Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 578

The Coinage of

The Visigoths of Spain


Leovigild to Achila II
By GEORGE C. MILES
PUBLISHED IN CO-OPERATION WITH
THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA
THE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY
NEW YORK
1952
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword ix
Bibliography, Collections and Key to Abbreviations 1
Biographical Notices of the Visigothic Kings of Spain from
Leovigild to Achila II 21
Evolution and Distribution of Types 43
Key to Types of Busts 54
The Legends 67
The Mints 69
Narbonensis 76
Tarraconensis 79
Carthaginensis 92
Baetica 103
Lusitania 114
Gallaecia 125
Epigraphy 147
Notes on Minting Technique 149
Metrology 154
Hoards of Visigothic Coins 165
The Corpus 173
Note on Arrangement 174
Leovigild 175
Hermenegild 199
Reccared 201
Liuvall 235
Witteric 239
Gundemar 253
Sisebut 258
Suinthila 273
Sisenand 301
Iudila 321
Chintila 322
Tulga 330
Chindasvinth 335
viii CONTENTS
Joint Rule of Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth 348
Reccesvinth 351
Wamba 367
Ervig 375
Egica 387
Suniefred 405
Joint Rule of Egica & Wittiza 406
Wittiza 431
Roderic 442
Achilall 444
Appendix: Fabrications and Forgeries 447
Location of Specimens Illustrated in the Plates 499
Indices 504
FOREWORD
An epoch in the history of the coinage of Western Europe is marked
hy the introduction of a strictly autonomous and national currency
in Visigothic Spain by King Leovigild (A. D. 568-586). His predeces-
sors and contemporariesand he himself until about the year 575
had been content to issue anonymous imitations of the imperial
coinage; but at the beginning of the fourth quarter of the 6th century
this able and energetic ruler had achieved a degree of independence
from Rome and Byzantium that finds numismatic expression in the
striking of trientes bearing his own name. Rapidly, in the course of
the final years of Leovigild's life, there evolve the main traits of an
independent, national coinage of quite extraordinary interest, not
only because of its character as the first really distinctive mediaeval
coinage of the West but also because it continues virtually without
interruption, and at a large number of mints widely dispersed over
the Iberian peninsula, down through the long line of Leovigild's suc-
cessors to the extinction of the kingdom by the Muslim invaders
early in the 8th century.
Despite the fact that coins of eighteen of these Gothic kingsand
of four rebels or pretendersare preserved, and despite the activity
of at least seventy-nine mints, the coinage of the Visigoths of Spain
is excessively rare. In the present volume, the second in the Hispanic
Numismatic Series published jointly by The Hispanic Society of
America and The American Numismatic Society, an attempt has been
made to assemble a corpus of all known specimens of the autonomous
coinage, published and unpublished, wherever they may be located.
The total number of specimens here recorded is less than 3500 (to
be exact, 3461). Admittedly there must be many specimens in un-
published private and small public collectionsespecially in Spain
which have not come to my attention, and there must be a lesser
number in obscure publications to which I have not had access; but
tie number of extant pieces not included in the present work cannot
be more than a few hundreds, and it would probably be safe to say
that the grand total of genuine coins above ground of the class under
consideration does not exceed 4000.
X
FOREWORD
By far the greatest single collection is that of The Hispanic Society
of America: 675 specimens,1 in other words approximately one-fifth
of the total described in the present corpus. Next in size, until its
theft,2 was the national collection in the Museo Arqueologico Nacional
in Madridapproximately 250 specimens. The very fine collection
formed by Manuel Vidal Quadras y Ramon, still intact and now the
property of a collector in Paris, comprises 217 pieces. The British
Museum and the Cabinet des Medailles in the Bibliotheque Nationale
each contains less than 100 specimens; the national collection in
Stockholm, 70; the cabinet of the Real Academia de la Historia, 57.
Many other public and private collections contain lesser numbers.
At least one important collection, that of the Institute de Valencia
de Don Juan, containing 176 specimens of the type under considera-
tion here, awaits definitive publication.3
While the preeminence of the collection of The Hispanic Society
of America would fully justify its publication alone as a unit, without
consideration of other published or unpublished collections, it seemed
for several reasons desirable at this time to go beyond a simple cat-
alogue of these coins and to assemble the material for as nearly
complete a corpus as possible. For one thing, Aloiss Heiss' great
Description generate des monnaies des Rois Wisigoths d'Espagne, the
standard work of reference, published just eighty years ago, is out
of print, and, needless to say, in many respects out of date. Since
1872 the only comprehensive treatment of the Visigothic coinage,
within the covers of one book, has been Felipe Mateu y Llopis'
Catalogo de las monedas previsigodas y visigodas del Gabinete Numis-
mdtico del Museo Arqueologico Nacional (Madrid, 1936). This work,
while dealing with every aspect of the coinage, does not comprise a
corpus and contains detailed descriptions only of those issues represent-
ed at that time in the Spanish national collection. Aside from the
material in these two works, the bulk of the Visigothic numismatic
bibliography is widely scattered through many books, catalogues and
periodicals. And although a catalogue of the coins in the collection of
1 The early Visigothic, i.e., pre-autonomous, coins are excluded from these
totals.
* Cf. the entry "Madrid" in the bibliography.
3 The present work was already in the hands of the printer when Mateu y
Llopis' illustrated "Las monedas visigodas del Instituto de Valencia de Don
Juan (Madrid), Ampurias, XIII (1951), appeared on this side of the Atlantic.
While it has been possible to add references to this inventory during the
course of correcting the proofs of the corpus, infra, confident attributions
of the varieties of some of the specimens is precluded because of the quality
of the half-tone plates and the lack of textual transcriptions of the legends.
FOREWORD
xi
The Hispanic Society of America would, it is true, present a very
broad view of the extent of this coinage, it would by no means be com-
prehensive. For example, only one-half of the known mints are
represented in the collection, and of approximately 330 known issues
(that is, mint-ruler combinationsnot varieties, of which there are
many more) some 185 are lacking. This disproportion between the
total number of coins in the collection and the total number of
known mints and issues is in large measure to be explained by the
presence in the collection of a large portion of a hoard (see below)
containing many examples of certain rulers at certain mints.
Thus, during the course of my study of the coins in the Hispanic
Society Collection it became evident that although a catalogue of
this by all odds the largest collection in existence was a very desirable
necessity, a more useful contribution to numismatic literature might
be made by attempting a corpus which would incorporate a catalogue
of this collection within the comprehensive framework of the entire
Visigothic coinage. An examination of the list of sources (pp. 1-20),
containing not only the references to books and articles dealing with
Visigothic corns that have been consulted, but also the names of
unpublished public and private collections whose resources have been
laid under contribution, will suggest to the reader such virtues, as
well as such shortcomings, the corpus may have in respect of com-
pleteness.
With regard to the extent and composition of the great collection
of Spanish and related coinages formed by Mr. Archer M. Huntington
and presented by him to The Hispanic Society of America, now on
deposit in the Museum of the American Numismatic Society, the
reader's attention is invited to the remarks on pp. vii-ix of the
Foreword of the first volume of the Hispanic Numismatic Series,
"The Coinage of the Umayyads of Spain" (New York, 1950). As was
the case with the Umayyad coins, no information concerning the
provenance of the Visigothic coins in the collection has been available,
but a meticulous examination of the coins themselves in conjunction
with an intimate acquaintance with the literature which has in-
evitably been gained while compiling the corpus, has resulted in
certain deductions and, later, established conclusions respecting the
"genealogy" of the majority of the coins. The bulk of the collection
came from two sources: the Visigothic hoard of La Capilla, and the
collection of Rafael Cervera y Royo. Confirmation of many of the
deductions arrived at by what might be called the internal evidence
was, at a later stage in the work, provided by two lists most kindly
communicated to me by Pio Beltran Villagrasa of Valencia: one a list
xii
FOREWORD
of Antonio Vives' rubbings of Cervera's collection, the other an
inventory of the hoard of La Capilla, deriving ultimately from notes
compiled by Pujol y Camps and preserved in the Academia de la
Historia. For the detailed relationships the reader may consult the
discussion of the hoard of La Capilla (pp. 166171) and the corpus itself.
In the compilation of the corpus, pains have been taken to.eliminate
duplication; that is, wherever possible the frequently repeated
publications of the same specimen have been brought together and
equated. Modern writers dealing with Visigothic numismatics have
often failed to realize that a specimen first published, for example,
by Augustin in 1587 is the identical specimen described in several
18th century publications and even in certain 20th century catalogues.
This failure to recognize, or to make provision for, these duplications
has heretofore resulted in a great swelling of the total number of
specimens, and an entirely false impression of the commonness, of
many issues. The numerous relationships between various collections
and descriptions are made apparent in the corpus and are in some
instances remarked on in the bibliography.1 A good example, among
countless others, of the repeated publication of the same specimen is
No. 211, the unique coin of Suinthila struck at Narbona, now in the
former Vidal Quadras y Ramon collection, successively described or
mentioned by Lelewel, Piot, Meynaerts, Boudard, Campaner, Heiss,
Robert, Belfort, Vidal Quadras y Ramon, and Mateu y Llopis.
Lacking this knowledge, one might conclude that this and many other
actually unique or very rare issues similarly republished were re-
latively common; and in fact it has been necessary at many points
in the corpus to point out that references by certain writers purported-
ly concerning different specimens actually describe but one specimen.
But while every effort has been made to avoid listing the same coin
as two or more distinct specimens in the present work, it must be
remembered that there surely are many cases where it has been
impossible to establish an identity which probably exists, particularly
where unillustrated auction catalogue specimens have been purchased
and later listed or described by collectors or other dealers.
Aside from the combined corpus and catalogue of the Hispanic
Society collection, the present work contains a body of historical,
geographical and numismatic commentary which, it is hoped, may
serve to enhance the usefulness of the volume as a comprehensive
1 E.g., sometimes Leyrens = Gabriel = Augustin = Velazquez = Florez
= Gusseme = Biblioteca Real or Biblioteca Nacional = Museo Arqueol6gico
Nacional; Roi de Portugal = Teixeira; Lorichs = Stockholm; Thomson =
Copenhagen; Meynaerts = VQR or BM; etc., etc.
FOREWORD
xiii
handbook of Visigothic coinage. The bibliography should enable the
serious student to pursue further his particular interests in the
significance and interpretation of the coins. As no amount of detailed
description can substitute for adequate illustration, the plates,
containing reproductions not only of the majority of the coins in the
Hispanic Society collection but also of many coins in other collections,
have been made as numerous as possible; and a map has been
especially drawn to show the approximate location of most of the
known mint-towns.
Because of the very large number of forgeries and fabrications of
Visigothic coins that exists, and because of the difficulty of recognizing
most of these, it was believed that a detailed listing and generous
illustration of the known spurious dies would be welcome. Accordingly
an appendix (pp. 447-498) and six plates (AF), devoted to this
parasitical scourge of Visigothic numismatics, have been included. I
am indebted to Spink and Son, Ltd., for permission to reproduce
illustrations from Hill's Becker the Counterfeiter.
A future volume of the Hispanic Numismatic Series will be devoted
to the collection of some one hundred and seventy early Visigothic
(pre-autonomous), Suevian and Burgundian coins in the collection
of The Hispanic Society of America. For many reasons it seemed best
to exclude this class of coins from the present work. The bulk of the
volume, which is already large, would be increased beyond workable
proportions. Furthermore, there is a clear dividing-line between the
Byzantine imitations and the coins bearing mint-names, with
Leovigild's autonomous "mintless" issues constituting the transition
between the last imitations and the beginning of the distinctive
national coinage. Also, at this stage in our knowledge of the early
Visigothic coinage, despite the important contributions made in
recent years by Wilhelm Reinhart, a corpus of this class is virtually
out of the question.
Wherever I have turned for help in gathering the material for the
present work I have met with the most heartening response and
generosity from individuals and institutions, and it is now my privi-
lege and pleasure to acknowledge some of these courtesies. I am
deeply indebted to Pio Beltran Villagrasa of Valencia for his ready
response to my many inquiries and especially for the time-consuming
trouble he took to write out for me copies of his inventories of the
Cervera collection and of the hoard of La Capilla; Professor Felipe
Mateu y Llopis of Barcelona, that indefatigable authority on Spanish
numismatics, has met every request for information with unfailing
courtesy; Dr. Wilhelm Reinhart of San Sebastian (and St. Gilgen,
xiv
FOREWORD
Austria) has generously furnished me with details about his own and
other collections; and I am grateful to Professor Emilio Garcia Gomez
of Madrid for providing me with a microfilm of an important work
unobtainable in this country. During a brief visit to the Cabinet des
M6dailles at the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, in May, 1951,
M. Jean Babelon kindly permitted me to examine the Visigothic
collection there; and at that time, as well as on other occasions since,
M. Jean Lafaurie has shown the most friendly interest in the work.
I trust that another Parisian, who prefers to remain anonymous, will
sense my appreciation of his hospitality and co-operation. My thanks
are also due to the authorities of the Musee de la Ville de Pau for
photographs, and to Mme N. Kapamadji of the MaisonFlorange, and
M. C. Piatt, both of Paris, for permitting me to examine coins in
their establishments.
Elsewhere on the Continent, museum curators have most generously
supplied me with photographs or plaster-casts of coins in their care,
and in this connection I should like especially to mention: Dr. Georg
Galster at the Royal Cabinet in Copenhagen, Dr. H. Enno van
Gelder and Dr. A. N. Zadoks-Jitta at the Royal Cabinet in The
Hague, Dr. Nils Ludvig Rasmusson at the Royal Cabinet in Stock-
holm, Dr. Elisabeth Nau at the Wurttembergisches Landesmuseum
in Stuttgart, and Dr. Dietrich W. H. Schwarz at the Schweizerisches
Landesmuseum in Zurich. To Dr. Arthur Suhle at the Miinzkabinett
in Berlin, I am indebted for photographs of plaster-casts of Visigothic
coins of various provenances preserved there, all that is left of the
national German Visigothic collection. Also to Dr. Herbert A. Cahn
of the firm Miinzen und Medaillen in Basel, my thanks for providing
me with plaster-casts of coins in his own stock and in the collection
of Dr. Theodor Voltz and in the former W. Niggeler collection.
As on many other occasions I take pleasure in expressing my ap-
preciation to the Keeper of the Department of Coins and Medals in the
British Museum for the courtesy extended to me by that great
institution; through the kind offices of Dr. John Walker and Mr.
R. A. G. Carson I have been enabled to study plaster-casts of all the
Visigothic coins preserved there and of others in the hands of L. S.
Forrer. For photographs of the Visigothic coins in the Ashmolean
Museum at Oxford I am grateful to Dr. C. H. V. Sutherland. My debt
to Mr. Philip Grierson of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, is
very great indeed; not only has he furnished me with full information
regarding his own collection, but time and again he has drawn my
attention to specimens in other collections and to obscure references
in the literature and other data that would otherwise have escaped
FOREWORD
xv
my notice. And to the authorities and staff of the Fitzwilliam Mu-
seum I wish to express my thanks for the many plaster-casts prepared
for me there at Mr. Grierson's direction.
In this country I have been privileged to study several small public
and private Visigothic collections in addition to those of The Hispanic
Society of America and The American Numismatic Society. Photo-
graphs of the coins in the Numismatic Collection at The Johns
Hopkins University (ex John W. Garrett collection) were kindly made
available to me by Dr. Sarah Elizabeth Freeman. By the kindness
of John S. Thacher, Director of The Dumbarton Oaks Research
Library and Collection, Harvard University, in Washington, D. C,
I was enabled to examine the coins preserved at that institution.
Among others to whom I am indebted for allowing me to study
Visigothic coins in their possession are Mr. P. K. Anderson of San
Antonio, Texas; Mr. William L. Clark of Teaneck, New Jersey; Mr.
Douglas P. Dickie of Ridgewood, New Jersey; Mr. Harley L. Freeman
of Ormond Beach, Florida; Professor Thomas 0. Mabbott, Mr. Hans
M. F. Schulman and Mr. Jesse A. Yockers, all of New York City.
Finally, may I take this opportunity to express publicly my
admiration of the technical competence of the die-cutters, compositors
and pressmen of the firm of J. J. Augustin, Gliickstadt; and especial-
ly to thank Mr. J. J. Augustin himself for the good humor, patience
and skill with which as on so many other occasions he has
met the many typographical problems presented by a complex
manuscript.
BIBLIOGRAPHY,
COLLECTIONS AND KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS
The names and short titles used in the corpus and throughout the book are
here arranged in strictly alphabetical order. In some instances bibliographical
details are followed by comment on the nature of the work or its relation to
other publications. Entries referring to unpublished collections contain the
pertinent facts with reference to provenance, etc., where such facts are known.
For certain general historical works, not included here, see p. 21.
Academia de la Histohia See Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa IV.
Adquisiciones en 1932 Casto M% del Rivero y F. Mateu y Llopis, Adquisici-
ones en 1932. Colecciones de Numismtica y de OUptica (Museo Arqueo-
lgico Nacional), Madrid, 1933, pp. 4ff.
Adquisiciones en 19331934 Casto M5 del Rivero y Felipe Mateu y Llopis,
Adquisiciones en 19331934. Colecciones de Numismtica y Qli/ptica (Museo
Arqueolgico Nacional), Madrid, 1935.
A. E. d. A. Archivo Espanol de Argueologia.
Akhbr Majm'ah Emilio Lafuente y Alcantara, Ajbar Machmud (Coleceion
de Obras Arbigas de Historia y Oeografia, que publico, la Real Academia de
la Historia, I), Madrid, 1867.
Alcocer Pedro de Alcocer, Hystoria, o descripcin del Imperial cibdad de
Toledo, Toledo, 1554. This early work (copy in the library of the Hispanic
Society of America) contains an erroneous description of a coin of "Witigis";
see forgeries, p. 495.
Al-Himyari E. Lvi-Provenal, La Pninsule ibrique au moyen-ge, d'aprs
le kitb ar-rawd al-mi'pr fl habar al-akfr d'ibn 'Abd al-Mun'im al-Himyar,
Leiden, 1938.
Amardel, Muse de Narbonne G. Amardel, "Monnaies wisigothes du Muse
de Narbonne," in Bulletin de la Commission archologique et littraire de
l'arrondissement de Narbonne, 1890, pp. 144146.
Amardel, Nouveau Triens G. Amardel, "Un nouveau triens d'Achila," in
Bulletin de la Commission archologique et littraire de l'arrondissement de
Narbonne, 1890, pp. 140-143.
Amardel, Roi Achila G. Amardel, "Le roi Achila," in Bulletin de la Com-
mission archologique et littraire de l'arrondissement de Narbonne, 189293,
pp. 425-445.
Amardel, Roi Inconnu G. Amardel, "Monnaie d'un roi Wisigoth inconnu
frappe Narbonne," in Bulletin de la Commission archologique et littraire
de l'arrondissement de Narbonne, 1890, pp. 19-23.
Amardel, RN 1901 G. Amardel, "Numismatique de Narbonne au VIIIe
sicle," in RN, 1901, pp. 210-224, 348-362.
Amardel, RN 1916 G[abriel] Ajnardel, "Un triens indit d'Achila roi
wisigoth," in RN, 1916, pp. 125-134.
Anderson Collection Collection of Mr. P. K. Anderson, San Antonio,
Texas.
1 Visigoth
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
ANS Collection of The American Numismatic Society.
Antonio Belts An Antonio Beltran, "Las monedas Suevas y Godas en
relaci6n con las Romanas y Byzantinas," in Crnica del III Congreso
Arqueologico del SudesteEspanol.Murcia, 1947, Cartagena, 1948,pp. 321-334.
Ardant Maurice Ardant, "Monnaies rares du Limousin," in RN, 1851,
pp. 252-256.
Arnold T. J. Arnold, "Becker's Forgeries," in JVC, 1863, pp. 246254
(also in Spink & Son's Numismatic Circular, August, 1894, cols. 795-798).
Ashmolean Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. The majority of the Visigothic
coins in this collection are of the early anonymous type and are therefore
not included in the present volume.
Augustin Dialogos de Medallas inscriptionea y otras antiguedadesEx
bibliotheca Ant. Augustini Archiepiscopi Tarraconen, Tarragona, 1587.
The earliest work of any importance dealing with Visigothic coins, fre-
quently cited by 18th century writers. There are numerous editions and
translations ranging in date from the above (I have made use of the copy
in the library of the Hispanic Society of America) to 1744 (Madrid). See
Miguelez, p. 90. Velazquez did not always copy Augustin accurately.
Bahrfeldt M. Bahrfeldt, review of La CapUla, in Numismatisches Literatur-
Blatt, IX (Breslau, 1898), p. 930.
Ballesteros Antonio Ballesteros y Beretta, Historia de Espana y su in-
fluencia en la historia universal, I (second edition), Barcelona-Buenos
Aires, 1943.
Barthelemy Anatole Barthelemy, "Rectification Numismatique," in RN,
1851, pp. 378-380.
Belfort A. de Belfort, Description gene"rale des monnaies mrovingiennes par
ordre alphabtique des ateliers, publie d'apres lea notes manuscrites de M. le
Vicomte de Ponton d'Amcourt, Vol. II, Paris, 1892.
Belfort, 1892 A. de Belfort, "Monnaies merovingiennes," in Annuaire de
la Socit Francaise de Numismatique, 1892, pp. 54-88.
Beltran Pio Beltran Villagrasa, "Rectificaciones y falsificaciones en las
monedas visigodas," in Crnica del III Congreso Arqueologico del Sudeste
Espanol, Murcia, 1947, Cartagena, 1948, pp. 385449. A study of major
importance. Cf. Numismatic Literature, No. 6 (Jan. 1949), p. 192.
Beltran, Ampurias 1941 Pio Beltran, "Iudila y Suniefredo, reyes visigo-
dos," in Ampurias, III (Barcelona, 1941), pp. 97-104.
Beltran, Suevia Pio Beltran, "Las monedas visigodas acunadas en la
Suevia espafiola (Dicesis de Iria, Lucus, Aurense, Tude y Asturica)," in
Boletin de la Comision Provincial de Monumentos historicos y artisticos de
Orense, V, Nos. 101-106 (March-Dec. 1915, Jan.-Feb. 1916), pp. 81-89,
97-104, 113-120, 129-135, 145-152, 161-174.
Berlin Munzkabinett, Staatliche Museen, Berlin. The coins in the national
collection have been removed by the Russians, but through the courtesy
of Dr. Arthur Suhle I have been furnished with photographs of a collection
of 67 plaster-casts which had been assembled in the museum during the
years before the second World War. It is no longer possible to determine
just which of the coins represented by these casts were formerly in the
museum (many of them were of coins in other collections or sales); but
wherever possible I have indicated in the corpus which specimens were
probably the property of the Munzkabinett, and, in some instances, which
are the same as coins illustrated in auction catalogues or elsewhere.
Blanchet A. Blanchet et A. Dieudonn, Manuel de Numismatique Francaise,
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS
3
Vol. I, Paris, 1912. Most of the Visigothic coins of Narbona to which
Blanchet refers are not specifically described and have therefore been
omitted from the corpus. They are undoubtedly well-known specimens
published elsewhere.
Blanchet, 1888 J.-A. Blanchet, note in "Proces-verbaux des seances de
la Socteto francaise de Numismatique," p. 2, "Seance du 13 Jan., 1888,"
in Annuaire de la Sociiti francaise de Numismatique et d"Archiologie, XII
(1888).
Blazquez Antonio Blazquez, "La Hitaci6n de Wamba, Estudio histdrico
geografico" (Publicaciones del Boletin de la Real Sociedad Qeogrdfica),
Madrid, 1907. (Preliminary publication in Revista de Archivos, Bibliolecas
y Museos, X (Madrid, Jan.-June 1907), pp. 67-107).
BM The British Museum, London. Casts of the entire Visigothic collection,
together with weights, die-positions and, so far as known, provenances,
were kindly furnished by the Museum. The numbers accompanying BM re-
ferences in the corpus are those associated with the plaster-casts. It has
been possible to identify certain of the sales from which the British Museum
acquired Visigothic coins in the mid-19th century: e.g., Sotheby, 1848
(W.A.A. White Sale), accession 1849, and Sotheby, 1850, accession in the
same year. White, incidentally, had bought from the collection of "Mr. Mark,
many years resident in Spain as Her Majesty's Consul." The latter's
collection included part of that formed by Count Bruna of Seville (cf.
Sotheby, Nov. 27, 1848, p. 92). Where possible, I have indicated the coins
of the De Salis gift. Other acquisitions by purchase (dates shown in the
corpus) were: 1856, Curt; 1860, De Salis; 1863, Mollhausen; 1864, Hoff-
mann.
Botet y Sis6 Joaquim Botet y Sis6, Les monedes Catalanes, Barcelona
1908, Vol. I, pp. LXXVni-LXXXII. Almost all the references here are
to Campaner, Heiss and Vidal Quadras y Ram6n, and as there are no
descriptions but simply a list of issues taken largely from the above
sources, references to this work are omitted in the corpus except where it
is clear that the coin in question is from another source.
Botet y Sis6, Oerona Francesch Carreras y Candi, Oeografia general de
Catalunya, Vol. 2: Joaquim Botet y Sis6, Provincia de Oerona, Barcelona
(no date).
Botet y Sis6, Notes Numismdtiques," Joaquim Botet y Sis6, "Notes Numis-
matiques" in Boletin de la R. Acad, de Buenos Letras de Barcelona, XV,
no. 57 (1915), pp. 26-32.
Botet y Sis6, Noticia Joaquim Botet y Sis6, "Noticia del Volum Tercer
del 'Tratado de las monedas labradas en el Principado de Cataluna por el
Dr. Josef Salat'," in Boletin de la R. Acad, de Buenos Letras de Barcelona,
XH, nos. 45-^6 (Barcelona, 1912).
BotTDABD Boudard, "Lettre a M. le Baron C. de Crazannes, correspondant
de PInstitut, sur le monnoyage Wisigothique de Narbonne," in RN, 1855,
pp. 341-350.
Bouroey Emile Boudin Etienne Bourgey, Collection (?.... monnaies
antiques .... Paris, 27 Oct., 1913.
Bouteboue Claude Bouteroue, Recherches curieuses des mono yes de France,
Paris, 1666.
Bouza Bbey, Laurencio Fermin Bouza Brey, "La ceca suevovisigoda de
Laurencio," in Archivo Espanol de Arqueologia, no. 49 (1942), pp. 359-363.
Bouza Bbey, Lauruclo y VaUearitia Fermin Bouza Brey, "Identificaci6n
4
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
de cecas suevas y visigodas galaicas: Lauruclo y Vallearitia," in Boletn de
la Comisin Provincial de Monumentos histricos y artsticos de Orense,
XTV (1943-44), pp. 258-262. This article in part duplicates that of the
same author in Ampurias, 1943. Reviewed by Mateu y Llopis in Ampurias,
1945-46, pp. 470-471.
Bouza Brey, Valencia F. Bouza Brey, "Sobre identificacin de la ceca
visigoda de Valencia," in Ampurias, V (1943), pp. 304-306.
Bradley Henry Bradley, The Story of the Goths from the earliest times to
the end of the Gothic dominion in Spain, ("The Story of the Nations" Series),
New York, 1888.
Brethes J. D. Brethes, Contribution VHistoire du Maroc par les recherches
numismatiques, Casablanca, 1939.
Carinet des Medailles Coins in the Cabinet des Mdales, Bibliothque
Nationale, Paris, in May, 1951, other than those published by Le Gentil -
homme (q.v.).
Carr y Aguil Juan Cabr y Aguil [and Po Beltrn], "Un hallazgo de
monedas de oro en la ciudad de Recpolis, el problema de la fundacin de
dicha ciudad," in Crnica del II Congreso Arqueolgico del Sudeste Espaol,
Albacete, 1946 (1947), pp. 349-356.
Cahn, April 1933 Adolph E. Cahn, Versteigerungs-Katalog 81, Frankfurt
am Main, 5 April, 1933.
Cambridge The Cambridge Medieval History, New York-Cambridge, I, 1924;
II, 1926.
Campaner Alvaro Campaner y Fuertes, Indicador Manual de la Numis-
mtica Espaola, Palma de Mallorca (Madrid and Barcelona), 1891.
Campaner, 1866 Alvaro Campaner y Fuentes [sic], "Descripcin de algunas
monedas godas no conocidas por el P. M. F. Enrique Florez," in Memorial
Numismtico Espaol, I (1866), pp. 111-159.
Campaner, 1868 A[lvaro] C[ampaner], "Miscelnea," in Memorial Numis-
mtico Espaol, II (1868), p. 129.
Campaner, 1873 Alvaro Campaner y Fuertes, "Descripcin de algunas
monedas godas no descritas dibujadas hasta ahora," in Memorial Numis-
mtico Espaol, III (1873), pp. 47-55.
Campaner, 1880 Alvaro Campaner y Fuertes, "Nuevos descubrimentos en
la numismtica Espafiola," in Memorial Numismtico Espaol, IV (1877
-1879), Barcelona, 1880, pp. 21-22.
Campaner, Beview of Heiss Alvaro Campaner y Fuertes, Review of Heiss,
Description gnrale des monnaies des rois wisigoths oVEspagne, in Memorial
Numismtico Espaol, III (1873), pp. 258-266.
Canessa Ambrogio Canessa - Prof. Luigi de Nicola, Listino Speciale, monete
antiche, medioevali moderne .. ., Rome, Dec, 1949.
Cantos Bentez Pedro de Cantos Bentez, Escrutino de maravedises, y
monedas de oro antiguas, su valor, reduccin, y cambio a las monedas cor-
rientes .... Madrid, 1763.
Carles-Tolra Catlogo de la Coleccin Numismtica Emilio Carles-Tolr,
Antigua Librera Babra, Barcelona, 1936. This fine collection of gold coins
of Spain has been dispersed. I believe that I have detected some of the
Visigothic specimens on the market. The weights are probably not entirely
reliable, most of them being given at a round 1.50 grams.
Carreras y Candi Francesch Carreras y Candi, La Ciutat de Barcelona
(Geografa General de Catalunya), Barcelona (no date).
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS
5
Carson R. A. G. Carson, "A Roman Imperial Mint at Narbonne ?", in
NC, 1950, pp. 144-148.
Catlogo-Guia J. Calvo y C. MS del Rivero, Catlogo-Guia de las Coleciones
de Monedas y Medallas expuestas al pblico en el Museo Arqueolgico
Nacional, Madrid, 1925.
Catholic Encycl. The Catholic Encyclopedia (Special edition), New York,
1913-1914.
Chabs D. Roque Chabs, remarks on the hoard of La Capilla, in El Archivo,
Revista de Ciencias histricas, Valencia, V, 1891, pp. 259260.
Cibot G. Cirot, "Un nouveau roi Wisigoth," in Revue des tudes Anciennes
(Annales de la Facult des Lettres de Bordeaux), I (1899), pp. 168-169.
Clark Collection Collection of Mr. William L. Clark, Teaneck, New Jersey.
Coin Collector's Journal Published by Wayte Raymond Inc., New York.
Copenhagen Collection of the Kongelige Ment-og Medaillesamling, Copen-
hagen. I am indebted to Dr. Georg Galster for a list of the Visigothic coins
in this collection, together with their weights and provenances. The bulk
of the coins come from the Thomson collection, q.v.
Covarrtjvias Diego Covarrubias de Leyva, Didaci Covarruvias a Leyva
Toletani Episcopi Segobiensi, Tomus Primus, Lugduni, 1606. On pp. 467-
498, Veterum Collatio Numismatum. There are several editions of this
work, the earliest dated 1558 (1556, according to Madrid, p. 43). I have
made use of the edition cited above in the library of the Hispanic Society
of America; and also (New York Public Library) De Monetis, et re Numaria,
varii Tractatu8 ad modum utiles ... (Coloniae Agrippinae, 1591), which
appears in De Monetis, et re Numaria, libri duo: ... authore et collectore
claries, viro Renero Budelio Ruremundano, pp. 640641.
Cumano Catalogo da CoUecc&o Monetaria do fallecido Dr. Justino Cutnano de
Faro, Lisbon, 1908.
de Yepes Fray Antonio de Yepes, Coronica General de la Orden de San
Benito, Patriarca de Religiosos, I (por Matas Mares Impressor del Reyno
de Nauarra), 1609.
Das P[edro] A. D[ias], Catalogo da Collecco de Moedas e medalhas Portu-
guezas e outras pertencente a Eduardo Luiz Ferreira Carmo, Porto, 1877.
Dickie Collection Collection of Mr. Douglas P. Dickie of Ridgewood, New
Jersey.
DJ.f.N. Deutsches Jahrbuch fur Numismatik.
Dos Santos Collection Joaquim Jos Judice dos Santos, Seconde Partie ...
J. Schulman, Amsterdam, 5 June, 1906.
Dozy, Histoire R. Dozy, Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne jusqu'd la
conguite de VAndalousie par les Almorvides (ed. . Lvi-Provencal), Leyde,
1932.
Dozy, Recherches R. Dozy, Recherches sur Vhistoire et la littrature de
VEspagne pendant le moyen ge (3rd ed.), Paris-Leyde, 1881.
Dumbarton Oaks Coins in the cabinet of The Dumbarton Oaks Research
Library and Collection, Harvard University, in Washington, D.C. These
coins were formerly in the collection of the late Mr. Hayford Peirce.
Et.f ia de Moltns Antonio Elias de Molins, Bibliografa histrica de Catalua,
Madrid, no date.
Elas de Molins, Catlogo Antonio Elias de Molins, Catlogo del Museo
Provincial de Antigedades de Barcelona, Barcelona, 1888.
Elas de Molins, 1899 A. E. de M., "Monedas inditas Catalanas," in
c
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Revista Critica de Historia y Literatura Espaolas, Portuguesas Hispano-
Americanas, IV, 1899, pp. 372-376.
Elias Garcia, Egitdnia A. Elias Garcia, As moedas visigdas da Egitdnia,
Castelo Branco, 1938.
Elias Garca, Lamecum A. Elias Garcia, As moedas visigdas de Lamecum,
Castelo Branco, 1939.
Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia A. Elias Garcia, "As moedas visigodas da Lusi-
tnia," in Revista de Guimares, LX (1950), reprint paginated pp. 1-85.
There are a great many reduplicated references in this corpus, i.e., iden-
tical specimens referred to as though they were different specimens. In
the present corpus I have referred to this publication only where speci-
mens otherwise unknown to me are listed.
Elias Garcia, Monecipio A. Elias Garcia, As moedas visigdas de Monecipio,
Castelo Branco, 1940.
Elias Garcia, Portocale A. Elias Garcia, "As moedas visigodas de Portocale
ou Portvcale," Revista de Guimares, LVII (1947).
Engel, 1893 Arthur Engel, "Rapport sur une mission archologique en
Espagne (1891)," in Nouvelles Archives des missions scientifiques et litt-
raires, III (1892), Paris, 1893. All the Visigothic coins described here were
the property of Vidal Quadras y Ram6n.
Engel, 1898 Arthur Engel, "Un nouveau roi wisigoth," in Gazette Numis-
matique Francaise, II (1898), pp. 125-128.
Ennes Ernesto Ennes, O Gabinete Numismtico (Publicaces da Biblioteca
Nacional), Lisbon, 1927. See also the entry "Lisbon."
E. of I. Encyclopaedia of Islm (French ed. Encyclopdie de VIslam), Leiden-
Paris, 1913-1938.
Escorial Arturo Garca de la Fuente, Catlogo de las monedas y medallas de la
Biblioteca de San Lorenzo de el Escorial, Madrid, 1935. The only Visigothic
coin mentioned here is the specimen of Hermenegild which existed in the
collection of Philip II. Supposedly (p. 282) most of the coins belonging to
Augustin became the property of the Escorial.
Espaa Sagrada Henrique Florez et. al., Espaa Sagrada, Theatro geo-
grphico-histrico de la Iglesia de Espaa, Madrid, 1754-1879.
Estaco Gaspar Estaco, Varias Antiguidades de Portugal, Lisbon, 1625.
Faria y So usa Evropa Portuguesa, por su autor Manuel de Faria, y Sousa, I,
Lisboa, 1678. For the author (also Faria e Sousa), see J. Leite de Vascon-
cellos, Da Numismtica em Portugal, p. 85.
Fecht Collection The collection of the late Arthur J. Fecht, on deposit in
the Museum of the American Numismatic Society, contains 26 lead repro-
ductions of Becker's counterfeits.
Fernandez-Guerra Aureliano Fernandez-Guerra y Eduardo de Hinojosa,
Historia de Espaa desde la invasin de los pueblos germnicos hasta la ruina
de la monarqua visigoda, I (Madrid, 1891), II (n.d.). In Antonio Canovas del
Castillo, Historia General de Espaa. The author made wide and frequently
mistaken use of the coins to illustrate Visigothic history. References to this
work in the corpus are limited, as most of the specimens illustrated are from
well-known publications such as Heiss.
Fernndez-Guerra, Cada Aureliano Fernandez-Guerra, Cada y ruina del
imperio visigtico espaol: primer drama que las represent en nuestro teatro;
Estudio histrico-crtico, Madrid, 1883.
