighau (p.250).

542
The meaning of jigan is not clear.

543
irakulis, probably the same as irakunnis, explained as gdhras, sciatica, in the com-
mentary on 3.418419.

544
The unintelligible flin is probably an error.

545
nafrat kardan means to fee from.

546
dard-e-nm-e-sar means pain in half of the head. Actions according to the Unani Phar-
macopoeia (I, I, 89): kasir-e-riyah (carminative), hazim (digestive), munafs-e-balgham
(expectorant), jali (detergent). The Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine (431) renders jl
as expellent.

547
Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, I, 89): 1 to 2 gm.
JAN MEULENBELD 226
mufattiha muga ca muhallila mubah tath /
mukavv ra uddm aktaya paca 5 virut //
kuraskframadhun darpaghne samudhte //
Its powder, made the previous day, drunk with warm water will quickly an-
nihilate undigested matter (ma) accompanied by piercing pain.
It brings about a constant increase of intelligence and removes coldness re-
siding in head and throat.
Its fve actions, deobstruent (mufatti), nutrient (muga), resolvent
(muallil), aphrodisiac (mubah), and tonic (mukavv) with respect to inju-
ries, are widely known as unlimited.
Kuraskfr
548
and honey are declared to be its correctives.
549
jajabla m.
550
rst
551
rsan
552

2.2.594596:
tridhoark tk ca haritsadyobhav tath /
badal rsvaja prokt mtr misklamnata //
humm mastag sirk agr khasa eva ca /
darpanavidhyni labdhavarai ktni hi //
akti mukattay sehaglj mukarraha mulattifa //

548
kfr is the Arabic name of camphor . See Daljt Siha 120123; kurs kfr is men-
tioned as a kfr preparation at 122. See on kfr: Achundow 251 (483) and 396 (368);
Ainslie I, 4851; Al-Kindi 321 (247); yurvedyavivakoa III, 21032125; Encyclopae- yurvedyavivakoa III, 21032125; Encyclopae- yurvedyavivakoa III, 21032125; Encyclopae- yavivakoa III, 21032125; Encyclopae- yavivakoa III, 21032125; Encyclopae- vakoa III, 21032125; Encyclopae- vakoa III, 21032125; Encyclopae-
dia of Islamic medicine 113: camphor, from the wood of Cinnamomum camphora and
other lauraceous trees; Hamdard 367368: a product from Camphora ofcinarum Banh.
[valid name: Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Nees et Eberm. = Camphora ofcinarum
Nees]; Schlimmer 100; Schmucker 37237 (610). See on camphor in the Muslim world:
E. Wiedemann II, 9, 111112, 231232, 258259, 271272, 379, 397398, 416. Compare
on camphor: Dymock et al. III, 199203; Flckiger and Hanbury 458466; Hobson-
Jobson 151152; Maclean 121.

549
Abhinavanighau, p.250: honey and almond oil are the correctives; kl mirc, Piper
nigrum Linn., is the substitute.

550
Daljt Siha 605606: zanjablm: Inula helenium L. [this is a valid name].

551
rst as a plant name is absent from the dictionaries I consulted.

552
Daljt Siha 605: the Arabic name is alrsan.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 227
It is hot and dry to the third degree
553
and sharp when it is fully fresh.
Its substitute is said to be rs vaja
554
and its dose is of the measure of one
miskl.
A corrective action is brought about by humm, mastag, sirk,
555
agr
556

and khasa.
557
Its actions are cutting into pieces (muqaa`)
558
sehaglj,
559
vesicatory
(muqarri) and attenuant (mulaif ).

553
Daljt Siha 605: hot and dry to the second or third degree.

554
This may be an Iris sp., called sosan in Persian. See Ainslie I, 182 and 284286: irs,
Iris Florentina (Lin.) [valid name: Iris germanica Linn. nothovar. forentina Dykes];
yurvedyavivakoa II, 14491452: rs, Iris Versicolor [valid name: Iris versicolor
Linn.]; Daljt Siha 707708: sawsan and rs; Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 373:
sawsan, rs, Iris forentina. Compare Dymock et al. III, 451453 (Iris germanica and
orris root); Flckiger and Hanbury: 598601: rhizoma iridis.

555
Daljt Siha (606) agrees. sirk is described at 2.2.468471. See on sirk: Ainslie I,
461463; Daljt Siha 237238; its Sanskrit equivalent is ukta. See on ukta: G.J. Meu-
lenbeld (1974), 510511.

556
Achundow: absent. Ainslie I, 156158: Persian name ankr, Vitis Vinifera (Lin.) [valid
name: Vitis vinifera Linn.]. Al-Biruni: absent. Al-Kindi: absent. yurvedyavivakoa
I, 105112: agr, fruits of Vitis vinifera Linn., grapes. Daljt Siha 13: Persian agr
designates grapes. Schlimmer: absent. Schmucker: absent. Compare on Vitis vinifera:
Dymock et al. I, 357361.

557
Achundow 193194: Arabic as, Lactuca sativa [valid name: Lactuca sativa Linn.].
Ainslie II, 470471: Persian as, Andropogon Muricatus (Retz.) [valid name: Chryso-
pogon zizanioides (Linn.) Roberty]. Al-Biruni 144 (36): Arabic name ass and 153,
n.89: Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash [valid name: Chrysopogon zizanioides (Linn.)
Roberty], syn. Andropogon muricatus Retz. Al-Kindi: absent. Daljt Siha 220221:
khas, the Hind name of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash. Schlimmer: absent. Schmucker
182 (270): ass, Lactuca sativa L.

558
See the commentary ad 2.2.187188: mukattayaman ukraoityartha, i.e., muqaa`-
mani means desiccating the seminal fuid, and 239240: mukattayakadratajba ne
trdndriyamlinyakhaantyartha, i.e., muqaa`kadratajba means cutting into
pieces the impure matter (deriving) from the eyes and other organs of sense; kadrat
means impurity.

559
The meaning of this term is not clear. Arabic/Persian al is an equivalent of Sanskrit
dua.
JAN MEULENBELD 228
jajabla rataba.
560
gaveram
561

dvidh rka tridh coa kaphaksmalanut /
pratiyye tu sagua jvare sarasam ritam //
It is dry to the second degree and hot to the third degree
562
and drives away
cough by phlegm and mala.
563
In cases of coryza it (should be taken) together with jaggery (gua),
564
in
cases of fever together with rasa.
565
commentary:
raso jvarkudi
The rasa is jvarkua(rasa),
566
etc.
2.2.597599:
raso muya yavakrayuta pto galagraham /
yamapam iva kipra chinatti rhare smti //
kaudrea yukta parisevito ya tridoakopa vanila ca /
druta nihanti vasana vikra aitya yathaiva vasana bhujaga //
aktir darpaghnam etasya vivauadhasama vidu /
paraspara pratinidhir vijeyo vaidyasattamai //

560
Daljt Siha 70070i: the Arabic name of fresh, green ginger.

561
One of the Sanskrit names of fresh ginger; it is also called rdraka.

562
Abhinavanighau. p.7: dry to the frst and hot to the third degree.

563
A kind of piercing/colicky pain (la). See Mdhavanidna26.1112.

564
See Hobson-Jobson 446; Maclean 378.

565
Compare on its actions and uses in Ynn: Abhinavanighau, p.7.

566
The Rasayogasgara describes a large number of preparations of this name (cakrdi
244282).
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 229
Its juice, to which yavakra
567
has been added, when drunk, will quick-
ly cut away galagraha,
568
in the same way as remembering (the name of)
rhari
569
will cut through the noose of Yama.
570
When used together with honey it will speedily annihilate excitement of the
three doas and wind in the testicles, just like the breath of a serpent (an-
nihilates) breathing problems as a cold disorder.
571
It is known that its action and corrective are the same as (those of) dry gin-
ger (vivauadha).
They are each others substitute according to the best among the physicians.

567
yavakra is described at 2.2.11091111: natarna, cr - irman / yavakra. A se-
cond entry on natarn is found at 2.2.265269; these verses are about borax (Sanskrit
akaa, Hind suhg). yavakra is an alkali prepared from the ashes of burnt green
barley-corns. See on yavakra: Abhinavanighau, p.110; Hand Book 480485; Nad-
karni II, 8893. See on braq, borax: Achundow 162163 (63) and 316 (6); Ainslie I,
4446. See on narn: Al-Biruni 322 and 326 (48): natron, sesquicarbonate of soda;
Al-Kindi 248 (48): bauraq, borax, and 341 (312): natron, synonym for bauraq; Hand
Book 480482: potassii carbonas impura, potassium carbonate, 495496: natron, sodii
carbonas impura, Sanskrit sarjikkra (see Abhinavanighau (p.235): Sanskrit name
sarjik, Persian name ar and kalb, Arabic name kalmsfar and ib; Ainslie I,
395398: sarjik(kra), impure carbonate of soda); Daljt Siha 8586: sarjikra,
suvarcik; Persian ir), Arabic tile-milahul-gile, Persian shikhara, Ynn nitrn,
tine-gazur, and 497500: borax, sodii biboras, Sanskrit akaa, Arabic buraekessa-
ghah, Persian tinkar (tangr).; Nadkarni II, 101103: sarjikkra, 103107: borax.;
Schlimmer 517518: baurah, borax; Schmucker 123124 (153): bauraq (arman), na-
tron, sodium carbonate; yurvedyavivakoa IV, 7374: natarn, carbonate of sodium.
E. Wiedemann I, 709, 713.

568
A disease of the throat; it is one of the types of local swelling (see Ca.S.18.22).

569
One of the names of Viu.

570
Yama is the god of death.

571
The construction and meaning of 598cd are not quite clear.
JAN MEULENBELD 230
tavra
572
tvakkr
573
/ vaalocana
574

2.2.751756:
rk tridh dvidhnu tvakkr hdrujpah /
pitta rakta jvara tm ma saniyacchati //
davathu vamathu mrch vaikalyakaraodbhavam /
bhyam bhyantara sadyo tisra grahagadam //
aktir mujiff gadit mukavv pakvayasy pi hdo bhiagbhi /
ast sit lghavayuktamtr dey diram 1 mnamit sudhbhi //
gulba kiv kila mastag v tath anes viktighna ukta /
rkhaam ardha sitaramir asy ervrumajjtriguo thav syt //
caturguo v tha bajarkatn makhma giltukhma ca ksan v //
ussrah laghututsa tatkryakaraakam /
ete badala khyt candandy bhiagvarai //

572
Abhinavanighau, p.185186: Persian and Arabic name tabr, Sanskrit name
vaalocana. Achundow 231 (386) and 383 (290): tabschr, concretiones Bambu-
sae arundinaceae [valid name: Bambusa bambos (Linn.) Voss = Bambusa arundina-
cea (Retz.) Willd.]. Ainslie I, 419421: tabasheer, a product of Bambusa arundinacea
(Schreb.), abr in Arabic and Persian. Al-Biruni 213 (1): abshr and 218, n.1:
abshr denotes the young shoots, seeds, and siliceous concretion of Bambusa arun-
dinacea Retz. Al-Kindi 300 (186): abr; it is a concretion in the knots of a particu-
lar species of bamboo. Daljt Siha 368369 and 505506: Arabic and Persian name
altabr, bamboo manna from Bambusa bambos Druce. Hamdard 363: tabashir, con-
cretions of Bambusa arundinacea Retz. Schmucker 286 (464): abr, gewhnlich
concretiones Bambusae arundinaceae. Unani Pharmacopoeia II, I, 256257 and II, II,
264: a dull white, brittle, chalky, translucent extract of the stems of Bambusa bam-
bos Druce. See on tabasheer: Dymock et al. III, 586591; Hobson-Jobson 887. See on
tabr in the Muslim world: E. Wiedemann II, 106, 117.

573
This substance is well known from the classical yurvedic sahits.

574
This substance is well known from the classical yurvedic sahits. See also E. Wiede-
mann II, 117.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 231
tvakkr is dry to the third degree
575
and cold to the second degree.
576
It
eliminates cardiac diseases.
577
It represses pitta, rakta,
578
fever,
579
thirst,
580
and gonorrhoea.
(It represses) quickly a feeling of burning in the eyes and other sense
organs,
581
emesis,
582
fainting, weakness of the sense organs, external and
internal diarrhoea,
583
and chronic diarrhoea.
The physicians say that the action is desiccative (mujaff)
584
and that it is a
tonic for the receptacle of digested food,
585
and also for the heart.
586
The white kind, light in weight, is recommended by wise (physicians) and
should be given in a dose of one dirham.
Rose water or mastag, or also anes, are mentioned as correctives.
587

575
Abhinavanighau, p.185: dry to the third degree. Achundow 231 (385): dry to the sec-
ond degree. The Rjanighau (6.87) regards it (vaarocan = tvakkr) as dry. The
Nighauratnkara (93) describes tavakra as very moist and tug (175) as dry.

576
The Abhinavanighau (p.185) agrees. Achundow agrees. The Rjanighau (6.87) de-
scribes it as cold. The Nighauratnkara (93 and 175) regards tavakra and tug as
cold.

577
Abhinavanighau (p.185): hdayako balaprada. Achundow 231: ist bei Herzklopfen
von grossem Nutzen. Al-Kindi: the Persians are said to value it for its use in cardiac
treatment.

578
Nighauratnkara (93): tavakra pittsrapittaharam and (175): tug raktapitta
nayet.

579
Abhinavanighau, p.186: garmke jvarko harakart, jvarko gukrak hai. Al-Kin-
di 300: good for fever. Nighauratnkara (93): tavakra jvaranud and (175): tug
jvara nayet.

580
Abhinavanighau, p.186: tko ntiprada. Achundow 231: stillt den Durst.
Nighauratnkara (93): tavakra tnud and (175): tug t nayet.

581
See Carakasahit, Strasthna 20.14 and G. Jan Meulenbeld (1999), IB 29, n.398.
Nighauratnkara (93): tavakra dhaharam and (175): tug dha nayet. Com-
pare Abhinavanighau, p.185186: mayak dha ntiprada.

582
Abhinavanighau, p.186: pittajavamanko harakart.

583
yurvedic treatises do not describe these types of diarrhoea. Compare Abhinavanighau,
p.186: rakttisrko harakart.

584
This term appears several times as mujapff(a) in the text, e.g., at 2.2.764, 998, 1139.
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.186: snigdhatko oa karnevl, it dries up moisture.

585
The Abhinavanighau (p.185) records another opinion: mayako balaprada.

586
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau, p.185: hdayako balaprada.

587
The Abhinavanighau (p.185) enumerates as correctives unnba, mastag, and kesara
(safron).
JAN MEULENBELD 232
Or it may be rkhaa
588
one part of this moon(-like substance)
589
or thrice
as much of the marrow of ervru.
590
Or four times the amount of bajarkatn
591
and powdered terra sigillata
592

or ksan.
ussra
593
and laghututsa
594
have the capacity to perform these actions.
These, sandal, etc., are mentioned as substitutes by the best of physicians.
595

588
A Sanskrit synonym of candana, sandal.

589
Sandal is, as a cooling substance, often associated with the moon (sitarami).

590
The Sanskrit name of Cucumis melo Linn. subsp. melo [valid name] = Cucumis utilis-
simus Roxb., or, according to the yurvedyavivakoa (III, 1801): Cucumis melo Linn.
subsp. agrestis var. momordica (Roxb.) Duthie et J.B.Fuller [valid name] = Cucumis
momordica Roxb.

591
Achundow 348 (48): bazr-qatn, the seeds of Plantago psyllium L. [valid name: Plan-
tago arenaria Waldst. et Kit.]. Ainslie II, 116117: Plantago ispaghula (Flem.) [valid
name: Plantago ovata Forssk.], Arabic name bazra kutn. Al-Biruni: absent. Al-Kindi
317318 (236): qan, Plantago psyllium L. Daljt Siha 7577: bajrkatn, Plantago
ovata Forsk. Schlimmer: Plantago psyllium, bazr qan. Schmucker 352 (585): bazr
qan.

592
makhma is an error for makhtma.

593
This may be `ushar. See on this item: Achundow 236 (408) and 386: `uschar, Asclepias
gigantea; Ainslie I, 486489: `uar, milk of the Asclepias Gigantea (Lamarck); Al-
Biruni 226227 (17) and 237238 (37): identifed as Calotropis procera (Willd.) R.Br.
[valid name: Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T.Aiton]; Al-Kindi 304 (201): `uur is
probably Calotropis procera L.; Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 80: `ur, Asclepi-
as cynanchum [this is not a valid name]; Hand Book 295302: ushar, Calotropis procera
(Ait.) R.Br.; Schmucker 300301: `uar, Asclepias gigantea Forsk. = Calotropis gigan-
tea R.Br. [valid name: Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) W.T.Aiton] or Calotropis procera
R.Br.; E. Wiedemann II, 178, 239, 377, 393396: `uschar, Calotropis procera. Compare
on Calotropis: Dymock et al. II, 428437; Flckiger and Hanbury 380382 (cortex mu- ckiger and Hanbury 380382 (cortex mu- ckiger and Hanbury 380382 (cortex mu-
dar).

594
This can only be the same as lahyatutsa, described at 2.2.10041005: lahyatutsa
ira / sirasa. Abhinavanighau, p.244: siras, Persian name darat zakariy, San-
skrit name ira. Achundow: absent. Ainslie: absent. Al-Biruni: absent. Al-Kindi:
absent. Daljt Siha 682: siras, Hind name, darat-e-zakariy, Arabic name of some
species of Albizia: Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. [valid name: Albizia lebbeck (Linn.)
Benth.], Albizzia odoratissima Benth. [valid name: Albizia odoratissima (Linn.f.)
Benth.], and Albizzia procera Benth. [valid name: Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.]. Hand
Book: absent. Schlimmer: absent. Schmucker: absent.

595
The Abhinavanighau (p.185) mentions as substitutes the seeds of kulf, ksan, and
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 233
tna makhatama
596
/ mdviea
597

2.2.771774:
lak ru grhi ca sam turyasvabhvata /
akti kbij mufarrah ca mukavv kalava smt //
mudammil hbisa jey raktasya bhiaguttamai /
pralimped aitdanta vsas kaudragandhayuk //
badal tiryk v tn arman katajmaye /
mirit ailajjensjtakavightakt /
carcaraviaghn syd dhroapayasit //
pt arbata ajuvrasahit nafsuldamadhvasin /
tadvad bjabhave naloipayas rakttisrpah //
ro htkamalasya ca draviad mtr diramsammit /
satpa harati kaena ca yath pra sudhddhiti //
It is smooth, of a ruddy colour,
598
astringent, and neutral with regard to the
four natures.
599
Its actions are said to be constipating,
600
exhilarating,
601
and tonic for the
heart.
602
It is regarded as styptic with regard to blood by the best of physicians.
603
white sandal.

596
Al-Biruni 216217: n-i-makhtm. Schmucker 293294 (476): n matm, sigillata,
Siegelerde. The only yurvedic treatise to employ this clay, calling it makhatma, is the
Siddhabhaiajyamaj (jvara 81).

597
The kinds of clay described in the Hikmatpraka are, one kind excepted, absent from
the Abhinavanighau. Instead, the latter describes gil bgastn (the Persian name) or
tn bgastn (the Arabic name), gil multn (the Persian name) or tn multn (the Ara-
bic name), and khaik (the Sanskrit name), called gil safed in Persian and tn-ul abijaya
(= abya) in Arabic. The only kind dealt with in both treatises is tn-ul fras.