Fernandez y Gonzlez Francisco Fernandez y Gonzlez, "Los reyes
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS
7
Acosta y Elier (Agila II) de la Crnica del Moro Rasis," in Espaa Moderna,
XI (Madrid, Nov., 1889), pp. 83-103.
Ferreika Catalogo da colleccdo de moedas visigodas pertencentes a Luiz Jos
Ferreira (2nd. ed.), Porto, 1899. The first edition (containing fewer coins),
to which I have not had access, was published in 1890.
Fita, Epigrafa Fidel Fita, "Epigrafa Hebrea y Visigtica," in Bol. de la
R. Acad. de la Historia, XLVII (1905), pp. 361-394.
Fita, Noticias [Fidel Fita], "Noticias," in Bol. de la R. Acad. de la Historia,
XIX (1891), p. 456. Notice of La Capilla hoard.
Florez Henrique Florez, Medallas de las Colonias, Municipios y Pueblos
antiguos de Espaa hasta hoy no publicadas, con las de los Reyes Godas, LEE,
Madrid, 1773. The first really important study of Visigothic coins, and still
of value. Augustin's Dilogos, although much earlier, can scarcely be con-
sidered a numismatic work in the modem sense, whereas Florez laid the
serious groundwork for all subsequent studies. Cf. Migulez, p. 88.
Forrer, Becker L. Forrer, article on Karl Wilhelm Becker in Biographical
Dictionary of Medallists, revised edition, London, 1904, I, pp. 142149
( = first edition, 1902, I, pp. 6864 = Spink & Son's Numismatic Circular,
Aug. 1898, cols. 2918-22).
Forrer, 1950 Casts of three coins (Reccared-Toleto, and two forgeries) in
the possession of L. S. Forrer, London (1950), of which casts were furnished
by the British Museum.
Freeman Collection Coins formerly in the collection of Mr. Harley L.
Freeman of Ormond Beach, Florida. Mr. Freeman was kind enough to
allow me to have the coins photographed before they were disposed of.
References to many of these coins, including 12 forgeries, possibly duplicate
references to coins offered for sale in several British and continental dealers'
catalogues.
Friedlaender, 1882 J. Friedlaender, "Die Erwerbungen des Mnzkabinets
im Jahre 1880," in Zeitschrift fr Numismatik, IX (1882), pp. 1-17.
Gatllard, RN 1864 Joseph Gaillard, "Notice sur quelques monnaies des
anciens rois d'Espagne," in RN, 1864, pp. 131140.
Garca de la Fuente Arturo Garca de la Fuente, "La Moneda Emeri-
tense," in Revista del Centro de Estudios Extremeos, III (Badajoz, Jan.
Apr., 1929), pp. 27-47.
Garca de la Fuente, Resumen Arturo Garca de la Fuente, "Resumen
histrico de la Numismtica Espaola," in Publicaciones de la Sociedad
Geogrfica Nacional, No. 43 (Madrid, 1934).
Garca de la Torre Joseph Gaillard, Description des monnaies espagnles
et des monnaies trangres qui ont eu cours en Espagne ... composant le
cabinet montaire de Don Jos Garca de la Torre, Madrid, 1852.
Garca Villada Zacaras Garca Villada, Historia eclesistica de Espaa,
Tomo II: La Iglesia desde la invasin de los pueblos germnicos en 409 hasta
la cada de la monarqua visigoda en 711, Madrid, 193233.
GAriel Deles t re et Hoffmann, Collection E. Gariel: Monnaies francaises,
Paris, 27 Apr., 1885.
Glendining, May 1936 Glendining & Co., Catalogue of Greek, Roman,
Byzantine, Lombard, Wisigothic and Oriental gold coins, the property of a
foreign collector, London, 27 May, 1936.
Glendining, July 1936 Glenlining & Co., Catalogue of gold coins of
artistic merit ... etc., London, 1 July, 1936.
8
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Glendining, Junk 1949 Glendining & Co., Catalogue of ancient and modern
Coins, London, 21 June, 1949.
G6mez-Moreno, Zamora Manuel G6mez-Moreno, Provincia de Zamora
(Catdlogo Monumental de Espana, Ministerio de Instruccin Publica y
Bellas Artes), 1927.
G6mez-Moreno, 1941 Manuel G6mez-Moreno, "Oro en Espana," in A.E.
de.A., No. 45 (1941), pp. 461-474.
Gorres, Anfdnge Fr. Gorres, "tlber die Anfange des Konigs der Westgothen
Leovigild," inForschungen zur Deutschen Geschichte, XII (Gottingen, 1872),
pp. 591-618.
Gorres, Byzantinische Besitzungen Fr. Gorres, "Die byzantinischen Be-
sitzungen an den Kiisten des spanisch-westgotischen Reiches (554624),"
in Byzantinische Zeitschrift, XVI (1907), pp. 515-538.
Gorres, Hermenegild Franz Gorres, "Kritische Untersuchungen iiber den
Aufstand und das Martyrium des westgothischen Konigsohnes Hermene-
gild," in Zeitschrift fur die historische Theologie, 1873, pp. 3-109.
Gorres, Leovigild Franz Gorres, "Leovigild, Konig der Westgothen in
Spanien und Septimanien (569 bis 586), der letzte Arianerkonig," in Jahr-
bucher fur protestantische Theologie, XII (1886), pp. 132-174.
Gorres, Miscellen Franz Gorres, "Miscellen zur spateren spanisch-west-
gothischen Kirchen- und Culturgeschichte," in Zeitschrift fur wissenschaft-
liche Theologie, XLII (1899), pp. 437-450.
Gorres, Rekared Franz Gorres, "Konig Rekared der Katolische," in Zeit-
schrift fur wissenschaftliche Theologie, XLII (1899), pp. 270-322.
Granada Memorias de los Museos Arqueologicos Provinciates, 1942 (Minis-
terio de Educaci6n Nacional Direccin General de Bellas Artes Cuerpo
Facultativo de Archiveros, Bibliotecarios y Arqueologos), Madrid, 1943.
A specimen of Sisebut-Ispali acquired by the Archaeological Museum at
Granada.
Grant Michael Grant, From Imperium to Auctoritas, Cambridge, 1946.
Grantley Sale Glendining & Co., Catalogue of Byzantine gold, silver and
copper coins ... The Collection of the late Rt. Hon. Lord Grantley, Seventh
Portion, London, 25 July, 1944.
Grierson Collection Coins in the collection of Philip Grierson, Gonville
and Caius College, Cambridge, England.
Gusseme Thomas Andres de Gusserne, Diccionario Numismatico General...,
Madrid, 1773-1777 (6 vols.). The Visigothic coins described here are almost
exclusively drawn from Velazquez.
The Hague Coins in the Koninklijk Kabinet van Munten, Penningen en
Gesneden Stenen, 's-Gravenhage.
Heiss Aloiss Heiss, Description ginrale des monnaies des Rois Wisigoths
d'Espagne, Paris, 1872. Since its publication the standard work of reference
on Visigothic coins. The drawings illustrating the coins have been repro-
duced in many numismatic and historical books, frequently without
acknowledgment.
Heiss, Monnaies Antiques Aloiss Heiss, Description ginrale des monnaies
antiques de VEspagne, Paris, 1870.
Heiss, 1891 Alo1ss Heiss, Review of Ferreira, Catalogo da Colleccao de moedas
visigodas (Porto, 1890), in RN, 1891, pp. 100-102.
Hess, June 1922 MiXnzen aus der Zeit der Vbikerwanderung, Adolph Hess
Nachfolger, Frankfurt am Main, 14 June, 1922.
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS
9
Hess, April 1928 Sammlung Vogel, Adolph Hess Nachfolger, Frankfurt am
Main, 16 Apr., 1928.
Hill George F. Hill, Notes on the Ancient Coinage of Hispania Citerior
(Numismatic Notes and Monographs, No. 50), New York, 1931.
Hill, Becker George F. Hill, Becker the Counterfeiter, Pt. II, London, 1925.
Hill, Narbonensis George F. Hill, On the Coins of Narbonensis with Iberian
Inscriptions (Numismatic Notes and Monographs, No. 44), New York, 1930.
Hoffmann 1886 Collection H. Hoffmann: Monnaies (tranglres, Delestre et
Hoffmann, Paris, 17 May, 1886.
Hoffmann 1898 Collection H. Hoffmann: Meaailles grecques et romaines,
francaises et itrangeres, Delestre & Rollin et Feuardent, Paris, 11 May, 1898.
HSA Collection of the Hispanic Society of America, formed by Mr. Archer
M. Huntington, now on deposit in the Museum of The American Numis-
matic Society, New York. See the foreword and the discussion of the hoard
of La Capilla, pp. 166ff.
HtiBNER, Deutsche Litteraturzeitung E. Hiibner, Review of La Capilla, in
Deutsche Litteraturzeitung, XVHI (1897), cols. 498-501.
Hubner, Inscriptiones Inscriptiones Hispaniae latinae, consilio et auctoritate
Academiae litterarum regiae borussicae, editit Aemilius Hubner, Berlin,
1869-1892.
HiiBNER, MLI AemiliusHubner, Monutnenta Linguae Ibericae, Berlin, 1893.
Hubner, Revista Critica E. Hubner, Review of La Capilla, in Revista
Critica de Historia y Literatura Espanolas, Portugueses i Hispano-Ameri-
canos, II (1897), pp. 93-97.
Huth Collection Catalogue of the valuable collection of coins and medals, the
property of the late Reginald Huth, Esq., Third Portion, Sotheby & Co.,
London, 14 June, 1927.
Ibn 'Idhari Al-Bayan al-Mughrib ft Akhbar al-Maghrib (ed. R. P. A. Dozy,
Histoire de I'Afrigue et de VEspagne), Leyde, 1848-1851.
Inst, de Valencia Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Las monedas visigodas del
Instituto de Valencia de Don Juan (Madrid)," in Ampurias, XIII (1951),
pp. 123-134. See Foreword, p. x.
Jesse Wilhelm Jesse, QueUenbuch zur Miinz- und Oeldgeschichte des Mittel-
alters, Halle-Saale, 1924.
Johns Hopkins The numismatic collection at The Johns Hopkins Uni-
versity, Baltimore, Maryland. These coins were formerly in the John
W. Garrett collection and were for the most part acquired from J. Schul-
man and VVayte Raymond.
Jusue Eduardo Jusue, "Monedas de oro de la epoca visig6tica halladas en
la provincia de Santander," in Boletin de la R. Acad, de la Historia, LVII
(1910), pp. 482-487.
Katz Solomon Katz, The Jews in the Visigothic and Prankish Kingdoms
of Spain and Qaul, Cambridge (Mass.), 1937.
Keary C. F. Keary, "The Coinages of Western Europe: From the fall of
the Western Empire till the Accession of Charlemagne," in NC, 1878,
pp. 49-72.
Keary, 1886 C. F. Keary, "The Morphology of Coins, Part II, the Roman
Family," in NC, 1886, pp. 41-95.
La Capilla Manuel Fernandez y L6pez, El tesoro Visigdtico de la Capilla,
Sevilla, 1895. The principal publication of the hoard of La Capilla. See
pp. 166-171 for a discussion of the hoard.
Lafuente Modesto Lafuente, Historia General de Espana, I, Barcelona,
10
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
1877. The illustrations of Visigothic coins on pp. 107-109, 112-113, 120-127,
129, 132-134, 136, 138, 147 are all taken directly from Heiss, without
acknowledgment. On p. 148 the author speaks of the coinage as being
of gold, silver, gilt silver and copper.
La Grassa List of 32 coins from the hoard of La Grassa given in Mateu y
Llopis, Hallazgos VI, no. 470. See p. 166.
Le Blanc Le Blanc, Trait historique des monnaies de France, Paris, 1690.
Contains an engraved plate illustrating coins at that time in the Royal
Cabinet.
Le Gentilhomme Pierre Le Gentilhomme, "Trouvaille de monnaies d'or
des Mrovingiens et des Wisigoths faite Bordeaux en 1803," in RN, 1936,
pp. 87-133. (Reprinted in Mlanges de Numismatique Mrovingienne, Paris,
1940, pp. 5-51). See the discussion of the Bordeaux hoard, p. 165.
Leite de Vasconcellos, Da Numismatica em Portugal J. Leite de
Vasconcellos, Da Numismatica em Portugal (Arquivo da Universidade de
Lisboa, Vol. IX), Lisboa, 1923. An analytical bibliography.
Leite de Vasconcellos, Etnografia Portuguesa J. Leite de Vasconcellos,
Etnografia Portuguesa, I, Lisboa, 1933. Contains an illustration of the
coin of Reccared-Portocale published by E. A. Allen under the title, Noticia
e descripo de uma moeda inedita, etc., 1862.
Lelewel Joachim Lelewel, Numismatique du moyen-dge, I, Paris, 1835,
pp. 17-22, and Atlas, Paris, 1835. The relevant coins illustrated in plate
I of the Atlas are, with one exception (Reccared-Toleto), forgeries: nos.
23-24, fabrications of "Valenta" and "Massilia," nos. 27-33 silver Beckers
(from the Museum in Ghent).
Lelewel, 1836 Joachim Lelewel, "Vingt-trois pieces des montaires
mrovingiens et une du roi Wisigoth Swintilla," in RN, 1836, pp. 321-330.
Lenormant Ch. Lenormant, "Lettres M. de Sauloy sur les plus anciens
monuments numismatiques de la srie mrovingienne, XI," in RN, 1854,
pp. 305-346.
Lvi-Provenal, Histoire . Lvi-Provenal, Histoire de l'Espagne
Musulmane (tudes historiques publies par l'Institut Franais d'Archo-
logie Orientale du Caire), I, Cairo, 1944.
Lvi-Provenal, Inscriptions . Lvi-Provenal, Inscriptions arabes
d-Espagne, Leyde-Paris, 1931.
Lisron J. Leite de Vasconcellos, Gabinete Numismatico da Bibliotheca
Nacional de Lisboa, Notas e documentos. 1. Moedas de ouro da epocha
germanica, Coimbra, 1902. There are several coins here that do not appear
in Ennes, q.v.
Longprier A. de Longprier, "Monnaie bilingue de Tanger," in RN,
1864, pp. 53-58 (Oeuvres, I (1883), pp. 437^41).
Lonja del Almidn Catalogo ilustrado de la Coleccion de Monedas .. .
Lonja del Almidn, Madrid, 1936.
Lorichs Antonio Delgado, Catalogue des monnaies et des mdailles antiques
de ... Mr. Gustave Daniel de Lorichs, Madrid, 1857. This collection was
later acquired by the Royal Cabinet in Stockholm, q.v.
Lrker Friedrich Lbcers Reallexikon des klassischen AUertums (ed.
Geffcken und Ziebarth), Leipzig-Berlin, 1914.
Marrott Collection Collection of Professor Thomas O. Mabbott, New
York.
Madrid Felipe Mateu y Llopis, Catalogo de las monedas previsigodas y
visigodas del Gabinete Numismatico del Museo Arqueologico Nacional,
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS
11
Madrid, 1936. The most ambitious and comprehensive work on Visigothic
coins since Heiss. Primarily a catalogue of the 322 authentic and 133
counterfeit Visigothic coins in the Madrid collection in 1936, the work
contains a quantity of historical commentary, analytic apparatus, lengthy
quotations from earlier writers, etc., etc. There are 40 plates of relatively
high quality, as well as numerous figures in the text reproducing the
engravings in Heiss. The not entirely felicitous geographical rather than
chronological arrangement is an innovation. The accuracy of the transcrip-
tions of the legends is unfortunately impaired by the lack of adequate type
fonts. The coins themselves are no longer in the possession of the Museum,
most if not all the gold, not only of the Visigothic but of other periods,
having been "officially" stolen in November, 1936.1 Many of the specimens
in this collection have an earlier history in numismatic literature (e.g.,
Leyrens = Gabriel = Biblioteca Real = Biblioteca Nacional = Cabinet
de Madrid = Museo Arqueologico, etc.); and so far as possible throughout
the corpus I have endeavored to associate each coin with its previous
(often repeated) publication.
Mahudel Mahudel, Dissertation historique sur les monnoyes antiques
d'Espagne, Paris, 1725. Separate pagination and title in Joseph-Nicolas
Charenton's translation of Juan de Mariana's Historia general de Espana
(Vol. V, Paris, 1725). The coins illustrated were from the "Cabinet du Roy
de France." The engravings are obviously unreliable, but not of the worst.
Maison Florange Coins in the possession of Maison Florange et Cie.,
Rue de la Banque, Paris, shown or communicated to me in 1951 and 1952.
Maqqari The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain ... by Ahmed
ibn Mohammed al-Makkari, transl. Pascual de Gayangos, London, 1840
1843.
Mariana Juan de Mariana, Historia General de Espana, I, Toledo, 1601.
There are various editions; I have used the one cited, in the library of the
Hispanic Society of America. See Mahudel.
Masques de Li. Unrestricted public coin auction, April 26, 1952, ...
Collection "Marquis de LI..." Hans M. F. Schulman, New York.
This auction contained 24 Visigothic trientes, one of which I judge to be
a forgery. To the best of my knowledge, none of these specimens has
previously appeared in any publication. I am indebted to Mr. F. Xavier
Calico and Mr. Schulman for the privilege of examining these coins be-
fore the auction. The lot is reported to have been bought by an Italian
collector. These coins have been added to the corpus during the reading
of the proofs of the present volume, but it has not been possible to cal-
culate their weights in the metrological statistics, nor to include illustra-
tions in the plates. It is my impression that several of the coins of Suin-
thila and Sisenand in this collection come from the hoard of La Capilla,
q.v.
MartInez Aloy Jose Martinez Aloy, "Provincia de Valencia," Vol. I,
in F. Carreras y Candi, Oeografia general del Reino de Valencia, Barcelona,
no date.
Masdeu Juan Francisco de Masdeu, Historia Critica de Espana, y de la
Cultura Espanola, Tomo IX, Espana Ooda, Madrid, 1791.
1 Cf. the circumstantial account in Reinhart, Weitere Fdlschungen, p. 389;
also I have details in personal communications from Professor Mateu y Llopis
himself.
12
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Mata Antonia Mata, "Dos monedas de Sisenando en el Cuadro Numis-
mtico de Castulona," in Numisma (Sociedad Ibero-Americana de Estudios
Numismaticos), Madrid, I, 1 (Oct.-Dec. 1951), pp. 17-20.
Mateu y Llopis, Academia de Barcelona Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Noticia
del monetario de la Real Academia de Buenas Letras de Barcelona," in
Boletn de la Real Academia de Buenas Letras de Barcelona, XXII (1949),
pp. 5-21.
Matbu y Llopis, Ampurias 1941 Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Sobre el nu-
merario visigodo de la Tarraconense. Las Cecas de Sagunto y Valencia en
el primer tercio del siglo VII," in Ampurias, III (Barcelona, 1941), pp.
85-95.
Matbu y Llopis, Ampurias 1948 Reviews of Elias Garcia, "Un trente
toledano de gica," and of Jose Coelho, "Ntulas Numismticas," in
Ampurias, 1948, p. 439.
Mateu y Llopis, Arte Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "El Arte Monetario Visigodo.
Las monedas como monumentos. (Un ensayo de interpretacin)," in A. E.
de A., No. 51 (1943), pp. 172-193; No. 58 (1945), pp. 34-58. The illustrations
of Visigothic coins are from Heiss.
Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "La Ceca Visigoda de
Barcelona (Notas paleogrficas y numismticas)," in Analecta Sacra Tar-
raconensia, XVI, Barcelona, 1944, pp. 45-56. See the comment on this
monograph, p. 202.
Mateu y Llopis, Crdoba Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "La Ceca Visigoda de
Crdoba, Notas sobre sus acufiaciones," in Boletn de la Real Academia de
Ciencias, Bellas Letras y Nobles Artes, de Cordoba, No. 61 [1949 ?], pp. 45-64.
Cf. Numismatic Literature, No. 13 (October, 1950), p. 147.
Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Las monedas visigodas
del Real Gabinete Numismatico de Estocolmo," in Boletn de la Real
Academia de Ciencias, Bellas Letras y Nobles Artes de Crdoba, No. 62
[1950 ?], pp. 195-206. See also the entries Lorichs and Stockholm. Cf.
Numismatic Literature, No. 15 (April, 1951), p. 249.
Mateu y Llopis, Frmulas Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Las frmulas y los
smbolos cristianos en los tipos monetales visigodos," in Analecta Sacra
Tarraconensia, XIV (1942), pp. 75-96. The illustrations are from Heiss.
Matbu y Llopis, Gerona Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Las monedas visigodas
de Gerona," in Actas y Memorias de la Sociedad Espaola de Antropologa,
Etnografa y Prehistoria, XXII (Madrid, 1947), pp. 167-178. (Homenaje a
Julio Martinez Santa-Olalla, Volumen II). Of. Numismatic Literature, No. 5
(October, 1948), p. 144.
Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos III Felipe Mateu y Llopis,"HallazgosMonetarios
(III) ," in Ampurias, VI (Barcelona, 1944), pp. 215-237.
Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Hallazgos Monetarios
(IV) ," in Ampurias, VH-VIH (Barcelona, 1946), pp. 233-276. Contains
an inventory of the cabinet of the Real Academia de la Historia.
Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Hallazgos Mone-
tarios (V)," in Ampurias, IX-X (Barcelona, 1948), pp. 55-95.
Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos VI Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Hallazgos Mone-
tarios (VI)," in Ampurias, XIII (Barcelona, 1951), pp. 203-255.
Mateu y Llopis, Hispania Tarraconense Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "De la
Hispania Tarraconense Visigoda a la Marca Hispnica Carolina," in
Analecta Sacra Tarraconensia, XIX (Barcelona, 1946), pp. 1-122.
Mateu y Llopis, Inscripciones Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Inscripciones
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS
13
cristianas en moncdas visigodas,". in Jose Vives, Inscripcionea criatianaa
de la Eapana romana y viaigoda, 1942, pp. 147160.
Mateu y Llopis, Inventari Numismatic F. Mateu i Llopis, "Un inventari
numismatic del segle XVI," in Armies del Centro de Ctdtura Valenciana,
VT (1933), pp. 918, 8598. This is a corrected reprint of an article with the
same title in ButUeti Arquelogic.
Mateu y Llopis, Nombrea de Lugar, 1940 F. Mateu y Llopis, "Los nombres
hispanos de lugar en el numerario visigodo, Notas para su estudio (Nar-
bonensis, Tarraconensis, Carthaginensis, Baetica)," in Analecta Sacra
Tarraconenaia, XIII (Barcelona, 1940), pp. 6574.
Mateu y Llopis, Nombrea de Lugar, 1942 Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Los
nombres de lugar en el numerario suevo y visigodo de Gallaecia y Lusitania
(Notas para su estudio)," in Analecta Sacra Tarraconenaia, XV (Barcelona,
1942), pp. 23-38.
Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona Felipe Mateu y Llopis, "Tarragona durante
los Viaigodos a traves de sus acunaciones monetarias," in Boletin Arqueo-
logico (Organo de la Sociedad Arqueologica Tarraconenae, Tarragona), XLIV
(1944), pp. 69-104.
Melon Amando Mel6n y Ruiz de Gordejuela, Oeografia Hiatorica Eapanola
(Coleccidn "Hiapania," ed. Antonio Ballesteros y Beretta), Madrid, 1928.
Menendez Pidal Ram6n Menendez Pidal, Historia de Eapana, Tomo III,
Eapana Viaigoda, Madrid, 1940.
Merino Andres Merino de Jesu-Christo, Escuela paleographica de leer letraa
antiguoa deade la entrada de los Oodos en Eapana, hasta nuestroa tiempoa,
Madrid, 1780. The unreliable illustrations are of coins in the cabinet of the
Bibliotheca de S. Ildefonso de Alcala, described also by Velazquez, Florez
and others.
Meynaerts J. P. Meynaerts, Description de la collection de medailles
antiques . .. recueiUies par J. P. Meynaerts, de Louvain, Gand, 1852. The
Meynaerts collection, first described by Piot (q.v.), was acquired in part
by De Salis and later by the British Museum (unmistakable examples are
coins of Chindasvinth at Toleto and Ispali); and in part by Vidal Quadras
y Ramon.1
Meynaerts, 1842 Meynaerts, "Monnaies Visigothes," in RNB, 1842,
p. 363.
Meynaerts, 1850 Meynaerts, "Notice sur une monnaie d'or de Leuvigilde,"
in RNB, 1850, pp. 1-4.
Meynaerts, RNB, 1852 Meynaerts, "Une monnaie visigothe frappee a
Lerida par Egica avec son fils Wittiza," in RNB, 1852, pp. 241-243.
Miguelez Manuel F. Miguelez, "Bibliografia Numismatica Espafiola,
Examen critico y apendice de la obra de D. Juan de Dios de la Rada y
Delgado," in La Ciudad de Dios, Revista Agustiniana (Valladolid), Aflo IX,
Vol. XVni (1889), no. II, pp. 85-94; no. IV, pp. 222-231; no. VI, pp. 361-
369; no. VHI, pp. 505-517.
Miles, Umayyada George C. Miles, The Coinage of the Umayyads of Spain
(Hispanic Numismatic Series, No. 1), New York, 1950.
Holder Sales catalogues entitled A Moeda, issued by Casa A. Molder,
Lisbon, 1948-1950.
Moline A[rturo] P[edralo] [y] M[oline], "Miscelanea," in Memorial Numia-
mdtico Eapanol, III (1872-1873), p. 267.
1 Cf. Beltran, p. 442; Elias Garcia, Egitdnia, p. 15.
14
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Moraleda y Esteran Juan Moraleda y Esteban, "Un triens indit de
Lovigilde, frapp & Elvora," in Congrs International de Numismatique . ..
procs-verbaux et mmoires ... Bruxelles, 1891, pp. 530-531.
Morales Ambrosio de Morales, Coronica General de Espaa, vol. III,
entitled, Los Otros dos Libros undecimo y Duo Decimo de la Coronica General
de Espaa, Alcala de Henares, 1577. One of the earliest works in which
Visigothic coins are described. I have made use of the copy of the cited
edition in the library of the Hispanic Society of America.
Morera Llaurad E. Morera Llaurad, Provincia de Tarragona, in F.
Carreras y Candi, Geografa General de Catalunya, Barcelona, no date, pp.
221-226. All the coins illustrated here are reproductions from Heiss; hence
references to this work are not included in the corpus.
Mowat R. Mowat, "Monnaie de Suniefred, Roi Wisigoth, decouverte par
M. A. Engel," in RN, 1899, pp. 102-103.
Mnzen u. Medaillen Plaster-casts furnished by Herbert A. Cahn, of the
firm Mnzen und Medaillen, Basel.
Murphy Francis X. Murphy, "Julian of Toledo and the fall of the Visi-
gothic Kingdom in Spain," in Speculum, XXVII, 1 (Jan. 1952), pp. 1-27.
Muse de Pau Coins in the Muse de la Ville de Pau, of which photographs
were furnished by M. G. Boulade, curator of the Museum.
NC The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of The Royal Numismatic
Society.
Niggeler Collection Plaster-casts of coins formerly in the collection of
W. Niggeler, Baden, furnished by Mnzen tjnd Medaillen, Basel.
Noticia, Real Academia "Noticia del origen, progresos, y trabajos literarios
de la Real Academia de la Historia," in Memorias de la Real Academia de la
Historia, I (1796), pp. CV-CXI ("Principio y Formacin del Monetario").
Numismatic Literature Quarterly published by the American Numismatic
Society, New York.
NZ, Wien Numismatische Zeitschrift, Wien.
O'Crouley Musaei O'Croulianei compendiara descriptio ... de Don Pedro
Alonso O-Crouley, Madrid, 1794.
Oxford The Oxford Classical Dictionary, Oxford, 1949.
Pinder M. Pinder, Die Beckerschen falschen Mnzen, Berlin, 1843. French
edition: Numismatique Beckerienne, Recueil des mdailles contrefaites par
Becker, Paris, 1853.
Piot C. Piot, "Classification de quelques monnaies visigothes," in RNB,
1842, pp. 261-279. The Meynaerts collection, q.v.
Piot, 1850 P[iot], "Classification de quelques monnaies visigothes (deux-
ime article)," in RNB, 1850, pp. 392-397. See above.
Pisa Francisco de Pisa, Description de la Imperial Ciudad de Toledo...,
Toledo, 1617. There is also an earlier printing of 1605.
Pi y Arimn Andres Avelino Pi y Arim6n, Barcelona Antigua y Moderna
Descripcin historia de esta ciudad desde su fundacin hasta nuestros dias,
Barcelona, 1854. The drawings are quite unreliable.
Platt Coins examined at the firm of C. Piatt in Paris, May, 1951.
Prou Maurice Prou, Les Monnaies Mrovingiennes (Catalogue des mon-
naies rancaises de la Bibliothque Nationale), Paris, 1892.
Pujol y Camps Celestino Pujol y Camps, "Apuntes acerca de las monedas
que ha batido la ciudad de Gerona," in Memorial Numismtico Espaol,
I (1866), pp. 184-203, 224-246.
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS
15
P.-W. Patdys Beal-Encyclopdie der classischen AltertumsuHssenschaft (ed.
Georg Wissowa et al.), Stuttgart, 1894-(1948).
Rackus Alexander M. Rackus, M. D., Guthones (The Goths), Kinsmen of the
Lithuanian People, Chicago, 1929. A pseudo-scholarly work. For example
(p. 190), the name Chindasvinth is rendered "AuSvintas" on the basis of a
misreading of the ligature employed for the first letters of his name on the
coins. The specimens illustrated are mostly from sales catalogues, the ma-
jority of which I have been able to identify; the references to Heiss plates
do not mean that the illustrations are from Heiss. Most of the weights
appear to be fictitious.
Ramn Martnez Matas Ramn Martnez, "Inscripciones Romanas de
Burguillos," in Boletn de la R.Acad. de laHistoria, XXXII (Madrid, 1898),
pp. 182-196.
Ramn y Fernandez Jos Ramn y Fernndez, "De numismtica extre-
mea," in Boletn del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologa (Universi-
dad de Valladolid), XV (1948-1949), pp. 79-89.
Rasche lo. Christophorus Rasche, Lexicon universae rei numariae...,
Lipsiae, 1785-1795, Suppl., 18021805. The Visigothic entries are almost
exclusively from Augustin, Velazquez and Gsseme, and therefore have
been omitted from the corpus.
Rasmusson N. L. Rasmusson, "Foreign Coins in Swedish Coin-Finds," in
Transactions of the International Numismatic Congress, London, 1938, pp.
324-333.
Ratto Monnaies Byzantines et d'autres pays contemporaines Vpoque
Byzantine La plus riche et la plus vaste collection prive, Rodolfo Ratto,
Lugano, 9 Dec, 1930.
Retnhabt Wilhelm Reinhart, "Die Mnzen des westgotischen Reiches von
Toledo," in Deutsches Jahrbuch fur Numismatik, 194041, pp. 69-101. A
monograph of major importance, especially with respect to the coinage be-
fore Leovigild (not dealt with in this volume) and the early coinage of Leo-
vigild. It includes a pioneering attempt to attribute Leovigild's "mintless"
coinage to mints.
Reinhaht, Ampurias 1944 Wm. Reinhart, "Monedas visigodas acuadas
por el Rey Reccaredo H," in Ampurias, VI (Barcelona, 1944), pp. 209-214.
For my criticism of the view advanced in this article, see pp. 27-28.
Reinhaht, Arte Wm. Reinhart, "El arte monetario visigodo. Las monedas
como documentos," in Boletn del Seminario de Esludios de Arte y Arque-
ologa (Universidad de Valladolid, Facultad de Historia), X (1943-44), pp.
53-57.
Reinhaht Collection The collection of Wilhelm Reinhart according to an
inventory kindly furnished by the owner. Some of the coins in this collec-
tion have been disposed of, and wherever possible I have indicated the
present location of these specimens.
Reinhaiit, Germanen-Erbe Wilhelm Reinhart, "Die Mnzen der germani-
schen Reiche zur Zeit der Volkerwanderung," in Germanen-Erbe, TV, 3
(March, 1939), pp. 70-79.
Reinhart, Los yelmos visigodos Wm. Reinhart, "Los yelmos visigodos," in
A. E. d. A., 1947, pp. 122-125.
Reinhabt, Neuerliche Flschungen W. Reinhart, "Neuerliche Flschungen
westgotischer Mnzen," in Deutsche Miinzblatter, 1937, pp. 225-232.
Reinhart, Sobre numismtica visigoda Wm. Reinhart, "Sobre numismtica
visigoda," in A. E. d. A., 1947, pp. 125-129.
16
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Reinhart, Weitere Falschungen Wilhelm Reinhart, "t)ber einige weitere
Falschungen westgotischer Miinzen," in Deutsche Munzbldtter, 1939, pp.
389-391.
Reinhart, 1937 Wm. Reinhart, "Las Monedas Visigodas del Museo Arque-
olbgico Nacional." Review of Mateu y Llopis, Catalogo de las monedas pre-
visigodas, etc. (referred to as Madrid, see above). In Mitteilungen der Bay-
erischen Numismatischen Gesellschaft, LV (1937), pp. 191-198.
Reinhart, 1938 Wilhelm Reinhart, "Die Miinzen des tolosanischen Reiches
der Westgoten," in D. J. f. N., I (1938), pp. 107-135.
Reinhart, 1941 Wilhelm Reinhart, "Die swebischen und westgotischen
Miinzen als kulturhistorische Denkmaler," in Germania, 25 (1941), pp.
188-193. Reviewed in A. E. de A., 1942, pp. 257-258.
Reinhart, 1945 Wm. Reinhart, "Nuevas aportaciones a la numismatica
visigoda," in Archivo Espanol de Arqueologia, XVIII (1945), pp. 212-235.
Essentially a reworking of the author's "Die Miinzen des tolosanischen
Reiches der Westgoten," and his "Die Miinzen des westgotischen Reiches
von Toledo."
Renesse-Breidrach Mea loisirs, amusements numismatiques. Ouvrage post-
hume de Mr le Comte C. W. de Renesse-Breidbach, publit par son fils.. .
Vol. II, Anvers, 1836. All the coins described here are silver Becker forgeries.
Resende Libri Quatuor de antiquitatibus lusitaniae d Lucio Andrea Resendio
olim inchoati, & d Iacobo Menoetio Vasconcello recogniti, atque absoluti,
Eborae, 1593. Bound with this and separately paginated in the copy in the
library of the Hispanic Society of America is Liber Quintus Authore Iacobo
Moenetio Vasconcello, de Elbrensi Municipio, containing the curious fa-
brication of Sisebut-"Ebora" described in the appendix on forgeries, p. 467.
There are three editions of the work, 1553, 1593 and 1783. The relevant
passage is also to be found in L. Andreae Resendii Eborensis, Antiquitatum
Lusitaniae, et de Municipio Eborensi Lib. V, Coloniae Agrippinae, [1600],
pp. 335-336.
RN Revue Numismatique.
RN, 1897 "Chronique, Trouvailles de monnaies", RN, 1897, pp. 105-106.
RNB Revue de la Numismatique Beige (later, Revue Beige de Numismatique).
Rorert P. Charles Robert, Numismatique de la Province de Languedoc, II,
Periode Wisigothe et Franque, Toulouse, 1879.
Rokesmith John Rokesmith, "An unpublished gold triens of the Visigothic
King Reccared," in Numismatic Review, (New York) II, no. 2,1944, pp.9-11.
Roschach M. Roschach, "Note sur un triens du roi wisigoth Suinthila 621
631," in Mmoires de VAcad&mie des Sciences, Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres
de Toulouse. Date ? I have had access only to an undated offprint.
Royal Mint William John Hocking, Catalogue of the Coins, Tokens, Medals,
Dies, and Seals in the Museum of the Royal Mint, I: Coins and Tokens,
London, 1906. There are 13 Visigothic coins in this collection (nos. 4783
4795), but as the mint-names and legends are omitted it has been im-
possible to enter the specimens in the corpus, with the exception of one coin
of Hermenegild, which may or may not be genuine.
Russell Cortez Fernando Russell Cortez, "Pan6ias, Cividade dos lapi-
teas Subsidios para o estudo dos cultos orientais e da vida provincial
Romana na regiao do Douro," in Anais do Institute do Vinho do Porto, 1947.
Salat Josef Salat, Tratado de las monedas labradas en el principado de Ca-
taluna, I, Barcelona, 1818.
Sampere y Miquel S. Sampere y Miquel, "Del Reino Egiteno y de la lee-
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS
17
tura de las leyendas de las monedas visigticas," in Bevista de Ciencias
Historical, IV (Barcelona, 1886), pp. 69-73.
Schlessinger, 1933 Berliner Munzverkehr, Felix Schlessinger, Miinzhand-
lung, no. 14, 1933.
Schbttek Friedrich Frhr. v. Schrtter, Worterbuch der Miinzkunde, Berlin-
Leipzig, 1930.
Schulman, Nov. 1911 Catalogue des riches collections numismatiques de feu
son excellence le gnral Noguet Madrid..., 27Nov., 1911.
Afr. 1912 Collection de M. Camilio O. de Castro Madrid, 9 Apr., 1912.
Oct. 1912 Catalogue des riches collections de monnaies antiques... de M.
Joaquim de Freitas da SUva... etc., 21 Oct., 1912.
Oct. 1913 Catalogue d'une collection intressante de monnaies du moyen
ge.. . d'un collectionneur franais connu, 20 Oct., 1913.
Oct. 1921 Collection du Baron de C. B., 11 Oct., 1921.
Oct. 1921 Catalogue No. 76... en vente aux prix marqus, Oct., 1921.
Jtjxy 1922 Catalogue d'une riche collection de monnaies et mdailles de
provenances et successions diverses... 3 July, 1922.
Makch 1925 Collections de feu M. Jan van Bijswijck... de feu Me. O
B. et d'autres provenances, 30 March, 1925.
May 1925 Catalogue d'une collection importante... 19 May, 1925.
Oct. 1927 Collections d'un amateur Portugais distingu Paris, de feu
M. W.-W.K... Gouda et d'autres successions, 31 Oct., 1927.
Jan. 1929 Collection de feu M. Othon Leonardos Rio de Janeiro 2me
partie, 24 Jan., 1929.
May 1929 Catalogue d'une superbe collection de... feu monsieur le Comte
de L..., 30 May, 1929.
March 1930 Catalogue de sries importantes de monnaies et mdailles
de diverses provenances... 12 March, 1930.
Jan. 1931 Catalogue de sries importantes de monnaies et mdailles de
provenances diverses, 19 Jan., 1931.
Dec. 1934 Catalogue de monnaies et mdailles, 17 Dec., 1934.
Schulman, N. Y. Coins in the hands of Hans M.F.Schulman, New York,
in 1950.
Sempere Juan Sempere y Guarinos, Ensayo de una Biblioteca Espanola de
losmejores escritores del Beynado de Carlos IIJ, Vol. II, Madrid, 1785. On pp.
103104, an account of Conde de Campomanes' manuscript, Discurso sobre
la cronologia de los Beyes Qodos.
Severim Manoel Severim de Faria, Notidas de Portugal, Lisboa, 1655.1 have
not had access to this work; my references to it are taken from Elias Gar-
cia, Lusitnia, who evidently made use of the edition of 1740. There is also
a third edition of 1791. Apparently many of Severim's coin descriptions are
taken from Augustin and Morales; hence it is more than likely that in most
cases references to Severim in the corpus are reduplications. For the author
and his works, see Leite de Vasconeellos, Da Numismatica em Portugal,
pp. 69-78.
Shore Sale Catalogue of the famous collection... formed by the late B.A. Shore,
Esq., of Lisbon, Glendining & Co., 25 June, 1945 (delayed to 16 July, 1945).
Silva Leax Manoel Pereira da Silva Leal, Memorias para a Historia
Ecclesiastica do Bispado da Ouarda, Lisboa Occidental, 1729. Numismatic
observations are based on Morales.
2 Visigoth
18
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Smith, Dictionary William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geo-
graphy, London, 18541857.
Soares Alexandre Ferreira Barras, "Catalogo das moedas visig6ticas exi-
stentes no Museu Naoional de Soares dos Reis," in Museu, Revista de Arte,
Arqueologia, Tradicces, Vol. Ill, no. 7 (P6rto, 1944), pp. 127-133.
Sothbby Dated catalogues of S. Leigh Sotheby & Co., and of Sotheby & Co.
Spink Spink & Son's Numismatic Circular, London, August 1894, October
1938, March 1943.
Stack's 1942 A comprehensive list of the coins of the entire world... offered
for sale by Stack's, New York, 1942 (Fixed Price List No. 24).
Stefan Friedrich Stefan, review of Madrid, in NZ, Wien, Neue Folge 30
(1937), pp. 106-111.
Steinbuchel A. von Steinbuchel, Die Becker'schen falschen Miinzstdmpel in
ausfiihrUchen Verzeichnissen, Wien, 1836.
Stockholm The collection of the Statens Historiska Museum och Kungl.
Myntkabinettet, Stockholm. Most of the Visigothic coins in this cabinet
were acquired from the Lorichs collection, q. v. The Museum authorities
courteously furnished me with photographs of the entire collection as well
as information regarding the provenance of each specimen.
StuttgartCoins in the collection of the Wurttembergisches Landesmuseum,
Stuttgart, formerly the property of Ernst Unger. The Museum authorities
courteously furnished me with photographs of the Visigothic coins.
Teixeika A. C. Teixeira de Aragao, Description des monnaies, meaailles et
autres objets d'art concernant Vhistorie portugaise du travail, 1867 (Exposition
Universelle de 1867 a Paris).
Thom8EN Catalogue de la collection de monnaies de feu Christian Jilrgensen
Thomsen, Seconde Partie: les monnaies du moyen-dge, I, Copenhague, 1873.
Most of the Visigothic coins in this collection were acquired by the Royal
Cabinet in Copenhagen, q. v.
Tinchant Illustrated advertisement of P. Tinchant, Brussels, in TJie Nu-
mismatist, Jan. 1937, p. 61.
Tbaite Arthur Engel et Raymond Serrure, Traiti de Numismatique du
Moyen Age, I, Paris, 1891, pp. 40-53.
Vazquez de Pabga Luis Vazquez de Parga, La Division de Wamba: Con-
tribution al estudio de la historia y geografia eclesidsticas de la edad media
espanola (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones cientlficas, Instituto Jero-
nimo Zurita), Madrid, 1943.
Velazquez Luis Joseph Velazquez, Congeturas sobre las medaUas de los
reyes Godos y Suevos de Espana, Malaga, 1759. In preparing his work Velaz-
quez made use of much of the material assembled by Florez, whose import-
ant book appeared several years later. In fact Velazquez is said to have
written his book in Florez' cell. Cf. Heiss, p. 152, Miguelez, p. 88.
von Sallet A. von Sallet, "Die Erwerbungen des Koniglichen Miinzcabi-
nets vom 1. April 1884 bis zum 1. April 1885," inZeitschrift fiXr Numismatik,
XIII, pp. 1-29.
VQR Catalogo de la Coleccion de monedas y medallas de Manuel Vidal Qua-
dras y Ramon de Barcelona, I, Barcelona, 1892 (published by Arturo Pedra-
les y Molin6). This great collection, comparable only to that of the His-
panio Society of America in importance, is now in the possession of a col-
lector in Paris, who in May, 1951, graciously permitted me to examine all
the Visigothic coins and who furnished me with plaster-casts of a number of
specimens which I wished to study more closely. Unfortunately the time
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS
19
at my disposal did not permit me to make an exhaustive study of the ent ire
Visigothic collection, but I was at least able to handle all the coins and to
verify the readings of many specimens. Among other collections in part
absorbed by VQR was that of Meynaerts, q. v. The VQR collection is
particularly rich in rarities, and is virtually free from forgeries. Heiss made
extensive use of this collection in the preparation of his work; certain differ-
ences between Heiss' transcriptions and mine are in part the result of my
first-hand examination of the collection.
Wayte Raymond, July 1939 "Numismatic Rarities," in The Coin Collec-
tor's Journal, edited by Wayte Raymond, Vol. 6, No. 2, July 1939, pp. 70-77.
Weber Sammlumg Consul Eduard Friedrich Weber, Hamburg, Jakob Hirsch,
Mnchen, 1909.
Yaez de Abiles Fr. Pablo Yaez de Abils, De la era y fechas de Espaa,
Cronologa espaola... Libro Primero, Madrid, 1732.
Yaqt Mu'jam al-Buldn, ed. F. Wstenfeld, Leipzig, 1866-1870.
Yockbbs Collection Coins in the collection of Mr. Jesse A. Yockers of
Richmond Hill, New York.
Zemer Karl Zeumer, "Die Chronologic der Westgothenknige des Reiches
von Toledo," in Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft fr altere deutsche Geschichts-
kunde, Bd. 27, Hannover-Leipzig, 1902, pp. 411444.
Ziegler Aloysius K. Ziegler, Church and State in Visigothic Spain, Washing-
ton, D. C, 1930.
Zorita de los Canes Juan Cabr Aguil, El tesoriUo visigodo de trientes de las
excavaciones del plan nacional de 194445 en Zorita de los Canes (Guadala-
jara) (Comisara General de Excavacions Arqueolgicas: Informes y Memo-
rias, No. 10), Madrid, 1946. Cf. the review by Mateu y Llopis in Ampurias,
IXX, pp. 435437, and the discussion of Reccopolis, infra, pp. 96-99.
Zbich Coins in the collection of the Zentralbibliothek, on deposit with the
Schweizerisches Landesmuseum, Zurich.
The following books and articles, evidently containing descriptions of Visi-
gothic coins or other material pertinent to the present work, have not been
available to me. In some cases references to these publications in other
literature have enabled me to include the coins in question in the corpus.
Actas y Memorias de la Sociedad Espaol de Antropologa, Etnologa y
Prehistoria, XXII (1946), pp. 167ff. ("Las Monedas de Gerona").
Allen, E. A., Noticia e descrico de urna moeda indita cunhada pelos Wisi-
godos na cidade do Porto em fins do VI secuto e ltimamente descoberta pelo Il.mo
Sr. Francisco do Amoral, Porto, 1862.
Bellino, Albano, Catalogo das moedas romanas, celtiberas e wisigoticas perten-
centes Sociedade Martins Sarment, Porto, 1901.
Botet y Sis, J., "Lettre M. le Docteur Mansot au subjet d'une monnaie
wisigotique indite et des recentes dcouvertes d'Ampurias," in Revue
d'Histoire et d'Archologie du Roussillon, 1900, pp. 129ff.
Bouza Brey, Fermn, "Anillo gemado visigodo," in El Museo de Pontevedra,
No. 16 (1948). Reviewed in Ampurias, IX-X (1948), p. 437.
"Una ceca sueva desconocida en la dicesis de Portucale," in Revista
de Guimares, LH (1942), pp. 52ff. Reviewed in Ampurias, V (1943), p. 359.
Catalogo de urna importante coUeccao de moedas portuguezas ... vendida par la
casa liquidadora de M". Guilhermina de Jess en Lisboa, el dia 5 de enero de 1902.
Chabret, Antonio, Sagunto, su historia, sus monumentos, Barcelona, 1888.
i*
20
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Coelho, Jose, "Ntulas Numismticas," in Beira Alta, TV (1945), pp. 35 ff.
Reviewed in Ampurias, IX-X (1948), p. 439.
Da Costa, Joao, Catalogo das moedas antiguas de ..., Coimbra, 1911.
Elias Garcia, Antonio, "Um trente de Recaredo batido em Chaves," in
Revista de Guimares, LIV (1944), pp. 36ff. Reviewed in Ampurias, VII-VTII
(1945-1946), pp. 473-474.
"Un trente indito de Sisebuto," in Altitude, No. 4 (Guarda, Apr.
1942), pp. 129f. Reviewed in Ampurias, VH-VTII (1945-1946), pp. 471-473.
"Un trente toledano de gica," in Arquivo do Alto Minho, 1946.
Reviewed in Ampurias, IX-X (1948), p. 439.
FalcSo Machado, Fernando, "Numismas de Eminio," in Revista de Arque-
ologa, Lisboa, III (1936-1938), pp. 213ff. Reviewed in Ampurias, V (1943),
p. 357.
Mateu y Llopis, Felipe, "Cinco trientes visigodos de Hermenegildo a
Witiza," in Cuadernos de Historia Primitiva, II, 1 (1947).
Prez Pujol, Eduardo, Historia de las instituciones sociales de la Espaa
Coda, Valencia, 1896.
Reinhart, Wm., "As moedas suevas e visigodas como documentos historeos
e culturais," in Publicaces do Inst. Alemo da Universidade de Coimbra, 1942.
"El Rey Leovigildo unificador universal," in Boletn del Seminario
de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologa, Valladolid, XI (1945), pp. 97-107.
Ripoll y Villanueva, Jaime, Una medalla goda y cuatro inscripciones pertene-
cientes a la Espaa rabe inditas, 1830.
Russell Cortez, F., "O Castro de Esturaos," in Arquivo do Alto Minho (1946).
Reviewed in Ampurias, IX-X (1948), p. 440.
Sanchez Albornoz, Claudio, "Fuentes para el estudio de las divisiones
eclesisticas visigodas," in Boletn de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela,
H (1929).
Veiga Ferreira, Octvio da, "Duas moedas visigticas inditas," in Correio
do Sul, Faro, 1949.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES
OF THE VISIGOTHIC KINGS OF SPAIN
FROM LEOVIGILD TO ACHILA II1
In the second year of his reign, between August 2
LEOVIGILD and mid-November, 568,2 Liuva I, resident in Nar-
568-586 bonne, transferred the government of Spain to his
brother Leovigild, then Dux in Toledo.3 This un-
equally divided rule lasted until Liuva's death (some time between
December, 571, and early March, 572),* after which Leovigild contin-
ued as sole ruler. Leovigild's two marriages were politically expedient.
1 For full historical accounts of Spain in the Visigothic period (upon which
the following sketches are for the most part based), consult Ram6n Menendez
Pidal (Manuel Torres), Historia de Espana, III, Espana Visigoda (Madrid, 1940),
especially pp. VTILV, 3140 (bibliographies at the end of each chapter);
Antonio Ballesteros y Beretta, Historia de Espana y su influencia en la historia
universal, I (Barcelona-Buenos Aires, 1943), pp. 821885 (bibliographies, pp.
886896, 968-987); A. Fernandez-Guerra, E. de Hinojosa, Historia de Espana
desde la invasion de los pueblos germdnicos hasta la ruina de la monarguia
visigoda (in Antonio Canovas del Castillo, Historia general de Espana ) (Madrid,
1891); P. Gams, Die Kirchengeschickte von Spanien (Regensburg, 1874); Fer-
dinand Lot, Christian Pf ister, Francois Ganshof, Histoire du moyen age, I, Les
destinies de I'Empire en Occident de 395 d 888 (Paris, 1928), pp. 120-166 passim,
and especially pp. 166-173, 233-253; Rafael Altamira, "Spain under the
"Visigoths" in The Cambridge Medieval History, II (New York and Cambridge,
1926), pp. 159-193 (bibliography, pp. 733-738); F. Dahn, Die Konige der Ger-
manen (Munchen, Wurzburg & Leipzig, 18611911), V and VI. The period of
Wamba-Ervig has recently been considered in detail by Francis X. Murphy
(see the general bibliography). For the final act of the Visigothic drama, in
which the Moslems play the leading role, see the opening pages of E. L6vi-
Provencal, Histoire de I'Espagne musulmane (new ed., Paris, 1951). For the
source material, see especially Dahn, the bibliographies cited above, the
Monumenta Oermaniae Historica, and the works of Gorres cited in the biblio-
graphy to the present volume (p. 8).
2 Not all writers are in agreement on Visigothic chronology. In general I
have followed Karl Zeumer's Die Chronologic der Westgothenkdnige des Reiches
von Toledo.
3 The name Leovigild is thought to signify either "Lowenheld" (lion-hero) or
"Liebling des Volkes" (beloved of the people). Gorres, Leovigild, pp. 132-133.
4 Fita puts the date in 569 or 570; Fernandez-Guerra in 573.
22
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
His first appears to have been with Theodosia, daughter of Severian,
Byzantine governor of Carthaginensis j1 on her death, he married
(569) Godsuinta (Gonsuinthe, Goisvintha, etc.), widow of his own
brother Athanagild, the predecessor of Liuva on the throne. Of the
first marriage were born Hermenegild and Reccared, to whom, on
the death of Liuva, Leovigild allotted portions of the kingdom
(Septimania and Toledo) as consortes.
From the outset Leovigild demonstrated remarkable qualities as
leader, administrator and general, and he appears to have attacked
the political and military problems of his reign with equal vigor.
He was the unifier of the nation and without doubt the outstanding
personality among the Visigothic kings of Spain. Leovigild's adoption
of a distinctive "national" coinage is in conformity with his other
manifestations of independence; the historians relate that he was the
first to assume the full panoply of kingship, wearing a crown and
actually sitting upon a throne. Internal administrative reform and
religio-factional difficulties were both of continual concern through-
out his career, but his preoccupation with these matters did not
prevent his waging a series of energetic military campaigns in the
course of which he recovered provinces which had been lost to the
kingdom before he came to the throne and brought other parts of the
Iberian peninsula within the realm.
Leovigild transferred the capital definitively from Narbonne to
Toledo; then, in 570, he directed his attention southward and recov-
ered Malaga and the region of Bastetania (Baeza) from the Byzantine
authorities; in 571 he took Asidonia; in 572 he reduced an insur-
rection in and around Cordoba; in 573 he was active on the Suevian
border in southeastern Gallaecia (Sabaria); in 574 in Cantabria; in
575 in the region south of Asturia; in 576 he was grappling with the
Suevians; in 577 he was again in the southeast dealing with a rebellion
in Orospeda; from 579 to 584 he was coping with the major internal
problem of his reign, the suppression of Catholic revolts, in particular
with the crisis which ended in the defeat of his rebellions son
Hermenegild in the latter year (see the articles on the mints of Ispali
and Cordoba). In 580 Leovigild's strategy included a convocation of
Arian bishops in an effort to bring about a compromise between the
faiths. In 581 he had to deal with a Basque insurrection; in584-585
he came to final grips with the Suevians, defeating the usurper
Andeca, capturing Portocale and Bracara, and putting an end to the
rival kingdom of Suevia. At the very end of his reign his son Reccared
An alleged marriage with the Frankish Rigunta of Rouen is unlikely.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES
23
was successfully warding off a Frankish threat to Septimania. Leovi-
gild died in Toledo between April 13 and May 8, 586, and was succeed-
ed by Reccared.1
Leovigild's name appears on the coins:2
(a) onminilessissues: LIVVIGILDI REGIS, DN LIVVIGILDVS REX
and RE, LIVVIGILDVS. TypeH has REX INCLITVS (and variations)
on the reverse.
(b) on mini-name issues: with and without DN, LIVVIGILDVS,
LEOVIGILDVS, LEVVIGILDVS, with or without REX or RE.
Epithets are PIVS, IVSTVS, VICTOR (VICTORIA, VICTI).
Son of Leovigild by Theodosia, Hermenegild3 recei v-
HERMENEGILD ed a share of the kingdom4 at the time of Liuva's
579 - 584 death. His marriage to Ingundis (Ingonthe, Ingunda)
daughter of Sigebert, King of Austrasia, and Brun-
hild (Brunehaut), daughter of Athanagild, vitally influenced not only
his own life but the internal security of the kingdom, for Ingundis
was a Catholic, and under her persuasion5 and that of Bishop Leander
of Seville, Hermenegild in 579 renounced Arianism, embraced the
Church of Rome and rebelled against his father. As Dux of predom-
inantly Catholic Baetica, Hermenegild was able to hold out, first in
Seville and later in Cordoba, against Leovigild until the year 584,
when he was taken prisoner, exiled first to Valencia and then to
Tarraco, where, on April 13, 585, he was beheaded by Duke Sigisbert
1 Fernandez-Guerra's frequent misuse of the coins ("commemorative
medals") in attempting to reconstruct the history of Leovigild's campaigns has
been adequately criticized by some later historians (see, for example, Manuel
Torres in Menendez Pidal, pp. 100-101), but many writers, lacking adequate
knowledge of the coinage especially of the sequence of types during Leovi-
gild's reign continue to repeat these errors.
1 In these summaries of the regal inscriptions, A and other mediaeval letter-
forms are normalized, and only the chief varieties of spelling and abbreviation
are given. For the literal transcriptions of the legends, see the catalogue.
3 The coins give ERMENEGILD(I), doubtless the correct spelling; but in
deference to long-established tradition I have used the later mediaeval and
modern aspirated form.
4 He and his brother Reccared are said to have been assigned Septimania
and Toledo, but it has never been clear which son received which province.
6 Doubtless an important factor in this episode was the jealousy and rivalry
of Ingundis and her grandmother Godsuinta (Leovigild's queen), the latter an
ardent Arian. There is reason to believe that Leovigild himself was not
fanatically opposed to his son's marriage to a Catholic, but that it was rather
Godsuinta's efforts to convert Ingundis to Arianism that fortified the latter's
own faith and influenced Hermenegild to be baptized as a Catholic.
24
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
(Sisbert), to whose charge he had been committed. Later venerated
as a martyr, his canonization was eventually proclaimed throughout
Spain by Sixtus V (1585).
Hermenegild's coins were undoubtedly struck at Seville, where he
declared his independence. There are two types,1 one with the reverse
legend INCLIT(I) REGI, the other reading REGI ADEOVITA.2 The
first legend copies Leovigild's common type H; the meaning of the
second has been much disputed. The ingenious interpretation given
by Morales and repeated by many other writers since the end of the
16th century3 to the effect that the legend refers to the passage in
Paul's Epistle to Titus (III, 10), reading Haereticum hominem post
unam, et secundum correptionem devita ("A man that is an heretick
after the first and second admonition, reject") so apt in the
circumstances of Hermenegild's revolt against his Arian father is
based entirely on Morales' own misreading of the coin, "REGEM
DEVITA"; no such legend exists, and this explanation cannot there-
fore be accepted. Likewise founded on an entirely mistaken reading
is an interpretation involving an abbreviation of "in nomine domini
victor." The only likely reading, in my opinion, is that proposed by
Florez, REGI A DEO VITA, " life to the king from God."4
We may reasonably date Hermenegild's first type from ca. 580.
The second, assuming some connection between the siege of Ispali and
the meaning of the reverse legend, may be dated 583, or possibly 584.
Second son of Leovigild by Theodosia, Reccared
PvECOABED succeeded to the throne (apparently not by election
586-601 but by probably unanimous "consent") on the death
of his father between April 13 and May 8, 586. He is
reported to have been the first Visigothic king to be both anointed
and crowned.5 From about 572, as previously related, he had shared
in Leovigild's rule, and throughout the latter's lifetime he appears to
1 Historians (e.g., Gorres, Hermenegild, pp. 27-28) have interpreted the
reverse Victory as signifying Hermenegild's expectation of triumphing over his
father. This is, of course, nonsense; Hermenegild was simply following Visi-
gothic numismatic tradition.
1 Misreadings of this legend are discussed in the catalogue, p. 200.
3 See the catalogue, No. 47, for references to the literature; among more
recent scholars, Gorres, loc. cit.
* Heiss, p. 87, says that Regi a Deo Vita "exprimait peut-etre la crainte d'un
regne trop court pour la foi catholique."
s Cf. Gorres, Eekared, p. 279.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES
25
have led an active military life. At the time of his father's death
Reccared was in command of the Visigothic army successfully defend-
ing the north against Guntram, Frankish king of Orleans. Ten months
after his succession to the throne Reccared publicly declared his
conversion and that of his family to Catholicism, and on April 13, 587,
the cathedral at Toledo was reconsecrated. The reasons for the new
king's change of faith are obscure; the motivation may have been
sincere conviction, but it is not unlikely that in view of strong Roman
and Catholic forces in the kingdom political expediency played a
decisive role in his decision. On May 8, 589, after a formal debate at
the Third Council of Toledo to which Reccared had summoned both
Catholic and Arian bishops from all over Spain and Septimania,
Catholicism was officially adopted as the religion of the realm.
It was to be expected that Reccared's conversion would bring
Arian dissatisfaction in its wake, and between 587 and 589 Reccared
had to cope with at least three uprisings, one in Septimania, one in
Lusitania, and a third (suppressed before it had achieved any success)
in which Reccared's step-mother, Godsuinta, was involved; and on
several occasions the king was engaged in putting down Basque
insurrections. In 589 the Frank Guntram was again, and definitively,
defeated; and in 590 a palace revolt required attention. But Rec-
cared's decisive defeat of the Franks and his alliance with the Byzan-
tine Maurice Tiberius1 gave the kingdom external security, and the
latter years of the reign were relatively peaceful. Reccared died a
natural death at Toledo between December 1 and 26, 601.
In the later Middle Ages Reccared was known as "The Catholic,"
but there is no evidence of his bearing this title during his lifetime,
although John Biclarensis calls him "Christianissimus Reccaredus."
Reccared's name appears on the coins as: RECCAREDVS (occasion-
ally as RECCARIDVS and RECCAREDVC) REX or RE. DN precedes
the name at Emerita only. Epithets and commemmorative words are:
PIVS, IVSTVS, VICTOR (VECTOR, VICTORIA) at Emerita, Totela,
Bergancia, Calabacia (Calapa), Pincia, Tornio andTude, and FELIX
(Narbona).
Liuva, eighteen year old ignoble (therefore probably
LIUVA n illegitimate) son of Reccared, succeeded to the throne,
601-603 evidently by election, upon his father's death.
In the second year of his reign (some say on Decem-
ber 29, 602) the young king was deposed by a group of nobles headed
1 Sympathy for Roman tradition is reflected in Reccared's adoption of the
name "Flavias".
26
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
by Count Witteric, suffered the amputation of his right hand and
was assassinated or executed some time between June 12 and July 7
(or before August 12), 603. Although his reign is usually counted as
lasting until 603, Witteric actually appears to have usurped the rule
from the date of his insurrection late in 602.1
Liuva's name appears on the coins as LIUVA (commonly), LEOVA
(Barcinona), and LEV V A (Portocale) REX, and is usually preceded
by DN. Epithets are PIVS and IVSTVS.
Witteric, who had participated in Bishop Sunna's
WITTERIC Arian uprising in Lusitania in 588, attempted to
603-609 restore Arianism to the kingdom,2 waged a minor
war against the Byzantines (he drove the garrison
out of Sagontia), and unsuccessfully sought alliances with the kings
of Burgundy, Metz and Lombardy. His ineffective life ended in
violence, probably in March, 609,3 when he was assassinated at a
banquet in Toledo by a group of presumably Catholic protagonists.
Witteric'sname is spelled on the coins: WITTER ICVS and VVITTI-
RICVS (occasionally WITT IRIC OS) REX, RE or R. Epithets are PIVS
and IVSTVS.
Catholicism was restored as the state religion by
GUNDEMAR Gundemar,4 a noble who probably led the restoration
609-612 movement that culminated in Witteric's assassina-
tion. During his short rule he conducted some minor
campaigns against the Byzantines and the Vascons, but little else is
known of his reign. He died a natural death between February 19 and
March 15, 612.
On the coins Gundemar's name is spelled: GVNDEMARVS (Sa-
gunto, Toleto, Mentesa, Eliberri, Ispali, Elvora, Emerita) and
GONDEMARVS (Cesaragusta, Tarracona, Tirasona) REX, RE, Rl and
R. Epithets are PIVS and IVSTVS.
1 Zeumer says perhaps before December 30, 602.
s It is curious that this temporary return to the old religion is in no way
reflected in the coinage.
3 Zeumer dates the event between April 6 and May 1, 610, but Fita argues
for 609.
4 Zeumer states that the first proclamation of Gundemar's election probably
took place a month or two before Witteric's death, that is, toward the middle
of February, 610, according to his reckoning. In any case it appears to have
been after October 24, 609, as October 23, 610, according to the disputed
Council of Toledo convened by him, fell within the first year of his rule.
BIOQRAPHICAL NOTICES
27
The reign of the learned Sisebut, a fervent Catholic,
SISEBUT author of a life of St. Desiderius, is distinguished by
612-621 his successful resumption of the war with the Byzan-
tines. At the time of his accession there were still two
groups of towns in Byzantine hands, a large one in the southeast and
a smaller in the southwest, i. e., in Algarve. In 615 Sisebut began a
campaign in the south which ended in the recovery of the first area,
including Cartagena, leaving only Algarve in Greek hands.1 There are
furthermore uncertain reports of a campaign in North Africa. He was
also active in the suppression of insurrections in the northern moun-
tains, among them a revolt in Asturia and another by the "Ruccones."
Sisebut's notorious persecution of the Jews (of obscure motivation,
for his intolerance appears not to have been initiated or supported by
the Church)2 is a blot on an otherwise distinguished and successful
career. His death, between February 3 and 28, 621, may have occur-
red naturally, or may have been the result of an overdose of some
medicine; at all events it appears to have been sudden.
Sisebut's name appears on the coins as: SISEBVTVS or S IS IBVTVS
(rarely SISIBOTVS, SESEBVTVS) REX, RE, Rl. Epithets are PIVS,
IVSTVS and (at Lucu) VICTOR.
Son of Sisebut, Reccared II evidently ruled for only
RECCARED II two months or less (only a few days, according to
621 St. Isidore), from some time in February to some
time in March, 621. A later source asserts that he
was associated with his father in the rule of the kingdom for two
years prior to Sisebut's death, but in view of the fact that he appears
to have been a minor at that time, such an association seems unlikely.
Despite a natural desire to discover sound evidence for the attri-
bution of some coinage to Reccared II,8 I am unable to accept Rein-
hart's interesting thesis* that trientes of RECCAREDVS struck at
Ispali with the legend ISP ALI PIVS are to be assigned to Reccared II.
His argument is based on the following considerations: (a) Sisebut
probably spent his winters in Seville, and therefore as he probably
died in the winter, it would have been there that Reccared II was
1 See especially Gorres, Die Byzantinischen Besitzungen, pp. 530532.
* Of. F. Fita, Bol. de la R. Acad, de la Hist., XLVII (1905), p. 370.
3 I am sure that most numismatists share with me a perennial hope of find-
ing the coins of obscure rulers whose issues are unknown.
4 "Monedas visigodas acuiiadas por el Rey Reccaredo II," Ampurias VI
(1944), pp. 209-214.
28
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
elected, and there that he would have struck coins during his brief
reign; (b) the coins from Gundemar to Sisenand are in more pronounced
relief than the earlier issues, the dies having been cut with sharper tools;
the coins with ISPALI PIVS are in the former category and show
other technical differences from those bearing the legend PIVS ISPALI;
(c) the legend under Reccared I, Liuva, Witteric and Gundemar is
PIVS ISPALI, but from Gundemar onward it is ISPALI PIVS. In
rejecting this argumentation I submit: (a) these suppositions regard-
ing the presence of Reccared II in Ispali are exceedingly hypothetical;
(b) a comparsion of the available coins,1 either actually handled or
studied in photographs or casts, reveals, to my eye at least, no more
palpable difference in style, technique or fabric between the two
groups than one might expect to find between the products of several
die-engravers; (c) it is true that after Gundemar ISPALI PIVS re-
places PIVS ISPALI (incidentally Gundemar uses both), but I do not
believe this has any significance, for a comparison with other mints
shows that there is no intelligible consistency in the order of king's
epithet and the name of the mint.2
I therefore conclude that no coin of Reccared II has as yet come
to light.
Son-in-law of Sisebut, Duke Suinthila was elected
SUINTHILA king ("by the grace of God," according to St. Isidore)
621- 631 in March, 621. He had already distinguished himself
in the field as one of Sisebut's generals in the cam-
paigns in the north, and after his election he added to his military
successes by driving the Byzantines from their last outpost in Algarve
(624), and by again mopping up in the Basque region. These accom-
plishments earned him the reputation of being the first Goth to rule
all of Spain. In an attempt to ensure the succession of his line, in 625
Suinthila associated with himself in the rule his son Ricimer, his wife
Theodora and his brother Geila. It has commonly been assumed that
1 Many with PIVS ISPALI, which incidentally show wide divergencies in
style and relief among themselves; and the following with ISPALI PIVS:
HSA 16037, BM 13A, Grierson 1075, Stockholm, Dumbarton Oaks, Le Gentil-
homme 14. Reinhart had seen only three specimens of the latter category.
2 E.g., Toleto, Cordoba and Egitania always have PIVS second; Mentesa
has MENTESA PIVS under Reccared, Witteric, Gundemar, Suinthila, Egica,
and Wittiza, and PIVS MENTESA under Sisebut, Suinthila and Sisenand;
Eliberri has ELIBERRI PIVS under Reccared, Ervig and Egica, and PIVS
ELIBERRI under Witteric, Gundemar, Suinthila, Chintila, Iudila, Sisenand
and Chindasvinth.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES
2!)
this act aroused the opposition that eventually led to his downfall,
but the causes of his disenthronement may in fact have been simply
his extensive confiscation of the property of some of the nobles. On
March 26, 631, he was defeated by Sisenand and his followers; he was
deprived of the crown but apparently lived on for several years as a
private individual.
On the coins Suinthila's name is most commonly spelled: SVIN-
THI LA, but there are many variations largely attributable to inferior
die-engraving: SVINTILA, SINTILA, SINDILA, etc., etc.;1 REX,
RE, Rl, and R. Epithets are PIVS, IVSTVS, and (at Lucu and perhaps
Elvora) VICTOR.
Governor of Septimania at the time of his uprising
SISENAND against Suinthila, Sisenand allied himself with the
631 - 636 Frank Dagobert and with the assistance of a Frank-
ish army took possession of Cesaraugusta, where he
was proclaimed king, presumably after an election. Two years later,
on December 5, 633, at the Fourth Council of Toledo, the principle
of election to the throne by the assembly of nobles and bishops was
reaffirmed, and doubtless in view of Sisenand's acceptance of this
doctrine he was permitted to rule without internal dissension until his
death on March 12, 636. It has been customary to signalize provisions
of this Council as of prime significance in the history of the growing
ascendency of the clergy over the crown; but Sisenand's intention
probably was simply to justify his own action in dethroning his
predecessor.
Sisenand's name appears on the coins most commonly as: SISE-
NANDVS, quite frequently SIS IN ANDVS, SESENANDVS, and some-
times abbreviated by the omission, with or without indicative marks,
of the second N ;2 REX, RE, Rl, and R. Epithets are PIVS and IVSTVS.
I In one case (Acci, catalogue No. 218 (g), q.v.) his name, written retrograde,
gave rise to the idea of an entirely spurious prince "Jajita." This non-existent
name appears as "Tajita" in The Cambridge Medieval History, II, p. 193; as
"Jajito" in Murphy, p. 12.
II have counted more than 85 epigraphical or orthographical varieties of
the name.
80
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
The identity of Iudila, only two of whose coins are
IUDILA known,1 remains uncertain. The most plausible
Ca. 631-633 identification proposed so far is that Iudila is the
same person as Geila, brother of Suinthila, who,
according to the acts of the Fourth Council of Toledo (December 5,
633), was excommunicated and deprived of his property because of
his faithlessness to his brother and to Sisenand.2 We may be certain
at all events that Iudila was a rebel or pretender and that he was a
contemporary of Suinthila or Sisenand, for there is no doubt what-
ever of the similarity in style and fabric of Iudila's coin of Emerita
to those of Suinthila and Sisenand at the same mint. As Pio Beltran
has correctly pointed out, the identification3 of Iudila with Bishop
Uldila,4 an Arian conspirator whose name is mentioned in the chroni-
cles in connection with the reign of Reccared I, is not only unacceptable
in view of the style of the specimen of Emerita but also highly improba-
ble when one considers the composition of the hoard of La Capilla
in its entirety.5
Cervera, who acquired the Emerita coin and from whom it passed
to the HSA collection, is said to have known of an historical account
identifying Iudila, but this documentation, so far as I know, has never
been published.8
On the coin of Emerita the name appears clearly as IVDILA REX;
on that of Eliberri the legend is described as reading IV-ML A Rli X,
which is, in fact, the same, as . I and I . are simply careless engraving
(very characteristic of the period) of <1 and E. The epithet on both
coins is PI VS.
Sisenand's death was followed by the election of
OHINTILA Chintila, about whose reign we know nothing other
636-639 than the fact that the Fifth and Sixth Councils of
Toledo (in 636 and 639) were convened during this
1 Eliberri (La Capilla hoard, present ownership unknown), and Emerita (La
Capilla hoard, now HSA).
2 Beltran, Ampurias 1941, pp. 100-101.
3 Proposed by Pujol y Camps, Minguez, Fernandez y L6pez, Chabas, etc.
4 Further confused with a certain Gudila. Cf. Ballesteros, I, p. 870.
5 See the account of the hoard, pp. 166-171.
6 The principal discussions of the Iudila problem are contained in La Capilla^
pp. 43-54, Chabas in El Archivo V (Valencia, 1891), p. 260, Campaner, pp. 565,
567, Engel, 1898, p. 128, Hiibner, p. 96, idem, Deutsche Litteraturzeitung, col. 500,
Beltran, Ampurias 1941, pp. 99-101, Reinhart, 1941, pp. 191-192. Other
literature is cited in Beltran, op.cit., p. 100, footnote 1.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES
31
period. Canons of these Councils enunciated further safeguards with
respect to the person and dignities of the king, and provisions defining
his relationship to the electorate; as well as further restrictive
measures directed against the Jews. The reigns of both Chintila and
his successor Tulga appear to have been dominated by the clerical
hierarchy. Chintila died December 20, 639.
The spelling of the name on the coins is: CHINTILA (CINTHILA
on some coins of Emerita and Eminio, and CINTILA on a unique
piece of Petra), REX, RE, and R. Epithets are PIVS and IVSTVS.
In spite of all the precautions taken by the nobles
TULGA against hereditary succession, Chintila's son, Tulga,
639-642 was "elected" to the throne upon his father's death.
Of him we know only that he was too young and too
weak to control the restless elements of his court, and on April 17, 642,
he was deposed and banished to a monastery.
Tulga's name, except at Narbona and Tarracona, is spelled TVL-
GAN (Latinized for TVLGANVS?), REX, RE, and (at Cordoba on
one coin) RES. At the two excepted mints the spelling is TVLGA.
Epithets are PIVS and IVSTVS.