598
Abhinavanighau, p.6768: it is a clay of a red colour.

599
Abhinavanighau, p.67: it is cold and dry.

600
Abhinavanighau, p.68: it is baddhak.

601
Abhinavanighau, p.68: prasannatprada.

602
qalb can mean heart, mind, intelligence. Abhinavanighau, p.68: it gives strength to the
heart.

603
The Abhinavanighau (p.68) agrees: vahtehue rudhirk ruddhak hai.
JAN MEULENBELD 234
The corrective is tiryk
604
or tn arman in diseases arising from a traumatic
wound.
605
Mixed with ailajja
606
it opposes blood diseases. Ingested together with
milk warm from the cow it destroys poisons, of both animal and vegetable
origin.
607
Drunk in a potion together with ajuvra
608
it annihilates nafsul-
dam.
609
In the same way, along with milk of an unblemished cow,
610
it drives
away bloody diarrhoea. It gives power to the head and the heart. The dose
is one dirham. It removes the heat of fever (satpa) in the same way as the
full moon.

604
Two kinds of tiryk are distinguished. Compare the verses on opium and 3.3743. See
on preparations of the tiryq type: Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 165167.

605
Abhinavanighau, p.68: katr and honey are correctives; the substitute is ger, red
ochre.

606
ailajja is not intelligible. I propose to read ailajta and to regard this as identical
with sailaja, a synonym of aileya, commonly identifed as a lichen, Parmelia perlata
(Huds.) Ach. See, for example, Dymock et al. III, 627628; Thakur Balwant Singh and
K.C. Chunekar, 408409; The Wealth of India VI, 85. A second option is to interpret
ailajta as one of the names of iljatu. See on kinds of iljatu: Nadkarni II, 2332.

607
The Abhinavanighau (p.68) remarks that it destroys all kinds of poison.

608
Al-Biruni I, 53 (123): anjubar, identifed as Vitex agnus-castus Linn. [this is a valid
name]; II, 78: anjibr, Polygonum bistorta Linn. [valid name: Bistorta ofcinalis De-
larbre]. Daljt Siha 56: anjabr, Polygonum bistorta Linn. Compare on Polygonum
bistorta: Achundow 384 (299). Described at 2.2.110. Compare yurvedyavivakoa
I, 179180: ajavr, ajuvr, Polygonum aviculare [valid name: Polygonum aviculare
Linn.], Polygonum bistorta, Polygonum viviparum [valid name: Polygonum viviparum
Linn.]. See on Polygonum aviculare: Dymock et al. III, 148150, on Polygonum bis-
torta: III, 150. The Siddhaprayogalatik (22.30) is acquainted with ajavra.

609
This term is explained in the comments ad 2.2.128 as Sanskrit rudhirodgiraam and
ad 2.2.339 as Sanskrit raktanihvanam, haematemesis and haemoptysis. The spelling
varies; najafuldam occurs at 2.2.760 and is also explained as raktanihvanam in the
commentary.

610
This is a tentative translation. niloh means unblemished.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 235
tna-arman
611

2.2.775776:
rk taikadh arbat ajuvrayutit /
raktapitta nibadhnti pnasa tamaka jayet //
phupphusasya katapra vidadhyj jvaranin /
nma miskla mtrsy gulba vikti haret //
It is dry and cold to the frst degree.
612
When ingested in a potion, together with ajuvra, it suppresses raktapit-
ta
613
and conquers pnasa and tamaka.
614
It brings about kataka of the
lungs
615
and annihilates fever.
Its dose is half a miskl; rose water will remove untoward efects.
616

611
Achundow 229 (374): gil-i armen. Ainslie I, 4244: n arman, bole armenic. Al-Biruni
217 (24): n armn and 221 (63): Armenian bole or bole Armeniac. Hand Book 403 and
487. Nadkarni II, 9495: Armenian bole. Schmucker 293 (476): n arman. This Ar-
menian clay is known to the author of the Siddhabheajamaiml (4.985: gilaraman).
See on this substance: C.D. Maclean (1982), 308 (s.v. ghil); Nadkarni II, 9495. See on
kinds of clay used in the Muslim world: E. Wiedemann II, 401402.

612
Achundow 229: the same.

613
Achundow 229: sie unterdrckt Blutspeien. See on raktapitta: Carakasahit,
Nidnasthna 2; Surutasahit, Uttaratantra 45; Mdhavanidna 9.

614
See on tamaka, a respiratory disorder: Mdhavanidna 12.2734.

615
This translation is based on an emendation: kataprva instead of katapra. The lat-
ter is only understandable if one assumes that lungs full of lesions may be the intended
meaning, despite the incorrect grammar. Achundow 229: sie ntzt gegen Schwind- tzt gegen Schwind- tzt gegen Schwind-
sucht, indem sie die Krankheitsproduktion in den Lungen trocknet. See on kataka:
Mdhavanidna 10.2131.

616
This means that rose water is the corrective.
JAN MEULENBELD 236
tnakuvras
617
/ gile stagulaguna
618

2.2.777779:
khaitntar bhavet pt rekhbhir nicit puna /
oavar ca sapadi jyate karamardit //
t rkaikadhotho syasaurabhyakn mdu /
bhagnasadhnakt rogangul gulbayutthav //
pralepd it sadyo raktahvananakt
619
/
rakttisaraa hanti gilmakhatma badal mata //
When divided into pieces the interior will be yellow and covered with lines.
When rubbed with the hands, it becomes suddenly crimson (in colour).
It is cold and dry to the frst degree and also hot.
620
It brings about fragrance
of the mouth and is soft.
It heals fractures
621
when rose oil or rose water is added to it.
In an ointment it immediately destroys haematemesis. It makes bloody diar-
rhoea disappear.
gilmakhatma
622
is regarded as its substitute.

617
qubru is the Arabic name of Cyprus. Achundow 229: gil-i qubrus, terra cyprica, Kup-
fererde. Al-Biruni 217 (26): n qabrasi, green-layered clay. gil is the Persian equivalent
of Arabic n.

618
This name has not been identifed.

619
Achundow 229: sie unterdrckt das Blutspeien.

620
Achundow 229: sie ist kalt und trocken.

621
See on fractures in yurveda: Mdhavanidna 44. See on fractures and their treatment
in Islamic medicine: Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 289300.

622
Achundow 229 (375): gil-i machtm, terra sigillata, Siegelerde.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 237
tnafras gilasaraoya
623

2.2.780782:
praast pal rk t caikagu smt /
vajarkutn-sndrmbha pi lepn niyacchati //
kaanjtara-nrea tathaiva parikalpit /
raktaotha dvimisklamtr pre prakrtit //
badal ca gilah dgar pratinidhir apar mda //
The kind that is pala (in colour) is the recommended one, said to be dry
and cold to the frst degree.
624
It suppresses swelling by blood
625
(when used) as an ointment, crushed with
the mucilaginous water of the seeds of bajr katn and also with the freshly
prepared water of kaanj.
Its dose is proclaimed to be two miskl when ingested.
Its substitutes are other kinds of clay.
626

623
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.193: gil saraya (the Persian name), tn-ul fras (the
Arabic name).

624
Abhinavanighau, p.193: cold and dry.

625
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.193: othako layakart.

626
This statement is made twice by employing Persian and Sanskrit terms.
JAN MEULENBELD 238
afasa
627
mjphala
628

2.2.807809:
astam acchidrapla ta rka dvidh tridh /
akti kbija raktasya hvis ukt bhiagvarai //
mtr diram 1 darpaghna labsanovara ritam /
badal juftavalta syt tamre turf tathaiva ca //
tavvalsa tath posta anra parikalpita /
pyunisaraa soma hanti kvthe sya sasthiti //
Recommended are those without holes and of a pla colour. They are cold
and dry to the second, respectively third degree.
629
The best of the physicians say that their actions are constipating
630
and styp-
tic with regard to blood.
631
Their dose is one dirham. Their corrective
632
is said to be the pith
633
of a

627
Achundow 234235 (399): `afs, Gallpfel. Ainslie I, 144146: galls from Quercus In-
fectoria (Oliv.), called `af in Arabic, mz in Persian. Al-Biruni 229 (28): `af and
239 (77): oak-gall. Al-Kindi 305 (203): `af, gallnut, probably of the oak. Daljt Siha
574575: afs, Quercus infectoria Olivier. Schmucker 301302 (492): `af, Gallpfel. E.
Wiedemann II, 378: Gallapfel, `afs.

628
Achundow 234: the Persian name of `afs. Ainslie I, 144146: mz is the Persian name
of galls. Al-Biruni 229 (28): mz is the Persian name of `af; mjphala is the Hind
name. Usually, galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier [this is a valid name] are employed.
Schmucker (301) also mentions Quercus lusitanica Lam. [this is a valid name]. Daljt
Siha 504505: mjphala, the galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier. Compare Dymock
et al. III, 360364; Flckiger and Hanbury 536538 (gallae halepenses). yurvedic texts
are acquainted with mjphala; this drug is prescribed in the Bhvapraka (72.39),
though it is absent from its Nighau; mj is repeatedly prescribed in Harakrtis six- rtis six- rtis six-
teenth-century Yogacintmai.

629
Abhinavanighau, p.196: cold to the frst and dry to the second degree. Achundow 234:
erwrmend und trocknend im zweiten Grade. Daljt Siha 505: cold to the frst degree,
dry to the second degree. Ydavaarman (343): cold to the frst, dry to the second degree.
ligrmanighaubhaa, p.1212: cold and dry according to the Sohalanighau,
hot according to the Nighauratnkara.

630
Abhinavanighau, p.196: jrtisr k baddhak.

631
sagrhin and raktastambhana in Ynn.

632
Abhinavanighau, p.196: correctives are katr and the resin of babbla.

633
labb means pith, kernel in Persian.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 239
sanovara.
634
Substitutes are
635
juftuvalta,
636
also dates (tamr),
637
turf,
638
prepared to-
gether with (tavval) s
639
and the rind of pomegranate. It cures, after staying
in its decoction, soma that comes out of the anus.
640

634
Achundow 226227 (365) and 382 (283 (365)): sanaubar, Pinus. Encyclopaedia of Islam-
ic medicine 521522: sanaubar, Pinus pinea. Hamdard 410: samaghe sanobar, the resin
of Pinus longifolia Roxb. [valid name: Pinus palustris Mill. = Pinus longifolia Salisb.].
Schmucker 283284 (462): anawbar, Pinus L., sources: Pinus halepensis Mill. [this is
a valid name], Pinus pinea L. [this is a valid name], and other species. E. Wiedemann II,
377: anaubar, Pinie. Compare on Pinus longifolia: Dymock et al. III, 378380.

635
Abhinavanighau, p.196: substitutes are the large myrobalan (ba hara) and the rind
(chl) of the pomegranate.

636
Described at 2.2.340: juptuvalta. Compare Abhinavanighau, p.177: balt, the Arabic
name of a plant. Achundow 157 (51): balt, Quercus. Al-Biruni I, 7576 (27): ball and
Schmucker 120 (143): ball, Quercus ilex L. [this is a valid name]

637
Achundow 172173: tamr, Phoenix dactylifera [valid name: Phoenix dactylifera Linn.],
Dattel. Daljt Siha 209210: tamr ratab is the Arabic name of Phoenix dactylifera
Roxb. [this is not a valid name].

638
An entry on the leaves of turfa is found at 2.2.11241125: varakulturfa - varagakaja /
jhke patra. Achundow 231 (387): tarfa, Tamarix gallica [valid name: Tamarix gal-
lica Linn.]. Ainslie: absent. Al-Biruni 216 (11): arf. Al-Kindi: absent. Daljt Siha
353354: jh, Hind name, tarf, Arabic name of Tamarix troupii Hole [valid name:
Tamarix indica Willd. = Tamarix troupii Hole]. Schlimmer: absent. Schmucker 290
291 (470): arf, arf, Tamarix gallica. E. Wiedemann II, 377: arf, Tamariske. The
tamarix is known as jhv to the Siddhaprayogalatik (26.33). Compare on Tamarix
gallica: Dymock et al. I, 160161.

639
s is the Arabic and Persian name of Myrtus communis Linn. [this is a valid name]. Ac-
hundow 144145: s, Myrtus communis. Ainslie: absent. Al-Biruni 2223 (36): s, and 58
(100): Myrtus communis L. Al-Kindi: prescribed, not described. yurvedyavivakoa
II, 12181225: s, Myrtus communis Linn. Daljt Siha 6364. Encyclopaedia of Is-
lamic medicine 480481: s, Myrtus communis. Hamdard 405406: hab-ul-as, the
fruits of Myrtus communis Linn. Schlimmer 71: baccae myrti, abb-ul-s, and 394:
Myrti communis folia, barak-e-mrd. Schmucker 61: s, Myrtus communis L. Unani
Pharmacopoeia II, II, 259: habb-ul-as, the dried fruits of Myrtus communis Linn. E.
Wiedemann II, 300: s, Myrthe. The yurvedic Siddhaprayogalatik employs habbu-
lasa (2.18). Compare on Myrtus communis: Dymock et al. II, 3234.

640
This is a reference to somaroga, a disease with polyuria as its main characteristic, de-
scribed for the frst time in Vagasenas Cikitssrasagraha (see G. Jan Meulenbeld
IIA, 2000, 225226); in the present context is seems to denote loss of fuid through the
JAN MEULENBELD 240
unnba
641
nikaakabadarphalaviea
642

2.2.825827:
caturgua sama bhve pittaraktanibarhaam /
hddha myukavathu tamaka durjaya jayet //
vkkabastivyath hanyt hasbe jardrtappaha /
khanat halka sne ham raphe gardad samanata //
svarasa tu smt mtr sakhyay viati par 20 /
aktidvayam ihkhyta mulayyana mulattifa //
It is by nature neutral with regard to the four qualities
643
and suppresses
anus.

641
See Achundow 233 (393) and 384 (296): `unnb, Zizyphus sativus [valid name: Ziziphus
jujuba Mill. var. inermis (Bunge) Rehd. = Ziziphus sativa Gaertn. nom. illeg.]. Al-Biruni
232 (43): unnb. and 241, n.111: jujube, several species are sources: Zizyphus vulgaris
Lam. [valid name: Ziziphus jujuba Mill. = Ziziphus vulgaris Lam.], Zizyphus jujuba Lam.
[valid name: Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. = Ziziphus jujuba Lam.], and Zizyphus lotus
[valid name: Ziziphus lotus (Linn.) Lam.]. Al-Kindi 236 (23): anb, Zizyphus; three spe-
cies are mentioned. yurvedyavivakoa II, 15371540: unnb, Zizyphus vulgaris Lam.
Daljt Siha 8081: unnb, the Arabic name of Zizyphus sativa Gaertn. Encyclopaedia
of Islamic medicine 753: `unnb, Zizyphus vulgaris. Schlimmer 557: annb, Zizyphus
jujuba = Zizyphus vulgaris. Schmucker 304 (499): unnb, Zizyphus sativus, also Zizy-
phus vulgaris Lam. E. Wiedemann II, 378: unnb, jujube. Compare on the jujube tree:
Dymock et al. I, 350351. yurvedic texts acquainted with unnva and related terms
are the Siddhaprayogalatik (unnva: 12.3; 19.32) and the Siddhabhaiajyamaj
(unnbha: jvara 124; rjayakman 23).

642
A kind of jujube without thorns. The various kinds of jujube tree and their fruits have
many Sanskrit names: badara, kola, karkandhu, etc.

643
Abhinavanighau, p.23: cold to the frst degree. Achundow 233: cold and moist;
Juhanna sagt, dass Zizyphus mssig sei und zwischen allen vier Grundeigen- ssig sei und zwischen allen vier Grundeigen- ssig sei und zwischen allen vier Grundeigen-
schaften in der Mitte liege. Ydavaarman (147): samatoa and snigdha in Ynn.
yurvedyavivakoa II, 1537: neutral (mtadil) with regard to heat and cold, somewhat
dry or, according to another opinion, somewhat moist. Carakasahit, Strasthna
27.141: badara is moist. Dhanvantaryanighau 5.97: moist. Rjanighau 11.158:
badara is hot; 11.161: rjabadara is cold (iira). Nighauratnkara 139: badar is cold
and dry; the ripe fruit is hot.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 241
raktapitta.
644
It overcomes a burning sensation in the cardiac region,
645
a
watery catarrh, and tamaka, difcult to conquer.
It annihilates pain in kidneys and bladder and drives away the heat caused
by the gross and subtle (types of tal).
Similarly,
646
it removes
647
roughness of throat and chest
648
in someone who
eats it.
The highest dose of its fresh juice is said to be twenty in number.
Two actions are mentioned in this case: laxative (mulayyan)
649
and attenuant
(mulaif ).
commentary:
hasbe jardr sthl skm tal. khanat halka sne kahavakaso
lemaa ukatsambhta jaharatvam.
hasbe and jardr
650
are the gross and subtle (forms of) tal.
651
Roughness (anat) of throat (alq) and chest (sn) enlargement of the
abdomen brought about by the dryness of the phlegm in throat and chest.
652
2.2.828:

644
As in a nighau, this may mean pitta and rakta or the disease called raktapitta. Ac-
hundow 233 (393): Juhanna sagt dasz es die Blutwallung unterdrcke. Daljt Siha 81:
it pacifes rakta. Ydavaarman (147): it purifes blood. Carakasahit, Strasthna
27.141: fresh badara subdues vta and pitta, but in a dried state it subdues vta and kapha,
while it is neutral with regard to pitta. Surutasahit, Strasthna 38.4849: badar is
raktapittahara. Dhanvantaryanighau 5.97: badara is pittahara. Rjanighau 11.158:
badara is raktanana; 11.161: rjabadara is pittahara. Nighauratnkara 139: badar
is pittpah, the ripe fruit is raktahara. Abhinavanighau, p.23: it purifes blood.

645
Carakasahit, Strasthna 10: badara is hdya, benefcial to the heart.

646
ham means similarly, in the same way in Persian.

647
raf` kardan means to remove in Persian.

648
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau, p.23: vakasthal ko mdukart; cht tath kaha
ke kharkharne ko harakart hai, it removes a rough sound from chest and throat.

649
Abhinavanighau, p.23: virecana. Ydavaarman (147): it is sraka in Ynn.
Carakasahit, Strasthna 27.141: badara is bhedana.

650
The Persian name of smallpox is jadr. Persian zard means yellow; applied to tal, it
may mean purulent.

651
Compare on abe, measles according to Wehrs dictionary: 3.353, comm.: = mahat
tal. Compare on jardr: vkya 3.358: jadar and 3.353, comm.: = svalp tal. See
on tal, the goddess of smallpox: G. Jan Meulenbeld IIB (2000), 265, n.76.

652
This syndrome and its aetiology are not known from yurvedic literature.
JAN MEULENBELD 242
sipiam aita divnia karamtrabhavavedankatam /
tavripariptam ajas kohauddhikaraa smta budhai //
Crushed together with its kernel (ai), and eaten day and night, (it hurts by
bringing about) a painful wound, already in a measure of a kara.
653
Wise physicians regard it as instantly bringing about purifcation of the
bowels when drunk together with cold water.
commentary:
hinasti sandhatta iti ca ea.
One should supply (the following words): it harms and heals.
Correctives and substitutes are not mentioned.
ambara
654
sugandhiviea
655

2.2.829830:
dvpntarasthasya vkasya pheno romanthajo ambaranmadheya /
saurabhyasapannatandya kastriktulyagukara syt //
saurabhyasapanna udagravryo rkoavryo dvigua ca skma /
aitya samra ca balsakopa vega nirundhyd vanitottamnm /
smarapradpena madndhakra narasya datte pramadkhyarpam //

653
This is a tentative translation.

654
Achundow: absent. Ainslie I, 1517: `anbr. Al-Biruni: absent. Al-Kindi 307 (209): `an-
bar. yurvedyavivakoa I, 483488: ambra grasea, ambergris. Daljt Siha: absent.
Hamdard 358: ambra grasea. Hand Book 533: ambra grasea. Schlimmer 33: `anbar, am-
bra grisea. Schmucker: absent. Ydavaarman 388389: Sanskrit name: agnijra, Hind
name: ambar, ambergris. agnijra is the Sanskrit name of this substance, frequently
used in rasastra texts.

655
A particular fragrant substance. A few late yurvedic texts prescribe ambara, for ex-
ample Karmas Siddhabheajamaiml (2.113), dating from the nineteenth cen-
tury; the anonymous Gandhavda, of uncertain date, mentions it several times (see G.
Jan Meulenbeld IIA, 371 and 510). See on ambra in the Muslim world: E. Wiedemann
I, 681; II, 9, 111, 127, 244246, 270, 416418. See also on ambergris: P.K. Gode (1948);
C.D. Maclean, p.25.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 243
The foam of a tree found on another continent and a product of rumination
bears the name of ambara.
656
It is a mine of qualities that are similar to those of musk (kastrik), being a
product from eating fragrant grass.
Provided with fragrance and intense vryas, it is dry and hot to the second
degree
657
and subtle in its action.
It suppresses coldness,
658
wind,
659
excitation of phlegm and the excitement of
passion among the most excellent among women.
By the arousal of love it makes men blind from passion in the form of sexual
delight.
660
commentary:
mutprti pramado hara koo mara / johara arvha-nmn prathita.
mud, prti, pramada, hara (are synonyms) according to the Amarakoa.
661
They are widely known as the four jewels (jauhar).
662

656
The Abhinavanighau (p.10) gives two opinions on the origin of ambara: it is the resin
of some tree or the dung of some marine animal. See yurvedyavivakoa I, 483485
on various opinions on the nature and origin of ambara.

657
Abhinavanighau, p.11: hot to the second and dry to the frst degree. The yur-
vedyavivakoa (I, 487) regards it as hot and dry to the frst degree, adding that others
call it hot to the second degree and dry to the frst degree, or hot to the frst and dry to the
second degree. Ydavaarman 389: hot to the second, dry to the frst degree in Ynn.

658
In agreement with the yurvedyavivakoa I, 487. Abhinavanighau (p.10): uat
krak hai, it generates warmth.

659
In agreement with the yurvedyavivakoa I, 487.

660
Ydavaarman 389: it is aphrodisiac. Abhinavanighau, p.10: aphrodisiac when used as
an ointment on the penis. Compare Ainslie I, 16.

661
Compare Amarakoa 1.24.cd.

662
Compare yurvedyavivakoa I, 487: astu ambar apne in guo ke samavy ke kra
sapra arvh ke jauhar ko akti det aur unko baht hai, on account of (the presence
of) this assemblage of properties, ambar gives power to the full set of four jewels and
increases it. Ydavaarman 389: ambara is saumanasyajanana, causes cheerfulnes.
JAN MEULENBELD 244
2.2.831832:
mukavv dil dimg syt samagarb tu darpah /
ghra sitaramer v karkaprana tath //
jfar muka badaladvayam ukta bhiagvarai /
monmit reh yathdoam athpi v //
It is a cardiac
663
and brain tonic.
664
Arabic gum is a corrective.
665
Its smell is like that of the moon and eating karka.
666
The best of physicians say that safron and musk are the two substitutes.
667
The optimal dose is a ma or one in conformity with the doa(s).

663
The yurvedyavivakoa (I, 487) agrees. Abhinavanighau, p.10: benefcial in heart
diseases. Ydavaarman 389: it gives power to the heart (hdayako bal denevl) in
Ynn.

664
The yurvedyavivakoa (I, 487) agrees. Ydavaarman 389: it gives power to the
brain (mastikako bal denevl) in Ynn.

665
Abhinavanighau, p. 10: correctives are the gum of the babla and camphor. The
yurvedyavivakoa (I, 487) mentions as correctives: coriander seed (dhaniy), Arabic
gum, tavr, and camphor.

666
Hand Book 533: its smell is like that of musk. The drug called karka is described at
2.2.486487: khiyra darja ki / karka. Achundow 242 (442): qithth, Cucumis,
Gurke; man nennt sie auch Chijr. Al-Biruni 140 (19): khyr, known as qiththa in Ara-
bic, and 151 (45): Cucumis melo var. utilissimus Duthie Fuller [valid name: Cucumis melo
Linn. subsp. melo var. utilissimus (Roxb.) J.B.Duthie et Fuller]. yurvedyavivakoa
III, 1870: karka, Cucumis utilissimus Roxb. [valid name: Cucumis melo Linn. subsp.
agrestis var. conomon (Thunb.) Makino] and 2271. Daljt Siha 223: iyr, the Per-
sian name of Cucumis sativus Linn. [this is a valid name], called trapusa in Sanskrit.
Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 203: iyr, qa, Cucumis sativus. Schlim-
mer 171: iyr, Cucumis sativus. Schmucker 189 (286): iyr, a Cucumis species. E.
Wiedemann II, 388 and 403404: qi, Gurke.

667
Abhinavanighau, p.10: substitutes are musk and kesara. The yurvedyavivakoa (I,
487) mentions as a substitute a mixture of equal parts of kastr and keara.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 245
da hind
668
agaru
669
2.2.833836:
kgarur guru reha puruo nranimnaga /
nistuo iira rko dvidh sudve ku smta //
vtnulomana lemakhaano ghamaana /
dhpena rkara kledaoaa poao hda //
rkalirjlabandhasya balavardhana /
darpaghno sya gulba sy diram 1 mtr prakrtit //
candana dracn y jfar mastag tath /
sumbala tva v grh kramd badala rita //
The black agaru is heavy, the best kind, the male type,
670
sinks down when
put into water.
671
When devoid of its outer layer,
672
it is said to be hot and dry
to the second degree.
673

668
Achundow 384 (297): `d, Aloxylon Agallochon [this is not a valid name], echter
Aloholzbaum; ausser dem genannten Baume lieferten noch drei andere Aloholz, nm- holzbaum; ausser dem genannten Baume lieferten noch drei andere Aloholz, nm- holzbaum; ausser dem genannten Baume lieferten noch drei andere Aloholz, nm- holz, nm- holz, nm- m- m-
lich Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. [this is a valid name], Aquilaria Agallocha [valid name:
Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.] und Excoecaria agallocha L. [this is a valid name]. Ainslie
I, 479481: Aloes wood or agallochum, Aquilaria Ovata (Lin.) [valid name: Aquilaria
ovata Cav.], Aquilaria Aghallocha (Roxb.). Al-Biruni 234235: `d, several kinds are
distinguished, and 242 (139): Aquilaria agalocha (sic!) Roxb. and Aquilaria malaccensis
Lamk (sic!). Daljt Siha 1314: dal hind, Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. 361: ud-el-juj,
Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. Schlimmer 27: `d hind, Aloexylon. Schmucker 307308
(506): `d, Aloexylon agallochon, echter Aloeholzbaum.

669
Another very common Sanskrit name is aguru. See on agaru in the Muslim world:
E. Wiedemann I, 680; II, 910, 113, 247252, 263, 271, 378, 396, 416. Compare:
yurvedyavivakoa I, 3841; Dymock et al. III, 217226; Hobson-Jobson 16 (Aloes)
and 335336 (Eagle-wood).

670
I could not fnd references to a male type of agaru.

671
Ainslie I, 481: the best kind is found, on trial, to sink in water. Ydavaarman (323):
pnme b jve aur ragme kl ho vah agar uttam hot hai. Abhinavanighau,
p.3: jo jalme b jve vah uttam hai. Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 1272cd:
kapradhnam aguru lohavan majjate jale.

672
The qualifcation nistua seems odd since tua is the chaf of grain.

673
Daljt Siha (14) and Ydavaarman (323): aguru is hot and dry to the second de-
gree. Abhinavanighau, p.3: hot to the second and dry to the third degree. yurvedic
texts regard agaru as hot: Dhanvantaryanighau 3.26; Rjanighau 12.39; Ydava-
JAN MEULENBELD 246
It regulates the course of vta,
674
removes kapha,
675
and adorns the house.
When used for fumigation, it provides beauty, dries up moisture, and nou-
rishes the heart;
676
it increases the strength of the head, of the kals,
677
ves-
sels, jlas
678
and bandhas.
679
Its corrective is gulba
680
and its dose is proclaimed to be one dirham.
Substitutes are, in due order, sandal, dracn, safron, and mastag,
681
or the
astringent (grhin) sumbala atva.
682
commentary:
srotasaodhana ityartha.
arman 323.

674
Ydavaarman (323): vtnulomana according to Ynn; vt n karnevl accord-
ing to yurveda. Daljt Siha (14) agrees. Surutasahit, Strasthna 38.2425:
vtakaphau nihanyt. Dhanvantaryanighau 3.36: it is vtpaha. Rjanighau 12.39:
it is vtajit. Abhinavanighau, p.3: vyu ko layakrak.

675
Dhanvantaryanighau 3.36: it is kaphpaha. Ydavaarman (323): kapha n
karnevl. Surutasahit, Strasthna 38.2425: vtakaphau nihanyt.

676
Abhinavanighau, p.3: hdaya ko prasannakart.

677
See on the anatomical structures called kal: Surutasahit, rrasthna 4.520;
yurvedyavivakoa III, 2310.

678
See on the anatomical structures called jla: Surutasahit, rrasthna 5.6.

679
The meaning of bandha in this context is difcult to determine. Compare
Abhinavanighau, p.3: snyuo ko balaprada, indriya, mastika sambandh sandhi ko
balaprada.

680
Daljt Siha 14: correctives (nivra) are camphor and an arka of roses (gulbapuprka).
Abhinavanighau, p.3: correctives are kapr and gulb.

681
Abhinavanighau, p.3: substitutes are dlcn, lavaga (cloves), and keara.

682
See on sumbalattva: jams: 2.2.675677.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 247
khiyra avara
683
rjavka
684
amalatsa
685

2.2.488491:
ktamla samo vrye gue ca srasanas tath /
balsasndrat hanti dagdhapittavirecaka //
laghno guasayukta sarpi yojito pi v/
sndranre sya golasya kaanjtarsdhite //
amykasypi sayojya sra gaam caret /
khunka kaharogkhya gada saharati drutam //
kustumburusvarasakaritam aspagola sndrmbukoavihito
galarodharoge /
gaakarma vidhin dhapabandha pittodbhava
kaphabhava ca nirkaroti //
686
ktamla
687
is neutral with respect to vrya and gua
688
and, in addition,
laxative (srasana).
689
It overcomes the viscidity (sndrat) of phlegm
690


683
Achundow 196 (178) and 369 (136): chijr-schanbar, Cassia fstula L. [this is a valid
name]. Ainslie I, 6062: iyr anbar, the Arabic and Persian name of Cassia Fistula
(Lin.). Al Biruni 140141: khyr shambar and 151 (48): Cassia fstula L. Al-Kindi:
absent. Daljt Siha (35): khiyr cambar is the Persian name, khiyr abar the Arabic
name of Cassia fstula. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 121: iyr ambar, Cassia
fstula. Hamdard 370371: khayar-shambar is the Arabic name of Cassia fstula Linn.
Schmucker 189 (287): iyrambar, Cassia fstula L. Unani Pharmacopoeia: khiyar
shambar is the Arabic and Persian name of Cassia fstula Linn. Compare on fructus
Cassiae fstulae: Flckiger and Hanbury 195197.See also: Dymock et al. I, 511515.

684
One of the Sanskrit names of Cassia fstula Linn. The most common name is ragvadha.

685
The Hind name of Cassia fstula is amalts.

686
This verse is in vasantatilak metre.

687
This is one of the Sanskrit names of Cassia fstula Linn.

688
Abhinavanighau, p.12: hot and moist to the frst degree and somewhat mtadil. Ac-
hundow 196: mssig heiss, kalt, trocken und feucht. Ydavaarman: hot and moist ac- ssig heiss, kalt, trocken und feucht. Ydavaarman: hot and moist ac- ssig heiss, kalt, trocken und feucht. Ydavaarman: hot and moist ac- davaarman: hot and moist ac- davaarman: hot and moist ac- arman: hot and moist ac- arman: hot and moist ac-
cording to Ynn, cold according to yurveda. Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 944:
it is cold. Dhanvantaryanighau 1.222: ktamla is cold. Rjanighau 9.337: it is hot.

689
Achundow 196: it is a mild laxative. Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 944: it is
mdurecaka. Dhanvantaryanighau 1.222: it is sara. Ydavaarman (182): it is a mild
laxative (mdurecaka) according to yurveda.

690
Achundow 196: reinigt den Magen und Darmkanal von Feuchtigkeit. Surutasahit,
Strasthna 38.67: ragvadha is lempaha. Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 944:
JAN MEULENBELD 248
and drives out burnt bile.
691
It cures piercing pain
692
when combined with gua and in combination with
ghee it acts the same way when the viscid water of this round mass has been
prepared with the juice of ksanj.
One should also administer it as a gaa after adding the heartwood of
amyka.
693
The disease of the throat called khunka
694
is quickly eliminated.
Aspagola, taken out of the juice of kustumburu, administered according to
the rules as a gaa in the disease (called) galarodha, attached to him
(i.e., the patient) with a strong tie, removes it when brought about by bile or
by phlegm.
commentary:
ragvadhasrnvita eva gaa. agara khiyra abarardara ba-
ksan inavu sliba halkarde andake rogan bdma mekhtaha vinada
yarkr jyala gardnada.
The mouthwash (gaa) should be provided only with the heartwood of
ragvadha,
695
or khiyra abara
696
, dissolved in water of ksan, inavu and
slib, mixed
697
with some
698
almond oil. This averts
699
jaundice (yarqn).
700
it is doatrayahara. Ydavaarman: kaphak n karnevl.

691
Actions mentioned in The Unani Pharmacopoeia (I, I, 55): mushil (causing to fow),
mulayyin (laxative), muhallil-e-waram (resolving swellings/anti-infammatory), mud-
irra-e-haiz (emmenagogue). Ydavaarman (182): according to Ynn: othoko viln
karnevl. Abhinavanighau, p. 12: it reduces hot swellings (uaotha layakart), it
alleviates diarrhoeal defecation (atsr dvr malko sugamantse niklt hai), its leaves
dissolve all kinds of swelling (iske patte sampra othoko layakrak hai).

692
Achundow 196: Von Nutzen bei Kolikschmerzen. Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga
945: it is lanud.

693
A synonym of ragvadha, Cassia fstula Linn.

694
Cf. comm. ad 2.2.189190.

695
Cassia fstula Linn.

696
Daljt Siha 35: khiyracabara, Cassia fstula Linn.

697
Persian megh = mixture.

698
Persian andake means some, a small quantity.

699
Persian gardndan = to avert.

700
The words vinada and jyala remain unidentifed.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 249
2.2.492:
ksan inabu slib sagrhya svaraso nayo /
roganbdmasayukta pta syt kmalpaha //
The juice collected from ksan, inabu
701
and slib,
702
joined to almond oil
and drunk, drives away jaundice.
commentary:
suparakasrasayukta eva mtr 5|7|10 diram, aktaya 3 muhallila mu- aktaya 3 muhallila mu-
layyana musalih arve 4 akhalt khassa safar lajujbalgamr. darpaghnni
roganbdma r mastag anes tamarahind. badala 3 turajav
mabja bedn andaketurbuda.
With the heartwood of suparaka
703
only added, is the dose fve, seven or
ten dirham.
The actions are three (in number): resolvent, laxative, and corrective with
respect to the four humours, in particular (u) yellow bile and viscous

701
Achundow 232233: inabu, grapes. Ainslie I, 156158: Arabic name inab, Persian
name ankr, Vitis vinifera (Lin.). Al-Biruni 232 (44): inab umr, and 241, n.112: Vitis
vinifera L. Al-Kindi 306307 (207): inab, grape. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine
737738: `inab, Vitis vinifera. Schmucker 305 (500): inab, grapes. E. Wiedemann II,
297, 379 380 (karm). See 2.2.821823: inava, agra drk rdr.

702
Ainslie I, 368369: salep, alab mir, the root of Orchis Mascula (Lin.) [valid name:
Orchis mascula (Linn.) Linn.]. Daljt Siha 676677: slam mir, the Hind name
of Orchis mascula Linn., Orchis maculata Linn. [valid name: Dactylorhiza maculata
(Linn.) So = Orchis maculata Linn.], and Orchis laxifora Lam. Encyclopaedia of Is-
lamic medicine 504: salab, Orchis mascula. Hamdard 408: salab misri is the Per-
sian name of Orchis mascula Linn. Schlimmer 415: alab, Orchis mascula. Unani
Pharmacopoeia II, I, 236 and II, II, 260: the root of Orchis latifolia Linn. Compare
Dymock et al. III, 384387; Flckiger and Hanbury 592594: salep; WIRM VII, 104:
salep, Orchis latifolia Linn. [this is a valid name]. The Siddhabheajamaiml (2.104;
4.52 and 779) prescribes this drug as slima, a tuberous plant from misaradea (Egypt)
according to the commentary. Vinodalla Senas yurvedavijna prescribes it under
the Sanskrit name sudhml (see G. Jan Meulenbeld IIA, 356). The Bhatpkval
(36) and Pkrava describe a slimapka, the Nighauratnkara(183) describes a
slimakanda.

703
suparaka is one of the names of Cassia fstula Linn., though suvaraka is met with
more often.
JAN MEULENBELD 250
(lajlaj)
704
phlegm.
The correctives are oil of bdm r, mastag, anes, and tamar hind.
The substitutes are three in number: turajav,
705
raisins (mabja)
706
with-
out the seeds (bedn) and a slight amount of turbud.
drafla
707
2 k ka
2.2.493497:
capal triguo ca rk vaidyais tath smt /
pakvaya kab kuryn mubahaktisayut //
pcan recan cpi sabhavet kmadpin /
suddeku jigan aktir muskin aujya eva ca //
hikkksapraaman balsa hrsayaty api /
vtalemajvara hanti varma aityam akhaitam //
iraso na hit muslih samag arab prakrtita /
tathpare ca saprokte gulba haricandanam //
badal asy samuddio hy uaa vivabheajam /
jarambdpi sakhytas tath pratinidhir budhai //

704
This is probably a Hind word.

705
The same as tarajubn. This substance is described at 2.2.290291. Compare Daljt
Siha 236.

706
See 2.2.943944: kimia - mabjabedn / kudr drk. Ainslie I, 157: mawz, rai-
sins. Daljt Siha 3: mabz bedn, raisins. Hand Book 311317: maviz, raisins. Schlim-
mer 544: uvae passae, raisins, mabz. Compare on uvae passae: Flckiger and Hanbury
140142.