After the insurrection that resulted in the deposi-
CHTNDASVTNTH tion of Tulga, Chindasvinth, an extraordinarily
642 - 653 vigorous old man of seventy-nine years, was elected
king by the nobles and was anointed on April 30,
642. One of his first acts was to secure his position against any revolt
similar to that which had established him on the throne, to which end
he is alleged to have executed or deprived of their freedom 200 nobles
and 500 others. The Seventh Council of Toledo, October 18, 646,
tacitly condoned his acts, while providing further severe penalties
for various forms of treason, including clerical connivance. Although
ruthless in his political acts, Chindasvinth is remembered in the
chronicles as a patron of letters and a generous benefactor of the
Church; and it was during his reign that the preUminary work for the
unification of the Visigothic judicial structure was accomplished. In
the military field a Basque campaign is recorded, and a unique coin
of Emerita with the word VICTOR implies that some kind of warlike
success in Lusitania was achieved in Chindasvinth's time.
Having consolidated his own position, Chindasvinth took a further
extraordinary step toward absolute hereditary monarchy by formally
32
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
sharing the throne with his son Reccesvinth. This joint rule was
proclaimed on January 20, 649. From that date until the old man's
death on September 30, 653, Reccesvinth was the de facto ruler. It is
interesting to note that in the joint coinage Chindasvinth's name
appears on the obverse at Toleto, implying that he is the de jure
senior member of the partnership; but that in Ispali and Emerita
Chindasvinth's name is relegated to the reverse and Reccesvinth
takes the preeminent place on the obverse.
Chindasvinth's name is spelled in many different ways on the coins:
CHINDASVINTHVS, CHIND(A)SVIND, CHIND(A)SVID, CHINDAS-
VINTS, CINDASVINTVS, CINDASVINTS, CINDASVINTH, CIN-
D AS VINT, and many combinations in which use is made of the liga-
tures Us for ND, ND for IND, ND for NDA, N and W and N for HIND A,
NH for NTH, etc. Abbreviations are common. 0, or O is frequently
substituted for TH, and sometimes both the theta and T are used,
e.g., CfcJSVT9VS at Toleto and Emerita. During the joint rule with
Reccesvinth, the commonest forms are CfeJSVlNOVSfH and CN-
SVINDVSRE. The name is followed by REX, RE, Rl, R or rH, and
sometimes appears without the regal title. At Cordoba and Ispali the
imperial and earlier Visigothic practice of introducing the king's name
by DN is revived (at Cordoba in the form of a monogram DJ). Epithets
are PIVS, IVSTVS, and (at Emerita) VICTOR.
The remarkable numismatic innovation of Chindasvinth's rule is,
of course, the use of a mint monogram in the reverse area in place of
a bust. The practical reason for this new development, aside, from any
other influence that may have been responsible for the use of mono-
grams on the coins,1 was the displacement of the mint-name from
the border occasioned by the necessity of placing Reccesvinth's name
in that position.
The long independent rule of Reccesvinth, son of
RECCESVINTH Chindasvinth, began upon his father's death on Sep-
649-672 tember 30, 653, but as related above he became
virtual ruler as early as January 20, 649, when his
father shared the throne with him. During Chindasvinth's lifetime
(651) Reccesvinth had succeeded in suppressing a serious insurrection
led by a noble named Froya (Froja) and participated in by the always
rebellious Vascons. Despite this threat to the security of the throne
1 E.g., a resurgence of the influence of Byzantium, where cruciform mono-
grams (but not for mint-names) had been in use for some time.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES
33
and his own line (which surely Reccesvinth must have wanted to
perpetuate), the Eighth Council of Toledo in 653 provided less drastic
measures against rebels and reaffirmed once more the principle of
free election by the clergy and nobles, with the special provision that
the election was to be held immediately and in the locality where the
king died.
The greatest achievement of Reccesvinth's reign was the comple-
tion of the recodification and unification of Visigothic and Roman law,
begun during Chindasvinth's lifetime. The Liber Judiciorum (or Forum
Judicum)1 was concluded about 654. In the compilation of this code
Reccesvinth himself took an active part (it is frequently called the
Lex Beccesvindiana), and there is other evidence of his close associa-
tion with the prominent intellectual and religious figures of his time.
Two otherCouncils of Toledo, theNinth and Tenth (655 and 656), bear
testimony to this vigorous ruler's concern with matters of state and
Church. With all these constructive activities, however, as Manuel
Torres has pointed out, there are signs during this period of the
demorahzation and disintegration of the army, which little more than
a generation later paved the way for the easy conquest of the kingdom
by the Moslems.2 Another factor eventually affecting the internal
security of the state was the continued relentless persecution of the
Jews.
Reccesvinth died September 1, 672, in a villvJa named Gerticos
(locality uncertain) some 120 miles from Toledo and evidently not far
from Valladolid.
The commonest spelling of Reccesvinth's name on the coins is
RECCESV1N0VS (the theta taking the several forms 0, (D, O and
O); others are RECCESVIN9, RECCESVINTVS, RECCESVINDVS,
and R(E)CCISV(I)NT(V)S (Ispali). The only ligature used is N". The
regal title is rendered REX, RE, R and PH. The DN used in Baetica in
Chindasvinth's reign is abandoned. Epithets are PIVS and IVSTVS.
The innovations of the joint coinage with Chindasvinth are mentioned
in the preceding section. In one unidentified locality (mint No. 79,
p. 146, catalogue No. 380), a mint-monogram is used even after the
death of Chindasvinth.
1 Also known as the Leges Visigothorum, Liber Judicia, Liber Judicum,
Forum Juridicum; cf. F. S. Lear, "The Public Law of the Visigothic Code," in
Speculum, 1951, p. 2.
1 Cf. Menendez Pidal, p. 121.
3 vaigotb
34 VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Immediately following the death of Reccesvinth,
WAMBA and in the same locality where this event took place,
672-680 an election was held that resulted in the choice of
Wamba, a noble of advanced age. He was anoint-
ed by Bishop Quirico at Toledo on September 1, 672. Wamba's reign
is filled with warlike events. While engaged in the suppression of the
usual rebellion among the Vascons the king received word of another
serious uprising in Septimania led by Hilderic, Count of Nimes. To
cope with this new threat the king sent one of his generals, Duke Paul,
across the Pyrenees to bring the count and his several allies to heel.
Paul welcomed the assignment for he had already planned a revolt
on his own account, and while he took possession of Narbonne in the
king's name he thereupon declared the election of Wamba null and
void, had himself elected king and was recognized as such in all of
Septimania and a large part of Tarraconensis. However, Wamba
immediately taking vigorous action proceeded to recover Barcelona
and Gerona in Tarraconensis, as well as Narbonne and other cities in
Septimania which had declared for Paul; and finally, on September 2,
673, he captured the rebel, who had entrenched himself in the amphi-
theater at Nimes. Paul's life was spared, but he had to suffer the
ignominy of being paraded with shaved head in Wamba's triumphal
reentry into Toledo in November, 673.
This critical uprising resulted in appendices to the code of Recces-
vinth (673), designed to strengthen discipline within the army and to
reestablish the old military obligations of the citizenry, nobles and
clergy to the crown. Furthermore, as the rebellion was apparently
supported by Jewish elements, further strict anti-Semitic measures
were promulgated by the king. Laxity and abuses among the clergy
led to ecclesiastical reforms enunciated in the Eleventh Council of
Toledo in 675.
The internal troubles in the north were not Wamba's only military
concern, for there are indications that during his reign the first Arab
threat appeared at the southern extremity of the kingdom. We have
no reliable details, but there are later reports to the effect that Wam-
ba drove off an attempted Arab landing on the southern shore of the
peninsula, sinking 270 enemy ships.
On October 14, 680, Wamba was deposed by a palace clique
presumably headed by the courtier Ervig. There seems to be little
doubt that Wamba retired to the Monastery of Pampliega, near
Burgos, where he lived quietly until his death (before November, 683);
but one cannot take too seriously the 9th century story of the circum-
stances of his deposition. He is alleged to have been given a dose
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES
35
of poison designed to kill him but which in fact only rendered him
unconscious; while in a coma and "presumed" dead by the conspira-
tors his head was shaven and he was dressed in the garb of a monk;
when he regained consciousness he was no longer eligible to rule
because a provision of the Sixth Council of Toledo disqualified
penitents from the throne.1
Wamba's name is spelled VVAMBA, occasionally VVANBA. Ex-
cept atTarracona, where the legend is simply VVAMBA REX, the
name is preceded by various abbreviations and renderings of the
formula used henceforth to the end of the kingdom In Dei nom-
ine (l-D-N-M-N- or INDiN-M'E, etc., etc.), and followed by Pt. The
ligatures [\D and NB occur occasionally. At Ispali use is made of the
Greek A. The only epithet is PI VS.
On the day following the deposition of Wamba, the
ERVIG chief conspirator, Ervig, reportedly of Byzantine de-
680-687 scent and related through his mother to Chindasvinth
and Reccesvinth,2 was elected to the throne; on Oc-
tober 21, 680, he was formally anointed. His reign is chiefly memorable
for the various steps he took at the Twelfth, Thirteenth and Four-
teenth Councils of Toledo (681,683,684)to secure his position by means
of concessions to the nobles, including more lenient modifications of
Wamba's military law, by pardoning Duke Paul and other rebels,
and by proclaiming the doctrine of the inviolability of the person of
the king and his family. These expedients themselves, in conjunction
with the state of the realm which necessitated them, are clear
indications of the progressive decline of Visigothic unity and control.
There is some uncertainty with regard to the actual circumstances
which brought Ervig's rule to a close, but it appears that shortly
before his death, on November 15, 687, Ervig named his son-in-law
Egica as his successor.
Ervig's name is invariably spelled ERVIGIVS and is followed most
commonly by Pt, occasionally REX, R&, or R. The name is always
preceded by the formula In Dei nomine, in many forms of abbrevia-
1 For a thorough and critical examination of the sources and an analysis of
the circumstances of Wamba's deposition, and especially of Bishop Julian's
alleged part in the conspiracy, see Murphy, passim, and in particular, pp. 16,
18. Murphy rejects the tale of the poisoning as well as the story of Wamba's
seven-year monastic retirement.
* Murphy (p- 20) doubts that Ervig was a conspirator, and is skeptical about
his supposed lineage (p. 18).
;
30
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
tion, the commonest being I-D-N-M'N-E and I D-l'N-M'N*E (both with
numerous variations). The Greek A occurs at Ispali, as on the coins of
Wamba. The only epithet is PI VS.
One of the first acts of Egica, husband of Ervig's
EGICA daughter Cixilona (Cixila) and a relative of Wamba,
687-702 was to cast off his wife and marry another woman,
an act which, together with other persecutions of
Ervig's family, brought about an unsuccessful revolt on the part of
Sisbert, Metropolitan of Toledo, who was related to Cixilona.1 An
enactment of the Fifteenth Council of Toledo (688) provided Egica
with the necessary exemption from the obligation to protect the
family of his predecessor. During Egica's reign (Seventeenth Council
of Toledo, 694) we learn of further drastic legislation against the Jews,
this time of purely political motivation, certain Jews having, it
appears, conspired with Arab elements in North Africa to encourage
the invasion of the peninsula. Further work was done on the code of
the Forum Judicum, including revisions of Wamba's and Ervig's
provisions relating to the organization of the army, and once more the
perennial and now purely theoretical problem of loyalty to the
crown. One gains the impression that there were still further insur-
rections and that insecurity prevailed amid an atmosphere of national
moral deterioration and corruption.
Sometime about the year 698,2 Egica formally associated his son
Wittiza with him on the throne, having previously named him heir
apparent and Dux of Gallaecia, with residence in Tude. Egica him-
self died apparently between November 14 and December 31, 702.
On Egica's coins struck during his sole rule his name is invariably
spelled EGICA and is usually followed by P+, occasionally by REX
or R. On some issues at Toleto and Bracara PI is followed by VICTOR,
abbreviated in the forms V-CR, VCTR, VC"R, VCP, VTR, VR. Except
on one group of coins, the In Dei nomine formula always precedes the
name and is rendered in a great many ways and variously abbreviated,
1 Murphy (p. 18) points out the inconsistency implicit in the report that it
was Wamba (dead at the time of the Thirteenth Council of Toledo, 683) who
instigated Egica's repudiation of Cixilona; and hence casts doubt on the whole
episode as an invention.
1 The exact date is in doubt; some say 700 (cf.Menendez Pidal, p. 133). The
numismatic evidence would suggest the earlier date, for the number of pre-
served specimens of Egica's and Wittiza's joint coinage exceeds that of Egica's
alone (216 of the former, 168 of the latter), and it seems unlikely that all these
issues were the product of only two years.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES
37
the essential letters usually being INDNMN; the letters IND some-
times occur in the form of a ligature, Hj or ND. The exceptional group
is that with the VICTOR legend at Toleto, where the introductory
formula is In Christi nomine, the abbreviation usually being IN-f-
PINM, etc., where + P stands for Greek Chr. The Greek delta occurs
at Ispali. Epithets in addition to VICTOR, mentioned above, are
PIVS and IVSTVS.
During the joint rule with Wittiza, the spelling of Egica's name is
as before, and the introductory formula is In Dei nomine. The legend
terminates either with Pt (occasionally R X or R), or, at several mints,
with P+RG S (RES, RE'S, REG-, RG", RE, R, etc., etc.). As during the
combined rule of Chindasvinth and Reccesvinth, the names of the
mints are given in monogram form on the joint issues.
We owe to Pio Beltran the almost certain identi-
SCINla^r^I) ^ca^on ^ Suniefred, pretender and rebel against
early 693 Egica, who struck the unique triens of Toleto publish-
ed by Engel in 1898.1 Among the duces who signed
the acts of the Thirteenth Council of Toledo in 683 were Egica Comes
Scanciarum and Suniefredus Comes Scanciarum, the former doubt-
less the later king, the latter in all probability the person in whose
name the coin in question was issued. In Canon IX of the Sixteenth
Council of Toledo (May, 693) we learn of the excommunication and
deposition of Bishop Sisbert (see above, under Egica), who had
succeeded St. Julian at Toledo in March, 690. The reason for his
disgrace was his support of a rebellion against Egica. To judge by the
circumstance that the Sixteenth Council was delayed in convening
because of the necessity of appointing a new Metropolitan to displace
the disloyal Sisbert, this insurrection must have taken place shortly
before the address from the throne (April 25, 693), in other words
1 The earlier proposals of Engel and Mowat (see the bibliography in the
catalogue at No. 454), identifying Suniefred with (a) Cuniefredus (Cunifredus,
Cunefridus, etc.) Comes Spatariorum, a palace functionary who was among the
signers of the acts of the Eighth Council of Toledo in 653, or (b) an unknown
rebel in the early days of Wamba's reign, perhaps associated with Duke Paul,
should now be abandoned. G. Cirot ("Un nouveau Roi Wisigoth," see biblio-
graphy) in 1899 properly questioned the plausibility of Engel's identification.
Manuel Torres (in Menendez Pidal, pp. 122-123) inclines toward the attribution
of the coins of Suniefred and Iudila (also the non-existent "Jajita," see pp. 29,
93) to the period of Reccesvinth-Wamba, or even earlier, i.e., (Chindasvinth.
Murphy (p. 12), referring to Torres, for some reason spells Suniefred's name
"Gunifredo."
38
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
late in 692 or early in 693. It would appear, therefore, that the pre-
tender backed by Sisbert was Suniefred, perhaps a relative of Ervig.
Beltran has pointed out that the style of the Suniefred coin, with
bust type 2gg, is most closely related to that of Egica's Types D and
E, which I have placed toward the end of his reign.
The name on the single coin known is spelled SVNIEFREDVS, and
is preceded by the abbreviated In Dei nomine formula, D-NE\ The
epithet is PI VS.
While the date November 14, 700, is given in one
WITTIZA source as that of the anointing of Wittiza as king,
Ca. 698-710 it would seem likely that the joint rule with his
father began as early as 698 (see above, p. 36). At
all events his sole rule began with Egica's death late in 702. The
course of history during the period from Egica's death until the end
of the kingdom is obscure in the extreme and has been rendered the
more so by the perpetuation of many legends of later date relating
to the last days of the Visigoths and the Arab conquest.1 The loss of
the acts of the Eighteenth Council of Toledo (704) deprives us of our
chief source of reliable information for these years. It does appear
certain that early in his reign Wittiza pardoned all those who had
suffered persecution or punishment under his father an indication
perhaps of weakness rather than of Christian clemency; and that like
all of his immediate predecessors he was forced to cope with serious
insurrection within the kingdom. One conspirator whom he is said
to have blinded was Theodofred, Duke of Cordoba; another, a cer-
tain Pelagius (Pelayo), son of DukeFafila, who had revolted against
Wittiza because the latter when resident in Tude had with his own
hand killed his father Fafila. An alleged defeat of the Arabs (or the
Greeks?) at sea appears to be inadequately documented. Even the
date of Wittiza's death is uncertain: 710 is the most likely, but 708
or 709 are sometimes given. There seems to be agreement, however,
that he died a natural death in Toledo.
Wittiza's name is invariably spelled WITTIZA (second T and I,
and final A very rarely omitted)2 both on the joint issues with Egica
and on his own coins as sole ruler. On the joint issues the name is
1 For the critical literature on these legends, see Menendez Pidal, p. 140,
note 24.
* It is curious that Manuel Torres spells the name Vitiza, when the over-
whelming evidence of the coins, which are after all the only reliable contempo-
rary documents, shows that the name was spelled Wittiza.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES
39
followed by FH or R, and at a number of mints by P+ (REX, RX) plus
REGES, REGIS, REGS, RGS, REG, RG, etc., sometimes with points
indicating omitted letters. The In Dei nomine formula (IDN, INMNE,
IND1NE, IDINME, INDINME, INDENME, etc., etc.) occurs on some,
but not all, of the joint coins of Narbona, Mentesa, Cordoba, Egabro,
Eliberri, Ispali, Tucci, Egitania, Emerita and Salmantica. On the coins
of Wittiza's sole rule, the name is followed by Pi, RX or P (for R); at
Cesaragusta and Tarracona the title is sometimes missing and is
replaced by dots. At all mints except Mentesa the name is preceded
by the In Dei nomine formula, variously abbreviated INDNNE,
INDNN, IDNMNE, IDNNE, IDINME, DNM, etc., etc., sometimes with
points indicating omitted letters. Ligatures include \A>, VD and
J-D for (ND). The only epithet is PI VS.
The career of Roderic is even more obscured by
RODERIC legends than that of his predecessor Wittiza. The
Ca. 710-711 familiar and now largely discredited tale of Rode-
ric's violation of Count "Julian's"1 daughter Flo-
rinda (or La Cava), the consequent collaboration of the Count with the
Arabs, the circumstances of Roderic's death, and the supposed dis-
covery of his grave in Viseu in the 9th century, have been much dis-
cussed, and all these matters have been submitted to searching
criticism.2 The verified facts are few. Immediately after Wittiza's
death (probably early in 710) the assembly of nobles and bishops
elected Roderic, then Dux of Baetica, to the throne. Thereupon, a
revolt of the "Wittiza party" ensued, led presumably by Oppa,
Metropolitan of Seville, who is believed to have been Wittiza's brother.
Civil war followed, with Wittiza's son Achila (see below) claiming
the throne in the north. According to one school of thought, however,
the Wittiza faction was unable to sustain its cause against Roderic's
forces, and Oppa (as well as Achila, some say; but see below) fled to
1 Urban, Urbain, Olban, Ulban, Alyan, Ulyan, etc., a Berber chief of Christian,
religion, or, more probably, the Byzantine exarch of Septem (Ceuta). For a
summary of the many theories, cf. Levi-Provencal, Histoire, I, p. 11.
* For the extensive bibliography, cf. Ballesteros, pp. 895-896, Menendez
Pidal, p. 140, footnotes 24ff., Lot, Pfister & Ganshof, p. 242, footnotes 38-40,
al-Himyari, pp. 10-11. For the Arabic versions and sources, see especially
R. Dozy, Recherches sur Vhiatoire et la litterature de VEapagne pendant le moyen
Age (3rd ed.), I, pp. 1-72.
40
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Count "Julian," in league with the Arabs in Ceuta.1 Roderic then,
early in 711, turned his attention to the usual Vascon rebellion in
the north. A few months later Roderic hurried south to meet his
unhappy destiny, the Arab invasion. Events moved with startling
rapidity. Tariq b. Ziyad, Arab governor of Tangier, had crossed the
straits in April or May, 711, and between July 19 and 26 of the same
year Roderic was opposed and overwhelmed by the Arabs, the latter
in alliance with "Julian" and other Wittiza partisans. The battle,
usually erroneously called the Battle of Guadalete, took place near
Medina-Sidonia beside the Rio Barbate and near the lagoon of La,
Janda.2 Tariq, quickly following up his unexpected victory, pro-
ceeded to capture Ecija, Cordoba and Toledo in rapid succession.
Roderic's own fate is unknown: some say he fled to the northwest and.
survived for some years, but in all probability he died in the battle.
On the coins (limited so far as we know to Toleto and Egitania)
Roderic's name, preceded by INDNE and followed by Ft, RE or R-, is
spelled RVDERICVS." The only epithet is PI VS.
The life of Achila, like that of Roderic, is clothed in
ACHILA II obscurity. The most important evidence of his ex-
Ca. 710-714 istence is numismatic. A few facts are relatively cer-
tain : one of three sons of Wittiza,4 he had been named,
during his father's lifetime, Dux of Tarraconensis and Septimania,
doubtless with the intention that he should succeed to the rule.
Roderic's election and Achila's claim to the throne, supported by his
1 The remarkable hybrid Arab coppers of Tanjah (Tangier) with busts of
Visigothic type must have been struck at about this time or a little later
(H. Lavoix, Catalogue des monnaies musulmanes de la Bibliotheque Nationals,
I, Paris, 1891, nos. 1487 and 1678; cf. idem, "Monnaie arabe au type visi-
goth," RNB, 1860, pp. 239-241, Longperier, op. cit. in bibliography, and
Miles, Umayyads, p. 21. There is also a specimen in the Royal Cabinet in.
Stockholm). The busts probably take their inspiration from types of Wittiza's.
* For a full discussion of the locality, see Levi-Provencal, Histoire, I,
pp. 15-16.
3 Roderic being one of the few Visigothic kings whose names is familiar to
the general reader, I have avoided pedantry by conforming with long-
established English usage and have used the form Roderic everywhere except
in the transcription of the coin legends.
* For the identification of Wittiza with the Acosta, and Achila with the Elie
{Elye, Elgie) of al-Razi, see F. Fernandez y Gonzalez, "Los Reyes Acosta y
Elier (Agila II) ...," Expand Moderna, XI (1889), pp. 83-103.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES
41
mother, his uncle (?) Oppa, and other elements of the Wittiza faction,
must have taken place simultaneously. What happened to Achila
himself when Roderic by a greater show of strength forced the Wittiza
group to scatter is by no means clear. Whether he did in fact flee to
Africa and, in concert with Count "Julian," make a pact with Musa
b. Nusayr, by the terms of which he was to inherit the kingdom after
the defeat of Roderic, is uncertain; but the tradition1 of the proposed
division of Wittiza's patrimony (supposedly confirmed by the Caliph
al-Walid in Damascus and by Musa in Africa, but contravened by
Tariq after the victory at the lagoon of La Janda) among Achila and
his two brothers, Ohnund and Ardabast, is not on the face of it
improbable. According to this alleged agreement Achila was to
receive the eastern estates, with his residence at Toledo, Olmund the
western, with residence at Seville, and Ardabast the central proper-
ties, with Cordoba as his residence. But we have no secure knowledge
of Achila's ultimate fate.
The numismatic evidence, which is of such importance in this
connection, suggests that Achila did in fact maintain a certain
independence in the north for several years. He struck coins of at
least two types at Narbona, and he issued others at Gerunda and
Tarracona in Tarraconensis. G. Amardel, who devoted more attention
to the coins of Achila than any other writer,2 quite convincingly
argued: (a) that the crude coins of Narbona are later than those of
Wittiza; (b) that the two types of busts and the relatively considerable
number of coins of Narbona preserved3 indicate a rule of several
years; (c) that these coins were struck after the Arab occupation
of the peninsula, ca. 711-719; (d) that Achila's coins of Tarracona4
were issued between 711 and 713 or 714. In general I would agree with
these conclusions, but would modify them somewhat.51 see no reason
1 Preserved in the Arab chronicles. Cf. Dozy, Recherches, I (3rd ed.), pp. 65 ff.
* See his various articles cited in the bibliography and the catalogue,
especially "Le roi Achila" in Bulletin de la Commission arcMologique de Nar-
bonne, II (1892-1893), pp. 425-445.
3 Actually I have been able to account for only seven specimens, but there
may be more; see the comment in the catalogue, p. 444, with regard to the
extreme difficulty I have had in eliminating duplication of references.
4 There is in fact only one specimen. Amardel had no knowledge of the
specimen of Gerunda.
e Pio Beltran evidently does not consider that the identity of Achila is in any
sense certain. He even questions whether Achila was Wittiza's son, and, as for
the coins, he is of the opinion that their style shows that they are of the period
of Wittiza," igual pudieran ser del tiempo de Egica que del de Wittiza."
See Ampurias 1941, p. 104, footnote 1. Certainly the debased "art" of these
42
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
to suppose that Achila did not begin to issue coins in his name im-
mediately after his father's death. One difficulty is, of course, the
uncertainty of the date of Wittiza's death. Amardel argues that there
is a missing link between Wittiza's and Achila's coins at Narbona, pre-
sumably Roderic's, and that therefore Achila's issues do not begin
until after Roderic's defeat and disappearance. But, in my opinion,
the strands of the history of these final days, tenuous as they are,
suggest that Roderic never was in a position to strike coins at Narbona
and that Achila's first issue there is to be dated in 710 (or earlier, if it
should be established that Wittiza died in 708 or 709). While there is
insufficient numismatic material to develop a chronology for the
Narbona issues extending over eight years, there is enough at least to
lend support to the Mozarabic tradition that Achila ruled three years.
For Tarracona certainly, this date (probably 714) for the conclusion of
Achila's reign would be quite acceptable, for it was in that year that the
city was temporarily taken by the Arabs. Whether he held out longer
(but not later than 719) at Narbona cannot be determined on the
evidence at present available.
Achila's name is spelled on the coins ACHI LA. On at least three of
the specimens, points (iand:) are introduced between A and C, and
on one specimen a single point occurs between I and L. These points
can hardly signify omitted letters (as they frequently did in the earlier
Visigothic coinage), but what significance, if any, they have is un-
certain. Such apparently meaningless points sometimes are met with on
coins of Suinthila, Sisenand and Chintila. Achila's name is followed
by rH and is preceded by the In Dei nomine formula, debased to
M-NE (orkE), l-CNE, I-0IE, NDINE, or lt>-HN\ On one specimen,
the obverse legend is ACHILARBOHAP, doubtless for ACHILA
NARBON A[E] R[EX]. The only epithet is PIVS.
coins is comparable to that of most of the coinage from Egica onward, but I
cannot agree that one can possibly discriminate in point of time among the
grotesque caricatures on the coinage during the last twenty-odd years of the
Visigothic kingdom. Supporting the attribution of Achila's coins to the very
end of the series, Amardel has pointed out, is the extreme corruption of the
In Dei nomine formula.
EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES1
"MINTLESS" ISSUES
Leovigild: The obverses of Leovigild's autonomous "mintless" tri-
entes bear busts facing right (types 1 a-d, and several variations),
with a cross on the breast. These busts developed from those of the
earlier anonymous trientes of Leovigild and his predecessors on which
appear the names of Justinus I, Justinian and Justinus II, these in
turn evolving from the trientes in the name of Anastasius struck
toward the end of the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse and during the
first years of the rule in Toledo.*
While these busts face to the right and are therefore in the tradition
of the contemporary Byzantine tremisses, it would appear that the
breast ornamentation (such as it is) develops rather from the Byzan-
tine solidi with facing busts; at least the bust types 1 a and 1 c suggest
this evolution. The circle on the left "shoulder" (right, to the viewer)
probably derives from the knot on the left shoulder of the emperor
which appears at least as early as Zeno,3 while the corresponding
circle on the other shoulder may at first have been suggested by the
finger of the hand holding the scepter, later misunderstood and stylized
to balance the first.4 The several styles of related busts are doubtless
1 The types listed and illustrated on pp. 54-66 are to a considerable degree
generalized and conventionalized. Examination of the plates will reveal that
there are many modifications and variations which it would be impracticable
to represent as distinctive sub-types; but at least the principal traitu of Visi-
gothic iconography are provided for in this scheme, and despite the fact that
numerous variations are not represented, the reader will be better able to
identify a given type by reference to this classification than by the customary
simple "buste de face," "busto de perfil," "busto diademado," etc.
1 The development of these busts can most conveniently be studied in Rein-
hart's plates: Deutsches Jahrbuch filr Numismatik, 1938, pi. 7; ibid. 1940/41,
pis. 7, 9, 10, 11; Archivo Espanol de Arqueologia, 1945, figs. 1, 2, 4; and cf. for
similar degeneration of imperial busts among the Merovingians, Deutsches
Jahrbuch fur Numismatik, 1939, pis. 3-4.
* Cf. Tolstoi, Monnaies Byzantines, pis. 9-10.
4 For various degrees of similar stylization of these "knots" see such
Frankish imitations of Anastasius as those of the "Tresor de Chinon" (Charles
Robert in Annuaire de la SociitdFrancaise de Numismatique et d' Archiologie, VI
(1882), pi. IV.
44
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
attributable to different mints in Spain, but material of established
provenance is still too scanty to warrant positive attribution.1
The reverses of all Leovigild's "mintless" coins bear the grotesque,
characteristically Visigothic stylized "Victory" striding right (at this
ultimately from a common Roman prototype,2 the figure of Victory,
right or left, holding a crown in one hand and a palm leaf in the other.3
Bust type 1 c, with the "Victory" reverse, also occurs on the ear-
liest issue of Toleto on which the name of the mint appears (the unique
coin published by Florez).4 Thereafter, not only at Toleto, but also
at Barcinona, Cesaragusta, Rodas, Tirasona, Reccopolis, Ispali,
Italica, Elvora and Emerita, there are issues of Leovigild with the
same bust (1 c) on the obverse but with a new reverse, the cross on four
steps % (three at Rodas and usually at Emerita). This reverse
derives from the cross on four steps of Tiberius II Constantinus
(Emperor, A. D. 578-582), who was, of course, Leovigild's contem-
porary.
With the introduction of this new reverse type we arrive at a point
d'appui for the discussion of the chronology of Leovigild's coins. The
cross-on-steps reverse cannot date before the very end of 578 or the
beginning of 579, for Tiberius' issue of this type occurred between
September and November, 578.5 We must, therefore, date Leovigild's
Victory reverse types to the ten years between 568 and 578, the most
probable approximate break-down of these earlier types being: (a) the
1 Cf. Reinhart's attempts in DJ.f.N., 1940/41, pp. 81-84, and in A.E.d.A.,
1945, pp. 226-230.
! Cf. Reinhart, "Die fruheste Miinzpragung im Reiche der Merowinger,"
D.J.f.N., 1939, p. 40, and idem, "El Arte monetario Visigodo," Boletin del
Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologia (Valladolid), X (1943-1944), p. 54.
3 For Reinhart's criticism of Mateu y Llopis' emphasis on Byzantine in-
fluences in the "art" of the earlier Visigothic coinage ("El Arte monetario
Visigodo," A.E.d.A., 1943, pp. 172-193), see the former's article in the Boletin
(Valladolid), cited in the footnote immediately above, pp. 53-57, and A.E.d.A.,
1945, p. 220.
* What became of this specimen ? In view of the fact that the coin is unique,
that it has never been illustrated except in a drawing, and that its present
whereabouts is unknown, it is perhaps proper to question its authenticity.
6 B.M.Cat. Imperial Byzantine Coins, I, p. 105, note 2, p. 108, note 1.
date more resembling an insect than the goddess)
EARLIEST ISSUES OF NAMED MINTS
EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES
45
anonymous types (not dealt with in this volume), 568 - ca. 574 ;x (b)
Types A-C (Nos. 1-3 in the catalogue), with the names of Justinus II
(or the like) and Leovigild, ca. 575-576; (c) Types D-G (Nos. 4-7
in the catalogue), withLeovigild's name on both obverse and reverse,
also co. 575-576; (d) Type H (No. 8 in the catalogue), with REX
INC LI TVS on the reverse, ca. 576-578. While the comprehensive
dates for the "mintless" issues can be accepted as quite secure,
the particular chronology for the several groups is presented with
great reserve, for one must eonsider the probability that several of
these types were being struck simultaneously at different mints, as
Reinhart has suggested.
For the rest of Leovigild's issues I propose the following chrono-
logy.2 The coins with bust to the right (type 1 c) obverse, and cross-
on-steps reverse, were struck at the mints named between 579 and
584 at the latest. During this period we have the following more or
less certain date indications from non-numismatic sources that enable
us to fix the dates of the cross-on-steps reverse:3 Bodas, ca. 581;
Emerita, late 582; Italics, 582 or 583; Ispali, 584. For the other mints
at which the 1 c/cross-on-steps type was issued (Barcinona, Cesar-
agusta, Tirasona, Beccopolis, Toleto, Elvora), we have no sure ex-
ternal chronological guide, but the dates cannot be later than 584, be-
cause: (a) the new facing busts were introduced at Cordoba in 584 (see
the history of the city, p. 106), and (b) all these mints (except Tirasona),
as well as Bodas, Ispali and Emerita, issued coins with facing busts
after abandoning the 1 c/cross-on-steps type. Two years (584-586) is
the minimum we can allow for the types with facing busts; at Ispali
there are various combinations of facing busts after 584, the year in
which the first Cum Deo obtinuit Spali (etc.) coins of 1 c/cross-on-
steps type were struck. There is one other quite certain historical
event that supports this chronology: the coin of Portocale with
facing busts, which in all probability dates from the year 585.4 Aside
1 Cf. Reinhart's articles referred to above, Madrid, pp. 139ff., and Stefan,
pp. 108-110, for the proposed dating of these earlier types.
* I am not in complete agreement with Reinhart's dating or with Cabr6's
arguments in Zorita de los Canes, although I have of course taken their dis-
cussions into consideration, as well as the earlier arguments of Gorres and the
fanciful Fernandez-Guerra.
* Cf. the histories of the individual mints and the sketch of Leovigild's
career (pp. 2123) for the documentation.
* The description of the coin of Bracara, allegedly with 1 c bust on obverse
and reverse is almost certainly wrong (see the catalogue, p. 197). Aside from
the fact that the date must be 585, there is no other known example of a coin
with profile bust on both obverse and reverse.
46
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
from these considerations, 584 was the year in which Hermenegild's
rebellion was finally suppressed, and a strong case can be made for
the introduction in this year of the facing bust reverse (and obverse)
in recognition of Reccared's now exclusive position as heir to the
throne.
EMERGENCE OF THE FACING BUSTS
It has generally been accepted that in the new types with facing bust
on obverse and reverse, the reverse bust represents the heir apparent.
Some have been inclined to see in the reverse the portrait of the
queen, or of the emperor, but neither proposal is likely.1 Although the
concept of representing the son and heir on the reverse almost
certainly occasioned the introduction of the two facing busts in
Leovigild's time, in the later course of Visigothic history, when
opposition to hereditary succession to the throne was repeatedly
expressed through legislation and uprisings, it seems scarcely likely
that the reverse could have represented the heir apparent; and I im-
agine that the second bust came simply to be a convention without
meaning, or, if the reverse was considered to represent anyone at
all, it was thought of as another representation of the ruler.
There appears to be no immediate prototype for the facing busts
introduced by Leovigild in the last years of his reign. The ultimate
inspiration is certainly from the contemporary Byzantine facing
types, but all of Leovigild's facing busts are so original in their
appearance that we must essentially credit the Visigoths with the
creation of a new numismatic type. It is true that there is one contem-
porary Merovingian coin with a facing bust quite similar to some
of Leovigild's: a tiers certainly correctly attributed to Childebert II
(575-596), rather than Childebert I (511-558), first published by
A. de Longperier.2 There is some reason to believe that there may
have been borrowing here, one way or the other, for marriages were
proposed between Reccared and Rigonthe (Rigunta), daughter of
Chilperic, or Clodosvinta, daughter of Childebert, and perhaps be-
tween Leovigild's daughter and Childebert. A Frankish embassy to
Leovigild about 582, and Visigothic embassies to Chilperic about 584
1 Cf., for example, C. Piot in RNB 1842, p. 264; Heiss, p. 29; Elias Garcia,
Lamecum, pp. 11-13. Contra: Reinhart, A.E.d.A., XX (1947), pp. 127-128.
1 Notice des monnaies francaises composant la collection de M. J. Rousseau,
Paris, 1847, no. 90, pp. 27-28 (cf. Robert, II, p. 58, no. 3; Traiti, I, p. 73,
fig. 180).
EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES
47
and in 587, were concerned with these negotiations.1 However, H.