707
Achundow 205 (254) and 371 (208): dr-flfl, Piper longum L. Ainslie I, 308310: dr
flfl, Arabic name, and flfl darz, Persian name of Piper longum L. Al-Biruni 155 (1):
dr-i-flfl and 160 (1): Piper longum L. Al-Kindi 266267 (97): dr flfl, Piper longum
L. Daljt Siha 448450: drflfl, Arabic name, and flfl darz, Persian name of Piper
longum L. Schlimmer: absent. Schmucker 192 (293): dr flfl, Piper longum L. Unani
Pharmacopoeia II, I, 229 and II, II, 258: flflmoya, the dried roots of Piper longum Linn.
It is remarkable that Mahdevadeva employs the name drfl instead of dr flfl. Com-
pare on Piper longum: Dymock et al. III, 176180.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 251
capal
708
is hot and dry to the third degree
709
according to the vaidyas. It
makes the receptacle of digested food strong (qaw),
710
and is accompanied
by an aphrodisiac action (mubah).
711
It promotes digestion (pcana)
712
and
purgation (recana) and, in addition, excites sexual desires.
713
It obstructs the
vessels (suddekua)
714
and its actions are allaying (muskin) and aujya.
715
It attenuates cough and difcult breathing
716
and puts phlegm to shame.
717
It
removes fever by wind and phlegm
718
and coldness of the body altogether.
719

It is not benefcial for the head.
720
The corrective (muslih) is samag arab and two other (substances) as well:
rose water (gulba) and haricandana.
721

708
One of the Sanskrit names of Piper longum Linn. Its most common Sanskrit name is
pippal.

709
Achundow (205) agrees. Daljt Siha (449) and Ydavaarman (315): hot and dry to the
second degree. Dhanvantaryanighau 2.74: pippal is cold and moist. Rjanighau
6.111: it is hot and moist.

710
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.161: may aur kamar (waist, loins) ko balaprada.

711
Ydavaarman (315): vjkara in Ynn. Rjanighau 6.111: it is vy, aphrodisiac.

712
Surutasahit, Strasthna 38.2223: it is mapcana. Abhinavanighau, p.161: it is
hrapcaka. Daljt Siha agrees.

713
Achundow (205) and Daljt Siha (449) agree.

714
Persian sudd-e-k jigan.

715
Compare Abhinavanighau, p. 161: it is called ojko clanakart.

716
Daljt Siha (449) agrees. Rjanighau 6.111 also agrees: vsakspaha.
Ydavaarman (315): it is prescribed in cough and difcult breathing in Ynn.

717
Ydavaarman (315): it is prescribed in kaphaja diseases in Ynn. Daljt Siha
(449) supports this statement. I assume the verb hrayati to be an error for hrepayati.
Surutasahit, Strasthna 38.2223: it is kaphahara. Rjanighau 6.111 is in agree-
ment: lempaha.

718
Dhanvantaryanighau 2.74: it is jvaranan. Rjanighau 6.111: it is jvarah. Com-
pare Abhinavanighau, p. 161: vyuko layakart.

719
I read varmaaityam. Abhinavanighau, p.161: udarke avayavo me garmko utpan-
nakart. Ydavaarman (315): it generates warmth (uatjanana).

720
Daljt Siha (449) observes that it may cause piercing pain in the head. Compare
Abhinavanighau, p.161: hnikart: irko aur irapprada hai.

721
A yellow kind of sandal wood. haricandana is dealt with at 2.2.744746: sandala
abiyaja haricandanam; abiyaja is Arabic abya, i.e., white. Abhinavanighau,
p.161: correctives are the gum of the babla tree and sandal, substitutes are uh and
narkacr. The Siddhaprayogalatik (19.26) employs narakarcraka, identifed as Cur-
cuma zedoaria Rosc. Daljt Siha (449) mentions the gum of babbla and white sandal
JAN MEULENBELD 252
Its substitute is taught to be black pepper (uaa) (and) ginger (vivabheaja).
722

Wise (physicians) also mention jarambda
723
as its substitute.
as correctives, nremuk and srajn as substitutes. The tree babbla is identifed as
Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan.
See 2.2.10861088 on nremuk: nramuka punnga / ngakesara. This plant
(punnga) is commonly identifed as Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. [this is a valid
name]. The plant called ngakeara is commonly identifed as Mesua ferrea Linn. [this
is a valid name]. The identity of nramuka becomes uncertain by the mention of both
punnga and ngakeara as Sanskrit names. M. Abdul Kareem records that a plant
called Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. [this is a valid name] is known in Sanskrit as punnga
and ngakeara.
Achundow (334) (32) says about nrmuschk: Tohfat: es ist die Blthe einer Pfanze,
sieht gelblich roth aus und ist grsser als die Erbse. Sie hnelt einer Granatapfelblthe,
welche noch nicht aufgeblht ist. Sontheimer bersetzt es an einer Stelle mit Igna-
tia amara, whrend er an einer anderen Stelle, gerade im betrefenden Artikel selbst,
die Uebersetzung bergeht. Wichtiger ist fr uns die Angabe von Prof. Dragendorf,
welcher Nrmuschk fr Flores Cassiae (und zwar spuriae) erklrt und angiebt, dass
man in Persien nach Honigberger unter den Namen Nrmuschk die Frucht der Mesua
ferrea L. versteht. See on Tohfat: Achundow 299300; on Dragendorf: Achundow
297. Ainslie, Al-Kindi, Hamdard, Hand Book: absent. Al-Biruni 319 (1): nrmushk,
and 325 (1): identifed as Mesua ferrea Linn. Daljt Siha 407408: nremuk is the
Persian name of Mesua ferrea Linn., called ngakesara in Sanskrit. Schlimmer 370:
nrmik, the Persian name of Mesua ferrea. Schmucker 502503: Persisch nrmuk
ist wie so viele mit nr- zusammengesetzte Namen nicht eindeutig zu bestimmen.
A. Siggel (70) gibt: Blte von Cassia spuria (Caesalpiniaceae), eine uszerst seltene
Deutung. nrmuk wird sonst gedeutet als: wilder Granatapfel, Blte von jullanr
(see Schmucker 145 (201)), welches in seiner Bedeutung auch nicht vollstndig geklrt
ist, une espce de petite grenade quon tire du Khorsn (Dozys Arabic dictionary
II, 631), an Indian fruit resembling the pomegranate, the fowers of which, when they
fall, are fragrant (the best being of a whitish colour mixed with red) (Steingass). Qurt
(250) hat eine ganz andere Version, die fast smtliche inhaltliche Anklnge an den Gra-
natapfel vermissen lszt. Auch die Quellen Lws (see Achundow 299) zhlen eine ganze
Skala von Mglichkeiten fr jullanr und nrmuk auf. Nach diesen wirren Aussagen
ist es nicht mglich, exakt zu defnieren, um welche Pfanze bzw. um welchen Teil des
Granatapfelbaumes es sich handelt. Es ist ja nicht einmal endgltig erwiesen, dasz ber-
haupt Punica granatum L. u. Var. in Frage kommen, wenn sich auch der berwiegende
Teil der Quellen dahingehend uszert.

722
Daljt Siha (449) regards white pepper and ginger as substitutes.

723
Achundow 213 (292): zurunbd, Amomum zerumbeth [valid name: Curcuma zedoaria
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 253
An interesting vjkaraa recipe is found at 2.2.632635:
misrdee rodanl nchnmanady samudbhavet /
prabhedo makarasyya ster aa trapliu //
tadantastho vied ambha sa nakro ya prasarpati /
parito vlukbhmau sakankra sa sasmta //
sakanakra varalmh dvayor bheda itva hi /
trasthy sakankra varalmh vanecara //
varal vilar syt ptruatanuprabha /
jaraha marudhara ctha kirmra cparbhidha //
commentary:
abalaka, ragga sabj, jard, syh, sapheda, myala, bada, lakkti
ca.
2.2.636641:
anena sadaatanur mgayu prathama jalam /
nirvied yadi jveta sakankra mti vrajet //
daa vidhya sapadi nra yadi viet svayam /
tad jvet sakankra mgayur layamviet //
sa crdras trigua snigdhas tathoo gurur eva ca /
sauddho lavakta ca gharme saoita ca ya //
trigua laghurkoo manaj mubah tath /
mtr dirama 1 miskle 1 masro darpah smta //
badal khusiyatu slib kajb nargva eva v /
vndrakyate km sthaviro pi nievat /
prasneusambha syd bahvtmajakara ca sa //
(Christm.) Roscoe = Curcuma zerumbet (Berg.) Roxb.]. Ainslie I, 490 and 492493: Cur-
cuma Zerumbet (Roxb.), zarambd (Persian and Arabic name), karcra (Sanskrit name).
Al-Biruni 165 (8): zurumbd and 176 (25): Curcuma zedoaria Rose. Al-Kindi 274 (125):
zurunbd, root of Curcuma zerumbet Roxb. Daljt Siha 405406: zarambd, Curcuma
zedoaria Rosce. Schlimmer 556: Zedoaria zerumbet, zarunbd. Schmucker 215 (345):
zurunbd, Amomum zerumbeth.
JAN MEULENBELD 254
The river in Egypt that is called Rodanl Nch is the place of origin of a kind
of makara that lays eggs on its banks. This crocodile-like animal (nakra)
may enter the water when it stays on the bank; when it moves on, surrounded
by sandy soil, it is called sakankr.
724
There are two diferent kinds of it: sakankr (in the narrow sense) and
varalmh.
The one that stays on the bank is the sakankr, whereas the varalmh
725

roams about among the wild plants.
The varal has a big head and its body has a yellow and ruddy lustre. It is
violent, has a beard, and is also known as kirmra.
726
commentary:
It is spotted (ablaq). Its colours are green, yellow, black, white,
727
it has
a smooth body.
A hunter who, with a body that has been bitten by it, jumps into the water as
the frst one, will save his life while the sakankr will die. If the sakankr,
after suddenly biting, enters into the water frst itself, it will stay alive while
the hunter will die.

724
Al-Kindi 283 (145): saqanqr. Small desert lizard. Scincus ofcinalis. Dioscorides
uses the lizard as an aphrodisiac. Al-Kindi employs this simple in a stomachic which
is also good for excessive copulation. Maimonides gives the synonym as waral. In
modern Egyptian Arabic, it is waran. It is still sold in the bazaars as an aphrodisiac.
yurvedyavivakoa II, 1416: isqanqr, saqanqr, Lacerta scincus. Compare the com-
ments ad 2.2.631: sakanakra varal regamh dara misara daray rodanla paid me
abada / aj nasalata masha yne nihaga sta, (The animal called) saqanqr, waral,
(and) rgmh occurs in Egypt in the river Rodan. Compare Abhinavanighau,
p.235: the sakankr is an animal called reh in Hind. See also G.S. Lavekar I, 379381
on a sand lizard, Tachydromus sexlineatus, called rege mahi in Persian, used in Ynn
medicine.

725
Varalmh or varalmh is an error.

726
Compare on an animal called waral: E. Wiedemann II, 356. See also Steingass: an ani-
mal of the lizard kind, with a broad head, a rough skin of a reddish yellow, swift of foot,
with envenomed teeth, and a sting-tail.

727
The meanings of myala and bada remain undetermined.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 255
It is in a wet state moist, hot and heavy to the third degree. When it has been
purifed, besmeared with salt, and dried in the sun, it is light, dry and hot to
the third degree, as well as causing an erection (mun`i), being aphrodisiac
(mubah).
728
Its dose is one dirham one miskl; lentils mitigate its action.
729
Substitutes are khusiyatu,
730
slib,
731
kajb,
732
and nargva.
733
Its use will make a lover the most excellent one, even if he be old; he will
resemble Kma and produce a numerous ofspring.
734

728
Abhinavanighau, p.235: hot and moist in a fresh state, hot and dry to the second de-
gree when dried. G.S. Lavekar I, 379380: the fesh is considered as one of the most
potent sexual stimulants; the fat of this animal is highly valued for its ability to stimulate
the erectile power.

729
Abhinavanighau, p.225: honey and lentils (masra) are the correctives.

730
Absent from Daljt Siha. Absent from Platts. Persian uy means a testicle. Ac-
hundow 369 (140): chusa`l-thalab, Tulipa gesneriana [valid name: Tulipa gesneriana
Linn.]. Schmucker 184 (274): uat al-talab, Tulipa gesneriana L.; others regard it as
an Orchis.

731
It may well be that uyat slib is meant, which would literally mean a slib testi-
cle, i.e., its bulbous root, for slib is the name of an Orchis; orchids have such roots,
as their name indicates (Greek orchis = testicle). Sherif (221) indeed records uyat
al-alab as one of the names of the drug commercially called salammisri. Compare
Abhinavanighau, p.242: Persian name khyayerobh, Arabic name khasiyatulsalab,
Sanskrit name sudhml.

732
The meaning of this word remains unidentifed. Absent from Daljt Siha.

733
Absent from Daljt Siha. Absent from Hand Book. It may be that uyat-e-nargv
is meant, a bulls testicle, which is in conformity with the context and its testicle-like
objects. The Abhinavanighau (p.235) mentions as substitutes slabmir and gjar.

734
Actions according to the Abhinavanighau (p.235): isk ms ojko balaprada, ojko aty-
ant clankart, atyant vryako utpannakart, pakavadha, ardita, kampa, pdahara,
pdgulip aur mvtko gukart hai.
JAN MEULENBELD 256
tarakhna
735
krakarabha
736
karakarah
737

2.2.761763:
bustnkhba nirdio rkoatrigua dvidh /
kicic chta samcae rasanendriyamrchana //
kautikta(ka)ydivirekavamanauadht /
arvk kicit samaitas tadrasenaiva bodhayet //
avntikt kaharuja pips kma nikma harastkaroti /
karafsa darpaghna udrito sya mtr yathyogyam uanti vaidy //
The cultivated type
738
is dry and hot to the third degree.
739
It is said to be somewhat cold and to make the tongue insensitive.
Its tastes are pungent, bitter, astringent, etc., since it is a drug for purgation
and vomiting.
Sometime after ingesting it, it arouses its taste.
It does not lead to vomiting; it infames pain in the throat, thirst, sexual feel-
ings and (other) desires.
Its corrective is said to be karafsa. Physicians want the dosage to be in con-
formity with the circumstances.
commentary:
akti mukhaddir ata eva to pi harrat garjr skit khmoa gardnada
jvomaa praamanatvt.

735
Achundow 230 (384): tarchn, Artemisia Dracunculus [valid name: Artemisia dra-
cunculus Linn.]. Absent from Al-Kindi and Daljt Siha. Schmucker 289290 (469):
arn, Artemisia dracunculus L.

736
This item is dealt with twice. Compare 2.2.789793.

737
Achundow 235 (404) and 385 (304): qirqarh, Anthemis Pyrethrum L. s. Anacyclus
Pyrethrum DC. [valid name: Anacyclus pyrethrum (Linn.) Link = Anthemis pyrethrum
Linn.] Ainslie I, 300302: `qurqurh, Anthemis Pyrethrum (Lin.). Daljt Siha 911:
akarkar, Anthemis pyrethrum. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 57: al-`qarqar,
Anthemis pyrethrum; 76: arn, Artemisia dracunculus. Schmucker 289290: die Glei-
chsetzung abars von arm mit `qarqar ist wahrscheinlich ein Irrtum, and 477
(p.295296). Unani Pharmacopoeia I, II, 1: Anacyclus pyrethrum DC., Arabic names:
aaqarqarha, ood-ul-qarah, Persian names: beikh-e-tarkhun kohi (Persian b = root),
kakrah. E. Wiedemann II, 293. Compare yurvedyavivakoa I, 79; III, 21902191:
karkar. See also Dymock et al. II, 277281; Flckiger and Hanbury 342343.

738
The Persian word for garden is bustn.

739
ligrmanighaubhaa 155156: it is hot.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 257
Its action is anaesthetic/narcotic (muaddir)
740
and just for that reason,
though cold, the natural (garz) heat (arrat) is made silent (skit) and
dumb (amo) because it appeases the warmth of the living body.
741
karakarh
742
krakarabha
743

commentary:
tarakhna. toyavarge prg ukta. svarpaguapraktir api kicid viet
punar ucyate.
It has already been mentioned among the group of water and other fuids
(toya) under the name of tarakhna.
744
Its own nature, qualities and degrees
(of dryness, etc.) are mentioned once again with some particularities.
745
2.2.789791
kaudrea yukta parisevito yam apasmter mnuam ndhyamadhyt /
samuddharaty u ca luptasaja grhd gajendra hi yath rathg //
pakanavin syd balsabalanana /
prtar jayati gan nii sirkdrave sthita //
kavoo radann ca dar vedanmayam

740
See Ainslie I, 169, Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 432, and Hand Book 54.

741
Actions according to the Unani Pharmacopoeia I, II, 2: mukhaddir, muqaww-e bah
(aphrodisiac), moharrik (stimulating), musakkin (relieving/sedative).

742
Achundow 235 (404) and 385 (304) qirqarh, Anthemis Pyrethrum L. s. Anacyclus
Pyrethrum DC. Ainslie I, 300302: Arabic name qarqar, Anthemis Pyrethrum
(Lin.). Al-Biruni 223 (1): qir qar`, and 236, n.1: Anacyclus pyrethrum D.C. Al-Kindi
301302 (191): qr qar, Anacyclus pyrethrum D.C. [valid name: Anacyclus pyre-
thrum (Linn.) Link, with Anthemis pyrethrum Linn. as a synonym] Daljt Siha 911:
akarkar, Anthemis pyrethrum. Schlimmer 43: qarqar, Anthemis pyrethrum, syn.
Anacyclus pyrethrum. Schmucker 295 (477): qir qar, Anacyclus pyrethrum DC.

743
This plant is employed under this name in post-classical yurvedic treatises; examples
are: rgadharasahit II.6.162cd and and II.12.56; Bhvapraka, cikitsprakaraa
72.76. It has numerous synonyms in yurvedic literature. See on Anacyclus pyrethrum:
Dymock et al. II, 277281.

744
See 2.2.761763 where the cultivated type is described.

745
This is the only example of a particular drug being dealt with twice in the Hikmatpraka.
JAN MEULENBELD 258
When used together with kaudra honey, this (drug) quickly draws a human
being out of the blindness of epilepsy,
746
like Viu rescued the unconscious
king of elephants from the demon.
It eliminates hemiplegia
747
and annihilates the strength of phlegm,
It overcomes, if tepid, painful disorders in teeth
748
and fangs
749
when used as
a mouthwash in the morning after staying in vinegar during the night.
commentary:
dar jiras khba ghajdaha jabna praasto rasanendriyodvejaka iti.
farvaha pua andarta sufed myala antaubhra.
A fang, i.e., jiras.
750
It strongly bites
751
the tongue (jabn), i.e., recommended
(is the kind that) distresses the organ of taste. The body (remains in) a well-
nourished condition. andarta,
752
the white of an egg,
753

754
with a spotless
inside.
755

746
Ydavaarman (245) remarks that Ynn physicians give it in cases of epilepsy.

747
Ydavaarman: it cures hemiplegia according to Ynn. Compare ligrmanighau-
bhaa 155156: vta vinayet.

748
Used in dantala by Ynn practitioners according to Ydavaarman (245).

749
The use of dar, mostly employed with reference to animals, is noteworthy.

750
The meaning of jiras is not clear.

751
Persian gazdan = to bite.

752
Described at 2.2.117118: ajarta. Achundow 155 and 342343: anzart, sarcocolla,
Gummi eines auf Bergen wachsenden dornigen Baumes. Ainslie I, 380381 and 629
630: sarcocolla, called anzart in Arabic, the resin of Penaea mucronata (Lin.) [valid
name: Penaea mucronata Linn.]. Al-Biruni 4546: anzart and 65, n.288: sarcocol, Pe-
naea mucronata L. or Astragallus sarcocolla Dyn. Al-Kindi 236237 (25): anzart, the
gum of Penaea mucronata L. or Astragalus sarcocolla Dym. [this is not a valid name].
Daljt Siha 6: anzart, Astragalus sarcocola Dymock. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medi-
cine 516: `anzart, anzart, Penoea ofcinalis, sarcocolla. Schlimmer 429: Penaea mu-
cronata, anzart. Schmucker 95 (79): anzart or `anzart, sarcocolla; sources: Penaea
mucronata L., Penaea sarcocolla L. [this is a valid name], Penaea squamosa L. [this is
not a valid name], Astragalus sarcocolla Dym. E. Wiedemann II, 236. See on Astraga-
lus sarcocolla: Dymock et al. I, 476479. Compare yurvedyavivakoa I, 180183:
ajarta, Astragalus sarcocolla Dymock.