Longuet, who has made a detailed study of this and later Merovingian
facing busts in a very interesting article,2 quite persuasively denies
that there was any Visigothic influence in the creation of Merovingian
facing busts, and maintains rather that the various types developed
on the one hand through imitation of Byzantine facing busts and on
the other through barbaric deformations of the facing Byzantine
Victory.3 Whether there was any exchange of influence or not among
Visigoths and Merovingians in this respect, the fact remains that the
facing bust became the Visigothic type par excellence, whereas it was,
on the whole, exceptional among the Merovingians.
To return to Leovigild's facing busts, it is to be noted that there
are several quite distinctive experimental types at Narbona, Recco-
polis and Emerita (3 a-g), while at Cesaragusta the characteristic
Tarraconese type (4 a, b, d), which was to persist for a long time to
come in this province, is introduced. Elsewhere in Tarraconensis (at
Barcinona and Rodas), as well as at Narbona, Reccopob's and mints
in Baetica, Lusitania and Gallaecia, there appear several varieties of
the simple common Visigothic facing bust with criss-cross breast and
rounded or angular neck-line ( 5 a, b, c, h, k, 1, m, aa). At Emerita, in
addition to the distinctive types (3 d and e) and the common type
(5 1), there is one issue with a reverse somewhat resembling the low
bust characteristic of Barcinona under Reccared, Liuva II and
Witteric (6 a, d), and finally at the same mint on two issues, the
earliest form of the eventual standard Lusitanian (or Emeritan) obverse
bust makes its appearance (8 a). At Cordoba we meet with the earliest
form of the pleated-toga bust which later in its degenerated skeleton-
like guise was to become the conventional Cordoban type (9 a, b).
1 Cf. Lot, Pfister & Ganshof, p. 259, Menendez Pidal, pp. 100, 105, 111,
Traiti, p. 73.
* "Les triens merovingiens au buste de face," in RN, 1930, pp. 173-190; cf.
also idem, "A propos du monnayage merovingien," in RN, 1939, p. 51.
3 There are Merovingian facing busts from Chalon-sur-Saone, Compreignac,
Diablentas, Paris, Cambrai, Aosta, Lausanne, Avenches, Tonnerre, Besancon,
St. Jean-de-Maurienne, Laon, Chitry-les-Mines, Candes, Argentat, Troyes,
Foix, Thiverzay, Sees, Celle-l'Evecault, and Angers. They can best be reviewed
in Longuet's article in RN 1930 (pi. VII); cf. also Belfort, nos. 51, 586, 1239,
1331, 1611, 1735, 2117-18, 3372-80, 4249, 4783, 4797; Traiti, p. 162, and, for
Chalon-sur-Saone, G. de Ponton d'Amecourt in Annuaire de la Sociiti Fran-
faise de Numiamatique, pp. 37-152, pis. VI-VII. There are some English
sceattas with facing busts, almost certainly related to the Merovingian: cf.
B.M. Cat. of English Coins, Anglo-Saxon Series, I, nos. 143-150 (pi. Ill,
nos. 14-18).
48
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
A distinctive feature of all the facing busts, with the exception of
Leovigild's first experimental ones (where in some cases the king
appears to be wearing a crown),1 and of some of the childlike busts
toward the end of the Visigothic coinage, is the bare head and long
flowing locks descending almost to the shoulders in braids or curls
on each side of the head. The long hair was the "badge of nobility and
perhaps of racial superiority" of the Gothic kings,2 and there is little
doubt but that this characteristic of the Visigothic facing bust is a
true reflection of the "national" quality of the new coinage; that is,
we have here the evidence not only of a divorcement from imperial
ties but of the conscious creation of a proud and peculiarly Gothic
independence of style.
THE PROVINCIAL TYPES
Beginning with the final issues of Leovigild and extending down
through Tulga's coinage, and at some mints even later, there were
developed, as indicated above, certain provincial styles. These may be
summarized as follows:
A. Tarraconensis: The prevailing type is the quite distinctive
Tarraconese bust (type 4), wearing the paludamentum fastened with
a fibula, usually on the right shoulder, occasionally on the left (Leo-
vigild and Reccared at Cesaragusta, Reccared at Dertosa and Tira-
sona). The inspiration is essentially Roman rather than Byzantine.
Leovigild's issue of this type at Cesaragusta shows the fibula in the
form of a rosette, perhaps indicating a pin encrusted with jewels,
resembling some of the fibulae found in Visigothic graves.3 Barcinona
did not conform to the type, having under Reccared, Liuva and
Witteric a squat bust of its own (6 a, b, c), as noted above in the
discussion of Leovigild's types. As no issues of Barcinona are known
between Witteric and Egica, one is unable to say whether the mint
eventually adopted the Tarraconese type. Gerunda followed the lead
of Barcinona under Witteric but conformed to the Tarraconese type
under Sisenand and Chintila. Rodas likewise used the type of Barci-
1 Taken by some writers to be positive evidence bearing out Isidore's state-
ment to the effect that Leovigild was the first Goth actually to wear a crown.
Cf. Reinhart, 1941, p. 190. Or is it a helmet ? See Reinhart, loc. ext., footnote 1,
p. 46, above.
a Cf. F. S. Lear's note on decalvation in "The Public Law of the Visigothic
Code," Speculum, 1951, pp. 15-16.
3 Cf. Reinhart, 1941, p. 191.
EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES
49
nona under Reccared; no further specimens of its coinage are known
until Egica. The borderland mint of Valentia employs the Tarraconese
type under Suinthila, but more universal types (5 f, o) under Chintila.1
Outside the province, Narbona makes use of the Tarraconese type
in the time of Suinthila and Chindasvinth, but otherwise uses several
varieties of the common style of Carthaginensis, Baetica, etc.
B. Carthaginensis: The commonest types are 5 d, e, and f, a simple
facing bust, with criss-cross breast, the essential elements being con-
verging oblique lines, the spaces between them filled with a sort of
basket-weave or lattice-work of crossing lines. At the capital, Toleto,
the usual form is 5 e. Frequently the breast takes the form of two
slanting "ladders" meeting at the neck (f). There are several minor
varieties: the cross-in-face bust similar to 5 f at Mentesa (5 g), the
three-vertical-line bust (5 1) under Tulga at Beatia, and under Liuva
at Toleto (5 n), and some other similar crude types resembling Gallae-
cian issues.
C. Baetica: The general type does not differ essentially from that
of Carthaginensis, i. e., the simple facing bust: 5 e or f at Asidona,
Barbi, Eliberri, Ispali, Malaca and Tucci. At Ispali under Leovigild
there are some distinctive variations: elongated busts (5 h, m), and
the angular three-vertical-line bust (51) which is relatively common in
other provinces. The mint of Cordoba, in addition to the ordinary 5 e
under Suinthila and Sisenand, has a distinctive bust of its own, which
first appears under Leovigild (9 a, see above p. 47) and then degener-
ates into a type (9 b, c) which is characteristic of the mint down to the
time of Chindasvinth. The same type is copied at Eliberri under the
latter ruler. Chintila introduces a new type at Cordoba, the breast
taking the form of a cross (10 a); and this is continued under Tulga and
C!hindasvinth, and copied under the latter at Eliberri. Also under
Chindasvinth and Reccesvinth the breast is sometimes in the form of a
wheel, probably in origin a chrismon (10 b), and finally under Recces-
vinth only the head remains (10 d, e, f).
D. Lusitania: It has become customary to speak of a "Lusitanian"
type, the breast of the obverse bust rounded and suggesting a breast-
plate (8 a-d), the reverse a peculiarly elongated bust, the lower
extremities of which usually project into and interrupt the marginal
legend (7). This type appears under various rulers at a number of
Lusitanian mints (Egitania, Eminio, Lamego, Valentia, Veseo), but
it is so regular and characteristic at Emerita from Reccared down
through Chindasvinth that it might more properly be called the
1 See p. 90, where the mint of Valentia is discussed.
i Visigoth
50
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
"Emeritan type." While this is the predominant type, nevertheless
at a number of Lusitanian mints varieties of the common facing busts
appear sporadically: 5 e at Caliabria and Coleia, 5 1 at Contosolia,
5 d at Egitania, 5 d, e at Elvora, a variation of 5 1 at Emerita,
5 a, d, 1, m and r at Eminio, 5 1 at Lamego, 5 f, 1 at Monecipio, 5 d, e
and 1 at Salmantica, and 5 f, o at Totela. At Emerita under Tulga
there is an issue with a chrismon or cross in the breast (10 c), doubtless
inspired by Cordoban types. An extraordinary issue of Sisebut, also
at Emerita (No. 194) revives the cross-on-steps of Leovigildan type.
E. Gallaecia: The principal characteristic of the numerous but
sparsely represented Gallaecian mints is the crudity of the busts,
which are of the common, essentially Carthaginensis facing types,
5 a, d, e, f, i, j, 1, n, o, q, t, u, v, w, x, y, z, aa, the most typical perhaps
being the somewhat elongated triangular three-vertical-line bust (5 1,
n, o, etc.). It is interesting to note, especially in the light of diocesan
and administrative circumstances (see the individual mint histories),
that at quite a few Gallaecian mints the influence of Lusitania is
evident in the occasional appearance of the distinctive "Emeritan"
busts, usually on both obverse and reverse, occasionally on one side
only: at Bracara under Witteric and Chindasvinth, at Calapa and
Fraucello under Chindasvinth, at Celo( ?) under Sisebut, at Lucu
under Sisebut and Chindasvinth, at Pannonias under Witteric, at
Portocale under Sisebut and Suinthila, and at Tude under Reccared,
Witteric and Sisebut. At Georres, Suinthila has an issue on which
appears a distinctive bust (8 e), doubtless inspired by the Lusitanian
obverse. Finally at several Gallaecian mints (Cassavio, Lucu, Mave,
Pincia and Toriviana) certain peculiar busts and faces appear, which
I have grouped together under type 12 (a, b, c, d, e).
As Pveinhart has pointed out,1 there has been a tendency to classify
Visigothic coins too rigidly along provincial lines and according to too
many type categories. There are, in fact, only four main types: the
Tarraconese (with Narbona), the Carthaginensian and Baetican (of
which the Gallaecian is a crude variety), the Cordoban, and the
Emeritan.2 At all events, it is to be remembered that broadly speak-
ing the "provincial" classification is valid only in the period between
Reccared and Reccesvinth.
1 Die Munzen ... von Toledo, pp. 89-90.
2 Reinhart prefers three, with the Gallaecian as an "Abart" of the Cartha-
ginensian; but I consider the Cordoban type to be sufficiently distinctive to
classify it alone. On the classification of provincial types, see also Beltran,
Suevia, pp. 97-99.
EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES
51
THE TYPES FROM RECCE SVINTH TO THE END
Early in the year 649, when Chindasvinth pro-
1 Profile Busts lamie(^ h18 80n Reccesvinth as joint ruler, a
'- revolutionary change takes place in the style of
Visigothic coinage: the facing bust is abandoned
on both obverse and reverse, and in its place the oldLeovigildan profile
bust (1 c) is revived on the obverse, while on the reverse a mint mono-
gram is introduced. During his independent rule Reccesvinth modifies
the type by eliminating the cross on the breast (1 g, h) and restoring to
the reverse the cross-on-steps j| of Leovigild's time;1 and even
while Chindasvinth was alive there appear other varieties of the bust
with oblique breast and shoulder lines and distinctive diadem (with
infulas projecting at the back of the head), facing to the right at
Ispali (1 f) and Emerita (1 f, i and j), and also to the left at Ispali (1 e).
These busts in turn give rise to a whole series of busts to the right
of quite original types, which I have classified together as type 2, the
principal varieties of which number nearly 40. These distinctive pro-
file busts begin with Reccesvinth during Chindasvinth's lifetime at
Toleto (2 h) and with independent issues of Reccesvinth at Narbona,
Tarracona, Egitania and Bracara; and continue down through
Roderic and Achila II. They include both bare-headed and helmeted
types (the latter sometimes with a cross surmounting the helmet, and
usually with infulas at the rear),2 mostly beardless but some bearded,3
some of quite respectable artisanship but most of extreme crudity.
Certain of these perhaps were inspired by contemporary Byzantine
models,4 but in general they appear rather to be original Visigothic
creations. Wamba is responsible for a further innovation, the bust
1 Some writers indicate that the reverse is copied from Heraclius' coins, but
I see no reason to suppose that the prototype was other than Leovigild's
(ultimately Tiberius Constantino's) cross-on-steps. Also, if a contemporary
Byzantine model were to be sought, it would be the similar reverse of Constans
H (641-668) rather than that of Heraclius.
1 For a discussion of Gothic helmets and their representation on Visigothic
coins, see Reinhart, Los yelmoa visigodos.
* E.g., types 2 j, gg, ii, possibly influenced so far as the beard is concerned,
by some of Constantino IV's coins (B.M. Cat. Imp. Byz. Coins, II, pi. XXXVI,
3, 9, 10, etc.); cf. Mateu y Llopis, Archivo Esp. de Argueologia, 1945, pp. 52-53.
Reinhart (Germania 1941, p. 191) comments on the emergence of the beard in
the later Visigothic period, as contrasted with the clean-shaven appearance of
the earlier faces.
* Compare, for example, 2 a and d with tremisses of Constantino IV (B.M.
Cat.Imp.Byz.Coins, H, pis. XXXVI, 6-7, XXXVHI, 2-5).
4
52 VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
holding a cruciform scepter (2 ee-11), later used also by Ervig, Egica
and Suniefred. It has been suggested that Heraclius' recovery of the
Holy Cross was influential in bringing the symbol into prominence
both on the reverses and in the form of the scepter on the obverse.1
Despite Reccesvinth's sweeping changes in ico-
2. Late Facing nography, the familiar facing bust is not entirely
Busts. discarded. Although the profile bust first makes its
appearance before Chindasvinth's death, there is
one independent issue of Reccesvinth's at Toleto with the facing busts
of his predecessors (5 e). We have already noticed some front-view
faces under Reccesvinth at Cordoba (10 d, e, f), which probably
evolved from earlier facing types there, in which the breast was
replaced by a cross or chrismon.2 Also under Wamba, Ervig, Egica,
and Wittiza occasional issues appear, especially at Tarracona,3 with
facing busts which are reminiscent of the old types (5 e, o, p, q, s, u).
Furthermore, a new series of front-view busts of quite different
style evolves, the first appearing at Cordoba under Reccesvinth. These
busts I have grouped together under type 11 (a-s), although many of
them bear only a slight generic resemblance to each other. Wamba
does not employ these types, but varieties appear under Ervig at
Cordoba, Eliberri, Ispali, Elvora and Emerita; under Egica at Men-
tesa, Toleto, Eliberri, Ispali, Emerita and Salmantica; on an excep-
tional issue under Egica & Wittiza at Gerunda; under Wittiza at
Cesaragusta, Gerunda, Toleto and Cordoba; under Roderic at Egi-
tania; and under Achila II at Narbona and Tarracona. One group
(roughly 11 a-j) includes grotesque heads, virtually without bodies,
some surmounted or backed by a nimbus or cross; and it has been
suggested with reason that this type represents the figure of the
Saviour.4 It is certainly possible that several of these types, including
those in which the arms of the cross look more like the ears of some
comic character, were derived from Byzantine models, but in the
hands of the Visigothic die-engraver the product is far removed from
1 Cf. Mateu y Llopis, loc. cit. in footnote 3, p. 51, above, pp. 47-52.
s Is it possible that 10 d and e inspired the heads which appear on some
Merovingian coins as far north as Rouen (Civitas Rotomagensium) ? Cf. Belfort,
no. 3844; an especially good example inProu & Bougenot, "Cat. des deniers
merovingiens de la trouvaille de Bais," RN 1906-1907, pi. VII, 12.
3 A few at Barcinona, Cesaragusta and Cordoba.
4 Cf. Mateu y Llopis, loc.cit. in footnote 3, p. 51, above, pp. 53-54; idem, In-
scrpiciones, p. 150, and Ampurias IX-X (1948), p. 438.
EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES
53
the figure of Christ on coins of Ervig's contemporary, Justinian II.1
There is, for example, a remote resemblance between bust types 11 h,
i and j, and the reverse of Justinian's coin, B.M.CatJmp.Byz. Coins,
II, pi. XXXVIII, 25. Another group, especially 11 n and o, is sug-
gestive of certain Merovingian busts.2
Finally, during the joint rule of Egica and Wittiza
3. Confronting (ca. 698-702) we meet with an entirely new type
Busts. on the obverse confronting busts or figures with
scepter or long cross between them, and on the re-
verse mint monograms (similar to those of the j oint rule of Chindasvinth
and Reccesvinth). The type, the only one during this period, takes a
number of different forms (13 a-n),8 in some of which the busts are
quite recognizable as such, while in others the busts are elongated and
appear like standing figures having only a remote resemblance to the
human form. The commonest is the "three-legged" type (13 f), which
appears in several variant forms at a dozen mints in Carthaginensis,
Baetica, Lusitania and Gallaecia. Although this Visigothic type is
quite distinctive in its barbaric appearance, the concept of represent-
ing the two rulers on either side of a cross is again a borrowing from
Byzantium; iconographical prototypes may be found among coins of
Constantine IV with Constans II's two sons Heraclius and Tiberius on
the reverse.* The resemblance is remote, but the idea is essentially the
same. The Visigothic figures are, with one exception, in profile, while
the Byzantine are, of course, facing; the exception is an issue of
Cordoba (type 13 n), in which the round-headed busts appear full-
face, and for which one might seek a special prototype in a copper
coin of Constantine IV with Heraclius and Tiberius struck at Rome.5
The coins of Egica & Wittiza doubtless inspired a similar type in the
Merovingian kingdom, for example a coin of Vellavorum civitas.6
1 B.M.Cat.lmp.Byz.Coins, II, pi. XXXVIII, 15-17, 20-22, 25, etc.
1 Cf. RN 1930, pi. VII, 24-26, 33-35, RN 1939, p. 51, TraiU, I, fig. 260; see
also the discussion of possible earlier Merovingian relationships on p. 47,
above.
3 Only the principal sub-types are represented; there are many variations
and gradations.
* B.M.Cat.lmp.Byz.Coins, II, pi. XXXVI, 1-3, 8-10, pi. XXXVH, 5-11,
etc.
5 Op.cit., pi. XXXVIII, 6.
Belfort, no. 4697 = Robert, pi. VII, 17 = Traiti, I, fig. 254. Roberta
attribution to the first quarter of the 7th century of course cannot be correct,
if the borrowing was from the Visigoths.
KEY TO TYPES OF BUSTS
1. Profile busts: early Visigothic type.
Leovigild: No mint name.
Leovigild: No mint name.
Leovigild: No mint name, Barcinona, Cesaragusta,
Rodas, Tirasona, Reccopolis, Toleto, Ispali, Italica,
Elvora, Emerita, Bracara.
Hermenegild: No mint name.
Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth: Toleto.
Leovigild: No mint name.
Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth: Ispali.
Reccesvinth: Ispali.
Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth: Ispali, Emerita.
Reccesvinth: Ispali.
Reccesvinth: Toleto, Cordoba, Ispali, Egitania, Emeri-
ta, Tude.
Egica: Tarracona.
Reccesvinth: Emerita.
$ Reccesvinth: Tarracona.
Reccesvinth: Emerita.
EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES
2. Profile busts: later types.
Reccesvinth: Bracara.
Wamba: Toleto, Ispali.
Ervig: Ispali.
Egica: Gerunda, Ispali.
Egica: Toleto.
Reccesvinth: Tarracona.
Reccesvinth: Narbona.
Egica: Narbona, Cesaragusta.
Reccesvinth: Egitania.
Wittiza: Reccopolis.
Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth: Toleto.
Wamba: Toleto.
Egica: Emerita.
. Ervig: Toleto.
^ Wittiza: Toleto.
tEgica: Narbona.
Wittiza: Mentesa (variant).
5 Wittiza: Emerita.
9
Egica: Toleto.
Wamba: Tarracona, Cordoba, Emerita.
Egica: Emerita.
Egica: Toleto.
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Egica: Cordoba.
Wamba: Cordoba, Emerita.
Ervig: Egitania.
Egica: Cordoba, Egitania, Emerita.
Ervig: Tucci.
Ervig: Cordoba, Eliberri, Emerita.
Egica: Acci.
Wamba: Cordoba.
Wittiza: Cordoba.
Wittiza: Narbona.
Reccesvinth: Narbona.
Roderic: Toleto.
Achila: Narbona.
Egica: Valentia (Tarraconensis).
Wittiza: Ispali.
Wittiza: Cordoba.
Reccesvinth: Tarracona.
Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth:
EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES
ft
2ee
2ff
if
2gg
2hh
2 ii
2jj
2kk
Narbona.
Wamba: Toleto.
Egica: Toleto.
Egica: Rodas, Toleto, Tude.
Suniefred: Toleto.
Egica: Cordoba.
Ervig: Ispali.
Egica: Ispali, Egitania.
Egica: Tarracona.
211 ^. Ervig: Salmantica.
3. Facing busts: distinctive Leovigildan types.
3 a % Leovigild: Narbona.
3 b Leovigild: Narbona.
3 c jfc Leovigild: Narbona.
3d Leovigild: Emerita.
3 e ^ Leovigild: Emerita.
3f Leovigild: Reccopolia.
3g ^ Leovigild: Reccopolia.
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
4. Facing busts: Tarraconese type.
Leovigild: Cesaragusta.
Leovigild: Cesaragusta.
Reccared: Cesaragusta, Dertosa, Tarracona, Tirasona.
Liuva: Cesaragusta, Tarracona.
Witteric: Cesaragusta, Tarracona, Tirasona.
Gundemar: Cesaragusta, Sagunto, Tarracona, Tira-
sona.
Sisebut: Cesaragusta, Sagunto, Tarracona, Tirasona.
Suinthila: Narbona, Calagorre, Cesaragusta, Tarra-
cona, Tirasona, Valentia.
Sisenand: Cesaragusta, Gerunda, Tarracona.
Chintila: Cesaragusta, Gerunda.
Tulga: Narbona, Cesaragusta, Tarracona.
Chindasvinth: Narbona.
Leovigild: Cesaragusta.
Reccared: Cesaragusta, Dertosa, Tirasona.
5. Facing busts: general types.
Leovigild: Reccopolis, Toleto, Ispali, Elvora.
Reccared: Reccopolis, Eminio, Asturie.
Sisebut: Georres.
Leovigild: Narbona.
Reccared: Pincia.
Leovigild: Narbona, Barcinona (variant).
Reccared: Narbona, Saldania, Toleto, Eli-
berri, Ispali, Egitania, Elvora, Eminio, Sal-
mantica, Arros, Asturie, Cepis( ?).
Liuva: Portocale.
Witteric: Toleto.
Sisebut: Toleto, Elvora.
Liuva: Ispali, Elvora.
Witteric: Mentesa, Eliberri, Ispali, Caliabria, Elvora,
Salmantica, Bergancia, Oliovasio, Tude.
Gundemar: Mentesa, Toleto, Eliberri, Ispali.
EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES
59
Sisebut: Acci, Mentesa, Eliberri, Ispali, Coleia, Lucu,
Portocale.
Suinthila: Mentesa, Saldania, Toleto, Barbi, Cordoba,
Ispali, Tucci, Coleia, Elvora, Salmantica.
Sisenand: Castelona, Toleto, Asidona, Barbi, Cordoba,
Ispali, Tucci, Bracara, Mave.
Chintila: Acci, Toleto, Ispali, Tucci, Mave.
Tulga: Beatia, Toleto, Ispali.
Chindasvinth: Beatia, Toleto, Ispali, Asturie, Bracara.
Reccesvinth: Toleto.
Wamba: Tarracona.
Reccared: Mentesa, Monecipio, Totela, Portocale,
Tude( ?).
Witteric: Catora, Georres, Lauruclo.
Suintbila: Acci, Eliberri, Tucci, Lucu, Pincia, Semure.
Sisenand: Narbona, Acci, Castelona, Mentesa, Eliberri,
Malaca.
Chintila: Acci, Valentia, Eliberri.
Chindasvinth: Aurense. /
Sisebut: Mentesa.
Sisenand: Mentesa.
Leovigild: Ispali.
Sisebut: Tude.
Witteric: Gerunda, Flavas.
Suinthila: Bracara.
Chintila: Castelona.
Leovigild: Narbona, Ispali.
Reccared: Tarracona (variant).
Leovigild: Rodas, Saldania, Ispali, Emerita, Portocale.
Reccared: Narbona, Tarracona, Contosolia, Eminio,
Monecipio, Salmantica, Arros, Tude, Emerita
(variant).
Witteric: Eminio, Laetera, Palentucio, Pannonias.
Sisebut: Lamego, Calapa, Laetera, Pincia, Semure.
Tulga: Beatia.
CO
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Leovigild: Ispali, Lebea.
m ^ Reccared: Eminio.
Reccared: Tornio, Tude.
5n 'W5 Liuva: Toleto.
Witteric: Bracara, Nandolas, Vallearitia.
Sisebut: Bergio.
Chintila: Mave.
Tulga: Laetera.
Reccared: Totela, Bergancia, Calapa, Cepis, Lucu,
5o -SbX Pincia.
Liuva: Nandolas.
Sisebut: Laure, Pesicos, Semure.
Chintila: Valentia.
Ervig: Cordoba.
5p Ervig: Cesaragusta.
j$ II Egica: Barcinona, Tarracona.
Wittiza: Cesaragusta, Tarracona.
A Witteric: Palentucio.
5 q i} Suinthila: Asturie, Nandolas, Senabria.
Chindasvinth: Saldania, Mave, Petra.
Ervig: Tarracona.
5r ^
Reccared: Eminio.
Witteric: Narbona, Saldania.
5s
: Egica: Cesaragusta.
}s Wittiza: Tarracona.
5t W Chintila: Petra.
5u
Chintila: Lucu.
Wamba: Tarracona (or 5 e).
Witteric: Arros.
^ v si Suinthila: Ventosa.
Chintila: Petra.
Tulga: Barbi.
EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES
5w :\
Chindasvinth: Tude.
(All amorphous, variant types)
Reccared: Pincia.
Sisebut: Georres.
/5S\
5x A Liuva: Nandolas.
/A
5 y ^ Suinthila: Cassavio.
5 z ^ Reccared: Vallegia (?).
5 aa 'Ml Leovigild: Portocale.
M
6. Facing busts: Barcinona type.
Leovigild: Emerita.
6 a yjf* (^) Reccared: Barcinona, Rodas.
Witteric: Barcinona, Gerunda, Nandolas.
6 b Liuva: Barcinona.
a (\jh Liuva: Barcinona.
SB Witteric: Barcinona.
6 d Leovigild: Emerita.
7. Facing bust: Lusitanian or Emeritan type.
Reccared: Emerita, Eminio, Monecipio.
Liuva: Emerita, Eminio.
Witteric: Emerita, Bracara, Pannonias.
Gundemar: Emerita.
Sisebut: Egitania, Emerita, Eminio, Veseo.
Suinthila: Egitania, Emerita, Eminio, Portocale.
Iudila: Emerita.
Sisenand: Egitania, Emerita.
Chintila: Emerita, Eminio, Valentia.
62
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Tulga: Egitania, Emerita.
Chindasvinth: Egitania, Emerita, Lamego, Bracara,
Calapa, Fraucello, Lucu.
8. Facing busts: Lusitanian or Emeritan type.
g Zp\ Leovigild: Emerita.
Reccared: Tude.
8 b Reccared: Emerita, Eminio.
Reccared: Emerita, Eminio.
8 0 sj2L" Liuva: Emerita, Eminio.
w Witteric: Emerita, Eminio, Tude.
Gundemar: Emerita.
Sisebut: Egitania, Emerita, Eminio, Veseo, Lucu,
Portocale, Tude.
Suinthila: Egitania, Emerita, Eminio, Portocale.
Iudila: Emerita.
Sisenand: Egitania, Emerita.
Chintila: Emerita, Eminio, Valentia.
Tulga: Egitania, Emerita.
Chindasvinth: Egitania, Emerita, Lamego, Bracara,
Calapa, Fraucello.
if!
8 d Sisebut: Eminio.
8 e Suinthila: Georres.
9. Facing busts: Cordoban type.
9 a Leovigild: Cordoba.
9 b Leovigild: Cordoba.
$ Witteric: Cordoba.
Sisebut: Cordoba.
Suinthila: Cordoba.
Chintila: Cordoba.
Tulga: Cordoba.
Chindasvinth: Cordoba, Eliberri.
EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES
Reccared: Cordoba.
10. Facing heads: Cordoban type.
S\ Chintila: Cordoba.
j. Tulga: Cordoba.
Chindasvinth: Cordoba, Eliberri.
(^^) ^hindasvinth: Cordoba.
10 c
Tulga: Emerita.
Reccesvinth: Cordoba.
10 e
V
Reccesvinth: Cordoba.
Reccesvinth: Cordoba.
11. Facing busts: later types.
Ervig: Cordoba, Elvora, Emerita.
Egica & Wittiza: Gerunda.
Wittiza: Mentesa (variation), Cordoba.
Reccesvinth: Cordoba.
11 c
11 d
Cordoba.
Mentesa.
11 e
11 f
Egica: Salmantica.
Egica: Eliberri.
Achila: Narbona.
64 VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
11 h Ervig: Eliberri.
Hi Roderic: Egitania.
II j >tjjj^ Egica: Emerita.
Ilk Egica: Toleto.
III W Wittiza: Toleto.
11 m Wittiza: Toleto.
ll n ^ Ervig: Ispali.
11 o J^i> Wittiza: Toleto, Emerita.
lip tAjfc Egica: Ispali.
11 q j^i Wittiza: Cesaragusta.
llr <
Wittiza: Tolet.
Ervig: Ispalio.
Us Achila: Tarracona.
12. Facing busts and heads: anomalous types.
12 a HUH Suinthila: Lucu.
12 b Chindasvinth: Toriviana.
12 c ^ Suinthila: Pincia.
EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES 65
12 d Sisenand: Mave.
/A
12 e . -. Sninthila: Cassavio.
12 f Ervig: Salmantica.
13. Confronting busts.
13 a Egica & Wittiza: Narbona, Tarracona.
13 b Egica & Wittiza: Narbona.
13 c Egica & Wittiza: Barcinona, Gerunda, Tarracona.
13 d jg Egica & Wittiza: Cesaragusta, Mentesa.
13 e jjjj^ Egica & Wittiza: Tucci.
IEgica & Wittiza: Toleto, Valentia, Cordoba,
I Egabro, Eliberri, Ispali, Tucci, Egitania,
Elvora, Bracara, ^j^^.
13 g Egica & Wittiza: Gerunda.
13 h Egica & Wittiza: Mentesa.
13 i |j* Egica & Wittiza: Salmantica.
13 j Egica & Wittiza: Mentesa, Emerita.
5 Visigoth
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Egica & Wittiza: Mentesa, Toleto.
Egica & Wittiza: Mentesa, Emerita, Lucu (?).
Egica & Wittiza: Emerita.
Egica & Wittiza: Cordoba.
THE LEGENDS
The legends surrounding the busts on Visigothic coins are straight-
forward and simple and for the most part present no difficulties of
interpretation. The general rule is: on the obverse, the Latinized name
of the king, followed by REX (frequently abbreviated RE or R, and,
from the time of Chindasvinth to the end, very often Pt); on the
reverse, the name of the mint, usually followed, or occasionally
preceded, by an epithet referring to the ruler, usually either PIVS or
1VSTVS, sometimes abbreviated. The king's name is sometimes
introduced by DN (Dominus noster): Leovigild (no mint-name, Nar-
bona, Toleto, Elvora, Emerita); Reccared (Emerita); Liuva II (Tarra-
cona, Toleto, Ispali, Elvora, Emerita, Eminio, Portocale); Chindas-
vinth (Cordoba, Ispali). From the time of Wamba onward the name is
frequently preceded by IDNMN( INDINM, IND1NME, etc., etc.), signi-
fying In Dei nomine. At Toleto under Egica there are several occur-
rences of IN-rPINM, etc., which would appear to be a combination of
Latin and Greek, standing for In Christi nomine. Of the two common-
est epithets, PIVS is used by 20 rulers, IVSTVS by 13; the former
occurs at 62 mints, the latter at 28. Approximately 20 mints use
both PIVS and IUSTVS.
There are certain exceptions to this general scheme of conventional
inscriptions, especially during the period of Leovigild and toward the
end of the kingdom. Leovigild's earliest autonomous issues (without
mint-name) still bear vestiges of the name of the Byzantine emperor
on the obverse, and other mutilated survivals of Byzantine formulae
such as CON, ONO, etc., for CONOB (Constantinople, obryzum,
"refined gold"). Leovigild's "mintless" type H bears REX INCLITVS
("illustrious king") on the reverse. The epithet VICTOR appears at
several mints with reference to Leovigild, Reccared, Sisebut, Suin-
thila, Chindasvinth and Egica; and FELIX is applied to Reccared at
Narbona. Several of Leovigild's issues carry remarkable legends con-
taining allusions to historical events: see especially Rodas, Reccopolis,
Cordoba, Ispali, Italica. Hermenegild has an unusual legend, REG I A
DEO VITA. During the joint reigns of father and son (Chindasvinth &
Reccesvinth and Egica & Wittiza), the usual reverse bust is replaced
by a mint monogram, and the circular legends contain the names of
68
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
the two rulers, one on each side; the names of the latter pair of rulers
are frequently followed by various abbreviations of the formula REX
REGES (i. e., "King Egica [and] King Wittiza, kings").
These, in brief, are the principal characteristics of the Visigothic
coin legends. For further details the reader should consult the section
of this volume dealing with the individual rulers (where the chief
variations in the spelling of the name of each king are listed), the
mint histories (where the different spellings of each mint-name and
the several remarkable legends are discussed), and the corpus itself.1
1 The student will also want to consult certain of Mateu y Llopis' articles,
such as his monographs on particular mints, his Inacripciones, and his two
articles on Nombrea de Lugar. See the bibliography.
THE MI NTS1
Sev en ty - n in e min t- n ames h av e so f ar b een met with o n th e co in s
o f th e Visig o th s o f Sp ain :2 o n e in Nar b o n en sis, ten in Tar r aco n en sis,
sev en in Car th ag in en sis, n in e in Baetica, 1 3 in Lu sitan ia, 3 8 in
Gallaecia, o n e to wh ich a p r o v in ce h as n o t b een assig n ed . Th e lar g est
DI STRI BUTI ON OF MI NTS DURI NG REI GNS
BONe
c
to
ENSI S
I TecNI e
c
<
is
o
.a
THA-
TI Ce
c
K
<
To
%
.<
m
P
<
1
H
o
E- I O
n
u
H
1
5
3
4
2
4
0
1 9
0
0
0
l
0
0
0
1
1
6
4
3
9
1 3
0
3 6
0
3
]
1
3
2
0
1 0
Witter ic
1
5
3
3
5
1 6
0
3 2
0
4
2
2
2
1
0
1 1
0
4
3
5
7
1 2
0
3 1
1
5
4
5
6
1 5
0
3 6
1
3
4
7
3
3
0
2 1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
2
0
3
3
5
3
4
0
1 8
Tu lg a
1
2
2
3
2
2
0
1 2
1
1
3
3
3
1 0
0
2 1
Ch in d asv in th & Reccesv in th ..
. 0
0
1
1
I
0
1
4
1
2
I
2
2
2
1
1 1
0
I
1
2
1
0
0
5
1
2
I
A
4
0
0
1 2
1
( >
3
3
4
2
0
1 9
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
5
2
5
4
3
1
2 1
Wittiza
1
3
3
2
1
0
0
1 0
. 0
0
1
0
1
0
0
2
Ach ila I I
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
3
1 Fo r th e categ o r ies o f u r b an cen ter s in Visig o th ic Sp ain , see Mel6 n , p p .
1 6 6 - 1 6 7 ; an d f o r th e ecclesiastical an d p o litical ad min istr atio n an d th eir
r elatio n sh ip to each o th er , ib id , an d Gar cia Villad a, I I 1 .
1 Ex clu d in g , o f co u r se, n ames wh ich o ccu r o n ly o n f o r g er ies, as well as
cer tain min t- n ames wh ich h av e h ith er to b een accep ted b u t wh ich h av e p r o v en
to b e misr ead in g s.
70 VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
MINT
Leovigild
Hermenegild
Reccred
Liuva II
1
Gundemr
Sisebut
Suinthila
Sisenand
Iudila
Narbonenais
Narbona
5
9
3
1
2
Tarraconensi8
Barcinona
2
26
2
2
Calagorre
1
Cesaragusta
7
23
2
9
3
7
13
1
Dertosa
4
Gerunda
4
3
Rodas
5
3
Sagunto
1
1
Tarracona
1
28
3
7
7
22
20
5
Tirasona
1
12
1
2
1
2
Valentia
1
Carthaginenais
Acci
3
19
13
Beatia
Castelona
18
Mentesa
4
3
2
3
37
20
Reccopolis
4
6
Saldania
1
1
1
2
Toleto
44
69
3
16
3
17
28?