753
sufed also means whiteness in Persian.

754
The meaning of myala remains unclear.

755
It is not clear to which substance this refers. My translation is tentative.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 259
2.2.792793:
mtr dirama 1 darpaghn mabj y ruvvasma ca /
badal ftanaj gaavidhau khyto manibhi //
vahn rsana kau ca kvacin madhusamhitam //
The dose is one dirham.
The two correctives are raisins (mabj)
756
or a garlic extract.
Its substitute is said to be ftanaj
757
by intelligent (physicians) when used as
a mouthwash.
Sometimes vahni,
758
rsana
759
and the two plants called ka and k
760


756
Daljt Siha 2: mabz, raisins. Schlimmer 544: mavz, raisins. Schmucker: absent.
Compare Achundow 232233 (392): inab.

757
Achundow 238239: ftanadsch, Mentha. Al-Kindi 312313: fawdanaj or fautanaj,
aquatic mint, Mentha aquatica L. [this is a valid name], Mentha pulegium L. [this is
a valid name], and other species. Daljt Siha 452453: ftanaj, the Arabic name of
Mentha sativa Linn. [valid name: hybrid of Mentha arvensis and Mentha aquatica Har-
ley et Brighton]. Schmucker 329331 (553): funaj, fawanaj and related forms:
Mentha pulegium L., also Mentha piperita L. [this is a valid name]. Ainslie (I, 241) gives
pdn as the Persian name of Mentha sativa and na`na` as its Arabic name. Al-Biruni
records nana, called pdn in Persian, identifed as Mentha sativa L. or Mentha viridis
L. [valid name: Mentha spicata Linn. = Mentha viridis (Linn.) Linn.] (327328, n.53
and 54). Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 456: na`na`, Mentha piperita and ftanaj,
Mentha pulegium. Schlimmer has pdin as the Persian name of Mentha pulegium and
nan as that of Mentha sativa. E. Wiedemann II, 292293. Compare on Mentha pipe-
rita: Dymock et al. III, 104108; Flckiger and Hanbury 432436. Compare on Mentha
pulegium: Flckiger and Hanbury 436437.

758
vahni and all other words for fre denote the plant commonly known as citraka, Plumba-
go zeylanica Linn. See Bhvaprakanighau, hartakydivarga 70: citrako nalanm
ca.

759
Abhinavanighau, p.212: rsan, Persian name jajablm, Sanskrit name rsn. Ac-
hundow 209 (275) and 373 (222): rsan, Inula Helenium [valid name: Inula helenium
Linn.]. Ainslie I, 119120: Arabic name uulrsan, Inula Helenium (Lin.). Al-Kindi
270 (108): rsin is the Persian name of Inula helenium L. Daljt Siha 605606: al-
rsan is the Arabic name of Inula helenium Linn. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine
370371: rsan, Inula helenium. Compare Schlimmer 330: zanjabl m, Inula hele-
nium. Schmucker 204205 (319): rsan, the Arabic name of Inula helenium L., called
zanjabl-i-m in Persian. Compare on Inula helenium: Dymock et al. II, 259262;
Flckiger and Hanbury 340342.

760
I.e., black and long pepper, Piper nigrum Linn. and Piper longum Linn.
JAN MEULENBELD 260
are desired, with honey.
commentary:
kv ity atraikeea.
kau is (a case of) ekaea here.
kanava
761
jujbajam.
762
vijay
763

2.2.911-912:
u dvidh tridh rk mubah ca munavvima /
mumsik muskir mufarrah ca munkabij aktayas tu a //
darpaghna iira nra tath syd aa puna /
mtr bhaved yathstmya dpano madhuro rasa //
It is hot to the second degree
764
and dry to the third degree.
765

761
Achundow 365 (119): habb ul-samnat, Cannabis sativa [valid name: Cannabis sativa
Linn.], and 380 (266): schhdnadsch, Cannabis sativa. Ainslie II, 108111: Arabic
name qanub, Cannabis Sativa (Willd.). Al-Biruni II, 59: shhdhnaj, bizr al-qunnab,
Cannabis sativa L. Daljt Siha 548: Persian name kanaba hind. Encyclopaedia of
Islamic medicine 115: qinnab hind, Cannabis indica [Cannabis indica Linn. is a syn-
onym of Cannabis sativa Linn.]. Hamdard 368369: Arabic name khinnab. Unani Phar-
macopoeia (I, I, 72): qinnab, the Arabic name, and warq-ul-khiyal, the Persian name of
Cannabis sativa. E. Wiedemann II, 388. Compare on Cannabis sativa: Dymock et al.
III, 318337; Flckiger and Hanbury 491495.

762
This term is not clear.

763
vijay is a Sanskrit name of Cannabis sativa Linn. See on Cannabis: Al-Kindi 246 (45).
Schlimmer 103107.

764
Abhinavanighau, p.186: hot and dry to the second degree. Daljt Siha 550: bhg
is cold to the third degree, carasa to the fourth degree. Ydavaarman (340): cold and
dry to the third degree according to Ynn. yurvedic texts regard vijay as hot:
Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 1637 and Dhanvantaryanighau 1.131.

765
Daljt Siha (550): bhg is dry to the third degree, carasa to the fourth degree. See on
carasa: Daljt Siha 549.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 261
It has six actions: aphrodisiac (mubah),
766
sedative/soporifc (munaww),
retentive (mumsik), intoxicating (muskir),
767
mufarrah (exhilarating),
768
and
contracting (munkabij).
769
Its corrective is cool water and also black pepper (aa).
770
Its dose has to correspond to the stmya (of the patient);
771
it stimulates the
fre
772
and is sweet in taste.
commentary:
be badala
It has no substitute.
773

766
The Abhinavanighau (p.186) records another opinion: vryako oakart, it dries up
semen.

767
Abhinavanighau, p.186: madakart. Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 1637: madakt.

768
Ydavaarman (340): saumanasyajanana (causing cheerfulnes) according to Ynn.

769
I.e., munqabi. Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 1637: it is grhin. Ydavaarman
(340): it is sagrhin (constrictive), vjkara (aphrodisiac), vedansthpana (analgesic),
svpajanana (soporifc), kepahara (anticonvulsive) according to Ynn. The Unani
Pharmacopoeia (I, I, 7273) lists the following actions: qabiz (i.e., qbi, constipating),
muqaww-e-meda (muqaww-e-mi`da, stomachic), mushahhi (muai, corrective,
may be meant), mufarrih (exhilarating), muqaww-e-bah (aphrodisiac), mumsik (reten-
tive), mujaff (desiccative), musakkin-e-alam (relieving pain), munaww (soporifc), daf-
e-tashannuj (removing convulsions). Abhinavanighau, p.186: it is mtrala (diuretic),
stambhanakart (immobilizing/retentive), othako layakrak (reducing swellings),
udarme vihambatprada (constipating), diko manda karnevl (reducing eye-
sight), ojkhaankart (destroying ojas).

770
Daljt Siha (550): ghee and giving (the patient) to drink (piln).

771
See on stmya: Carakasahit, Vimnasthna 8.118. Daljt Siha 50: one m.

772
Daljt Siha (550) agrees.

773
The Abhinavanighau (p.186) does not give correctives or substitutes,
JAN MEULENBELD 262
kasa
774
katr
775

2.2.931932:
sama caturdh kavathu vireka svarasya bheda davathu vami ca /
plua ca doapracaya arrn nirasyati svargadhunva ppam //
adhakyhito atyanta anes darpakari /
mtr dvi 3 tri 3 dirammnauadhdhavightakt
No commentary.
It is neutral with regard to the four qualities.
776

774
This word poses a problem. Persian kass is sulphate of iron. Sanskrit kssa has the
same meaning.

775
Achundow 251 (482): kathr, Astragalus, Tragakanth und andere Pfanzen, and 396
(482): kathr (with discussion of the plant sources). Ainslie I, 162163: katr, gum
tragacanth from Astragalus Verus (Olivier). Al-Biruni: absent. Al-Kindi 323 (254):
kar, gum tragacanth, Astragalus gummifer Lab. [this is a valid name] in Syria,
Astragalus kurdicus Boiss. [this is a valid name] in Mesopotamia, and Astragalus he-
raticus Bunge [this is not a valid name] in Persia. yurvedyavivakoa III, 19901993:
katr, the gum of Sterculia urens Roxb. [this is a valid name]; other sources mentioned:
Cochlospermum Gossypium D.C. and Astragalus gummifer. Daljt Siha 112114:
katr, tragacanth from Astragalus heratensis Bunge [this is a valid name] and Astraga-
lus strobilifera Royle [correct name: Astragalus strobiliferus Royle]. Encyclopaedia of
Islamic medicine: kar, Astragalus gummifera. Hamdard 375: Arabic kathira and
Persian kaira-i-hindi denote the gum of Cochlospermum gossypium DC. [valid name:
Cochlospermum religiosum (Linn.) Alston = Cochlospermum gossypium (Linn.) DC.].
Hand Book: absent. C.D. Maclean (1982), 406407 (s.v. kateerah). Schlimmer 203:
katr, tragacanth, and 6566: astragale. Schmucker 384 (621): katr, Traganthgummi.
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 38 and III, 235: kateera is the dried gum obtained from
Cochlospermum religiosum (Linn.) Alston. Wiedemann II, 233 (8): Al Kar ist das
Harz des Tragakanth. Compare on tragacanth: Dymock et al. I, 479482; Flckiger
and Hanbury 151156; WIRM I, 160, II, 261, X, 45, WIRM I, rev.ed., 476477. The
author of the Siddhabheajamaiml is acquainted with katragundraka (4.779) and
karagundra (2.134). The Siddhaprayogalatik (33.32) also employs katragundra.
The author of the Siddhabhaiajyamaj prescribes kattr and the author of the
Viikhnupraveavijna (251) katrgundra.

776
Abhinavanighau, p.30: mtadil. yurvedyavivakoa III, 1991: cold and dry to the
frst degree; according to others it is neutral (mtadil) with respect to hotness and cold-
ness, and moist to the frst degree; some are of the opinion that it is hot and moist to the
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 263
It removes from the body sneezing, evacuation, hoarseness,
777
a burning
sensation, vomiting, burns, and an accumulation of doas,
778
as the Ganges
removes evil.
779

It is extremely hurtful to the lower part of the body.
780
anes
781
is its cor-
rective.
782
The dose is two or three dirham. It brings about the removal of a burning
sensation caused by herbs.
783
frst degree; there are also those who regard it as cold to the second degree. Daljt Siha
113: it is neither hot nor cold (anuata). Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 39: moderate
and moist.

777
Daljt Siha (114) agrees. Compare Abhinavanighau, p.30: vakasthalk khara-
kharha gukart hai. Compare yurvedyavivakoa III, 19911992.

778
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.30: dook lekhanat aur tkatko ntiprada.

779
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 39: used against cough. Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau,
p.30: ks gukart hai.

780
Achundow 251: schdet der Blase, welcher Schaden durch Pistacia Lentiscus [valid
name: Pistacia lentiscus Linn.] corrigirt wird.

781
Ainslie I, 1718: ansn, Pimpinella anisum (Lin.). Al Biruni II, 76: ansn, Pimpinella
anisum Linn. [this is a valid name]; I, 44 (98): ansn and 65, n. 281: aniseed, Foenicu-
lum vulgare Mill. [this is a valid name]. Al-Kindi 237 (ansn): Pimpinella anisum L.
Daljt Siha 2930: Arabic name ansn, Pimpinella anisum Linn. Encyclopaedia of
Islamic medicine 59: ansn, Pimpinella anisum. Hamdard 410: anisun is the Arabic
name of Pimpinella anisum Linn. Hand Book: absent. Compare yurvedyavivakoa
I, 300305: ansn, Pimpinella anisum Linn. Compare on this plant: Dymock et al. II,
131132; Flckiger and Hanbury 276278.

782
Daljt Siha (114) agrees. Abhinavanighau, p.30: sabgol and ansn are the cor-
rectives. The yurvedyavivakoa (III, 1992) mentions as correctives: ans, kadd
seeds, and karafs. kadd is the Hind name for Sanskrit albu, Lagenaria siceraria (Mo-
lina) Standley [this is a valid name]. The Abhinavanighau (p.30) mentions the gum of
babla and sweet kadd seeds as substitutes. See on the gum-resin of the babbla tree:
Abhinavanighau, p.171.

783
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.30: it destroys the poisonous substances of herbs.
JAN MEULENBELD 264
kamna
784
jrakam
785
/ jr
786

2.2.947952:
rkoa trigua asta kirmn vtakaraam /
sagrhi pcana rucya pakvayabalvaham //
sirk nupta kodo sya hanti mtsn avsanm /
paun carvita llsrva saoayaty api //
nipya radanai samyag vsasto rasojant /
nkhn nmaka netrmaya hanyd asaayam //
ljrasya vidvei katr vikter ari /
muhallila muga ca mufattiha mulattifa //
hvis mudammila khyto akti oh 6 vicakaai //
yavn badala khyt tukhmakarnava v puna /
kirmn fras am vint 4 jty caturvidh //
It is dry and hot to the third degree.
787
The kirmn (kind) is the recommended one.
788

784
Achundow 248 (473): kamna, Cuminum Cyminum. [valid name: Cuminum cyminum
Linn.]. Ainslie I, !00101: kamna, Cuminum Cyminum (Lin.). Al-Biruni 282283 (35):
kammn, and 289 (88): seeds of cumin, Cuminum cyminum L. Al-Kindi 327328 (266):
Arabic name kammn, Cuminum cyminum L. Daljt Siha 341342: Arabic name
kammn, Persian name zr, Cuminum cyminum Linn. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medi-
cine 204: kammn, Cuminum cyminum. Hamdard 379: zira is the Persian, kamun the
Arabic name of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Hand Book: absent. Schlimmer: zirah safaid,
Cuminum cyminum. Schmucker 406410 (649): kammn, Cuminum cyminum L. E. Wi-
edemann II, 389: kammn, Kmmel. Compare on cumin: Dymock et al. II, 113116;
Flckiger and Hanbury 295297.

785
jraka is the Sanskrit name of Cuminum cyminum.

786
This is the Hind name of jraka.

787
Achundow 248 (473): hot and dry to the second degree. Daljt Siha 342: hot and dry to
the second degree. Dhanvantaryanighau 2.67: jraka is dry (rka). Surutasahit,
Strasthna 46.221222 and Rjanighau 6.101: it is hot (ua). Kaiyadevanighau,
oadhivarga 1187: hot and dry.

788
Achundow 248 (473): der beste (Kmmel) ist der kirmanische. Al-Biruni 282: the vari- mmel) ist der kirmanische. Al-Biruni 282: the vari- mmel) ist der kirmanische. Al-Biruni 282: the vari-
ety from Kirmn is wild, and tightens the abdomen, whereas the Nabatean does not; the
Kirmn variety is black. Schmucker 407: die kirmn-Sorte ist von schwarzer Farbe;
sie ist strker als die fris-Sorte. Kirmn is a part of southeastern Iran.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 265
It drags away vta,
789
is astringent (sagrhin),
790
promotes digestion,
791

stimulates the appetite,
792
and strengthens the receptacle of digested food.
793
Its powder, when sirk is used as an anupna, annihilates the longing for
clay as food.
Chewed with something pungent (pau), it purifes salivation.
Squeezed out with ones teeth, (it annihilates) as an efect of the juice the
delight in perfumes.
It surely destroys the eye disease called nkhna.
794
It counteracts piercing pain and ajra.
795
kar is the corrective.
796
Resolvent (muallil), nutrient (muga), deobstruent (mufatti), attenuant
(mulaif ), styptic (havis), and cicatrizant (mudammil) is the sixfold action
mentioned by wise (physicians).
As a substitute one mentions yavn
797
or also the seeds of karnab.
798
It is fourfold as to its kinds: kirmn, fras, am, and vint.
799

789
Daljt Siha 342: vyuk utsarg kart hai, it drives out wind. Surutasahit, Stra-
sthna 46.221222: vtahara. Dhanvantaryanighau 2.67: idem (vtaht). Rjani-
ghau 6.101: idem.

790
Daljt Siha (342) agrees. It is pungent (kau) in taste in yurveda: Surutasahit,
Strasthna 46.221222, Dhanvantaryanighau 2.67, Rjanighau 6.101.

791
Daljt Siha (342) expresses the same view. It also promotes digestion in yurveda: it is
dpana, infaming the digestive fre: Dhanvantaryanighau 2.67, Rjanighau 6.101.

792
The same in yurveda: it is rucya: Surutasahit, Strasthna 46.221222; Dhanvanta-
ryanighau 2.66.

793
Al-Kindi 328: cumin seed is in general use as a stomachic in cases of dyspepsia.

794
Daljt Siha (342) is of the same opinion. Both the light (ukla) and dark (ka) types
of seed are benefcial to the eyes in the Dhanvantaryanighau (2.69 and 71) and
Rjanighau (6.103 and 106).

795
Daljt Siha is of the same opinion.

796
Daljt Siha (342) also mentions katr.

797
Trachyspermum ammi Linn. Sprague. See on this plant: Dymock et al. II, 116119 (s.v.
Carum copticum); Flckiger and Hanbury 269271. yavn is described at 2.2.1083
1085.

798
Achundow 246247 (470): karnab, Brassica oleracea [valid name: Brassica oleracea
Linn.].

799
The Surutasahit (Strasthna 46.230ab) and alhaas commentary) distinguish
two kinds of jraka: uklajraka and ptajraka, as well as three similar kinds of seeds:
krav, karav, and upakucik; karav is the same as yavn; upakucik is Nigella
sativa Linn. The Kaiyadevanighau, oadhivarga 11841188, distinguishes three kinds
JAN MEULENBELD 266
kaharuv
800
nirysaviea
801

2.2.959961:
rm praasto ruaptavara ta ca rko dvigua mukavv /
hdrogahdvntyasjtisram urakata tatkaam eva hanyt //
mujaffa mufarrah dil kbij tisra 3 ca aktaya /
brasa syd darpaghno badala pratipdita //
sindarsa tavra tnarm yathpadam //
The rm type is the recommended one, of a ruddy and yellow colour.
802
It is
cold and dry to the second degree
803
and has a tonic action.
It annihilates immediately cardiac disorders,
804
hdvnti,
805
bloody
diarrhoea,
806
and lesions within the chest.
It has three actions: desiccative (mujaff), exhilarating the heart (mufarrah
of jraka: suklajraka, Cuminum cyminum Linn., kajraka, Carum carvi Linn., and
krav, Nigella sativa Linn.

800
Achundow 322323 (59): kahrub, Succinum, Bernstein. yurvedyavivakoa III,
23992403: kaharuv, succinum, amber. Schmucker 414416 (657).

801
Known as kaharav to the author of the Siddhabheajamaiml (4.782) and explained
as a kind of resin in the commentary. Also found in the Siddhabhaiajyamaj (aras
39) and the Siddhaprayogalatik (3.27) under the same name. A Sanskrit name of amber
is taknta, occurring in some late yurvedic texts: Govindadsas Bhaiajyaratnval
(40), the Siddhaprayogalatik (several times), the Viikhnupravsavijna (268, 269),
and some rasastra texts: the Rasamitra and the Rasendrasambhava. See on taknta:
J. Andr and J. Filliozat, 369370 and D. Joshi, 223224.

802
Achundow does not mention types and is silent about colours.

803
Achundow gives no particulars. Abhinavanighau (p.52): neutral, or, according to
some, cold and dry. The yurvedyavivakoa (III, 2401) regards it as cold and dry; it
lists a series of other opinions.

804
Abhinavanighau, p.52: hdayako balavn kart, it strengthens the heart. The
yurvedyavivakoa (III, 2401) describes it as a cardiac tonic: hdaya ko akti pradn
kart hai, it gives power to the heart. See on heart diseases and their treatment: Ency-
clopaedia of Islamic medicine 326327. Compare Mdhavanidna 29.

805
This term is not known to me from yurvedic treatises. It may designate the watery dis- yurvedic treatises. It may designate the watery dis- yurvedic treatises. It may designate the watery dis-
charge fowing into the oral cavity as a prodrome of vomiting, called hllsa in Sanskrit.

806
Abhinavanighau, p.52: rudhir aur rakttsr k ruddhak hai. The yurvedyavivakoa
(III, 2401) expresses the same opinion: rakttisr k nivra k isme vie prabhv
hai, a specifc action of this (substance) is the suppression of bloody diarrhoea.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 267
dil), and constipating (kabij).
807
Its corrective is vrasa.
808
Substitutes are sindarsa,
809
tavra, and
tnarm
810
ldana
811
ambarabheda
812

2.2.962965:
rkoa ekaguita jary vikaraam /
dhpena stiktaka hanti vtagadn api //

807
The yurvedyavivakoa (III, 2401) calls it astringent (sagraha).

808
The juice of v, a synonym of safarjal. See on safarjal: 2.2.619621: safarjal v
bih / madhukam; this series of names poses a problem: the frst three names designate
the quince, whereas madhuka is a name of liquorice. Abhinavanighau, p.52: vanaps
is the corrective.

809
Achundow 379 (259): sandars, Resina Juniperi, Wachholderharz. Ainslie I, 379380:
sandars, sandarach, a resinous substance obtained from Juniperus Communis (Lin.)
(see footnote on identifcation as a product from a Thuja). Al-Biruni 194 (56): sandars,
called rl in Hind, i.e., the resin of Vateria indica Linn. [this is a valid name], and 202
(128). Al-Kindi 287 (156): sandars, resin of Thuya orientalis [valid name Thuja ori-
entalis Linn.] or T. articulata [valid name Tetraclinis auriculata (Vahl) Mast.]. Siha
648649: sandars, Damar resin, the resin of Vateria indica Linn. Schlimmer 499:
sandars, sandarach, Wachholderharz. Schmucker 250251: sandars, the resin of a
Juniperus according to early authors, but nowadays identifed as the resin of Callitris
quadrivalvis Vent. [valid name: Tetraclinis auriculata (Vahl) Mast. = Callitris quadri-
valvis Vent.]. E. Wiedemann II, 377 and 393: sandars. sindarsa is described at
2.2.678679: sindarsa samaggesta mnada kaharuv nirysaviea. Compare
Abhinavanighau, p.107: candars.

810
Ths Roman clay is not described in the section devoted to kinds of clay (n).
Abjhinavanighau, p.52: substitutes are vaalocana and sihars.

811
Achundow 283 (577): lden, Harz von Cistus Creticus; 409 (430): ldan, ldn, das
Harz verschiedener Species von Cistus; jetzt kommen fr die Gewinnung in Betracht
Cistus creticus L. [this is a valid name], Cistus cyprinus [this is not a valid name] und
Cistus ladaniferus L. [valid name: Cistus ladanifer L.]. Ainslie I, 187188: labdanum,
ldan, Cistus creticus (Lin.). Al-Biruni: absent. Al-Kindi 329 (270): lan, resin of
Cistus creticus L., Cistus ladaniferus L., and others. Daljt Siha: absent. Encyclo- t Siha: absent. Encyclo- t Siha: absent. Encyclo-
paedia of Islamic medicine 156: ldan, Cistus ladaniferus. Schlimmer 338: labdanum,
ladanum, ldan. Schmucker 424 (665). E. Wiedemann II, 14, 238239 (5).

812
I.e., a variety of ambara. yurvedic texts do not mention ldana.
JAN MEULENBELD 268
mardand agaj p hanti sapad yath padam //
sandal gulba darpaghnau badal ms samrit //
nma misklamnena mtr vaidyai prakrtit /
surabhi praasta kmadpanam //
It is dry and hot to the frst degree.
813
It drives out a (retained) placenta.
It annihilates puerperal diseases in a fumigation and also vta diseases.
It removes pains in the limbs when used for rubbing (the body with it), in the
same way as wealth removes distress by poverty.
Sandal and rose-water are correctives and ms
814
is mentioned as a sub-
stitute.
Physicians proclaim that the dose is half a miskl.
The fragrant kind is the recommended one and stimulates the libido.
lojahulba,
815
bdmar
816

2.2.9991001:
sama caturdhta ca kicid jvomavardhana /
pauiko bhao vya kssrahvana jayet //
uavta vibandha ca ukrravasudhkara /
mtr yathbala pr pupacpeudpana //

813
Achundow 283 (577): hot to the third degree, moist to the frst degree.

814
Described at 2.2.675677: sumbalattva jams blchara. Compare Ainslie
II, 367368: sumbal al-aib, jams, Valeriana Jatamansi (Sir W. Jones); this iden-
tifcation is problematic; Valeriana jatamansi is usually regarded as tagara, whereas
Nardostachys grandifora DC. is generally regarded as jams.

815
Abhinavanighau, p.174: Persian name bdmr, Arabic name lojulhalva, Sanskrit
name miavtda. Hand Book 36: Unani Tibbi name: lauz al-hulu. The Arabic name
of the almond is lawz. Achundow 264 (505): lauz, Amygdalus communis. Ainslie I, 68.
Schmucker 439 (685): lawz ull.

816
Daljt Siha 509510: Prunus amygdalus var. dulcis [valid name: Prunus dulcis (Mill.)
D.A.Webb = Prunus amygdalus Batsch], bdm r. Hand Book 36: badam shireen,
Prunus amygdalus Batsch var. dulcis, the sweet almond. Schlimmer 36: amygdalus
dulcis, bdm rn. Unani Pharmacopoeia II, I, 237: maghz-e-badam, the seeds of
Prunus amygdalus, var. dulcis. See on sweet and bitter almonds, distinguished only by
the taste of the kernel: Ainslie I, 8. Compare on sweet almonds: Flckiger and Hanbury
216223. See on almonds also: Dymock et al. I, 563568.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 269
skmatvag uttama reyn mnamajjsitetara /
darpaghno arkar csya cilgoj badala smta //
It is neutral with regard to the four (main properties) and somewhat hot;
817
it
increases the vital heat.
It gives a well-nourished appearance,
818
is roborant,
819
aphrodisiac
820
and con-
quers cough,
821
haematemesis, uavta (gonorrhoea),
822
and constipation,
823

as the moon, which is an ocean of semen.
The (appropriate) full dose is that in conformity with (the patients) strength.
It infames the arrows of the god of love.
The outer thin skin
824
is better when it is black like the roe of fsh.
Sugar is its corrective
825
and cilgoj is its substitute.
826

817
Abhinavanighau, p.174: hot and moist to the frst degree; neutral accotding to others.
Achundow 264 (505): hot and moist to the frst degree. Daljt Siha: idem. Hand Book
40: hot and moist to the frst degree. Surutasahit, Strasthna 46.187188: hot and
moist. Nighauratnkara 137: hot and moist.

818
Daljt Siha (511) agrees. Nighauratnkara 137: when ripe it is pauika.

819
Abhinavanighau, p.174: arrko bhaakart. Surutasahit, Strasthna 46.187
188: bhaa.

820
Abhinavanighau, p.174: it is ukrala. Achundow 264 (505) agrees (vermehrt den Sa-
men). Daljt Siha 511: it is vjkara. Confrmed by Hand Book 40. Nighauratnkara
137: the ripe almond is vya and ukrala.

821
Abhinavanighau, p.174: rka ksko lbhaprada. Achundow 264 (505) is in agree-
ment (die ssse Mandel ist bei dem durch Trockenheit entstandenen Husten von Nutzen;
die gerstete ssse Mandel unterdrckt den Husten).

822
Achundow 264 (505) agrees: bei Tripper von Nutzen.

823
Abhinavanighau agrees (p.174): vibandhak udghak. Daljt 5iha agrees (it is
udaramrdavakara).

824
tvac is a masculine noun in this case and not, as usual, feminine.

825
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau, p.174: kha is the corrective.

826
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau, p.174. Ainslie: absent. Achundow: absent. Al-
Biruni: absent. Al-Kindi: absent. Daljt Siha 660: cilgoj, Pinus gerardiana Wall.
[valid name: Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D.Don]. Schlimmer: absent. Schmucker: absent.
Unani Pharmacopoeia I, VI, 46: Pinus gerardiana Wall.; II, I, 237: the kernels of Pinus
gerardiana Wall. See on cilgoj: Abhinavanighau, p.102. Compare Dymock et al. III,
379, s.v. Pinus gerardiana Wall.
JAN MEULENBELD 270
commentary:
hra rataba badarje duyam.
(It is) hot (rr) and moist (rab) to the second degree.
827
loja, murra,
828
bdma talakha
829
/ tikta
830

2.2.10021003:
rkoas trigua lepd vyagasidhmavikhaana /
karalahara karaprat rogana smtam //
suddeku mudirra syn mtrakcchrmarpraut /
antrhita ca darpaghna r bdma krtita //
It is dry and hot to the third degree
831
and annihilates brown spots on the
face (vyaga)
832
and (the skin disease called) sidhma
833
when used in an oint-
ment.
The oil is said to remove piercing pain in the ears when poured into the
auditory duct.
It removes obstructions of the vessels and drives away dysuria and bladder
stones.
834
It is harmful to the bowels.
835
Its corrective is said to be the sweet almond.
836

827
Abhinavanighau, p.174: hot and moist to the frst degree.

828
Abhinavanighau, p.174: Persian name bdmtal, Arabic name lojulmurr, Sanskrit
name tiktavtda. Schmucker: lawz murra.

829
Daljt Siha 508509: Prunus amygdalus var. amara, bdm tala. Schlimmer 36:
amygdalus amara, bdm tala. Compare on bitter almonds: Flckiger and Hanbury
219223.

830
yurvedic treatises do not distinguish between sweet and bitter almonds.

831
Abhinavanighau, p.174: hot to the third, dry to the second degree.

832
Achundow 264 (505) agrees (die bittere Mandel enfernt Hautfecken).

833
This disease is often identifed as pityriasis versicolor.

834
Abhinavanighau, p.174: patharko khaankart, it crushes bladder stones. Achun-
dow 264 (505) is in agreement (die bittere Mandel lst Blasensteine), as well as Ainslie
I, 7: the bitter sort the Arabians and Persians consider as lithontryptic.

835
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau, p.174: hnikart antriyoko.

836
Abhinavanighau, p.174: correctives are kha, sugar, and the oil from the sweet al-
mond.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 271
myulvarda
837
/ gulba
838

2.2.10261028:
dvigua snigdhata syd dha mrch ta klamam /
mudir mulayyapana syt akt 2 mtraruja jayet //
mukavv dil damga syn netra cjanasekata /
lepd ghrata pnc ralanidana //
prasveda atapupy gulba-samamnayuk /
koo nipta laghno haij-doavikaraa //
commentary:
haij vicik.

837
Rose water. ward is the term for fower in general in Arabic, but often used specifcally
for a rose. Achundow 280281 (563): ward, Rose; 407 (422). Al-Biruni 336: ward and
338 (14): Rosa gallica Mill. [valid name: Rosa gallica Linn.]. Al-Kindi 344345 (318):
ward, Rosa gallica L. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 566: ward, Rosa gallica. E.
Wiedemann II, 299, 382.

838
Rose water. gul is the name for fower in general in Persian, but often used specifcally
for a rose. Ainslie I, 345348: Rosa centifolia (Lin.). Daljt Siha 263264: gul safed,
Rosa moschata Mill. [valid name: Rosa moschata Herrm.], 264268: gul-e-sur, Rosa
damascena Mill. [this is a valid name]. Schlimmer 491: gul sur, Rosa centifolia [valid
name: Rosa centifolia Linn.]. Rose water, in India known as attar, is prescribed in a
nineteenth-century yurvedic text, Karmas Siddhabheajamaiml (2.149) as at-
tara (see G. Jan Meulenbeld IIA, 271). It is mentioned as taruyarka in the twentieth-
century Siddhaprayogalatik and Viikhnupraveavijna (see G. Jan Meulenbeld
IIA, 406 and 411). Rose water is also known as gulbapka to pkastra texts like the
Pkrava and Pkval (see G. Jan Meulenbeld IIA, 418 and 419). See on rose water:
E. Balfour III; R.N. Chopra (1958), 626627; P.K. Gode (1945b; 1946h; 1948); Hob-
son-Jobson (otto); C.D. Maclean; Polier; E. Wiedemann I, 724730; WIRM IX, 7577.
Compare on petala rosae gallicae, petala rosae centifoliae, oleum rosae: Flckiger and
Hanbury 230238. See on Rosa damascena, rose water, etc.: Dymock et al. I, 574578.
JAN MEULENBELD 272
It is moist and cold to the second degree. It overcomes a burning sensation,
839

fainting, thirst, lassitude, and pain associated with urination.
840
Its two actions are making to fow (mudirra) and laxative (mulayyan).
841
It is a cardiac and brain tonic.
842
(It is benefcial to) the eyes in a collyrium
or eyewash;
843
in an ointment, when smelling it, or in a potion, it annihilates
piercing pain in the head. When an equal quantity of the prasveda
844
of
atapup
845
is added to the rose water, and taken as a tepid drink, it drives
out the disorder (called) haij.
846
commentary:
haij is vicik.
847

839
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.69: garm k vykulatko gukart.

840
I assume that all the nouns are dependent on jayet. The construction of the verse is
clumsy. mtraruj will be the same as mtrakcchra.

841
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.69: it is recaka.

842
The Abhinavanighau (p.69) agrees: mastika aur hdaya balaprada. Achundow 281:
die Rose unterdrckt die Hitze des Gehirns.

843
Compare Al-Kindi 344. See Abhinavanighau (p.69): isme surmko pskar ajan
lagve to netrake dhako gukart hai.

844
This term is not known from yurvedic texts. The context suggests that a decoction is
intended.

845
See 2.2.528530: and 2.2.711713: ipta ptaprasn atapup / sow. This plant is
generally identifed as Anethum graveolens Linn., dill.

846
Correctives and substitutes are not mentioned. The Abhinavanighau (p.69) records
that sugar is the corrective and arka of atapup the substitute.

847
See on this disease: Mdhavanidna 6.1618.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 273
mmrna
848

2.2.10381039:
rkoo dvigua vaityacakupupndhyadoaht /
jakaya sapadi kmal hanti vegata //
mujall ca mukavv ca akt uddmavikrame /
darpaghna syt tavkra mtr nmadirammit
It is dry and hot to the second degree.
849

848
Abhinavanighau, p.193: the Persian name is mamrcn. Achundow 274275 (534),
404 (408): Chelidonium majus L. [this is a valid name]. Compare Achundow 235 (405):
`urq-i sufr, radix fava, Chelidonium. Ainslie: absent. Al-Biruni: 300 (5) and 313 (11):
mmrn is the name of the Coptis teeta Wall. [this is a valid name] rhizome in the
bazaars of the subcontinent, but here celandine, swallow wort, Chelidonium majus L.
is meant. Al-Kindi 332333 (280): mmrn, Chelidonium majus L. Daljt Siha 565
566: mmrn, the Arabic name of Coptis teeta Wall.; another plant, sold as mmrn,
is Thalictrum foliolosum DC. [this is a valid name] (see on this plant: Dymock et al.
I, 3335; Ydavaarman 6768). Flckiger and Hanbury 35: mamiran, Coptis teeta
Wallich. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 135: mmrn, Chelidonium majus. Ham-
dard 376: mamiran, Urdu name of Coptis teeta Wall. Schlimmer 127: mmrn, Che-
lidonium majus. Dymock I, 3133: mmrn, Coptis teeta Wall. Schmucker 454455
(696): mmrn, the root of Chelidonium majus L. or Coptis teeta Wall. Ydavaarman
6667: Coptis teeta, Sanskrit name ptaml, Hind name mamr. The author of the
Siddhabheajamaiml is acquainted with mamra (2.66). Compare on Coptis teeta:
Dymock et al. I, 3133; Flckiger and Hanbury 35; WIRM I, 322. See also on mamira:
Hobson-Jobson 548549.

849
Abhinavanighau, p.193: hot and dry to the second degree. Achundow 274: idem. Daljt
Siha: dry and hot to the third degree.
JAN MEULENBELD 274
It removes whiteness of the eyes,
850
pupa
851
and blindness. A decoction
from its roots immediately annihilates jaundice forcefully.
852
Its actions, of unrestrained power, are brightening/clarifying (mujall)
853
and
tonic (muqaww).
854
Its corrective is tavkra.
855
Its dose is half a dirham.
856

850
Compare Abhinavanighau, p. 193: netrarogoko lbhaprada; isk netrjan (surm)
andher aur dhundhako gukrak hai, benefcial in a collyrium against blindness and
hazy vision; khake jleko knevl, crushing a cataract. Achundow 274 (534): idem
(es ntzt gegen Leukome der Augen). Al-Kindi 332: the greater celandine seed juice is
used for the eyes. Daljt Siha 566: especially useful for eye diseases. Dymock I, 32:
Bernier mentions it as a medicine very good for the eyes. See also Flckiger and Han- ckiger and Han- ckiger and Han-
bury 35; Schlimmer 394.

851
pupa is a term denoting an infammation of the eyes (see Hrtasahit 45.1418).

852
Left unmentioned by Achundow (235). Abhinavanighau, p.193: vieata puko
lbhaprada hai, especially useful in cases of morbid pallor; pliyko lbhaprada, ben-
efcial in cases of jaundice. Daljt Siha 566: useful in obstructive jaundice.

853
Abhinavanighau, p.193: dooko svacchatprada. yurvedyavivakoa II, 1676:
mujall = svacchatkraka, i.e., clarifying.

854
Abhinavanighau, p.193: it is rodhako udghaka (deobstruent), mtrala (diuretic), etc.
Compare Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 135: externally used, it is rubefacient; in-
ternally used, it acts as a purgative, expectorant, diuretic and cholagogue.

855
Abhinavanighau, p.193: honey is the corrective. Daljt Siha 566: honey is its correc- t Siha 566: honey is its correc- t Siha 566: honey is its correc-
tive. The yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1676) mentions a number of correctives for diferent
purposes: sikajabn, katr, babbla gum, hamm, and nb; nb is the Hind name
of Citrus aurantium Linn..