32
Baetica
Asidona
8
Barbi
2
76
26
Cordoba
6
20
1
1
47
59
Egabro
Eliberri
12
8
4
8
76
32
1
Ispali
11
7
42
10
15
7
74
74
65
Italica
1
Malaca
3
Tucci
1
2
65
19
Ldisitania
Caliabria
1
Coleia
1
1
2
Contosolia
1
Egitania
1
1
4
9
Elvora
21
35
4
13
1
7
2
Emerita
22
102
11
19
4
29
160
123
1
Eminio
12
1
2
4
1
Lamego
1
1
Monecipio
5
THE MINTS
71
| Chindasvinth &
| Reccesvinth
J Egica &Wittiza
I Chintilii
Chindasvinth
I Reccesvinth
Wamba
Suniefred
Wittiza
Roderic
H
TOTALS
Tulga
I Ervig
I Egica
J9
'
o
1
17
4
20
13
17
8
7
107
383
3
4
39
1
1
1
1
6
10
12
9
105
4
2
1
9
19
12
1
51
2
10
2
1
21
7
6
9
4
4
1
146
19
2
2
1
6
675
2
2
39
1
2
3
1
19
4
7
4
84
1
11
1
6
13
10
22
6
67
41
44
57
1
22
17
1
513
1144
o
2
106
4
16
15
41
14
14
6
22
7
273
8
2
4
2
1
3
5
6
158
C
4
17
4
50
23
24
16
39
6
494
1
3
3
2
5
97
949
1
4
1
1
1
5
2
2
7
11
44
1
2
10
96
14
8
48
2
53
46
48
23
32
12
757
1
21
1
1
3
1
5
72
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
MINT
Salmantica
Totela
Valentia
Veseo
GaUaecia
Aliobrio
Arros
Asturie
Aurense
Bergancia
Bergio
Bracara
Calapa (Calabacia)
Cassavio
Catora
Celo
Cepis
Flavas
Fraucollo
Georres
Laetera
Laure
Lauruclo
Lebea
Leione
Lucu
Mave
Nandolas
Oliovasio
Palentucio
Pannonias
Pesicos
Petra
Pincia
Portocalo
Semure
Senabria
Toriviana
Tornio
Tude
Vallearitia
Vallegia?
-5b
->
c
I
-5b
a
i

p
c
3
a
x
THE MINTS
73
.a
'ittiza
J3
3d
35
Chindasvi:
Chindasvi:
Reccosvin
.3
>
Suniefred
Egica & \\
| Achila II
TOTALS
03
Wamba
Wittiza
j Roderic
Tulga
9
Ervig
Egic
6
o
1
1
S
2
)
2
1
14
1
1
1
1
4
1
146
2
2
6
1
5
2
24
5
1
1
1
3
2
3
5
4
2
1
1
9
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
7
1
15
1
1
3
6
1
1
3
1
1
1
2
4
8
3
1
I?
1
3
1
14
1
1
2
1
1
1
74
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
MINT
negil
a
H
l1
.2
a
a
o
to
r
>
3
e
eccr
c3
>
3
-itter
unde
isebu
uinth
<a
a
o
c
s
.a
"2
W
pq
!S
O
ti
OS
02
M
Ventosa
1
No Mint Name
57
(7)
TOTALS
HSA Collection
35
1
59
4
15
4
44
160
157
1
All Recorded
193
7
441
40
130
35
201
660
442
*>
number of preserved specimens recorded in this volume are from
Baetica (1144), followed by Lusitania (949), Carthaginensis (675), and
Tarraconensis (383), while of the numerous Gallaecian mints only 146
specimens have come to light. Of Narbona, the single mint in Nar-
bonensis, 107 specimens are recorded. The accompanying tables set
forth the rarity or commonness of the respective mints, and the
number and distribution of mints at which each ruler struck. Emerita
is the commonest mint; Toleto second, closely followed by Ispali.
Toleto, the capital, was the most continuously active mint in the
kingdom: we have specimens of this mint fromevery reign (20 in
number) except those of the usurper Iudila and the last Visigothic
prince, Achila II. Emerita is next with 19 reigns (Suniefred, Roderic
and Achila lacking); Ispali, Tarracona and Cordoba follow with 18, 16
and 15 reigns respectively.
Reccared and Suinthila are represented at the largest number of
mints (each 36), Witteric and Sisebut follow next (32 and 31 mints).
Suinthila has the largest number of specimens (660), Sisenand is next
(442), Reccared third (441).
It should be recalled in connection with these statistics that the
accident of the discovery of the hoard of La Capilla is a distorting
factor that should be taken into consideration, with respect to the
commonness not only of certain mints but also of particular rulers.
The bulk of this hoard belongs to the period between Sisebut and
Sisenand. For example, La Capilla accounts for almost two-thirds of
Suinthila's and nearly three-quarters of Sisenand's known specimens;1
1 As stated elsewhere (p. 168), I have had access to Pio Beltran's analysis of
the hoard of La Capilla, which includes the most authentic figures on the com-
position of the find.
THE MINTS
75
j Chindasvinth &
1 Reccesvinth
j Egica & Wittiza
Chintila
Tulga
Chindasvinth
j Reccesvinth
Wamba
t>
Egica
Suniefred
Wittiza
Roderic
Achila II
TOTALS
Erf
H
1
1
1
2
4
04
6
6
13
2
50
25
22
36
0
28
7
0
0
675
58
48
155
13
247
131
172
168
1
216
80
12
9
3461
without the hoard, the coins of Reccared would be the most common
by far. The mints most heavily represented in the hoard were located
in Baetica, Lusitania and Carthaginensis, in the following order:
Emerita, Ispali, Eliberri, Cordoba, Barbi, Tucci, Mentesa, Acci. While
coins from several of these mints are generally relatively common,
others, but for the hoard, are not. For example, roughly two-thirds
of the known coins of Barbi and Tucci are from La Capilla, as are
four-fifths of those of Acci. The proportion is even more striking in
the case of some of the less common mints: e. g., only 19 coins of
Castelona are known, and 14 of these are from La Capilla; two of
the three known coins of Fraucello, and seven of the eight of Asidona,
are from the hoard; and several mints (Aliobrio, Leione, Senabria)
would be unknown were it not for the find.
In general it is interesting to note that there is a gradual diminution
in the number of mints after Suinthila. This is especially true during
the rules of Chindasvinth (except in Gallaecia, where ten mints were
active), Reccesvinth and Wamba: in Reccesvinth's reign only two of
ten known mints in Tarraconensis appear to have issued coins, one of
seven in Carthaginensis, two of nine in Baetica, two of 13 in Lusitania,
and two of 38 in Gallaecia; and in Wamba's time the number is even
further reduced. However, many mints resumed activity toward the
end of the kingdom: under Egica the total of which we have specimens
rises again from five in Wamba's time to 19, and during the joint rule
of Egica and Wittiza to 20.
In the following pages a brief history of each mint-city is given,
together with a listing of the rulers who struck there and the principal
spellings of the name; and the epithets, remarkable inscriptions,
monograms and bust types in use at each mint.
A. NARBONENSIS (SEPTIMANIA)
1. NABBONA1
Rulers: Leovigild, Reccared, Witteric, Suinthila, Sisenand, Tulga, Chindas-
vinth, Reccesvinth, Ervig, Egica, Egica & Wittiza, Wittiza, Achila.
Spelling: N A R BON A.* Single doubtful instance of N A RVON A under Reccared.
Epithets: PIVS all rulers except Suinthila and Egica & Wittiza. FELIX
Reccared.
Remarkable legend: NA R BONA G A L- E- R- or G A L E R-A Leovigild.
Monograms: NOT
lop
Types: Leovigild: the first issues bear distinctive obverse and reverse facing
types (3 a, b, c), the later issues more common facing types (5b,c,k).
Reccared and Witteric: facing types (5 d, l, r).
Suinthila: Tarraconese type (4 c).
Sisenand: facing type (5 f).
Tulga and Chindasvinth: Tarraconese type (4 c).
Reccesvinth: distinctive obverse busts, right (2 e, w); reverse, cross on
3 steps.
Ervig: obverse, bust, right, holding cross (2 ee); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Egica: obverse, bust, right (2 f, k), also holding cross (2 ff); reverse,
cross on 3 steps.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts (13a, b); reverse, mint
monogram.
Wittiza: obverse, crude bust, right (2 v); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Achila: obverse, facing bust, perhaps imitating Wittiza at Toleto (1 lg),
and crude head, right, in several varieties (2 y and variations);
reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Modern Narbonne, Aude, southern France; Roman Colonia Iulia
paterna Claudia Narbo Martius decumanorum, or simply Colonia
1 Amardel, Roi Achila, pp. 425-440; Carson, pp. 144-145; Catholic Encycl.,
III, p. 331; Garcia Villada, II1, pp. 75, 94; Gorres, Anfange, p. 594; Hill,
Narbonensis, pp. 2-3; Levi-Provencal, Histoire, pp. 39-41, 46; Liibker, pp.
699-700; Menendez Pidal, passim, p. 294; Oxford, p. 597; P.-W., Suppl. VII,
cols. 515-549.
* It is to be noted that throughout these mint histories the epigraphy of
the mint names is generally normalized, the primary aim being to represent
the spelling, not the epigraphy. Abbreviations, points, etc. are only excep-
tionally mentioned. For epigraphical details and for minor varieties in spelling,
the reader should consult the catalogue.
NARBONENSIS
77
Narbo Martins, founded 118 B. C, later the capital of Gallia Nar-
bonensis. The Celtiberian settlement and mint of Nero( ?) was located
about four kilometers N. by W. of Narbonne on an eminence now
known as Montlaures. In 414 the Visigoth Ataulf celebrated in
Narbona his marriage with Galla Placidia, sister of Honorius. After
numerous entries and exits, including Theodoric I's siege of 436 and
aVisigothic occupation of 462, the city finally passed definitively into
Visigothie hands ca. 477. It was a royal residence under Gesalich
(507-511) and Liuva I (568-573), and capital during the period of the
latter's undivided reign (568-569). Narbona was a diocesan seat perhaps
as early as the 4th century, and was the site of the provincial council
of November 1, 589, at which the decrees of the Third Council of
Toledo were proclaimed to Visigothic Gaul. The Narbonese revolt
against Wamba is reflected in the absence of any coinage from this
mint during his reign. After several attacks, beginning as early as 712,
Narbona (Arbunah.i ji jl) was occupied by the Arabs under al-Samh b.
Malik about 719, and perhaps temporarily even earlier; but the city
was retaken by P6pin le Bref about 751.
Achila II's coins of Narbona, of two distinct types, are of prime
importance in enabling us to reconstruct at least hypothetically the
history of the final days of the Visigothic kingdom in the north.
Whether Achila was defending the city in 719 is not known, but the
style of the coins at least suggests that he ruled in Narbona for several
years after 710 (the probable date of the death of Wittiza) or 711 (the
defeat and disappearance of Roderic).
Narbona figures as a Merovingian mint, with the mint-name in
monogram.1 The possibility of the existence of an imperial mint at
Narbo has been much discussed; in the most recent examination of
the subject, "the conclusion surely is that there was no Roman Im-
perial mint there."2
The legend NARBONA GALER (GALERA), which is preserved on
only two specimens (HSA and Vidal Quadras y Ramon) has not been
satisfactorily explained. It has been suggested that the meaning is
Narbona Galliarum ;3 that C or C should be read S, and that SACER
or S AC E R A is intended ;4 or that the die-engraver misspelled GALLIA
or GALLIAE;5 or that the letters should be transposed to read
1 Prou, p. 503.
* Carson, p. 148.
3 Heiss, p. 39.
4 Meynaerts, 1850, p. 3.
"Ibid.
78
THE MINTS
C. A R E L A and that therefore the issue was struck at Arles( !) ;x or that
the epithet "doit tre rapproche de celle de Flavia, qu'on trouve sur
les monnaies lombardes de Charlemagne, un sicle plus tard."2 None
of these explanations is convincing, the only suggestion at all likely
being that of Heiss: the presence of the dots may indicate an ab-
breviation.
Doubtless because of French interest in the history of Narbonne,
forgeries and fabrications of Narbona issues are common. There are
known examples of Leovigild, Sisebut, Sisenand, Chintila, Chindas-
vinth, Egica, and Wittiza.
1 Ibid., p. 4.
2 Blanchet, p. 188.
B. TARRACONENSIS
2. BABCINONA1
Bulers: Leovigild, Reccared, Liuva, Witteric, Egica, Egica & Wittiza.
Spelling: BARCINONA. Under Egica, BARCINON-. One instance of VARC I
NONA under Leovigild.
Epithets: IVSTVS Leovigild to Witteric. PIVS Egica.
Remarkable legend: REX VARCINONA (Leovigild).
Types: Leovigild: first type, obverse "Early Visigothic" bust, right (1 c);
reverse, cross on 4 steps; later type, facing busts resembling 5c.
Reccared, Liuva, Witteric: distinctive facing busts of Barcinona type
(6a,i>,c).
Egica: obverse, facing busts (5 p); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts (13 c); reverse, mint
Modern Barcelona, in Cataluna; ancient Barcino, of Iberian
origin, site of the Augustinian colony Faventia Iulia Augusta Pia.
In 414 Ataulf was forced to abandon Narbo, and, crossing the
Pyrenees into Spain, took up his residence in Barcelona, where he
died in the summer of 415. The city figures prominently in Visigothic
history both as a political and an economic center, and as the seat
of a bishopric, it having been an episcopal see from very early Chris-
tian times. It was the site of two provincial councils, those of the
years 540( ?) and 599. Variant spellings of the name in the mediaeval
diocesan lists are Varcinona and Barcilona.
Barcelona (Barshilunah, i'^U^ ) was occupied by the Arabs per-
haps as early as 713, but from 801 onward, with the exception of a
few temporary Muslim occupations, it remained in Christian hands.
The exceptional spelling VARCINONA on the earliest specimen of
the mint is interesting in that it suggests a local substitution of V for
1 Cambridge I, pp. 278, 403; Catholic Encycl., II, p. 289; E. of I., s.v. Barce-
lona (French ed.); Garcia Villada, II1, p. 76; Heiss, p. 45; Levi-Provencal,
Histoire, pp. 22, 39, 123, 125ff.; Menendez Pidal, pp. 57, 294; P.-W. Ill, col. 7;
Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
H N
R R
monogram.
80
THE MINTS
B in pronunciation as early as the 6th century. It may, however,
simply be an error.1
There is no ready explanation of the apparent inactivity of the
mint between 610 and 687.2
3. CALAGORRE3
Ruler: Suinthila.
Spelling : C:A: L ACO R R E.
Epithet: IVSTVS.
Type: facing busts of Tarraconese type (4 c).
Almost certainly modern Calahorra, province of Logrofio, on the
Ebro, RomanCalagurris Nasica (sometimes spelled Calagorris), among
the oppida civium Romanorum of the district of Caesaraugusta, a
municipium under Augustus (Calagurris Iulia Nasica), an episcopal
seat in pre-Visigothic (middle 5th century) and Visigothic times.
The name calaqriqS (CalaqoriqoS) appears on Celtiberian coins; the
Roman coinage bears Calagurri Iulia Nasica and Municipium Cala-
gurri (Iulia). With only a single specimen of the Visigothic mint
preserved, and that inscribed with interspersed points, some of which
quite evidently do not indicate omitted letters, it is impossible to
determine with any certainty from numismatic evidence what the
spelling of the name in the Visigothic period was. This one specimen
suggests Calagorre or Calacorre. Various spellings occur in the medi-
aeval lists: Calacurre, Calagurre, Calagorra, Calagurra, CalaJiurra,
Callahora.
Calahorra (Qalahurrah, {Jfi) was perhaps first occupied by 'Abd
al-Rahman I about 781, certainly a few years later (796) by a general
of al-Hakam I.
4. CESARAGUSTA (CESARACOSTA).*
Riders: Leovigild, Reccared, Liuva, Witteric, Gundomar, Sisebut, Suinthila,
Sisenand, Chintila, Tulga, Chindasvinth( ?), Ervig, Egica, Egica & Wittiza,
Wittiza.
1 Cf. Campaner, p. 205, note 3; Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, pp. 3-4.
2 Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, remarks on but does not attempt to explain the
hiatus.
3 Campaner, p. 214; Catholic Encycl., Ill, p. 148; Hill, pp. 174-180; Levi-
Provencal, Histoire, pp. 90, 122; Madrid, p. 282; Menendez Pidal, p. 279; P.-W.
Ill, cols. 1327-28; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
4 Cambridge I, p. 413; Catholic Encycl., XIII, pp. 468-469; E. of I., s.v.
Saragosse (French ed.); Garcia Villada, II1, p. 75; Hill, pp. 86-98; LeVi-
Provencal, Histoire, p. 21; Menendez Pidal, pp. 31, 65, 75, 279, 289, 294, 418;
P.-W. Ill, cols. 1287-88; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
TARRACONENSIS
81
Spelling: With one or two exceptions, the name is always abbreviated by
means of double (:), and sometimes single, points. The commonest spelling
and abbreviation down through Tulga is CE:AR:C-0:TA (for CESARA-
COSTA), but there are numerous minor variations. It may be that the single
point after the secondC implies that this letter is to be read G, but no true G
(C) appears before Ervig. Under Ervig, Egica and Wittiza the name is
spelled in full C ESARA^VSTA, or the equivalent with abbreviations.
Epithets: IVSTVS all rulers through Chintila. PlVS Ervig, Egica,
Wittiza. Frequently, doubtless because of the length of the mint-name, there
is no epithet.
Remarkable legends: TOLCOBGLDVS and BICEcoARCAIV (Leovigild).
C E:T:VI, CE3TAVVI (Reccared).
Types: Leovigild: first type, obverse, "Early Visigothic" bust, right (lc);
reverse, cross on 4 steps; later type, facing busts of Tarraconese type
(4 a, b, d).
Reccared through Tulga: facing busts of Tarraconese type (4 c, d).
Ervig: obverse, facing busts (5 p); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Egica: first type, obverse, facing bust (5 s); reverse, cross on 3 steps;
second type, obverse, bust, right (2 f); reverse as before.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts (13 d); reverse, mint
monogram.
Wittiza: first type, obverse, facing bust (5 p); reverse, cross on 3 steps;
second type, obverse, distinctive facing bust (11 q); reverse as before.
Modern Zaragoza on the Ebro in the province of the same name,
Celtiberian Salduba (Salduvia, Saldubia), and site of the Augustan
colony of Caesaraugusta, ca. 19 B. C.1 A mint was located here in Celt-
iberian times (SALDUIE?) and under Roman rule, also later under
the Arabs (Saraqustah, SU. _,-), and doubtless after the reconquest
when Zaragoza became the Aragonese capital.
The region of Caesaraugusta was occupied by the Suevians in 449,
and the city was taken by the Visigoth Euric in 473 or 476. It was the
seat of an important diocese, the city having a long pre-Visigothic
Christian history, reputedly dating back to the Apostle James and in
any case figuring as an episcopal see as early as the mid-third cen-
tury. Cesaraugusta (sometimes Cesaragusta in the mediaeval lists)
was the site of three provincial councils, the first in 380( ?), the second
and third in 592 and 691 respectively, and was a preeminent center
of learning and letters, especially in the 7th century. The city first
fell to Miisa b. Nusayr in 714.
1 25 B.C., according to Octavio Gil Farres, whose article, "La ceca de la
Colonia Caesarea Augusta," Ampurias, XIII (1951), pp. 65-111, appeared too
late for consideration here.
Monograms:
6 Visigoth
82
THE MINTS
The meaning of the legends on the unique coin in the Hispanic
Society collection, evidently TOLEOBGILDVS and BICESARCAIV,
is uncertain. As stated in the catalogue (No. 17),1 I have accepted
Beltran's attribution to Cesaragusta. This attribution involves the
reading of C as C (or G) in the reverse legend, but as E on the obverse
a somewhat embarrassing circumstance. The legends are perhaps
to be read LEOBGILDVS+TO and Bl CESARCA IV, with some
possibility of interpreting them as Leovigildus iusto (iustus) bis Cesar-
acosta, but admittedly this solution raises more questions with respect
both to the arrangement of the letters and to an implied second cap-
ture of the city than it resolves.
As for the legends C-E:T:VI and C-ESTAVVI under Reccared, of
which the latter gave rise to much speculation and to the supposed
existence of a mint "Cestavi," as well as to fabrications of this "mint,"
I have concluded that these words are the product of die-engravers'
errors; the matter is discussed in the catalogue under No. 59.2
One might be tempted to read the mint monograms and
on coins of Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth, of Reccesvinth alone,
and of Egica & Wittiza, as Cesaragusta; but there are two rather
telling arguments against such attribution. In the first place, the
important letter R is lacking; and in the second, we already have an
unmistakable mint monogram (with the letters C, S, R, G) for
Cesaragusta under Egica & Wittiza.
5. DEBTOSA.3
Ruler: Reccared.
Spelling: DERTOSA.
Epithet: IVSTVS.
Remarkable legend: DERTOSAIEECI":
Types: facing busts of Tarraconese type (4 c,d).
Modern Tortosa on the Ebro in the province of Tarragona, Roman
Dertosa Ilercavonia, originally a settlement of the Ilercavones, also
1 See the references there to earlier discussions.
2 See the references there for "Cestavi."
3 Catholic Encycl., XIV, p. 185;E.ofI.,s. v. Tortosa; Heiss, M onnaies Anti-
ques, pp. 128-131; Hill, pp. 74-75,103; Levi-Provencal, Inscriptions, pp. 83-84;
idem, Histoire, p. 128; Madrid, pp. 274-275; Menendez Pidal, pp. 83, 279;
P.-W. V, cols. 246-258; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
TARRACONENSIS
83
known as Hibera, which name was preserved under the Romans, the
full title being Municipium Hibera Iulia Dertosa Ilercavonia. A mint
was located here in imperial tiimes, and possibly earlier. The Visi-
gothic occupation is reported to have taken place in the year 506.
Dertosa was an episcopal seat in pre-Visigothic as well as Visigothic
times, the diocese having been created, according to official Catholic
view, in the 4th century. In the diocesan lists the name varies: Der-
tosa, Tortosa, Tarrasa.
To judge by the very scant numismatic evidence, the Visigothic
mint was established under Reccared, possibly in connection with
some special event reflected in the legend DERTOSAIEECr: (Dertosa
fecit ?), and was immediately abandoned thereafter.
The Arab occupation took place at an early but undetermined date
during the conquest, and the city was for several centuries the
farthest fixed outpost of Islam in Catalonia. In the 11th century a
mint was located at Dertosa (Turtushah, oJo Jo) under the 'Amirid
slave kings and the Hudids. According to Heiss,1 the building which
served as the Arab mint still existed when he wrote, but I have not
been able to trace his authority for this statement. Might he perhaps
have confused the dar al-sina'ah (naval arsenal), of which the foun-
dation inscription dated 333 A. H. (944/5 A. D.) exists, with a dar al-
sikinh (mint)?
Rulers: Witteric, Sisenand, Chintila, Reccesvinth, Egica, Egica & Wittiza,
Wittiza, Achila.
Spelling: GERONDA (Witteric); GERVNDA (Sisenand, Chintila, Achila);
GERVN0A (Reccesvinth, Egica, Wittiza).
Epithet: IVSTVS Witteric, Sisenand, Chintila. PIVS Reccesvinth, Egica,
Wittiza, Achila.
Types: Witteric: facing busts, reverse of Barcinona type (5 j, 6 a).
Sisenand, Chintila: facing busts of Tarraconese type (4 c).
Reccesvinth: obverse, bust, right, of obscure type; reverse, excep-
tional cross and pellets.
Egica: obverse, bust, right (2 b); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
1 Monnaies Antiques, p. 130.
Catholic Encycl., VI, p. 530; Hill, p. 61; al-Himyari, p. 248; Le>i-Provencal,
Histoire, pp. 22,40,91; Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, pp. 168-172; Menendez Pidal,
pp. 123, 279, 294; P.-W. VII, cols. 1284-85; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
6. GERUNDA.2
Monograms:
84
THE MINTS
Egica & Wittiza: first two types, obverse, confronting busts (13 c, g);
reverse, mint monogram; third type, obverse, facing bust (11 b); re-
verse as before.
Wittiza: obverse, facing bust related to third type of Egica & Wittiza
(11 c); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Achila: unknown.
Modern Gerona, capital of the province of the same name, the
Gerunda of the classical geographers, a town of the Ausetani. It has
been suggested that Celtiberian coins bearing the legends GRDSA or
KRSA are to be attributed to Gerunda. The creation of an episcopal
seat at Gerunda is believed to have taken place in 247. Little is known
of the history of Visigothic Gerunda except that it was the site of the
council of 517, that Reccared paid a visit to the tomb of St. Felix
there, and that it figured in the insurrection of Duke Paul against
Wamba. In the ecclesiastical lists the name appears both as Gerunda
and as Gerona. It was called Jarundah (sjj^) in Moslem times.
There are few details of the limited Arab occupation, which dated
probably from ca. 714 under 'Abd al-'AzIz b. Nusayr. The city return-
ed to the Christians in 785.
Mateu y Llopis has pointed out the Greek influence in the spelling
of the mint-name (A under Sisenand and 0 under Reccesvinth and
successors), and has suggested that the latter phenomenon may be the
result of analogy with the 0 in the spelling of the name of Reccesvinth,
in both cases the Greek dental fricative being used to indicate a
"soft dental." It is quite possible that local pronunciation of the D is
reflected in the use of this 0 and also of the DS (?) in the proposed
Celtiberian identification. The use of the "uncial" G (G), often misread
S, which it resembles, and of , the latter under Reccesvinth, Egica
and Wittiza, is not without interest.
The monogram is ingenious, representing G, E (on the vertical arm
of the cross), R, VN (in combination), 0A (in combination).
The single specimen of Achila II, not yet illustrated or described in
detail, is of first class importance, and it is to be hoped that it will
eventually receive full publication.
7. RODAS.1
Rulers: Leovigild, Reccared, Egica.
Spelling: RODAS (Leovigild, Reccared, Egica); RODA (Leovigild).
Ephitet: IVSTVS.
1 Campaner, 1873, pp. 48-50; Catholic Encyd., II, pp. 285-286; Gorres,
Leovigild, p. 142; Heiss, Monnaiea Antiques, p. 84; Hill, pp. 6-7; Madrid, pp.
269-270; P.-W. IA, col. 954; Zorita de Jos Canes, p. 30.
TARRACONENSIS
85
Remarkable legend :CVM Dl RODA.
Types: Leovigild: first type, obverse, bust, right, of "Early Visigothic" type
(1 c); reverse, cross on 3 steps; second type, facing busts (5 1).
Reccared: facing busts of Barcinona type (6 a).
Egica: obverse, bust, right, holding cross (2gg); reverse, cross on
3 steps.
The modern town of Rosas on the northern side of the gulf of the
same name in the province of Gerona, northeasternmost Spain, oc-
cupies and covers the ruins of the ancient Rhode ('PdSr)), an emporium
founded, probably in the 5th century B.C., by Phocaeans from
Massalia.1 The ruins have not yet been positively identified. The
earliest coinage consists of drachms datable to the first half of the
4th century. It has sometimes been stated that Roda or Rodas (one
cannot tell from the few coins preserved which was the preferred
spelling) was an episcopal see in Visigothic times,2 but the name does
not occur in the lists of sedes, and the error is doubtless the result of
confusion with Roda in the province of Huesca, to which the see
formerly located at Lerida was transferred when the latter town fell
to the Arabs, and which later, in 1101, under Pedro I of Aragon, was
removed to Barbastro. The bishop with authority over the Roda in
question must have been seated at Empurias (Ampurias). References
to Roda (itjj) in Moslem times concern the Roda of Huesca and
other localities, not Rosas.
The unique coin of Leovigild with the legend CVM D I RODA
belongs to the same class of special issues as those of Cordoba, Ispali
and Italica with analogous legends. It has been suggested that the I
stands for intravit, the unabbreviated legend being Cum d{eo) i(ntra-
vit) Roda. This is not an unreasonable assumption, although D1 may
simply stand for DEO, the verb lacking, as it appears to be in the
coin of Italica. The date of the event is unknown, but that of the
issue must be between 578 and ca. 583, possibly 581, the year of
Leovigild's campaign against the Basques.
The meaning of the letter N, which occurs between the name of
the mint and the epithet IVSTVS on the two trientes of Leovigild's of
later type (HSA and Stroganoff) cannot be explained except perhaps
as a survival of the earlier ON O in the exergue.
After Reccared, no issues of Rodas are known until the rule of
Egica, nearly a hundred years later. The recent publication of the
specimen in the Iustituto de Valencia do Don Juan confirms the
1 A tradition to the effect that the colony was first established by Rhodians
has little foundation.
* E. g., Heiss, p. 58, and idem, Monnaies Antiques, p. 84.
80
THE MINTS
hitherto weakly documented evidence for the operation of the mint
of Rodas at this late date.
8. SAGUNTO.1
Rulers: Gundemar, Sisebut.
Spelling: SACVNTO.
Epithet: IVSTVS.
Types: facing busts of Tarraconese type (4 c).
Modern Sagunto in the province of Valencia, 15 miles north-north-
east of the capital, the famous classical Saguntum, known as Mur-
viedro, Murvedro, Murvedre, etc. (murus vetus, murum veterum, or
perhaps muri veteres) in later mediaeval times,2 and until 1877.
Originally an Iberian fortress of the Edetani, the city became allied
with Rome and stood heroically against Hannibal in 219 B. C. until
its fall. Recaptured under Scipio it became in the period of Augustus
a municipium. The ancient coinage, Iberian and later bilingual, begin-
ning with ca. 250 B. C, is plentiful and presents many problems.
Following a decline in later Roman and early Gothic times the
city was restored to prominence under the Visigoths. It was not,
however, an episcopal seat, and in the period of Gundemar and
Sisebut the city was under the Metropolitan of Tarraconensis.
The exact date of the Moslem occupation is not known (ca. 714),
but as Murbitru = (from Murviedro, etc.) Sagunto was well
known to the Arab geographers, who remark, among other things, on
the Roman theater there.
Only two specimens of the Visigothic mint are known, one of Gun-
demar and one of Sisebut. On both, the name is spelled SAC-VNTO.
The point after the C, as in some other instances, may perhaps be
intended to indicate that C is to be read as G. While Sagunto is the
ablative of Saguntum, and it can be argued that the classical form was
still in use in the 7th century, it is more likely that Sagunto had by
then become the accepted form the name.
1 Heiss, Monnaies Antiques, pp. 217-218 (288-290 for ARSE); Hill, pp.
111-127; al-Himyari, p. 217; Mateu y Llopis, Ampurias, 1941, pp. 88-89;
P.-W. IA, cols. 1755-56; Yaqut, IV, p. 486.
1 Just when this name gained currency is uncertain; it occurs in the so-called
Division of Wamba (probably late 11th century).
3 Also vocalized Murbaytar; commonly spelled Morbiter by non-orientalist
Spanish writers.
TARRACONENSIS
87
9. TARRACONA.1
Rulers: Leovigild, Reccared, Liuva, Witteric, Gundemar, Sisebut, Suin-
thila, Sisenand, Tulga, Reccesvinth, Wamba, Ervig, Egica, Egica & Wittiza,
Wittiza, Achila.
Spelling: TARRACONA and minor variations (Leovigild, Reccared, Witteric,
Gundemar, Sisebut, Suinthila); TARRACO (generally, from Liuva for-
ward). The classical spelling TARRACO does not occur until Liuva, but
thenceforth it is the dominant form, although the earlier Visigothic TARRA-
CONA2 is used sporadically as late as Suinthila. Both TARRACONA and
TARRACO are very frequently abbreviated with double (:), and some-
times single, points, the letter most commonly omitted being the second A.
Exceptionally under Reccared we meetwithTERR:CONA andTARRACON E.
Unabbreviated TARRACO occurs under Witteric, Reccesvinth, Wamba,
Ervig, Egica, Wittiza and Achila. The curious split form of the name, that
is, with the first part of the name in the fourth quarter and the last part in
the first quarter, is the usual form in the period of Sisebut, Suinthila and
Sisenand.
Epithets: IVSTVS3 Leovigild, Reccared, Witteric, Gundemar, Sisebut,
Suinthila, Sisenand, Tulga, Egica. PIVS Reccared, Liuva, Witteric,
Suinthila, Reccesvinth, Wamba, Ervig, Egica, Wittiza, Achila.
Remarkable legend: BTARACONAIVT3 (Reccared).
r
Monogram: 30>
ST
Types: Leovigild: facing busts of unknown type.
Reccared: facing busts of Tarraconese type (4 c); also two exceptional
issues of small diameter, one with facing busts (5 1), the other with
obverse facing bust resembling 5 k, and reverse equilateral cross.
Liuva through Tulga: facing busts of Tarraconese type (4 c).
Reccesvinth: first type, obverse, bust, right, of modified "Early Visi-
gothic" type (1 g); reverse, cross on 3 steps; second type, obverse,
bust, right, of irregular type ( 2 cc); reverse as before; third type,
obverse, bust, right, of distinctive type (2 d); reverse as before.
Wamba: first type, obverse, facing bust (5 e or u); reverse, cross on
3 steps; second type, obverse, bust, right (2 n); reverse as before.
Ervig: obverse, facing bust (5 q); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Egica: first type, obverse, facing bust, similar to Egica at Barcinona
(5 p); reverse, cross on 3 steps; second type, obverse, bust, right, of
modified "Early Visigothic" type (1 h); reverse as before; third type,
obverse, bust, right, holding cross (2 kk); reverse as before.
1 Catholic Encycl., XIV, pp. 459-461; E. of I., s. v. Tarragone (French ed.);
Garcia Villada, IP, pp. 53, 200, 204; Heiss, Monnaies Antiques, pp. 115-118;
Hill, pp. 39-50; al-Himyari, pp. 153-154; Levi-Provencal, Histoire, pp. 22, 128;
Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona; Menendez Pidal, pp. 75-76, 105, 279, 294; P.-W.
IVA, cols. 2398-2403.
1 Mateu y Llopis characterizes this form of the name as "romance o vulgar"
(Tarragona, p. 76).
3 Frequently spelled IVSTO.
88
THE MINTS
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts (13 a, c); reverse, mint
monogram.
Wittiza: obverse, facing bust of Egica's first type (5 p) and of a type
similar to Egica's at Cesaragusta (5 s); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Achila: obverse, facing bust of distinctive type (11 s); reverse, cross
on 3 steps.
Modern Tarragona, capital of the province, 54 miles southwest of
Barcelona, the famous ancient Tarraco, founded by Etruscans ca.
550 B. C, or perhaps first settled much earlier (ca. 1100 B. C.) by the
Tyrseni; taken by the Romans in 218 B. C, named Colonia Iulia
Victrix, and later, under Augustus, as capital of Tarraconensis and all
Hispania Citerior, titled Colonia Iulia Victrix Triumphalis Tarraco.
The plentiful coins with Celtiberian legend CESE are indisputably
attributed to Tarraco, and there is an extensive series of imperial
issues. The traditional attribution of numerous bronzes of the Con-
stantinian period, with the mint-mark T, to Tarraco has been much
discussed and questioned: more recently opinion has inclined to
reject this attribution in favor of Ticinum.1
Tarraco suffered numerous vicissitudes at the hands of Vandals,
Suevians and Goths during the decline of the Empire, and was
taken by Euric about 476. While the tradition of St. Paul's visit to
Tarraco lacks historical confirmation, there is no doubt that the
Christian history of the city begins very early, certainly as early as
the 3rd century with Bishop Fructuosus; and by 384 it had become
an archdiocese, which it was under the later Visigoths and has contin-
ued to be, with some interruptions, down to the present. Tarragona
was the site of the provincial council of 516, and was the scene of the
"martyrdom" of Hermenegild in 585 after his removal from Valentia.
The long series of Visigothic coins of Tarracona (so called at least
as early as Leovigild) is testimony to the importance of the city: of
the completely sovereign rulers only Chintila and Chindasvinth are
unrepresented.2
At the time of the collapse of the kingdom, Achila II's claim to
suzerainty in the region is evidenced by the unique specimen of
1 Most of the extensive literature can be traced through Otto Voetter, "Zur
Streitfrage ob Tarraco oder Ticinum" (NZ, Wien, 1926, pp. 145-154), Percy
H. Webb, "Third Century Roman Mints and Marks" (NC, 1921, pp. 233ff.),
Jules Maurice, Numismatique Constantinienne, II (Paris, 1911), pp. 197 ff.
2 For the most comprehensive treatment of the Visigothic coinage of Tarra-
co, see Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona. It should be noted that in the corpus
accompanying this article there are many duplicate references to the same
specimen, giving the impression that there are more specimens of a given
issue than actually exist.
TARRAOONENSIS
89
Tarracona in the Vidal Quadras y Ramon collection. The city was per-
haps raided by the Arabs about 714, and fell in 724 or shortly there-
after, but within a century it was restored to the Christians and
subsequently changed hands between Moslems and Franks several
times. The Arabic name was Tarrakunah (i/^t).
10. TIRASONA.1
Rulers: Leovigild, Reccared, Witteric, Gundemar, Sisebut, Suinthila.
Spelling: TIRASONA, occasionally TIRASONE.The name is always abbrevi-
ated, usually with two points (:) standing for the S. Occasionally another
set of points, or single points, within the name appear to have no signifi-
cance.
Epithets: IVSTVS Reccared, Witteric( ?), Gundemar, Sisebut, Suinthila.
PIVS Reccared.
Types: Leovigild: obverse, bust, right, of' 'Early Visigothic'' type (1 c); reverse,
cross on 4 steps.