856
Daljt Siha 566: its dose is 1 to 2 gm. Substitutes are not mentioned in the text. The
Abhinavanighau (p.193) remarks that hald is the substitute. Daljt Siha mentions
Curcuma longa Linn. (hald) and mura makk (the same as murra) as substitutes. The
yurvedyavivakoa (II, 1676) records as substitutes: farsiyn, aftmn, and billloan
(= bdarajaby). bdranjbya is often identifed as Melissa ofcinalis Linn. [this is a
valid name]; see: Achundow 160 (58); Ainslie I, 2526; Al-Biruni 69 (3): bdranjbyah
and 83 (6): bdharj, mountain balm, probably Calamintha portensis L. [this is not a val-
id name]; Daljt Siha 528529: Melissa ofcinalis Linn., Arabian balm, Persian name
bdrangbya, Hind name billloan; Schlimmer 203: bdranjbyah, Dracocephalum
moldavicum [valid name: Dracocephalum moldavicum Linn.] = Melissa cedronella [this
is not a valid name]; Schmucker 100 (94). Compare 2.2.154156: bdarajaby. See
also: Dymock et al. III, 117.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 275
murra
857
makadra
858
bola
859

2.2.1040:
tiktogragandha pravaras tridhoo rka prabhtmayakhaana
syt /
mane afnat tanute muhallil akty mufattih guav ca oa //
Its best kind is bitter and has a strong smell; it is hot to the third degree and
dry.
860
It destroys many diseases.
861
The red kind prevents excitation of the doas,
862
is resolvent (muallil) and
deobstruent (mufatti) as to its actions, and full of (good) qualities.
863

857
Achundow 274 (531) and 403 (406). Ainslie, I, 242245. Al-Biruni I, 304 (31): murr. Al-
Kindi 333334 (283): murr, source: Balsamodendron myrrha Nees. Daljt Siha 543
544: murr (Arabic name), bol (Persian name); source: Commiphora myrrha Nees. [valid
name: Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. = Balsamodendron myrrha Nees]. Encyclo-
paedia of Islamic medicine 91: murr, Balsamodendron myrrh. Schlimmer 394: myrrh,
murr makk. Schmucker 462463 (704); sources: Commiphora abyssinica Engl. [valid
name: Commiphora habessinica (O.Berg) Engl. = Commiphora abyssinica (O.Berg)
Engl., orth. var.], Commiphora myrrha Engl. var. molmol [valid name: Commiphora
myrrha (Nees) Engl. = Commiphora molmol (Engl.) Engl.]. Compare on myrrh in the
Muslim world: E. Wiedemann II, 107, 119120; 235 (12): Myrrhe. See also Dymock et
al. I, 304313; Flckiger and Hanbury 124129. Myrrh is mentioned in yurvedic texts:
the Siddhabhaiajyamaj (jvara 81) mentions it as muremakk.

858
This synonym is absent from my sources.

859
This substance is known in some classical yurvedic texts: Agahdayasahit,
Strasthna 15.43: jtrasa, interpreted as bola by Hemdri, rrasthna 2.50: rasa,
interpreted as bola by Aruadatta, Cikitsitasthna 21.77: rasa, interpreted as bola by
Indu. See Abhinavanighau, p.184185: bola, Sanskrit name gandharasa; Kaiyadeva-
nighau, dhtuvarga 82cd85ab: bola, jtrasa, rasagandha; yurvedapraka 2.306:
raktabola, ymabola, manuyajabola; Nighauratnkara 140: raktabola and ka-
bola; Viikhnupraveavijna 228: raktabola.

860
Abhinavanighau, p.184: hot to the third and dry to the second degree. Achundow 274
(531): hot and dry to the second degree. Daljt Siha 543: hot and dry to the second
degree. Kaiyadevanighau, dhtuvarga 84: bola is cold. Nighauratnkara 140: rak-
tabola is hot, kabola is cold.

861
See Daljt Siha 543544. Compare Nighauratnkara 140.

862
Kaiyadevanighau, dhtuvarga 84: bola is tridoaghna. Nighauratnkara 140: rak-
tabola is tridoanud. Compare Abhinavanighau, p.184: vyuko layakart.

863
Compare on the actions and uses of myrrh: Abhinavanighau, p.184185; Encyclopae-
JAN MEULENBELD 276
commentary:
mane afnat doaprakopaniedha.
mane afnat (means that) it prevents excitation of the doas.
2.2.1041:
kalama
864
svarase pia pralepd maothaht /
sudva svarasakvthoprjito hy u bastin
kalama, crushed in its own juice, annihilates immature swellings when used
in an ointment.
A decoction in the juice of sudva
865
quickly (annihilates) black bile when
employed in an enema.
commentary:
karmavieeeti.
This happens on account of a particular action.
2.2.10421045:
rajastambha mtabhra samocayati kohata //
gujmnonmita prta koanrnupnata //
dia of Islamic medicine 91.

864
See 2.2.935936: karnava kalam. Achundow 246247: karnab, Brassica oleracea
[valid name: Brassica oleracea Linn.]. Ainslie I, 4647: kirnub is the Arabic name, ke-
lum the Persian name of Brassica oleracea (Lin.). Al-Kindi 326 (262): kurunb, cabbage,
Brassica oleracea L. yurvedyavivakoa III, 22062208: karnab, kalam, cabbage,
Brassica. Hand Book 215221: kurunb, Brassica oleracea Linn. var. capitata [valid
name: Brassica oleracea Linn. var. capitata Linn.]. Schlimmer 135: kalam, cabbage.
Schmucker: absent.

865
Achundow 217 (313): sadb, Ruta graveolens. Ainslie I, 351353 and 626: sadb, Ruta
graveolens (Lin.). Al-Biruni 180181 (11): sadhb and 198 (17): Ruta montana Clus.
[this is not a valid name]. Al-Kindi 279280 (139): sab, rue, especially Ruta graveo-
lens Linn. [this is a valid name]. Daljt Siha 688690: alsudb is the Arabic, sadb or
sudb the Persian name of Ruta graveolens Linn. The Hand Book (18) identifes sudab
as Ruta graveolens Linn. Schlimmer (310) mentions sudba kh as a name of Peganum
harmala Linn. Schmucker 229230 (370): sadb, sab, Ruta graveolens L. Platts and
Steingass: sudb, the herb rue (i.e., a Ruta). Peganum harmala is regarded as a species
of the genus Ruta in the older botanical literature.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 277
vsa ksa prvala vakakaharuja jayet /
sirkroganagulyukta pralepd api mardant //
pmkapraamano bastikohhito bham /
kaudra kfra darpaghne sirk badala ucyate //
It loosens from the abdominal cavity the obstructed menstrual discharge
866

and a dead foetus.
867
It conquers, when taken in the morning with tepid water as an anupna, in a
dose of a guj, respiratory disorders,
868
cough,
869
piercing pain in the sides,
and pain in chest and throat.
With the addition of vinegar (sirk) and rose-oil and used in an ointment,
also when used for massage, it alleviates pm and itching. It is harmful to
the bladder and the abdominal viscera.
kaudra honey and camphor are said to be correctives and vinegar (sirk) is
a substitute.
870
murdrasaga
871

2.2.10461048:
asfahni vara to dptimn palo gue /
rko tridh pralepena vraavsarpakuhanut //
asgdara raktapitta rakttisaraa puna /

866
Achundow 274 (531): in agreement (befrdert die Menstruation). Daljt Siha 543: it is
rtavajanana, brings about the menstrual discharge.

867
Achundow 274 (531): it is an abortifacient (triebt den Foetus ab).

868
274 (531): idem (unterdrckt Schwerathmigkeit).

869
Achundow 274 (531): in agreement (unterdrckt chronischen Husten).

870
Daljt Siha mentions as substitutes: k, jundavestara and momiy.

871
Abhinavanighau, p.199: Persian name murdrasag, Arabic name murdrasanj. Ac-
hundow 275 (535): murdsandsch, the Persian term for lithargyrum, Bleigltte. Ain- tte. Ain- tte. Ain-
slie I, 535537: murdr sang, litharge, semi-vitrifed oxide of lead. Al-Biruni 303 (27):
murdr sanj and 315, n. 46 and 47: litharge, lead monoxide, Persian murdrsang. Al-
Kindi 334335 (285): murtak or martak, an abbreviation of the Persian murdsanj, li-
tharge. Hand Book 477: lead oxide, litharge. Schlimmer 348: murdrsang, litharge. E.
Wiedemann I, 711: murdsang. This drug is found in many yurvedic treatises under
various names: Vidypatis Vaidyarahasya: muradakha, murakhaka, Valla-
bhendras Vaidyacintmai: muddraga, yurvedapraka: bodragaka, Rasa-
jalanidhi: mddragaka, etc.
JAN MEULENBELD 278
raktanihvana meha vastidha niyacchati //
miskla 1 ekas tilatailayukta /
prta krimighno vidhinita syt //
dhroadugdha sasita bhiagbhir darppaha proktam
amuya sadbhi //
The best kind, that from Isfahn,
872
is cold, hot and pala as to its qualities,
dry to the third degree.
873
(Employed) in an ointment it cures wounds and
ulcers,
874
vsarpa
875
and kuha.
876
It alleviates asgdara,
877
raktapitta, bloody
diarrhoea,
878
haematemesis, meha
879
and a burning sensation in the bladder.
A dose of one miskl, accompanied by sesame oil, taken in the morning ac-
cording to the prescription, will remove parasites.
880
Good physicians consider milk directly from the udder, together with sugar,
as its corrective.
881
commentary:
aklmiya pratinidhi
aklmiy
882
is the substitute.
883

872
Achundow 275: die beste Bleigltte ist die rthliche aus Isfahan.

873
Abhinavanighau, p.199: hot and dry to the second degree, but cold according to some.
Achundow 275: trocknend. Nighauratnkara (67): kakuha (= muaiga) is hot.

874
Achundow 275: befrdert die Granulationsbildung in den Wunden. Nighauratnkara
(67): it is vraaropaakraka.

875
Achundow 275: gegen heisse Schwellungen ntzlich. See on visarpa, generally regarded
as erysipelas: Mdhavanidna 52.

876
Abhinavanighau, p.199: khujl aur prya tvacke rogome pracalit hai, it is cur-
rently used against itching and skin diseases.

877
See Mdhavanidna 61.

878
Abhinavanighau, p.199: atisrabaddhak.

879
The Nighauratnkara (67) disgrees: pramehasya krakam. See on prameha: Mdha-
vanidna 33.

880
Supported by the Nighauratnkara (67).

881
Abhinavanighau, p.199: emetic measures, ghee, and almond oil are the correctives.

882
Achundow: absent. Al-Kindi 234235: iqlmiy, scoria, usually of metals. Daljt Siha
II: absent. Hamdard 220 and 221: aqlimiya-i-fzza = silver oxide. Schmucker 8385:
aqlmiy, an unidentifed inorganic substance. Steingass: iqlmy, ore, scum, dross of
gold or silver.

883
Abhinavanighau, p.199: aklmiy is the substitute.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 279
muka
884
mgamada
885

2.2.10511053:
vsaksahdayrtihri cittavibhramamadapramthin /
vryaauryabalavddhikri pupacparatiragadyin //
lemavtajahargnimandat hanti rkaiiretar tridh /
jfa dil iiratvisajatsvedagandhaaman nitad //
(Musk)
886
drives away respiratory disorders, cough, and pain in the cardiac
region. It removes mental disturbance
887
and intoxication. It makes virility,
prowess, and strength increase and provides sexual pleasure.
888
It destroys
abdominal swelling by phlegm and wind
889
and sluggishness of the digestive
fre.

884
Achundow 410: misk. Ainslie I, 228230: mik, the Arabic and Persian name of musk.
Al-Biruni 304305 (33): misk and 315 (59): musk. Al-Kindi 310 (217): fr, a kind of
musk; 310311 (218): fr misk, fr musk. yurvedyavivakoa III, 23752389: kastr,
muka, musk. Daljt Siha: absent. Hand Book 579586. Schlimmer 376: mik,
moschus. See on musk in the Muslim world: Wiedemann I, 680681; II, 89, 110111,
126127, 240244, 262263 and 270.

885
This is a common Sanskrit name of musk.

886
The Nighauratnkara (47) distinguishes three kinds of musk: kmarpodbhav u
/ uttam s kavar neplasth tu madhyam // tmravar ca s jey kmra-
sthdham mat / varena kapi s tu jey sujai ca paitai // Listen (to what I
say) about the kind coming from Kmarpa: it is the best kind and has a black colour;
that kind which has a coppery colour and is found in Nepal is of an average quality; lo-
west in quality is that from Kamr, of a reddish-brown colour, according to the opinion
of expert learned men.

887
The yurvedyavivakoa (III, 2387) agrees in describing it as: man ko ullasit kart,
it makes the mind full of joy. Abhinavanighau, p.3839: vieata mana prasanna
kart hai.

888
The Nighauratnkara (47) describes it as aphrodisiac (vya) and promoting the pro-
duction of semen (ukraprada). The yurvedyavivakoa (III, 2387) also regards it as
aphrodisiac (vjkaraa, kmoddpana). The Abhinavanighau (p.3839) remarks that
it cures premature ejaculation.

889
The yurvedyavivakoa (III, 2387) calls it kaphanaka and vtanaka. The
Dhanvantaryanighau (3.29) describes it as driving away phlegm, or phlegm and wind
according to another opinion (3.30). The Nighauratnkara (47) calls it kaphanin.
JAN MEULENBELD 280
It is dry and hot to the third degree.
890
It exults the heart and alleviates feelings of coldness,
891
loss of conscious-
ness, and the (bad) smell of sweat.
892
It has a sharpening (action).
commentary:
pramodapradety artha.
This means that it gives joy.
893
rkhaa ca tavra darpaghnam ubhaya smtam /
badala vara vikhyta mtr syd raktikdvayam //
Both rkhaa
894
and tavra are said to be correctives.
895
The generally known substitute is vara.
896
The dose is two raktik.
897

890
Abhinavanighau (p.3839): it is hot and dry. The Nighauratnkara (47) calls it hot.
The yurvedyavivakoa (III, 2387) describes it as hot to the second and dry to (the end
of the second or) the third degree; others regard it as hot and dry to the second degree.

891
Supported by the Nighauratnkara (47): ta nayati.

892
Supported by the Nighauratnkara (47): it is daurgandhyanin.

893
This remark can only refer to jfa dil.

894
A synonym of candana.

895
Abhinavanighau, p.3839: vaalocana, gulb, and camphor are the correctives.

896
The identifcation of vara is uncertain. Hind bar or ba is Ficus benghalensis Linn.
(Daljt Siha 595). Abhinavanighau, p.3839: jundavedastara is a substitute.

897
A small unit of weight.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 281
mastag rm
898
mastag
2.2.10581060:
rko dvigua md yaktdyantraothaht /
naftuldam kaphaksaghn sudyaghn ca dpin //
samagarv vikraghna pcan dirame 1 khurk //
mulattifa mukavv ca muhallil kbija smt /
hvis dam aktayas tury 4 anukalpas tu kunduru //
It is dry and hot to the second degree,
899
md,
900
and dissolves swelling
901
of
the liver and other viscera and of the intestine.
902

898
Achundow 273 (528) and 403 (403): mastak, Harz von Pistacia Lentiscus L. [this is a
valid name], Mastix. Ainslie I, 214216: Hind name rm masq, Pistacia Lentiscus
(Lin.). Al-Biruni 306 (41) and 316 (76): masag is the resinous exudation of Pistacia
lentiscus L. Al-Kindi: mentioned in prescriptions, not described. Daljt Siha 570571:
mastak. Hamdard 411 : rumi mastagi, the Persian name of the resin of Pistacia lentiscus
Linn. Schlimmer 363: maak, resin from Pistacia lentiscus Linn. Schmucker 479480
(730): maak, the resin of Pistacia lentiscus L. See on mastix in the Muslim world: E.
Wiedemann II, 107, 119; 233 (3): `ilk al anb, Pistazienharz, and (4) al `ilk al rm, Mas-
tix. Compare on mastix in general: Dymock et al. I, 377379; Flckiger and Hanbury
142146. Mastix is known under several related names to a number of post-classical
yurvedic texts: Sohalas Gadanigraha (prayogakhaa 249: mastak); Harakrtis
Yogacintmai (48, 77, 271: mastak; 103, 137: mastag); Hastirucis Vaidyavalla-
bha (8.30 and 39: mastak)); Siddhabheajamaiml (2.134: mastakgundra, 4.958:
mastag, 4.174: rmajamastag); Siddhabhaiajyamaj (jvara 71): rmagundra,
Viikhnupraveavijna (251): rm, etc.

899
The Abhinavanighau (p.194), Daljt Siha (571) and Ydavaarman (157) are in
agreement.

900
The meaning of md is not clear.

901
Abhinavanighau, p.194: othako layakart. Achundow 273 (528): beseitigt Schwellung
des Magens und der Leber. Daljt Siha 571: dissolving swellings (vayathuvilayana).
Ydavaarman (157): othahara.

902
Or, dissolves swelling of the liver and other viscera, which is less probable since the
liver is never called part of the antra.
JAN MEULENBELD 282
It eliminates excited blood
903
and cough by phlegm;
904
it subdues headache
(ud`) and stimulates the fre.
905
samag arab is its corrective; it is digestive
906
and the dose is one dirham.
It possesses four actions, attenuant (mulaif ), tonic (mukavv),
907
resolvent
(muallil)
908
and constipating (kbij),
909
all of them (also) styptic in charac-
ter.
910
Its substitute
911
is kunduru.
912

903
Persian naft means being enraged or boiling and may have the same meaning as Sanskrit
kupita; dam is the Arabic word for blood. The term naftuldam occurs several times in
the text; compare, for example, 2.2.1074. Compare Abhinavanighau, p.195: mukhase
rudhirke neko lbhaprada.

904
Abhinavanighau, p.194195: kaphako odhankart. Achundow 273 (528): unterdrckt
den durch Feuchtigkeit enstandenen Husten. Daljt Siha 571: eliminates phlegm
(lemanisraka). Ydavaarman (157): kaphanisraka.

905
Daljt Siha 571: idem.

906
Abhinavanighau, p.194: pcanaaktiko balaprada.

907
Abhinavanighau, p.194: snyu, uttamga, maya, yakt, vkkako balaprada.
Ydavaarman (157): may aur yaktko balaprada.

908
Abhinavanighau, p.194: othako layakart.

909
Abhinavanighau, p.194: it is baddhaka. Achundow 273 (528): wirkt verstopfend in-
folge der adstringirenden Eigenschaft. Ydavaarman (157): it is grhin.

910
Ydavaarman (157): it is raktastambhana.

911
The text does not name correctives. The Abhinavanighau (p.194) mentions katr as
the corrective.

912
Abhinavanighau, p.194: substitutes are the resins of kandara and bilma; kandara is
an error for kunduru, bilma is absent from the Abhinavanighau. Achundow 250251
(480) and 395 (366): kundur, the resin of Boswellia thurifera [valid name: Boswellia
serrata Roxb. ex Coleb. = Boswellia thurifera Roxb.]. Ainslie I, 136138: frankincense,
source: Boswellia Glabra (Roxb.) [valid name: Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. =
Boswellia glabra Roxb.] and I, 264268: olibanum, Arabic name lubn, Boswellia Ser-
rata (Roxb.), Libanus Thurifera (Colebrooke) [this is not a valid name]. Al-Biruni II,
102: kundur, frankincense of Boswellia serrata L.; I, 283 (37): kundur, and 289, n.97:
frankincense of several varieties and sources. Al-Kindi 328 (267): kundur, storax and
329330 (271): lubn, storax, especially from Boswellia carterii Birdwood [valid name:
Boswellia sacra Fleuck. = Boswellia carteri Birdwood.]. Daljt Siha 99100: kunduru,
called kundur in Persian: frankincense from Boswellia foribunda [this is not a valid
name]. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medicine 102103: lobn, Boswellia carteri. Hamdard
366: Indian olibanum from Boswellia glabra Roxb. Schlimmer 412: kundur, olibanum.
Schmucker 410411: kundur, Weihrauch (i.e., incense) from various sources (Juniperus
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 283
mukula arjaka
913
mahiko guggulu
914

2.2.10611063:
snigdhoo dvigua skma saud(lema)doavirekakt /
pavanmayavidhvas pralepd vraaothaht //
mtrakcchrmarghna ca mudirra mubah tath /
kuhorustambhadurnmanano dhpanant //
katr darpahn mtr dirama 1 pravar bhavet //
guggulu is moist and hot to the second degree and subtle.
915
and Boswellia species). See also Dymock et al. I, 302303; Flckiger and Hanbury 120
124: olibanum, Schmucker 426427: lubn, E. Wiedemann II, 13, 107, 120; 233 (9): not
identifed; 236237, 380, 398399. A number of yurvedic texts are acquainted with
lohaba: (Siddhabheajamaiml 2.132; 4.435; 5.105); Viikhnupraveavijna
(249) or lobna: Pkapradpa (220), Gandhavda (many times).