Reccared through Suinthila: facing busts of Tarraconese type (4c,d).
Modern Tarazona, in the province of Zaragoza, 52 miles west-
northwest of the capital, Roman Turiaso, a municipium founded on
the site of a settlement of Iberian origin. The ancient city lay on the
road between Caesaraugusta and Numantia. Coins with Iberian
legends, as well as later Latin coinage under Augustus and Tiberius,
exist. Tirasona was the seat of a bishop in Visigothic times, and there
are shadowy and conflicting reports of an earlier history of the
diocese of Turiasonensis (5th century ?). Variant spellings of the name
in the mediaeval ecclesiastical lists and documents include Tirassona
and Tarrazona, as well as Tirasona. The city (Tarasiinah, k^.J>) was
taken by the Arabs early in the third decade of the 8th century; and
later, alternating with Tudela (Tutilah), became the seat of governors
of the Marches.
The publication of the collection of the Hispanic Society of America
adds two names, Leovigild and Witteric, to the list of kings during
whose rules the mint at Tirasona was active.
11. VALESTTIA.2
Rulers: Suinthila, Chintila, Egica, Egica & Wittiza.
Spelling: VA LENT I A.
1 Catlwlic Encycl., XIV, pp. 452-453; Heiss, Monnaies Antiques, p. 190;
Hill, pp. 162-168; al-Himyari, p. 150; Levi-Provencal, Histoire, p. 41; Menen-
dez Pidal, p. 279; Smith, Dictionary, s. v. Turiaso; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22 -31.
1 Beltran, pp. 434, 441-442; Catlwlic Encycl., XV, pp. 251-253; E. of I., s. v.
Valence (French ed.); Garcia Villada, II1, pp. 52-53; Gorres, Byzantinischen
90
THE MINTS
Epithet: IVSTVS Suinthila. PIVS Chintila, Egica.
Monogram:
Types: Suinthila: facing busts of Tarraconese type (4 c).
Chintila: facing busts, differing on obverse and reverse (5 f,o).
Egica: obverse, bust, right, of distinctive type (2 z); reverse, cross on
3 steps.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts of common type (13 f);
reverse, mint monogram.
The modern coastal city of Valencia, capital of the province of the
same name, Roman Valentia (Valentia of the Edetani), founded in
138 B. C. by D. Junius Brutus, a colony in imperial times. The coins
with Latin legends bear VALENTIA and VAL. It appears likely that
Valentia was among the coastal towns occupied by the Visigoths
during the reign of Euric (466-484). Its documented ecclesiastical
history begins with Bishop Justinianus (531-546), mentioned by St.
Isidore; in 546 a provincial council was held at Valencia, and the
oldest monastic school in Spain is stated to have been located there.
It was the first site of Hermenegild's banishment after his removal
from Seville. In the numerous mediaeval episcopal lists, and in the
earliest, of the late 7th century, Valentia (sometimes spelled Balentia)
is included under the Toletum Metropolis, that is, in Carthaginensis,
where indeed it did belong in the Diocletian administration, to which
the Visigothic ecclesiastic divisions were adapted. However, in the
early Empire the region was included in Tarraconensis, and, as Mateu
y Llopis has pointed out in his monograph on the Visigothic mints
of Sagunto and Valentia, it is evident from the unique coin of Valentia
issued by Suinthila, and from those of Sagunto under Gundemar and
Sisebut, all of Tarraconese type, that in those rules both towns were
considered as belonging to Tarraconensis, as they did in republican
and older imperial times. Later, after Suinthila's definitive expulsion
of the Byzantine authority from these coastal regions, Valentia was
assigned to the Carthaginensian metropolis. The later ecclesiastical
history of the diocese, particularly in the 13th century after the
reconquest, reflects the borderland nature of its location, the Arch-
Besitzungen, pp. 530-532; Heiss, Monnaies Antiques, pp. 222-223; al-Himyari,
pp. 59ff.;Liibker, p. 1081; Madrid, pp. 307-310; Mateu y Llopis, Ampurias
1941, pp. 92-95; idem, Hallazgos V, p. 70; Menendez Pidal, pp. 77, 90, 105, 278,
294, 391; P.-W. VIIA, cols. 2148-50; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31. See also
C.Torres, "La fundacionde Valencia," in Ampurias, XIII (1951),pp. 113-119,
which appeared after these pages had gone to the printer.
TARRACONENSIS
91
bishops of Toledo and Tarragona contending for jurisdiction.1 In the
late 15th century Valentia became an Archdiocese, which it is today.
The city fell to the Arabs in 714, about the same time as Sagunto,
Jativa and Denia, and became known as Balansiyah It was
the seat of a governor in the period of the Emirate and Caliphate, and
after the breakup of the latter in the early 11th century it became the
capital of an important independent kingdom, and later was attached
to Toledo. Its prominence in the days of the Cid is well known and
extensively documented. Balansiyah was a Moslem mint from 'Amirid
days onward until the reconquest, and thereafter it had its own
Christian numismatic history.
The fabrication of a coin of Leovigild of Valentia (VALENTA),
probably invented to supplement the numismatic history of Valence
on the Rhone but attributed by many writers to the Valentia under
discussion, "Valencia of the Cid," is discussed among the forgeries,
pp. 455-6. The only genuine coins that can confidently be attributed to
this mint are the unique piece of Suinthila in the Valencia University
Library, and the very rare ones of Chintila and Egica. One other issue
of Chintila is properly attributed to the Valentia of Lusitania. One
coin of Egica & Wittiza, with the mint-name in monogram, is proba-
bly correctly assigned to the Valentia under discussion here.
1 Numismatic writers frequently list Valentia under Chintila and Egica as a
mint of Carthaginensis: e.g., Reinhart, p. 100.
C. CARTHAGINENSIS
12. ACCI.1
Rulers: Sisebut, Suinthila, Sisenand, Chintila, Egica,
Spelling: ACCI, sometimes abbreviated AC I, with or without points to indi-
cate the omitted letter.
Epithet: IVSTVS Sisebut to Chintila. VICTOR Egica.
Types: Sisebut: facing busts (5 e).
Suinthila, Sisenand: facing busts (5 f).
Chintila: facing busts (5 e, f).
Egica: obverse, bust, right, of distinctive crude type (2 s); reverse,
cross on 3 steps.
Modern Guadix el Viejo, near Guadix, in the province of Granada,
26 miles east-northeast of the provincial capital, ancient Acci, a city
of the Basetani in classical Tarraconensis, and a colony of Augustus,
entitled Colonia Iulia Gemella Acci. A mint was located here under
Augustus, Tiberius and Caligula. The history of the diocese of Acci is
reported to extend back to St. Torquatus in the 1st century; Felix
of Acci presided at the Council of Elvira in 303, and the names of sub-
sequent Acitanian bishops who attended later councils are recorded.
The region of Orospeda, which probably included Guadix, was brought
directly under Visigothic control during Leovigild's expedition to
suppress the rebellion in the southeast in 577.
To the Arabs Acci was known as Wadi 'Ash (JJ ^pl}) and Wadi'l-
Ashi, i. e., river or valley of Ash or Ashi, derived from the name Acci;
and the modern name Guadix of course comes from the Arabic. The
town flourished during the first centuries of Moorish occupation, but
during the Muwahhid period and for some time thereafter it suffered
eclipse. The episcopal see was restored in 1492, and Guadix is still a
diocese today.
The presence of the epithet VICTOR on Egica's issues of Acci
quite possibly relate to his suppression of the revolt of Sisebert,
Metropolitan of Toledo, which occurred in the fifth year of Egica's
1 Cambridge, II, pp. 180-181; Catholic Encycl., XIV, p. 172, XVI, p. 43;
E. of I., s. v. Guadix; Gorres, Leovigild, p. 143; Heiss, Monnaies Antiques, p.
256; al-Himyari, p. 233; Maqqari, I, pp. 46, 353; Melon, p. 170; Menndez
Pidal, pp. 101, 132, 278; P.-W. I, cols. 139-140; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
OARTHAGINENSIS
93
reign, or perhaps to one of the other uprisings that marked his rule;
but what local significance there may be with reference to Acci, if any,
is not recorded in written history.
Eleven of the 39 known specimens of Acci are in the collection of
the Hispanic Society of America, and most of the rest were in the hoard
of La Capilla. A coin of Acci in this find supposedly with the legend
"J A JIT A," which occasioned much discussion, has been shown simply
to bear a retrograde writing of Suinthila's name.1
13. BEATIA.2
Rulers: Tulga, Chindasvinth.
Spelling: BIATIA (Tulga), BEATIA (Chindasvinth).
Epithet: PI VS.
Types: Tulga: facing busts (5 e, 1).
Chindasvinth: facing busts (5 e).
The modern commune of Baeza, in Jaen province, 19 miles north-
east of the provincial capital, ancient Beatia, Biatia, Viatia or Vivatia,
a city of the Oretani. Little is known of the early Christian history of
Beatia; it must have been taken by Leovigild in his southern cam-
paign of 570. As an episcopal seat the first occurrence of the name is in
connection with the Eleventh Council of Toledo (675), and thereafter
in the diocesan lists it reappears as Biatia, Viatia, Baecia, Biacia,
Viatia, etc. The diocese of Castulo was transferred to Beatia between
666 and 675, and the see of Beatia itself was removed to Jaen in 1248
after the restoration of the city to the Christians under Ferdinand III
of Castile in 1226. The Arabic name for the town was Baiyasah (<_L).
A triens of Reccared issued as Pincia was mistakenly attributed by
Velazquez, Florez and later writers to Beatia; and several coins of
Egica & Wittiza belonging to Elvora and uncertain mint (catalogue
No. 490) have also been wrongly assigned to this mint.3
14. CASTELONA.4
Rulers: Sisenand, Chintila.
Spelling: CASTELONA.CASTILONA. There are numerous apparent variations
under Sisenand, but actually in every case one of these two forms is intend-
1 Cf. p. 29, footnote 1, p. 37, footnote 1.
2 Catholic Encycl., VIII, p. 267; Gorres, Anfdnge, p. 601; al-Himyari, p. 72;
Hiibner, MLI, p. 243; Menendez Pidal, pp. 278, 318 (notes 62 and 64); Mel6n,
p. 170; Smith, Dictionary, I, p. 384; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
3 Cf. Beltran, pp. 408, 416.
4 Catholic Encycl., VIII, p. 267; Heiss, Monnaies Antiques, p. 284; al-Himyari,
pp. 191 (note 2), 248 (note 13); Levi-Provencal, Histoire, p. 237; Mata, pp. 18-
20; Menendez Pidal, pp. 278, 318 (note 64); P.-W. Ill, cols. 1778-80; Vazquez
de Parga, pp. 22-31.
94
THE MINTS
ed. The more common spelling is with E. It is impossible to tell whether
this vowel is E or I on the single specimen of Chintila, for the name is here
abbreviated CAST- L'NA.
Epithet: PIVS (always abbreviated).
Types: Sisenand: facing busts (5 e, f).
Chintila: facing busts (5 j).
The name of ancient Castulo and of the mediaeval town is preserved
in modern Las Ventas and El Molino de Cazlona, two miles north of
Linares in Jaen province, but no significant remains of the early
Christian town have been uncovered, although stones from Castulo
have been used in construction in Linares. Possibly the ruins called
Castro de la Magdelena, about five kilometers south of Linares, are to
be identified as those of Castulo. A city of the Oretani on the Baetis,
Castulo was located near important lead and silver mines and lay on
the highway from the Pyrenees to Gades and the ocean. The city fell
first to the Carthaginians, later temporarily to the Romans, and
finally after several vicissitudes it came under permanent Roman
control in 206 B. C. A mint here issued plentiful coinage with Iberian,
bilingual and Latin legends; the activity of the mines and its strategic
commercial location on the Baetis, then navigable at this point,
evidently raised the Roman city to a position of great prominence.
Castulo appears to have been a diocese as early as 298, the Episcopi
Castulonenses being, with those of Beatia somewhat later, the pre-
decessors of the Bishops of Jaen. In the Visigothic period Castulo was
an episcopal see under Toledo at least until 656, but shortly thereafter
authority was transferred to Beatia (q. v.). Such of the mediaeval
ecclesiastical lists as contain the name of the diocese give it in the form
Castilona, Castelona and Castalona, the first two agreeing with the
coins.1 The Arabic name Qastulunah (i restores the original u
(or o).
Most of the known specimens of Castelona, including the seven in
the HSA collection, come from the hoard of La Capilla.
15. MENTESA.2
Rulers: Reccared, Witteric, Gundemar, Sisebut, Suinthila, Sisenand, Egica,
Egica & Wittiza, Wittiza.
1 The form Castulona, given by Heiss and subsequent writers on the basis
of the single specimen then available, was assumed to be the correct one, by
analogy with classical Castulo, but actually, as noted above, the second and
third vowels are lacking on that specimen, their omission being indicated by
points.
1 Akhbdr Majmu'ah, pp. 258-259; Dozy, Histoire, I, p. 226, II, pp. 38, 55,
100; al-Himyari, p. 248 (note 14); Levi-Provencal, Histoire, pp. 244, 288; Me-
CARTHAGINENSIS
95
Spelling: MENTESA. The final A is sometimes indicated by points. Under
Suinthila and Sisenand E is frequently rendered I:, that is, the horizontal
strokes are widely separated from the vertical, giving the impression that the
vowel is I; actually E is always present.1
Types: Reccared: facing busts (5 f).
Witteric, Gundemar: facing busts (5 e).
Sisebut: facing busts as Witterio and Gundemar (5 e), and with cross
on face (5 g).
Suinthila: facing busts (5 e).
Sisenand: facing busts as Reccared (5 f), and with cross on face (5 g).
Egica: first type, obverse, head facing similar to Ervig at Cordoba (lid);
reverse, cross on 3 steps; second type, obverse, exceptional cross on
mound; reverse as before.
Egica & Wittiza: confronting busts and figures, of several types (13 d,
h, k, 1).
Wittizar first type, obverse, bust, right, of indeterminate type, some-
what resembling 2k;reverse, cross on 3 steps; second type, obverse,
facing bust, distinctive variation of lib; reverse as before; third
type, facing bust of uncertain type; reverse as before.
The site of Visigothic Mentesa has been identified by an inscription
as modern La Guardia, about five miles southeast of Jaen, the capital
of the province of the same name. It was originally a town of the
Bastetani (Mentesa Bastia), and was situated on the highway from
Carthago Nova to Castulo.2 Mentesa is listed among the bishoprics of
Toledo in Visigothic times and is regularly spelled in the mediaeval
episcopal lists as on the coins. That Mentesa (Mantishah, iu^.) was
a semi-independent city-principality in Umayyad times is clear from
several references to the fortress and its "lords" in the Arabic chroni-
cles.
Gundemar is represented by one specimen in the HSA collection,
and one recently acquired by Reinhart; and most of the known
specimens of Suinthila and Sisenand are from the hoard of La Capilla
and hence in the HSA collection.
nendez Pidal, p. 278; Mel6n, p. 170; P.-W. XV, col. 963; Vazquez de Parga,
pp. 22-31.
1 The legend on one specimen is transcribed M ENTPS:, but this is doubtless
a misreading arising from a misunderstanding of an E with separated horizon-
tals, read as P.
* It is not to be confused with the Mentesa of the Auscetani or Mentesa of the
Oretani (Villanueva de la Puente). The proper identity is indicated by the
position of the name in the diocesan lists.
Epithet: PIVS.
96
THE MINTS
16. RECCOPOLIS.1
Rulers: Leovigild, Reccared, Wittiza.
Spelling: RECCOPOLITand RECCOPOLITA (Leovigild); RECCOPOLI (Leo-
vigild, Reccared); RECCOXPOLI (Leovigild); RECCOPOLV (Reccared);
RECCOPVLI (Reccared); [RECJCOPVL- (Wittiza).
Epithet: PIVS (Wittiza).
Remarkable legends: FECIT, FECI, FEI (Leovigild, Reccared).
Types: Leovigild: first type, obverse, bust, right, of "Early Visigothio" type
(1 c); reverse, cross on 4 steps; second type, facing busts (5 a); third
type, obverse, facing bust, crowned (3 f); reverse, different facing
bust, crowned (3 g). The difference in the obverse and reverse bust
of the third type suggests that Reccared is represented on the re-
verse and that the issue dates after Reccared's association in his
father's rule.
Reccared: facing busts (5 a).
Wittiza: obverse, bust, right (2 g); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
There is now almost universal agreement2 that the site of Recco-
polis is to be identified with ruins located on the elevated land known
asCerro deLa Oliva (formerly called Rochafrida), about one kilometer
southwest of the pueblo of Zorita de los Canes, close to the river Tajo,
in the southern part of the province of Guadalajara. The earlier
identification with the neighboring sanctuary of Nuestra Senora de
Recapel, at the confluence of the Tajo and the Guadiela, near Almona-
cid de la Sierra, can now be abandoned. According to the chronicler,
John of Biclaro, Leovigild founded (condidit) and named Reccopolia
in A. D. 578 in honor of his son Reccared, built there numerous
public works, and extended extraordinary privileges to the inhabi-
tants.3
The tradition relating to Leovigild's founding of the city was
preserved in Arab times, as for instance in the 10th century descrip-
tion of Spain by Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Razi ("Cronica del Moro
Rasis"), the name of Reccopolis as given in the Spanish translation
being rendered "Racupel." According to this account, the Castillo of
1 Cabre y Aguil6 (including Beltran's reply); E. of I., a. v. al-Razi (LeVi-
Provencal); Gorres, Anfdnge, pp. 616-617; idem, Leovigild, pp. 146-147; idem,
Rekared, p. 272; Heiss, pp. 38-39; al-Himyari, p. 161; Madrid, p. 300; Mateu
y Llopis, Review of Zorita de los Canes in Ampurias, IX-X (1948), pp. 435-437;
Menendez Pidal, pp. 102, 108 (note 27); Ram6n y Fernandez, p. 89; Yaqut, II,
p. 802; Zorita de los Canes, especially pp. 7, 33-35, 41-54.
2 The most recent comprehensive treatment of the identification of Recco-
polis is in Juan Cabre Aguil's "El Tesorillo Visigodo de trientes de las exca-
vaciones...en Zorita de los Oanes" (see bibliography, s. v. Zorita de los Canes).
3 ".. . Civitatem in Celtiberia ex nomine filii condidit quam Reccopolis
nuncupatur, quam miro opere et moenibus et suburbanis adornans, privilegia
populo novae Urbis instituit."
CARTHAGINENSIS
97
Zorita de los Canes1 was built with stones taken from Reccopolis.
Later Moslem geographers record the name: Yaqiit (A. D. 1228) spells
Raqawbil and places it near Zorita; al-Himyari has Raqabil and repeats
the story that Leovigild (Liibiyan) built the city and named it after
his son p~\> Uli-j . . . J>li_> oju <_ja)l
The recent excavations on the site, in the course of which a hoard
of 90 early Visigothic trierdes was found in close connection with the
ruins of a Christian basilica, have served to amplify our scant know-
ledge of Reccopolis. The most important result of these excavations
is the discovery that the basilica was several times rebuilt and re-
modeled, and that the original building does not date from the period
of Leovigild but is rather "paleochristian," or perhaps Byzantine, and
was constructed as early as the beginning of the 5th century. The final
alterations appear to have been undertaken by Leovigild, after his
campaign against the region of Orospeda (577), in order to adapt the
church to the Arian ritual.
As the latest coins in the hoard of Zorita de los Canes, found in
Leovigild's stratum of the basilica, were of the REX INCLITVS,
Victory-reverse type, and no specimen of the mint-name, cross-on-
steps type was present, the excavator, Juan Cabre Aguilo, argues that
the hoard dates from ca. 580-583, and hence that Reccopolis was pil-
laged, burned and razed at this time by the native, anti-Arian, Spanish
Christian population. Reccopolis therefore no longer existed when the
types of Leovigild and Reccared with cross-on-steps reverse began to
be struck (else there would have been specimens in the hoard); as a
corollary, the Reccopolis coins of Leovigild and Reccared must be
fabrications of later date, presumably invented by modern scholars
to "document" the history of the famous city. Pio Beltran and Mateu
y Llopis have discussed and countered various aspects of Cabre
Aguilo's thesis.
We may certainly accept the conclusion, based on apparently sound
archaeological findings, that Reccopolis was not founded by Leo-
vigild but that an earlier Christian or Byzantine settlement on the site
of what is now known as Cerro de La Oliva was rebuilt, further de-
veloped, enlarged or "adorned" by him, and was thereupon named
Reccopolis, whether, as traditionally believed, after the name of his
son, Reccared, or, as Cabr6 Aguilo suggests, for Ciudad del Rey
(from rec, rix, ric). But with regard to the numismatic aspects of the
question, two observations should be made. In the first place, the
argument ex silentio with respect to the absence of Reccopolis coins
1 An excellent photograph of the castle in Zorita de los Canes, pi. II.
* Visigoth
9S
THE MINTS
in the hoard is not at all convincing; nor can the chronological
arguments relating to the destruction of the city, based on the pres-
ence of the hoard in the "baptistry" of Leovigild, be considered
entirely reliable.1 In the second place, we must reject Cabre Aguilo's
related assertion that "las cuatro emisiones de trientes de Leovigildo
y Recaredo publicadas por Heiss... deben ser falsas." Both Beltran
and Mateu y Llopis have pointed out that this argument can be valid
only if all of these coins with the name of Reccopolis are forgeries.
Surely this cannot be the case, for the corpus of known specimens
contains:
Leovigild: 1. HSA; 2. Copenhagen (Heiss); 3. VQR (Heiss); 4. G6mez-Moreno.
Reccared: 5. Florez; 6. VQR (Heiss); 7. VQR; 8. Academia (Heiss); 9. Mab-
bott; 10. VQR.
With the possible exception of nos. 9 and 10, every one of these
coins is from different obverse and reverse dies; it is most improbable,
to say the least, that so many different fabrications of such distinct
types could exist. Aside from this consideration, my close examination
of two of the coins (nos. I2 and 9) at first hand, and a hurried handling
of the VQR specimens, convinces me that the first two at least are
not fabrications and that the latter also betray no outward character-
istics of spuriousness; furthermore, the entire VQR collection is
noted for its almost complete exemption from counterfeits. No. 2,
illustrated by an engraving in Heiss and by a photograph in Rein-
hart's Milnzen... von Toledo," appears to be genuine; such atypical
features as it presents (its size, the "beaded" lines of the cross, the thin
characters) do not argue against its authenticity, considering the fact
that the coin belongs to an experimental and transitional period in
Visigothic numismatic development. Finally, no. 4 is stated to have
come from a find at a place called El Alijar, in the province of Caceres,
and its appearance, as illustrated by Ramon y Fernandez, does not
arouse suspicion.
All these considerations taken together are sufficient to refute the
assertion, or hypothesis, that genuine coins of Reccopolis under Leo-
vigild and Reccared do not exist.
The unique specimen of Wittiza should have an important bearing
on the whole question of the history of Reccopolis, particularly with
regard to its alleged destruction within Leovigild's lifetime; but
1 Beltran, using the same numismatic evidence, concluded that the exca-
vated ruins cannot be those of Reccopolis at all because the hoard (pre-578)
antedates the founding of the city.
2 No. 1 is slightly under weight, but it is a little chipped and worn.
CARTHAGINENSIS
99
unfortunately the single damaged piece in the VQR collection is too
obscure to serve as a firm basis for discussion.
With regard to the form of the name of the mint appearing in the
several varieties of legends, Florez argued that RECCOPOLI was
probably an indeclinable rendering of RECCOPOLIS, and that the
meaning was "Reccopolis made (the coin)." Heiss inclined toward the
other likely alternative, a Latinized ablative, i. e., "made in Recco-
polis." Gorres suggested that RECCOPOLIM was intended, that is,
"Leovigild built Reccopohs," but obviously this reading is impossible
in the case of the coins of Reccared.11 myself favor the ablative (or
locative) interpretation; it would also apply perhaps to the form
RECCOPOLV. At best, the die-engravers appear to have been puz-
zled about how to render the legend, for the forms not only of the
mint-name but of F EC IT vary in every instance. As for R ECCO P O L IT
and RECCOPOLITA on the two earliest specimens, the only ready
interpretation that presents itself is that an adjectival form is in
tended (RECCOPOLITAN A ?), in both cases abbreviated. The only
likely explanation of RECCOXPOLI (on the coin from Caceres) is
that X is a cross turned on its side.
17. SALDANIA.2
Rulers: Leovigild, Reccared, Witteric, Suinthila, Chindasvinth.3
Spelling: S ALDAN I A.
Epithets: IVSTVS Leovigild, Chindasvinth. PIVS Reccared, Witteric,
Suinthila.
Types: Leovigild: facing busts (5 1).
Reccared: facing busts (5 d).
Witteric: facing busts (5 r).
Suinthila: facing busts (5 e).
Chindasvinth: facing busts (5 q).
Modern Saldafia, on the Carrion river, in the province of Palencia,
about 60 kilometers north-northwest of the capital of the province
1 In Anfdnge, pp. 616-617, Gorres attempts to explain away the difficulty of
Reccopolim (sic) fecit under Reccared on the grounds that while Leovigild
actually founded the city, Reccared was closely associated with this founding
and carried the building forward. Basing his numismatic observations in this
article solely on Rasche, Gorres mistakenly renders the legend unequivocally
as RECCOPOLIM; in later articles he makes it clear that this is a reconstruc-
tion.
! Dozy, Histoire, II, p. 130; LeVi-Provencal, Histoire, pp. 439-440; Madrid,
pp. 299-300; Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos III, pp. 223-224, 229; Menendez Pidal,
p. 101.
3 Madrid (p. 299) and Reinhart (p. 100), probably on Mateu's authority,
name Chintila among those who struck at Saldania, but I do not know where
any specimens are located.
7*
100
THE MINTS
and about 30 kilometers south of the foothills of the Cordillera Canta-
brica. Roman remains testify to the antiquity of the site, but little is
known of its history. On the borders of Gallaecia, it has been
alternatively reckoned in that province or in Carthaginensis. Visi-
gothic occupation of the town appears to date from Leovigild's cam-
paign against Cantabria in 574; the later coins are evidence that it
continued to be a northern outpost of Visigothic dominion. It is
interesting to note that one of the two (or more?) known coins of
Suinthila struck at Saldania was found in a cemetery at Pamplona,
a town which appears not to have been a Visigothic mint, but in an
area which was evidently penetrated by Suinthila in his expedition
"contra incursus Vasconum."
Not much is known of Saldania in the Arab period. It was aban-
doned by the Berbers along with other northern regions after the
middle of the 8th century; later it was the seat of the "Beni Gomez,"
descendants of Gomez Diaz, Count of Saldana, and figured in a cam-
paign of the great al-Mansur in the late 10th century.1
It will be noted that the known coins of Saldania are very scarce,
and that two of them (Leovigild and Reccared), each unique, are in
the collection of the Hispanic Society of America.
Rulers: All except Hermenegild, Iudila and Achila.
Spelling: TOLETO.
Epithets: IVSTVS Leovigild. PIVS all others.
Remarkable legends: TOLETO REX (Leovigild). TOLETO REGE (Leovigild).3
1 The name of Shaltaniyah (but spelled iLLLl in the Arabic text)
appears in the so-called "Partage de Constantin" (al-Himyari, pp. 246-247),
described as the "country of the son of Gomez." Levi-Provencal identifies thus
name as Celtiana, equivalent to "la territoire des Gelticos," in the northwest
corner of Spain.
2 Catholic Encycl., XIV, pp. 755-759; E. of I., s. v. Toledo (Lvi-Provencal);
Garcia Villada, II1, pp. 41, 61, 64ff., 200, 204; Gorres, Anfdnge, pp. 611-612;
Heiss, Monnaies Antiques, pp. 262-264; Menendez Pidal, passim; P.-W. VIA,
col. 1673. :M Til
3 Dubious? See footnote, catalogue No. 28 (d).
18. TOLETO.2
Monograms:
CARTHAGINENSIS
101
Types: Leovigild: first type, obverse, bust, right, of "Early Visigothic" type
(1 c); reverse, Visigothic "Victory," right; second type, obverse as
above; reverse, cross on 4 steps; third type, facing busts (5 a).
Reccared: facing busts (5 d).
Liuva: facing busts (5 n).
Witteric: facing busts (5 d).
Gundemar: facing busts (5 e).
Sisebut: facing busts (5 d).
Suinthila, Sisenand, Chintila, Tulga, Chindasvinth: facing busts (5 e).
Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth: first type, obverse, bust, right (2 h);
reverse, mint monogram; second type, obverse, bust, right, of
"Early Visigothic" type (1 c); reverse, mint monogram.
Reccesvinth: first type, facing busts (5 e); second type, obverse, bust,
right, of modified "Early Visigothic" type (1 h); reverse, cross on 3
or 4 steps.
Wamba: first type, obverse, bust, right (2 h); reverse, cross on 3 steps;
second type, obverse, bust, right (2 b); reverse as before; third type,
obverse, bust, right, holding cross (2 ff); reverse as before.
Ervig: obverse, bust, right (2 j); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Egica: first, second and third types, obverse, bust, right (2 j, variation,
2 m, and 2 c); reverse, cross on 3 steps; fourth and fifth types, ob-
verse, bust, right, holding cross (2 gg, hh); reverse as before; sixth
type, obverse, facing bust (Ilk); reverse as before.
Suniefred: obverse, bust, right, holding cross (2 gg), similar to Egica's
fourth and fifth types; reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts and figures (13 f, k); re-
verse, mint monograms.
Wittiza: first type, obverse, bust, right, resembling 2 j; reverse, cross on
3 steps; second and third types, obverse, facing bust (11 m, o); re-
facing bust (111); reverse, cross; fifth type, facing bust (11 r); reverse,
cross on 3 steps.
Roderic: obverse, bust, right (2 x); reverse, cross on 4 steps.
Modern Toledo, capital of the province, 40 miles south-southwest
of Madrid. The name is doubtless of Celtic origin. A stronghold of the
Carpetani, Toletum was conquered by Rome in 192 B. C. and became a
civitas stipendiaria of Carthago Nova, where coins of Iberian type with
Latin legends were issued.
Although some of the traditions concerning the earliest Christian
history of Toledo have been rejected as lacking historical foundation,
there is no doubt that Christianity was introduced into the region in
the 1st century, and Toledo (Toleto) became the seat of a diocese at
least as early as the 3rd century and the metropolis of Carthaginensis in
the 5th century, certainly well before 527 when we have the first
authentic proof of its status as such. First under Valia (416-419), and
definitively under Euric (466-484), the city came under Visigothic
verse, cross within vine-like border
fourth type, obverse,
102
THE MINTS
control, and after the Kingdom of Toulouse came to an end in 507 and
the Visigothic center of gravity shifted beyond the Pyrenees, Toleto,
well fortified and strategically situated, eventually became the chief
city of the new kingdom in Spain. While Athanagild is reported to
have selected Toleto as the seat of government (567), it appears that
only under Leovigild did it become the official and effective capital.
We know that it was called urbs regia in the acts of the Third National
Council convened in 589.
As political capital, diocesan, and later primatial archepiscopal see
of Spain, and site of the most important general Councils, the city
became the center of the civil, ecclesiastical and cultural life of the
Visigoths. The most famous of the National Councils held in Toleto
was the Third, in May, 589, when Reccared and his followers abjured
the Arian heresy and professed the Catholic doctrine of the Council of
Nicea. The Basilica of Santa Maria was consecrated for use by the
Catholics on April 13, 587.
In 714 Toleto (Tulaytulah, iklt) fell to Tariq b. Ziyad. Its history
during the period of the Umayyad Caliphate was a stormy one, punc-
tuated by many rebellions; after the collapse of the Caliphate in the
early 11th century, the city became the capital of the independent
kingdom of the Dhu'l-Nunids, later in the same century was annexed
by the king of Badajoz, and finally (in 1085) was retaken by the
Christians under Alfonso VI of Castile. A mint was located here after
the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate as well as after the reconquest.
Next to Emerita the Visigothic coins of Toleto are commoner than
those of any other mint (513 specimens listed in the corpus). The only
great rarities are those of Liuva (3 specimens), Gundemar (3), Tulga
(10), Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth (6), Suniefred (1), and Roderic (l).1
1 Forgeries of the latter are common.
D. BAETICA
19. ASIDONA.1
Ruler: Sisenand.
Spelling: AS IDON A. The name is sometimes mistakenly spelled AS IDONIA by
modern writers. The coins confirm the spelling by the anonymous 7th cen-
tury geographer of Ravenna. Some of the later episcopal lists give "Asi-
donia."
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: facing busts (5 e).
Probably2 modern Medina-Sidonia (also historically known as
Sidonia), a commune in Cadiz province, 19 miles east-southeast of the
capital, classical Asido (Asido Caesarina ?), a town of the Turdetani.
There are bilingual (Punic and Latin) coins with the legend ASIDO.
Little is recorded of the early Christian history of Asidona; we know,
however, that it was a suffragan episcopal seat of Seville and was first
represented by Bishop Rufinus at the Second Council of Seville (619).3
In 571 Leovigild recovered Asidona from the Byzantines.
Known to the Arabs as Shadhunah (ij-ii) and later as Madinat
Ibn al-Salim (not to be confused with Madinat SalimMedinaceli),
the town figured in the earliest history of Islam in Spain, situated as
it was near the site of the battle between Taxiq and Roderic in 711.
The following year Shadhunah fell to Musa b. Nusayr.
Only eight specimens of the Visigothic mint are known, seven of
them from the hoard of LaCapilla. Five of these are in the HSA collec-
tion.
1 E. of I., s. v. Medina-Sidonia (Levi-Provencal); Gorres, Byzantinischen
Besitzungen, pp. 518ff.; idem, Leovigild, p. 140; Heiss, Monnaies Antiques,
p. 370; al-Himyari, pp. 123, 195; La Capilla, pp. 107-108; Levi-Provencal,
Histoire, pp. 15, 19; Madrid, pp. 319, 338; Mateu y Llopis, Nombres de Lugar,
1940, p. 73; Mel6n, p. 172; Menendez Pidal, pp. 278, 318; P.-W. II, col. 1579,
IV, col. 540; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
1 It has been argued that Asido is rather to be identified with Jerez de la
Frontera, or with the abandoned site of Ciduena, but I have adopted Hiibner's
identification.
'Or, according to other authority, at the Fourth National Council in 633.
Cf. Menendez Pidal, p. 318. It is interesting to note that the only known coins
date from 631-636.
104
THE MINTS
20. BAKBI.1
Rulers: Sisebut, Suinthila, Sisenand, Tulga.
Spelling: BARB I.
Epithet: PIVS.
Types: Sisebut: unknown.
Suinthila, Sisenand: facing busts (5 e).
Tulga: facing busts (5 v).
Although several authorities, following Florez, have identified Barbi
with an ancient "Municipio Barbitanus," near Tucci, which latter is
the modern Martos, southwest of Ja6n, I see no reason not to accept
the identification proposed by Fernandez y Lopez and Hiibner, i.e.,
Singilis or Singili Barba, a municipium before the time of Vespasian,
located according to the itineraries between Ostippo and Anticaria
(Antequera), and perhaps in the vicinity of La Pizarra, between Alora
and Cartama in Malaga province. The very close proximity of the
"Municipio Barbitano" to Tucci, also a mint in the time of Sisebut,
Suinthila and Sisenand, makes the former identification less likely;
also there is as yet no known representation of a mint in the district
of Astigi, to which Singili Barba belonged. The name Barbi occurs
in the Lex Visigothorum. Hiibner suggests that this form of the name
derives by analogy from Singili Barba.
Avery large percentage of the known specimens of this mint issued
by Suinthila and Sisenand come from the hoard of La Capilla, and
many of these are in the collection of the Hispanic Society of America.
21. CORDOBA.2
Rulers: Leovigild, Reccared, Witteric, Sisebut, Suinthila, Sisenand, Chintila,
Tulga, Chindasvinth, Reccesvinth, Wamba, Ervig, Egica, Egica & Wittiza,
Wittiza.
Spelling: CORDOBA.
Epithet: PIVS Reccared, Witteric, Sisebut, Suinthila, Sisenand, Chintila,
Tulga, Chindasvinth, Reccesvinth.
Remarkable legends: CORDOBA BIS OPTINVIT (Leovigild). CORDOBA
PATRICIA (Chindasvinth, Reccesvinth, Wamba, Ervig, Egica, Wittiza).
1 Florez, p. 238; La Capilla, pp. 71-76; Madrid, p. 322; Mel6n, p. 181;
P.-W. IIIA , cols. 235-236.
a Catholic Encycl., IV, pp. 359-360; E. of I., s. v. C6rdoba (C. F. Seybold);
Garcia Villada, II1, p. 52; Gorres, Anfdnge, p. 602; idem, Leovigild, pp. 140-141;
idem, Byzantinischen Besitzungen, pp. 516, 518-526; idem, Hermenegild, pp-
46-49; Grant, pp. 4-5; Heiss, Monnaies Antiques, pp. 296-297; Mateu y Llopis,
Cordoba, pp. 50ff.; Menendez Pidal, pp. 95, 100, 105, 278; Miles, Umayyads,
pp. 33-43, 50-51; P.-W. IV, cols. 1221-24; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
BAETICA
105
Types: Leovigild: facing busts of distinctive Oordoban type ( 9a, b).