913
Achundow 272 (522): muql, bdellium, resin of a Balsamodendron, and 402403 (397):
Bdellium, das heisst ein Produkt mehrerer Species von Balsamodendron seu Heudelotia
Burseraceae, namentlich von Balsamodendron Mukul Hook., dem indischen Bdellium-
baum, und von Balsamodendron africanum Arn., dem afrikanischen Balsambaum. Ain-
slie I, 2931: muql, bdellium. Al-Biruni 307308 (50): muql and 317, n.99: muql is the
false bdellium, a resin which may come from various species: Hyphaene thebaica Mart.
[valid name: Hyphaene thebaica (Linn.) Mart.] (Arecaceae), Balsamodendron africa-
num Arn. [valid name: Commiphora africana (A.Rich.) Engl. = Balsamodendrum afri-
canum A.Rich.], and Balsamodendron mukul Hook. [valid name: Commiphora wightii
(Arn.) Bhandari = Balsamodendron mukul Hook. ex Stocks], etc. Al-Kindi 329: muql
designates the bdellium which comes from Balsamodendron mukul Hook.; kr azraq is
the blue bdellium, probably the resin of Balsamodendron africanum Arn.; muql azraq is
also blue bdellium. Daljt Siha 252: muql-arjak, bdellium from Commiphora wightii
(Arn.) Bhandari. Hand Book: absent. Schlimmer 73: muql azraq, bdellium. Schmucker
483484 (735): muql, resin (muql azraq) from Balsamodendron mukul Hook., Balsamo-
dendron africanum, Commiphora africana. See on guggulu: R. Bedi and C. Dwara-
kanath (1969); Dymock et al. I, 310313; Hobson-Jobson 76; Maclean 7879; V.V.S.
Sastry (1976); E. Sukumar and K. Balakrishna (1985).

914
This is the same as guggulu.

915
Abhinavanighau, p.72: hot to the third and dry to the second degree. Achundow 272
(522): hot and moist, hot and dry according to others. Daljt Siha 253: hot to the third
degree and dry to the second degree. The Dhanvantaryanighau (3.128) describes
guggulu as dry (rka) and subtle (skma); according to another opinion it is moist
(snigdha) and hot. The Rjanighau (186) regards it as hot. The Nighauratnkara
JAN MEULENBELD 284
It eliminates the doas black bile and phlegm.
916
In the form of an ointment it removes wind diseases
917
and the swelling
918

(accompanying) wounds and ulcers; it conquers micturition problems and
bladder stones
919
and is (provided with the actions) causing to fow mudirra
and aphrodisiac (mubah).
920
In a fumigation or by ingestion it cures kuha,
921
rustambha
922
and haem-
orrhoids.
923
The corrective is katr
924
and its optimal dose is one dirham.
925
(73) calls it hot and moist (snigdha).

916
Achundow 272 (522): besitzt die Eigenschaft Schleim abzufhren. The
Abhinavanighau (p.72) remarks that it is svacchakart, which implies that it opposes
phlegm. It overcomes phlegm according to the Surutasahit (Sutrasthna 38.2425),
Dhanvantaryanighau (3.128), Rjanighau (12.186), and Nighauratnkara (73).

917
Abhinavanighau, p.72: vyuko layakart. Daljt Siha 253: regularising wind
(vtnulomana). Surutasahit, Strasthna 38.2425: vtakaphau nihanyt. The
Dhanvantaryanighau (3.128) and Rjanighau (12.186) describe it as subduing
wind. Nighauratnkara (73): it is vtanaka.

918
Daljt Siha 253 agrees (vayathuvilayana). The Dhanvantaryanighau (3.129) men-
tions that guggulu cures disorders brought about by swellings (ophabhtavikrajit).
The Rjanighau (12.186) says that it cures swellings. It is othavinaka in the
Nighauratnkara (73).

919
Achundow 272 (522): es ist fr Blasensteine ntzlich.

920
It is sraka and vya in the Nighauratnkara (73). Compare on the actions and uses:
Hamdard 366.

921
In agreement with the Nighauratnkara (73).

922
See Surutasahit, Cikitssthna 5.35. See on this disease (stifness of the thighs):
yurvedyavivakoa II, 16921695; Mdhavanidna 24.

923
The Abhinavanighau (p.72) agrees: bavsrko lbhakart. Achundow 272 (522): es
ntzt gegen Hmorrhoiden, wenn man es innerlich gebraucht oder die betrefenden
Parthien damit ruchert. The Rjanighau (12.186) and Nighauratnkara (73) say
that it cures haemorrhoids.

924
Abhinavanighau (p.72) and Daljt Siha 253: katr and kesara; the latter is identifed
(II, 202203) as Crocus sativus Linn., but it is sometimes an abbreviation of ngakesara,
Mesua ferrea Linn. (II, 407408).

925
Substitutes are left unmentioned. The Abhinavanighau (p.72) regards elvluka (a fra-
grant substance) as the substitute.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 285
momiyy
926

2.2.10711075:
praastkarasajt grvanirjharadhmata /
rkoaikagua bhukt bhagnghtavightakt //
khalay kasara jarber sakt flij saray tath /
lakv akk davvra tamadduda khadara 1 puna //
sudya balgam otha vypdayati ktsnata /
marjagoa-rase pi nvann mukharogaht //
yavakvthnupt ca naftuldam hdaymayam /
hikk paca 5 vidh sadyo nihanyt kahanigraham //
dhroapayas ska arkarm amar jayet /
ruba 4 diram prokt jakhma gurd-nibarhi //
The recommended type is that originating from a mine, from a place with
rocks and waterfalls. It is dry and hot to the frst degree
927
when ingested; it
cures fractures and traumatic lesions.
928
It completely annihilates (the following disorders): a dislocated vertebra,
fractures of bones (kasr),
929
pain in bones, loss of consciousness (sakta),
palsy (flij) and convulsive disorders like epilepsy (sar`), facial paresis,
930

ardhvabhedaka, sryvarta (dawwr), disorders resembling swelling
(tamaddud), laxity (khadara), and phlegmatic headache (ud`),
931
and
swellings.
932
When crushed in the juice of marjagoa
933
and used as an errhine, it re-

926
Abhinavanighau, p.207: Persian name momay, Arabic names arakujjabbl and
hfjul ajsd. Achundow 277 (542): mmjj, Mumia, eine Art Erdwachs. Al-Biruni 311
(65): mmyi and 318 (126): Pissasphalt. Schmucker 490-(747): mmiy, mmiy,
Erdwachs, Asphalt, Bergteer. See on this substance: Achundow 324325.

927
Abhinavanighau, p.207: hot and dry to the third degree. Achundow 277 (542): hot and
dry to the second degree.

928
Confrmed by the Abhinavanighau (p.207): isko ddh aur ghme milkar to aga
bhaga hon, bhtar co aur vra in sabko dr karnevl hai.

929
Achundow (277) agrees.

930
Achundow (277) agrees.

931
Achundow 277: ntzt gegen kalte (chronische) Krankheiten im Kopfe; unterdrckt das
durch Klte und Feuchtigkeit entstandene Kopfweh.

932
Abhinavanighau, p.207: kaphajaothako layakart.

933
Abhinavanighau, 139: marjamgo, Sanskrit name damanaka. Achundow 273274
(530): marzandschsch, Origanum Majorana. Ainslie I, 213214: marzanj, Origa-
JAN MEULENBELD 286
moves diseases of the oral cavity. With a decoction of barley as an anupna
it immediately overcomes excited blood (naftuldam), cardiac diseases, the
fvefold hiccup, and obstruction of the throat. It conquers, taken along with
milk warm from the cow, gravel and bladder stones.
A dose of the extract of four dirham is said to suppress wounds (zam) of
the kidney (urda).
934
commentary:
diram turya ityartha. khalaya kkasasya sthnd bhraa. kasara
asthibhaga. jarb asthivedan. sakt sanysa. flija pakana. saraya
apasmti. lakv arditam. akk ardhvabhedaka. davvra sryvarta.
tamadduda othbhve pi othasdyam, flan badanak iti bhym.
khadara aithilyam. sudya sdhraaravedan, kapha vayathu ca
vypdayatty anvaya.
A quarter of a dirham is meant. khalaya is the displacement of the kkasa.
935

kasara is the fracture of a bone. jarb is pain in the bones. sakt is loss of
consciousness. flija is hemiplegia. saraya is loss of memory. lakv is fa-
cial paresis. akk is hemicrania/migraine. davvra is (the disease called)
sryvarta (in Sanskrit). tamadduda is a condition resembling swelling
num Majorana (Lin.). Al-Biruni 302303 (21): marzanjsh, and 314 (31): Origanum
majorana. Al-Kindi 335 (286): marzanj, Origanum majorana L. Daljt Siha 311:
marzajo, Merremia emarginata (Burm.f.) Hallier f. [this is a valid name = Merremia
gangetica (Linn.) Cufo.] or Hieracium pilosella Linn. [valid name: Pilosella ofcina-
rum Vaill.]. Schlimmer 417: Origanum majorana, called marzang in Persian. Ency-
clopaedia of Islamic medicine 504505: marzanj, Origanum majorana. Schmucker
467468: marzanj, Majorana L. Compare the commentary ad 2.2.3637: jnulfr
marjajoa marjagoa maruv, and the text of 2.2.261 where marjagoa juice is
mentioned for use in an errhine. Achundow (273) remarks that zn ul-fr, Myosotis,
is a kind of marzandschsch. Al-Kindi says that dhn al-fr, literally mouse ears, is
one of the names of Origanum majorana. Compare E. Wiedemann II, 382 (1) and 391.
The plant is dealt with at 2.2.10321034: majjoa, majghoa marubaka. Compare
on Origanum majorana: Dymock et al. III, 108109; E. Wiedemann II, 107, 301. The
yurvedic drug marubaka is generally identifed as Origanum majorana Linn. [this is
a valid name].

934
Correctives and substitutes are not indicated. See about them Abhinavanighau, p.207:
correctives are sikajabn and myulasl (unidentifed); the substitute is hajarulyahd
(unidentifed).

935
The breast-bone and the cartilages of the ribs connected with it.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 287
though swelling sui generis is absent; it is called making the body swell in
the vernacular.
936
khadara is laxity. sudya is a common headache. It brings
about kapha and swelling. Such is the construction of the sentence.
numala
937
morac.
938
surkhanea. raktamukh piplik
939

2.2.11031104:
u rk tridh tk skm netrmaypah /
sirklepena kuhaghn tath romaprahari //
diram paja 5 mit dhrytaile sosanasabhave /
saptha 7 paktiataka 100 ligalept najad //
(This ant) is hot and dry to the third degree, sharply acting and subtle. It
cures eye diseases.
In a vinegar ointment it removes kuha and is benefcial to the hairs.
In a dose of fve dirham in a dhry oil
940
originating from an Iris
941
(used)
during seven days and a hundred times (pakti) in an ointment on the penis
it gives an erection (nu`).
942

936
The correct expression would be: badan k phln.

937
naml is a Persian term for ant.

938
mr is a Persian word for ant. See on ants in the Muslim world: E. Wiedemann II,
355356.

939
A red-faced ant. This drug of animal origin does not form part of the yurvedic materia
medica.

940
This may be an oil for a dhr treatment.

941
Achundow 218219 (319) and 377 (248): ssan, Lilium candidum L. [this is a valid
name]. Ainslie I, 182: sawsun, Iris Florentina (Lin.) [valid name: hybrid of Iris ger-
manica Linn. nothovar. forentina Dykes]. Al-Biruni 194195 (59) and (60): sawsan
and sawsan asmanqn, 202, n. 135: sawsan is Narcissus tazetta L., the second type
may be Iris germanica L. Al-Kindi 289 (160): ssan, Iris forentina L. is used in Egypt,
Iris spuria Pall [valid name: Iris spuria Linn.] in Iran. Daljt Siha 707709: sosan is
the Persian name of an Iris sp. Schlimmer: absent. Schmucker 253254 (410): sawsan,
Lilium sp.; sawsan asmanjn, Iris forentina L., Iris pallida Lam. [this is a valid name],
Iris germanica L.

942
Compare G.S. Lavekar II, 489490: black ants are used in Ynn medicine for the
stimulation of erectile power.
JAN MEULENBELD 288
navasdara
943

2.2.11121114:
sf aaffa billorasaka astam eva tat /
rkoa trigua cakukusumrjunat haret //
dandakdidaeu nikipta viadoaht /
sasudha nvana rala sarva vyapohati //
suprasannakhursn mujall ca mulattifa /
badal ivayamn y indarn paur bhavet //
Pure (f) aaffa
944
that resembles crystals
945
is the recommended (kind).
It is dry and hot to the third degree
946
and eliminates the arjuna colour of

943
Abhinavanighau, p.152: ammonium chloride, Sanskrit name nsra, Persian and Ara-
bic name nodar. Achundow 280 (560) and 325 (69): nschdir, sal ammoniacum,
Ammonssalz. Ainslie I, 365368: Persian name nawdir, sal ammoniac. Al-Biruni
II, 104: ndir, sal ammoniac; I, 323 (29): nawshdur,and 327, n.67: sal-ammoniac.
Al-Kindi 341 (311): ndir, sal ammoniac. Daljt Siha: absent. Hamdard index: nau-
shadar. Hand Book 405406: ammonium chloride, Persian name noshadar; externally
its solution combined with nitre is a nice cooling and stimulant application to the head
in headache. Nadkarni II, 1113: ammonium chloride, Sanskrit names navas(ga)ra,
cliklavaa. Schlimmer 496: Persian name ndor, sal ammoniacum. Schmucker
514515 (777): ndir, sal ammoniacum. E. Wiedemann I, 709: al nschur, 713.
This substance is well known from late yurvedic and alchemical texts, where it appears
under a number of related names: narasra, navasdara, navasra, nsra, etc. (see G.
Jan Meulenbeld III, 2002).

944
This may be an error for aff, Salix sp. or Populus sp. (see Schmucker 280 (456)).
Compare Achundow 195 (175): chillf, Salix, Weide: es giebt viele Arten von Weiden:
chilf, safsf und schahbd; 280 (456): aff, Salix L., Weide, und Populus L., Pappel;
genannt werden: Salix safsaf [valid name: Salix subserrata Willd. = Salix safsaf Forssk.
ex Trautv.], Salix babylonica L. [this is a valid name], und Populus alba L. [this is a valid
name]. Al-Biruni 206 (13): aff and 209 (24): Egyptian willow, Salix aegyptiaca [valid
name: Salix capensis Thunb. = Salix aegyptiaca Thunb.] or S. safsaf Forsk. Al-Biruni II,
91: khilf, aff, Salix aegyptiaca L., or S. safsaf Forsk. Encyclopaedia of Islamic medi-
cine 569: aff, Salix alba. E. Wiedemann II, 376: aff, gyptische Weide. Compare
on Salix spp.: Dymock et al. III, 364368.

945
Schmucker 119120 (142): bilr is the name for a crystal in general, in particular for the
kind of stone called mahl, a well-known kind of precious stone, white and transparent.

946
Abhinavanighau (p.152) and Achundow (280) agree.
Mahdevadevas Hikmatpraka, Part II 289
cakukusuma.
947
Put into the bite of a daaka,
948
etc., it removes the poison.
As an errhine, together with sudh,
949
it removes all kinds of piercing pain
in the head.
950
The very transparent type from orsn
951
is brightening/clarifying
(mujall)
952
and attenuant (mulaif )
Its substitute is ivayamn
953
or indarn
954
References
Abdul Kareem, M. (1997) Plants in Ayurveda (A compendium of botanical and Sanskrit
names), Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions, Bangalore.
Abhinavanighau dvityabhga artht ynn dravyaguasagraha, pait dattar-
mtmaja pait nryaadatta caubene sampra vaidyajanoke manorajanrtha
anek ynn granthose nirmkar prakit kiy, Mathur, n.d.
Achundow, A.Ch. Die pharmakologischen Grundstze des Abu Mansur Muwafak bin Ali
Harawi, in: Historische Studien zur Pharmakologie der Griehen, Rmer und Araber,
Koberts Historische Studien aus dem Pharmakologischen Institute der Universitt
Dorpat, Teil III, Halle 1893, reprint: Zentralantiquariat der Deutschen Demokratischen
Republik, Leipzig 1968.
Ainslie, Whitelaw Materia Indica, or, some account of those articles which are employed
by the Hindoos, and other Eastern nations, in their medicine, arts, and agriculture;

947
kusuma is the same eye disease as pupa. Al-Kindi p. 341: good for the eyes.

948
A small invertebrate animal.

949
See 2.2.11051108: nr haka / sudh / cn. Compare Abhinavanighau, p.105:
cn, Sanskrit craka, Persian hak, Arabic nrah. Compare on cra: Nadkarni II,
40, 4244, on sudh: Nadkarni 4445.

950
Ainslie (I, 366) remarks on sal ammoniac: on account of the cold it produces during its
solution in water, it is often advantageously employed as a lotion to abate the pain of
infammation, or allay head-ache. Achundow 195 (175) remarks on chillf, Salix: unter-
drckt den durch Hitze entstandenen Kopfschmerz; der Saft ist auch bei noch anderen
Kopfschmerzen von Nutzen.

951
See Schmucker 515.

952
Compare Abhinavanighau, p.152: it is svacchakart.

953
Unidentifed.

954
A kind of salt, described at 2.2.10641068. See on it: E. Wiedemann I, 712. The
Abhinavanighau (p.152) mentions br arman as the substitute and as correctives
emetic measures, milk, ghee, and almond oil.
JAN MEULENBELD 290
comprising also formulae, with practical observations, names of diseases in various
eastern languages, and a copious list of oriental books immediately connected with
general science, etc., etc., 2 vols., Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, London
1826.
Al-Biruni Al-Birunis book on pharmacy and Materia Medica, edited with English trans-
lation by Hakim Mohammed Said, Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan, Karachi
1973.
Al-Kindi The medical formulary or Aqrbdhn of Al-Kind, translated with a study of
its Materia Medica by Martin Levey, The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison,
Milwaukee, and London: 1966.
Andr, Jacques and Jean Filliozat (1986) LInde vue de Rome; textes latins de lAntiquit
relatifs lInde, Collection dtudes Anciennes, Les Belles Lettres, Paris.
Agahdayasahit, collated by An Morewar Kunte and Ka Ramchandra str
Navre, edited by Pt. Bhiagchrya Haristr Pardkar Vaidya, Niraya-sgar Press,
Bombay 1939.
Balfour, Edward (1968) The Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia,
commercial, industrial and scientifc, vol. III; unvernderter Nachdruck der 1885 bei
Bernard Quaritch in London erscienenen Ausgabe, Akademische Druck- und Verlag-
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