Beccared: facing busts of Cordoban type ( 9 c).
Witteric, Sisebut: facing busts of Cordoban type (9 b).
Suinthila: first type, facing busts of Cordoban type (9 b); second type,
facing busts of general type (5 e).
Sisenand: facing busts of general type (5 e).
Chintila: first type, facing busts of Cordoban type (9 b); second type,
obverse, facing bust of Cordoban type (9 b); reverse, facing bust
with cross in place of breast (10 a).
Tulga: similar to Chintila's second type.
Chindasvinth: first and second types, facing busts of Cordoban type
(9 b); third type, similar to Chintila's second type, but within circle;
fourth type, obverse, facing bust of Cordoban type (9 b), within
circle; reverse, facing bust with chriamon in place of breast (10 b),
also within circle.
Beccesvinth: first type, obverse, facing head within circle (10 d); re-
verse, facing bust with chriamon in place of breast (10 b), also within
circle; second type, obverse, facing head within circle (10 e); reverse,
cross on 3 steps, also within circle; third type, obverse, facing head
(10 f); reverse, facing bust of late type (11 a); fourth and fifth types,
obverse, bust, right, of modified "Early Visigothic" type (1 h); re-
verse, cross on 3 steps.
Wamba: first, second and third types, obverse, busts, right (2 n, p and
t); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Ervig: first type, obverse, bust, right (2 r); reverse, cross on 3 steps;
second type, obverse, facing bust (5 o); reverse as before; third and
fourth types, obverse, facing busts of late types (11 b, d); reverse as
before.
Egica: first type, obverse, bust, right (2 o, p); reverse, cross on 3 steps;
second type, obverse, bust, right.holding cross (2ii); reverse as before.
Egica & Wittiza: first type, obverse, confronting busts (13 f); reverse,
mint monogram; second type, obverse as before but within circle;
reverse, cross and circular legend, within circle; third type, obverse,
pair of facing busts (13 n); reverse, mint monogram; fourth type,
as third, but obverse within circle.
Wittiza: first and second types, obverse, bust, right (2 u, bb); reverse,
cross on 3 steps; third type, obverse, facing bust of late type (lib)
similar to one of Ervig's; reverse as before.
Modern Cordoba (Cordova in English), capital of the province of
the same name, on the Guadalquivir River, the ancient Corduha of
Hispania Ulterior, a Roman colony founded probably during the
Pompeian occupation of 46-45 B.C. on the site of an earlier town
containing a vicus of Roman citizens from the time of the campaigns
of M. Claudius Marcellus (169, 152 B.C.). The name Colonia Patricia
10<>
THE MINTS
takes the place of Cordvba under Augustus and thereafter. Under
Roman rule the city soon became the military and commercial
capital of Baetica.
The Christian history of Cordoba may have begun as early as the
apostolic period, but the name of the founder of the see is unknown;
the earliest recorded bishop was Severus, ca. 279. It was, of course,
the seat of an important diocese throughout the Visigothic period,
and the name occurs, always as Cordoba, on all the mediaeval lists of
sedes of the Metropolis of Ispalis.1 During the reign of Agila, Cordoba
was the center of the rebellion in Baetica which took place in 551.
Subsequently, ca. 567-572, probably as a result of the struggle
between Agila and Athanagild, the city fell into Byzantine hands,
but it was recovered by Leovigild in the latter year. In 584 Cordoba
was temporarily occupied by Hermenegild after his flight from
Seville, but in the same year it surrendered once more to Leovigild,
who was, it seems, aided on this occasion by Byzantine treachery, for
the Greeks are reported to have received from Leovigild a bribe of
30,000 solidi.
The fame of Cordoba under the Arabs (Qurtubah, UJ), especial-
ly during the Umayyad period, is proverbial. The city fell to
Mughith al-Rumi, a freedman, in 711, doubtless with the connivance
of the resident Jews; and from 719 onward until the collapse of the
Caliphate early in the 11th century, it was the capital of Muslim Spain
(the principal, if not the only, al-Andalus of the coins).2 The later
vicissitudes of Cordoba do not concern us here; it returned to Chris-
tian hands with Ferdinand III of Castile in 1236.
Of special interest among the Visigothic coins of Cordoba are the
historically commemorative ones struck by Leovigild in 584 with the
legend CORDOBA BIS OPTINVIT, referring to the two occasions of
his capturing the city (see above). These coins are of first-class im-
portance in determining the chronology of Leovigild's issues. Also
remarkable is the legend CORDOBA PATRICIA, harking back to the
Augustan Colonia Patricia, first introduced by the Romanizing
Chindasvinth and in constant use on the coins thereafter until the end
of the kingdom. Great rarities in the long series of Cordoba are the
unica of Witteric (Acad, de la Historia),3 and of Sisebut (HSA).
1 In modern times, before 1851, Cordoba was suffragan to Toledo, but since
that date it has been, as formerly, within the Archiocese of Sevilla.
1 For the unique Umayyad coin (in the HSA collection) bearing the mint-
name Madlnat Qurtubah, see Miles, Umayyads, p. 50-51.
3 See the discussion of the authenticity of this coin, pp. 243-4.
BAETICA
107
22. EGABRO.1
Rulers: Chintila, Egica & Wittiza.
Spelling: EGABR (Chintila). EGABRO (Egica & Wittiza).
Epithet: PIVS.
Monogram:
Types: Chintila: facing busts, types unknown.
Egica & Wittiza: first type, obverse, confronting busts (13 f), within
circle; reverse, sprig and circular legend, within circle; second type,
obverse, unknown; reverse, mint monogram.
Modern Cabra, a commune in Cordoba province, 37 miles southeast
of the capital city, ancient Igabrum,2 an Iberian city, the name of
whose inhabitants is preserved in inscriptions. The name (Egabro)
appears in the lists of mediaeval episcopal sedes and also in the Leges
Visigothorum, where it is listed as a territorium, interpreted by Manuel
Torres as being equivalent to a "provincia-condado" under the
administration of a index. To the Arabs the town was known as
Qabrah (jwhence the modern name.
23. ELIBERRI.3
Rulers: Reccared, Witteric, Gundemar, Sisebut, Suinthila, Iudila, Sisenand,
Chintila, Chindasvinth, Ervig, Egica, Egica & Wittiza.
Spelling: ELIBERRI, ELIBERI; exceptionally ILIBERRI, LIBERRI and LIBERI
under Reccared. The spelling E LI BE R under Suinthila, (Iudila), and Sisenand
is probably simply an abbreviation, and other anomalies during this period
are the result of careless engraving. The spelling ELIVERI occurs on one
specimen of Ervig.
Epithets: PIVS all rulers. IVSTVS Reccared.
Monograms: g
Types: Reccared: facing busts (5 d).
Witteric, Gundemar, Sisebut: facing busts (5 e).
Suinthila: facing busts (5f).
Iudila: unknown.
1 AJ-Himyari, pp. 178-179; Madrid, p. 331; Menendez Pidal, pp. 220, 278;
P.-W. IX, col. 965; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
* Sometimes rendered Aegabro.
3 Catholic Encycl., V, pp. 395-396, VI, pp. 723-724; Dozy, Recherches (3rd
ed.), I, pp. 327-340; E. of I., s. v. Elvira (C. F. Seybold); Heiss, Monnaies
Antiques, pp. 325-326; al-Himyari, pp. 30, 37; Mel6n, p. 173; Menndez Pidal,
p. 278; P.-W. IX, cols. 1060-61, Suppl. III, cols. 1211-15; Vazquez de Parga,
pp. 22-31.
108
THE MINTS
Sisenand, Chintila: facing busts (5 f)-
Chindasvinth: obverse, facing bust with cross in place of breast (10 a)
similar to Cordoba; reverse, facing bust of Cordoban type ( 9 b).
Ervig: first type, obverse, bust, right (2 r); reverse, cross on 3 steps;
second type, obverse, facing bust of late type (11 h); reverse as be-
fore.
Egica: obverse, crude facing bust of late type (11 e); reverse, cross on
3 steps.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts (13 f), with and without
scepter.
In the vicinity of mediaeval and modem Granada, ancient Iliberri
in Hispania Baetica, one of the celeberrima oppida between the Baetis
and the coast (Pliny), a city of the Turduli, belonging under the
Romans to the Conventus Cordubensis and known by them, according
to inscriptions, as municipium Florentinum Iliberritani. Coins with
Iberian legends are known. The exact location of the city is disputed,
the most convincing archaeological (epigraphical) evidence pointing
to a village named Atarfe, some eight kilometers west of Granada, in
the Sierra de Elvira, which latter name derives from Eliberri; other
finds suggesting a hill opposite the Alhambra in Granada itself, the
site of the later Moorish Alcazaba.
Eliberri (also spelled Iliberri and Illiberri in the mediaeval lists) was
the site of the famous and important first council of bishops in Spain,
known as the Council of Elvira, held in the early 4th century, proba-
bly ca. 305. The diocese of Eliberri (later of Granada) is reported to
date back to 64 A.D., and the names of 62 bishops from St. Cecilius to
Agapius (957) are recorded; in 1493 Granada became an archdiocese.
The town and district was known to the Arabs as Ilbirah (j^JI),
whence the Spanish Elvira, sometimes as Qastilah (JLk-J), located
by the mediaeval Moslem geographers close to Granada, between
Atarfe (o_^Jl) and Pinos Puente at the foot of the Sierra de Elvira.
Ilbirah was a flourishing town during the Caliphate, but the inhabi-
tants began to desert it for Granada early in the 11th century.
The number of known specimens of the Visigothic mint of Eliberri
is greatly increased by the publication of the Hispanic Society collec-
tion, which includes 22 specimens of Suinthila and 14 of Sisenand,
most of these from the hoard of La Capilla. Rare issues are those of
Gundemar (4 specimens), Iudila (1), Chintila (2, one of which in the
HSA collection), Chindasvinth (1), and Ervig (3).
BAETICA
109
24. ISPAU.1
Riders: All (including Hermenegild), except Iudila, Suniefred, Roderic and
Spelling: IS PALI. Leovigild's issues bear abbreviations, SPALI, SPLI, SPL, SPI.
Epithet: PIVS.
Remarkable legends: CVM D[E]0 OPTINVIT SPALI, and variations (Leovigild).
CVM DEO SPALI ADQVISITA (Leovigild). VRB ISPALI PIVS (Chin-
Type*: Leovigild: first and second types, obverse, bust, right, of "Early Visi-
gothic" type (1 c); reverse, cross on 4 steps; third type, facing busts
of various sub-types (5 a, h, k, 1, m).
Hermenegild: obverse, bust, right, of "Early Visigothic" type (1 c);
reverse, Visigothic "Victory," right.
Reccared: facing busts (5 d).
Liuva, Witteric, Gundemar, Sisebut, Suinthila, Sisenand, Chintila,
Tulga, Chindasvinth: facing busts (5 e).
Ohindasvinth & Reccesvinth: first type, obverse, bust, left, of modi-
fied "Early Visigothic" type (1 e); reverse, mint monogram; second
type like the first, except bust faces right ( 1 f).
Reccesvinth: first type, obverse, bust, right, of modified "Early
Visigothic" type (If); reverse, mint monogram; second type, obverse,
bust, left, of "Early Visigothic" type (1 e); reverse, cross on 4 steps;
third type, obverse as second type but bust faces right (If); reverse,
cross on 3 steps; fourth type, obverse, bust, right, of modified "Early
Visigothic" type (1 h); reverse, cross on 3 or 4 steps; fifth type,
obverse, bust, right, of uncertain type; reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Wamba: obverse, bust right (2 b); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Ervig: first type as Wamba; second type, obverse, bust, right, hold-
ing cross (2 jj); reverse as before; third and fourth types, obverse,
facing busts of late types (11 r, n); reverse as before.
Egica: first type, obverse, bust, right (2 b); reverse, cross on 3 steps;
second type, obverse, bust, right, holding cross, resembling 2 jj;
reverse as before; third type, obverse, facing bust of late type (lip);
reverse as before.
Egica & Wittiza: first type, obverse, confronting busts (13 f); reverse,
mint monogram; second type, as first but monogram within circle.
Wittiza: first type, obverse, very crude bust, right (2 aa); reverse, cross
on 3 steps; second type, facing (?) bust of indeterminate type;
reverse as before.
1 Beltran, Suevia, p. 88; Catholic Encycl., XIII, pp. 744-746; E. of I., s. v.
Seville (Levi-Provencal); Garcia Villada, IP, pp. 51-52, 56, 60, 75, 126, 200;
Gorres, Byzantinischen Besitzungen, pp. 518-526; idem, Hermenegild, pp. 13,
27-28, 38 ff., 46; Heiss, Monnaies Antiques, pp. 392-394; al-Himyari, pp. 24-
28; Menendez Pidal, pp. VIII, 22, 29, 96, 103, 105, 286, 294; P.-W. VIII, cols.
1963-65; Miles, Umayyads, p. 34; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
Achila.
dasvinth).
110
THE MINTS
Modern Sevilla (Seville), capital of the province of the same name,
ancient Hispalis, or Hispali (probably more correctly Ispalis), a
Turdetan city first mentioned in Julius Caesar's Spanish campaigns,
designated, as on coins of Augustus, Colonia Iulia Romula. The
modern name derives from the colloquial Latin Spalis, and the forms
on the coins of Leovigild are interesting in this connection. In the
Roman period the city became one of the most important in Baetica,
along with Gades and Corduba, particularly as commercial emporium,
located as it was on the left bank of the navigable Baetis.
The diocese (now an archdiocese) dates from the 1st century, and a
Bishop Sabinus attended the Council of Elvira. In 467 Pope Simplic-
ius appointed as his vicar Bishop Zenon of Ispali to put the affairs of
Baetica in order, which would imply the existence of the archepiscopal
see here at this date. Especially famous in the long line of bishops
were Leander, who was instrumental in the conversion of Hermene-
gild and, in 586 or early 587, of Reccared, to Catholicism, and who
presided at the Third Council of Toledo in 589; and Isidore, the noted
historian. In the mediaeval episcopal lists the name is spelled Ispali,
Ispalis, and sometimes Hispali.
Between approximately 411 and 428, with a short interruption,
Ispali was occupied by the Vandals, and was taken by the Suevian
Rechila about 441. A little more than a century later it came de-
finitively into the unified Visigothic kingdom under Athanagild. In 579
Hermenegild made the city his capital at the time of his conversion
and of his rebellion against his father, and it was undoubtedly here
that his trientes were struck.1 In 583 Leovigild began the siege of the
city which ended the following year with its surrender under attack
and the flight of Hermenegild. Leovigild's coins with the legends
CVM D[E]0 OBTINVIT SPALI (etc.) and (if genuine, see the
catalogue) CVM DEO SPALI ADQVISITA, undoubtedly refer to
this event.
Ispali was the site of provincial councils in 590 and 619, the latter
presided over by St. Isidore. In 712, after a siege of a month or
perhaps longer, the city (Ishbiliyah, LUil) fell to Musa b. Nusayr
and was chosen as the Moslem capital by Musa's son 'Abd al-'Aziz,
who married Roderic's widow. About 719 the seat of government
was transferred to Cordoba. A mint existed at Ishbiliyah under the
Abbadids, Murabits, Muwahhids, and the later Hudids. The city was
reconquered by Ferdinand III in 1248 after a siege of sixteen months.
The exceptional legend VRB ISPALI PIVS under Chindasvinth
See p. 24 for the legends on Hermenegild's coins.
BAETICA
111
(two specimens) is of interest as a reflection of the strong classical
influence predominant in Visigothic Spain during the middle of the
7th century.1
25. ITALICA.2
Ruler: Leovigild.
Spelling: ETALICA.
Epithet: PIVS (on obverse with name of king).
Remarkable legend: CVM DEO ETALICA.
Type: obverse, bust, right, of "Early Visigothic" type (1 c); reverse, cross on
4 steps.
Ruins in the vicinity of modern Santiponce, formerly known as
Sevilla la Vieja and Campos de Talca, seven or eight kilometers
northwest of Seville on the right bank of the Guadalquivir; ancient
Italica, an outpost against the Lusitanians founded ca. 205 B.C. by
Scipio Africanus, given municipal status perhaps by Julius Caesar,
certainly by Augustus. The coins issued by Augustus, Tiberius et. al.
bear MVNIC ITALIC PERM AVG, etc. Italica was the home of
Trajan and Hadrian, and from the latter received the title Colonia
V(ictrix ?) Iialicensium. It became a first-class commercial center and
exported large quantities of olive oil; its huge amphitheater, the
fourth largest in the Roman world, is witness to its civic importance,
certainly equal to that of Hispalis.
That Italica was the seat of a diocese of the Ispali Metropolis we
know from the mediaeval episcopal lists. We also know that Leovigild
occupied Italica and strengthened its walls during the course of his
siege of Ispali in 583-584.3 The unique coin in the collection of the
Hispanic Society of America,4 with a legend resembling those of
Leovigild's at Ispali, must date from 582 or 583 and commemorates
one of Leovigild's victories in the course of his campaign of pacifi-
cation in Baetica. The inscription is probably to be read CVM DE[0]
0[BTINVIT] ETALICA. Whether the initial letter of the mint-name
is an error or rather represents a contemporary pronunciation and
spelling is uncertain.
1 Cf. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos TV, p. 248.
* E.of I., 8. v. Seville; Gorres, HermenegUd, pp. 45-46; Heiss, Monnaies An-
tiques, pp. 378-380; al-Himyari, pp. 8, 26, 149-150; Liibkor, p. 505; Maqqari,
I, pp. 60, 367-368 (valuable bibliographical note by Gayangos listing descrip-
tions of the ruins); Menendez Pidal, pp. 105, 278; Oxford, p. 462; P.-W. IX,
cols. 2283-84; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
3 Johannes Biclarensis: "Leovigildus muros Italicae antiquae civitatis res-
tauravit."
4 There is, so far as I have been able to determine, no reason whatever to
euspect the authenticity of this remarkable coin.
112
THE MINTS
To the later Moslems in Spain Italica (Taliqah, <i)lL), then in
ruins, was known as the site of an ancient and important capital,
and its remains, including a remarkable statue of a young woman
(goddess ?) are described at some length by Maqqari and al-Himyari.
It must have been during the course of the first centuries of Moslem
occupation that the city fell into complete ruin, and thereafter, and
until relatively recent times, the ancient structures on the site served
as a quarry for the neighboring Sevillans.
26. MALACA.1
Rtder: Sisenand.
Spelling: MALACA.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: facing busts (5 f).
Modern Malaga, capital of the province of the same name, on the
coast in southern Spain, ancient Malaca, founded by Tynans soon
after Gades (ca. 1100 B.C.), and next to Gades the most important of
their colonies in Spain. Coins with Punic inscriptions (MLKA) were
struck here in the 4th-3rd centuries B.C., but there appears to have
been no mint at Malaca in the Roman period. Very little is known of
the city's Roman history, which began in 205 B.C. It was at first a
civitas foederata, later, under the Flavian emperors, a municipium.
The earliest known bishop of Malaca is said to have been Patricius,
present at the Council of Elvira early in the 4th century; but the
name of the diocese does not actually appear until the Sixth Council
of Toledo (638). In the interim Malaca, with contiguous localities, was
under Byzantine control, except during Leovigild's campaign of the
year 570; and it was not until the reign of Sisebut that the city came
definitely into Visigothic hands. Although the diocese appears to
have been suppressed after the Arab invasion (it fell in 711) and until
the reconquest by Ferdinand and Isabella, there is evidence that the
church was still active in Malaca in the 12th century. The city was
known to the Arabs as Malaqah (isJU) and ranked among the
most important of southern Spain; a mint existed here under the
Hammudids and successors, Murabi^s and Nasrids.
Only three (or perhaps only two) specimens of the Visigothic mint
are known.2 With regard to the spelling of the name on the coins, the
1 Catholic Encycl., IX, p. 565; E. of I., s. v. Malaga (LeVi-Provencal); Gorres,
Byzantinischen Besitzungen, pp. 518ff., 530-532; idem, Anfdnge, p. 601; Heiss,
Monnaies Antiques, pp. 311-313; al-Himyari, pp. 213-215; Mateu y Llopis,
Hallazgos IV, pp. 243-244; Menendez Pidal, pp. 278, 318 (note 67); P.-W. XIV,
cols. 823-824; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
2 See pp. 314-5.
BAETICA
113
evidence of the existing specimens is not conclusive, but probably
MALACA, not MALAGA, is intended, although the peculiar form
on the HSA specimen might be read either way. The name appears
commonly as Malaca on the mediaeval church lists, but the forms
Mallaca, Malace, Malacha and Malaga also occur.
Riders: Leovigild( t), Sisebut, Suinthila, Sisenand, Chintila, Ervig, Egica & Wit-
tiza.
Spelling: TVCCI, TVCI. The omission of one of the C's is usually but not
always indicated by dots. Under Ervig the name is spelled out in full.
Epithets: IVSTVS Sisebut, Suinthila, Sisenand, Chintila. PIVS Suinthila,
Ervig.
Types: Leovigild: unknown.
Sisebut: facing busts, type unknown.
Suinthila: facing busts (5 e, f).
Sisenand, Chintila: facing busts (5 e).
Ervig: obverse, bust, right (2 q); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts (13 e, f); reverse, mint
Modern Martos, a commune of Ja6n province, 14 miles southwest
of the city of Jaen, ancient Tucci, a town of the Turduli, Roman
Colonia Augusta Gemella, mentioned simply as Qemella in the war
with Viriatus, 141 B.C. The identification is established by inscrip-
tions found on the site. Other unidentified Tucci'a (ovl-tucci), named
by Appian and Pliny and in the Itinerarium Ardonini, were also
located in Baetica. In pre-Visigothic and" Visigothic times Tucci
(sometimes confused in the lists with Tude) was an episcopal seat. It
was represented at the famous Council of Eliberri. The early Arabic
rendering of the name was Tush (jZ), sometimes wrongly vocalized
Tash; but in the latter half of the 10th century the town became
known as Martush (or Martosh), after the name of the district, whence
the modern name.
The existence of the single coin of Leovigild is doubtful: see p. 193.
Most of the specimens of Suinthila and all but two of those of Sisenand
are in the HSA collection and are from the hoard of La Capilla. One
of the two known specimens of Ervig, and two of the five specimens
of Egica & Wittiza, are also in the HSA collection.
1 Dozy, Recherches, I (3rd ed.), pp. 311-313; Menendez Pidal, p. 278;
P.-W. VHA, col. 765; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
27. TUCCI.1
monograms.
* Visigoth
E. LUSITANIA
28. CALIABRIA.1
Ruler: Witteric.
Spelling: CALIABRIA.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: facing busts (5 e).
Ruins now known asCastello deCalabre,2 in north-central Portugal,
on the Douro, five kilometers northeast of Almendra and 12 kilo-
meters southeast of Vila Nova de Foz-Coa; ancient Caelobriga,
possibly identical with the KoiXioPpiya, a city of the Coelerni,
mentioned by Pliny. Caliabria (also spelled Calabria and Caliabrica in
the episcopal lists) was the seat of a diocese, said to have been trans-
ferred there from Viseu and not regularly represented at the councils
of Toledo, the name of the bishop being absent on the records of the
Ninth to Fourteenth and the Sixteenth Councils, i.e., during the
second half of the 7th century.
The unique specimen of Caliabria was first published by Velazquez.
29. COLEIA.3
Rulers: Reccared, Sisebut, Suinthila.
Spelling: COLEIA. The specimen of Reccared has COLEIV, but the last letter
is probably A inverted.
Epithets: IVSTVS Reccared. PIVS Suinthila. Sisebut has PIAT-, which is
unintelligible.
Types: Reccared: unknown.
Sisebut, Suinthila: facing busts (5 e).
Location unknown. A place called Coleia or Goleia appears in the
Acts of the Council of Braga, the "Division of Wamba," and the
Liber Itacii, in the diocese of Viseu. Only four specimens of the mint
are known to exist.
1 Beltran, Suevia, p. 152; Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, p. 69; Fernandez-Guerra,
II, pp. 439-446; Florez, pp. 221-222; Madrid, p. 362; Menendez Pidal,
pp. 279, 318 (note 69); P.-W. III, col. 1276; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
2 See Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, p. 69, for a bibliography of works dealing
with the ruins.
3 Blazquez, p. 84; Campaner, 1866, p. 120; Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, p. 64;
Fernandez-Guerra, II, pp. 439-446; Heiss, p. 49; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 98,
113, etc.
LUSITANIA
115
30. CONTOSOLIA.1
Rider: Reccared.
Spelling: CONTONSA.
Epithet: IVSTVS.
Type: facing busts (5 1).
Location uncertain, possibly modern Magacela, a village a few
miles south of Don Benito in Badajoz province, ancient Contosolia,
which lay, according to the Itinerarium Antonini, on the road be-
tween Emerita and Laminium, probably near Metellinum. The entire
identification is dubious, especially in view of the questionable inter-
pretation of the legend CONTONSA as Contosolia on the single
specimen that has so far come to light.
Rulers: Reccared, Sisebut, Suinthila, Sisenand, Tulga, Chindasvinth, Recces-
vinth, Ervig, Egica, Egica & Wittiza, Roderic.
Spelling: EGITANIA; exceptionally, on one issue of Reccesvinth, EGETANIA.
Epithet: PIVS.
Types: Reccared: facing busts (5 d variant, 5 d).
Sisebut, Sisenand, Tulga, Chindasvinth: facing busts of Lusitanian
type (obverse 8 c, reverse 7).
Reccesvinth: first type, obverse, bust, right, of modified "Early Visi-
gothic" type (1 h); reverse, cross on 3 steps; second type, obverse,
bust, right (2 g); reverse as before.
Ervig: obverse, bust, right (2 p); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Egica: obverse, bust, right (2p), or holding cross (2 jj); reverse, cross
on 3 steps.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts (13 f); reverse, mint mono-
gram.
Roderic: obverse, facing bust of late type (11 i); reverse, cross on
3 steps.
Modem Idanha a Velha, on the Ponsul river, about 25 miles north-
east of Castelo Branca, which latter is the capital of Beira Baixa
province, in easternmost central Portugal; the ancient Civitas
Igaeditanorum (or Aegiditanorum), recorded in inscriptions. Egitania,
1 Fernandez-Guerra, II, pp. 439-446; Heiss, p. 49; Mel6n, p. 182; P.-W. IV,
col. 1160.
1 Catholic Encycl., VII, p. 49; Levi-Provencal, Histoire, p. 211; Menendez
Pidal, pp. 40, 278-279; P.W. IX, col. 965; Sampere y Miquel, pp. 69-73; Vaz-
quez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
31. EGITANIA.2
i*
110
THE MINTS
also spelled Igitania, Agathania and Itunia in the mediaeval lists
(Emerita Metropolis), was the seat of a diocese, later (1199) inherited
by Guarda Egitaniensis. The see is reputed to have been founded by
the Suevian Theudomir and was first represented at the Second
Council of Braga, 572, by Bishop Adoricus, or Adorio. During the
Suevian period the diocese of Egitania was suffragan to Braga, then
one of the two great ecclesiastical divisions of Lusitania, but in 666,
or before, it became subject to Emerita. It has been suggested that
the locality named by the Arabs Antaniyah, which figures in the
internal disturbances of the latter half of the 9th century in Andalusia ,
is to be identified with Idanha a Velha.
Some issues of the mint of Egitania are excessively rare: only one
specimen each of Reccared, Sisebut, Tulga and Chindasvinth is
known, and of Ervig and Egica only two each. It has been argued
that Roderic cannot have struck coins at Egitania, but I have not
found sufficient grounds for rejecting the specimens admitted to the
corpus.
Riders: Leovigild, Reccared, Liuva, Witteric, Gundemar, Sisebut, Suinthila,
Ervig, Egica, Egica & Wittiza.
Spelling: ELVORA (through Suinthila). ERBORA (Reccared, unique). EBORA
(Suinthila) ? EL BORA (Ervig, Egica).
Epithets: IVSTVS (through Suinthila). VICTOR Suinthila( ?). PIVS Rec-
cared(unique), Ervig, Egica.
Types: Leovigild: first type, obverse, bust, right, of "Early Visigothic" type
(1 c); reverse, cross on 4 steps; second type, facing busts (5 a).
Reccared: facing busts (5 d).
Liuva, Witteric: facing busts (5 e).
Gundemar: facing busts, unknown type.
Sisebut: facing busts (5 d).
Suinthila: facing busts(5e).
Ervig: obverse, facing bust of late type (11 b); reverse, cross on 3
steps.
Egica: obverse, bust, right, holding cross (type unknown); reverse, cross
on 3 steps.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts (13 f); reverse, mint mono-
1 Catholic Encycl., V, pp. 070-071; Heiss, Monnaies Antiques, pp. 407-408;
al-Himyari, pp. 239, 251; Levi-Provencal, Histoire, p. 22; Madrid, p. 355;
Menendez Pidal, p. 279; Melon, p. 171; P.-W. I, col. 441; V, cols. 1890-97,
1901; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
32. ELVORA.1
gram.
LUSITANIA
117
Modern Evora, capital of Alto Alentejo province, on the plateau
between the valley of the Anas and the estuary of Cantobriga in
south-central Portugal;1 ancient Ebora (also Aebura and Ebura),
known as Liberalitas Iulia. In spite of conflicting descriptions from
different sources, it would appear that the several places with
similar names, including Aebura of the Carpetani and Eburabrittium,
all are identical with Ebora. Coins of Augustus were struck here, and
also possibly those bearing two fish and the legend AIPORA (and
perhaps AI BORA). Elvora (variant spellings in the mediaeval lists
Elbora, Ebbora) was an episcopal see, suffragan to Emerita, at least
as early as the 4th century; a Bishop Quintianus was present at the
Council of Elvira (Eliberri). After the reconquest (1166) the revived
bishopric became subject to Braga, later was restored to Emerita
(Compostella), then (1394) became suffragan to Lisbon; and finally
(1544) was raised to the rank of an archdiocese.
Elvora was taken by the Arabs, probably under 'Abd al-'AzIz b.
Mflsa, between 714 and 716, and subsequently became known as
Yaburah (sj\) or Yaburah (ijj*)-
The several spellings of the name of the mint on Visigothic coins
suggest that the pronunciation was no more stable at that time than
it was in other periods of the city's history. This instability can be
adduced to support the authenticity of the disputed piece of Rec-
cared with the name spelled ERBORA.
Exceptionally rare are the issues of Gundemar (unique), Suinthila
(two, one of which very doubtful), Ervig (unique), and Egica (two).
33. EMERITA.2
Rulers: All except Suniefred, Roderic and Achila.
Spelling: EMERITA; occasionally EMERETA (Reccared, Liuva, Witteric,
Gundemar, Sisebut).3
1 Heiss argued (p. 51) that the Visigothic mint of Elvora probably was not
Evora in Portugal because the type of bust is not Lusitanian; he agreed with
some others that it might be Talavera de la Reyna, to be identified with the
Aebura of the Carpetani, in the extreme northwest of the province of Toledo
on the right bank of the Tagus. But modern criticism, as stated above, tends
to make the several names identical; and furthermore, not all the Lusitanian
mints used the Lusitanian busts.
2 Catholic Encycl., II, p. 194, IV, p. 188; E. of I., s. v. Merida (Levi-Proven-
cal); Garcia Villada, II1, pp.49, 51, 91,200; Gorres, Byzantinischen Besitzungen,
pp. 518-526; idem, Leovigild, p. 163; idem, Hermenegild, p. 38; Heiss, Mon-
naiesAntiques, pp. 398-399; al-Himyari, pp. 210-213; Levi-Provencal, His-
toire, p. 19; Menendez Pidal, pp. XII, XXVIII, 39, 71,75,95,105,131,220,278-
279, 288, 292, 294, 313; P.-W. V, cols. 2493-96.
3 A single case of IMERITA under Sisebut.
118
THE MINTS
Epithets: VICTOR Leovigild, Reccared, Chindasvinth. PIVS... VICTOR
Leovigild, Reccared. PIVS Reccared through Wittiza.
Remarkable legend: EMERITA VICTORIA (Leovigild).
Types: Leovigild: first type, obverse, bust, right, of "Early Visigothic" type
(1 c); reverse, cross on 3 or 4 steps; second type, facing busts of dis-
tinctive types (3 d, 6 d); third type, obverse, crowned facing bust
(3 e); reverse, facing bust of common type (51); fourth type, obverse,
facing bust of Lusitanian type (8 a); reverse, facing busts of two
different types (5 l, 6 a). I have placed the Lusitanian (or Emeritan)
type of obverse last, because variations of this type are adopted by
Reccared and successors, but there is no sure indication of the order
of succession of issues after the early (first) type.
Reccared: first type, obverse, facing bust of Lusitanian type (8 b);
reverse, facing bust of general type (5 l, variation); second type,
obverse, first as before (8 b), later the quite similar type with two
points separated by a vertical line (8 c), which becomes the standard
Lusitanian obverse thereafter; reverse, the prototype of the stand-
ard Lusitanian reverse facing bust (7), but shorter than the later
standard type and with the vertical lines commonly not extending
into the marginal legend; third type, obverse, exclusively 8 c (as
the later issues of the second type); reverse, the standard long Lusi-
tanian facing reverse bust, with the vertical lines extending into
and interrupting the legend. Catalogue No. 94 (a) appears to be a
transitional piece.
Liuva, Witteric, Gundemar: standard Lusitanian facing busts (ob-
verse, 8 c; reverse, 7).
Sisebut: first type as predecessors (8 c, 7); second type, variation with
short reverse bust; third type, exceptional issue with obverse facing
bust of unknown type, and reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Suinthila, Iudila, Sisenand, Chintila: standard Lusitanian facing
busts (8 c, 7).
Tulga: first type as before (8 c, 7); second type, obverse, facing bust of
distinctive type with chrismon on breast (10 c); reverse as before.
Chindasvinth: standard Lusitanian facing busts (8 c, 7).
Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth: obverse, bust, right, of modified "Early
Visigothic" type (If); reverse, mint monogram.
Reccesvinth: first and second types, obverse, bust, right, of distinctive
modified "Early Visigothic" type, with and without cap or crown
(1 i, j); reverse, cross on 3 or 4 steps; third type, obverse, bust, right,
of common modified "Early Visigothic" type (1 h); reverse, cross on
3 steps.
Wamba: two types with obverse, bust right (2 n, p); reverse, cross on
3 steps.
Ervig: obverse, facing bust of late type (11 b); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Egica: first two types, obverse, bust, right, similar to Wamba's (2 n
and p); reverse, cross on4or 3 steps; third type, obverse, another
Monograms:
LUSITANIA
119
bust, right (2 i); reverse, cross on 3 steps; fourth type, obverse,
facing bust of late type (11 j); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting figures of several types (13 j,
l, m); reverse, mint monogram.
Wittiza: first type, obverse, bust, right (2 1); reverse, cross on 3 steps;
second type, obverse, uncertain; reverse as before; third type, ob-
verse, facing bust (11 o); reverse, equilateral cross with stars in
quarters; fourth type, obverse, bust, right (2 1); reverse, equilateral
cross, or cross on 3 steps.
Modern Merida, a commune in Badajoz province in southwest
Spain, 33 miles east of the provincial capital, on the right bank of the
Guadiana river (classical Anas); ancient Augusta Emerita, founded
by Augustus in approximately 25 B.C. for the benefit of the 5th and
10th legionaries (Emeriti) of the Cantabrian war. There are numerous
coins of Augustus, Julia and Tiberius, and extensive ruins attest the
importance of the city in Roman times. Its prominence under the
Visigoths likewise is reflected in the very plentiful Visigothic coinage;
more coins of Emerita are preserved than of any other mint (757
specimens listed in the present corpus).
In the Suevian period the diocese of Emerita formed part of the
ecclesiastical province of Lusitania; subsequently, toward 380, as
archepiscopal see it became the seat of the Metropolitan of Lusitania,
which included some of the dioceses formerly subject to Braga. The
see ceased to exist with the Arab invasion, and when revived at the
time of the reconquest was placed under Compostella. Today Merida
is included in the diocese of Badajoz. Most famous of the early
metropolitans of Emerita was Masona, the founder of a remarkable
hospital for the poor.
Emerita was taken by the Suevian Rechila in 439; about 457 it
figured in the campaigns of Theodoric when the city was said to have
been saved from pillage by the intervention of St. Eulalia. In 468 it
was retaken by Euric from the Suevians and was defended against
the latter the following year. In the revolt against Agila, Emerita
remained loyal to the king; later, during Hermenegild's uprising, the
city appears to have taken the Catholic side and had to be recovered
by Leovigild during the course of his campaign against his son. It is
doubtless to this event, in the autumn of 582, that Leovigild's coins
bearing VICTOR and VICTORIA refer. In 588 a revolt against
Reccared, led by the Arian bishop of the city and joined in by certain
Gothic nobles, was suppressed by Claudius, Duke of Emerita; it is
possible that Reccared's coins with VICTOR concern this success of
the Catholic king. An important council took place at Emerita in the
year 666. Among a number of inscriptions from Visigothic times
120
THE MINTS
found at Emerita is one which records the restoration of the Roman
bridge over the Guadiana, apparently in the year 701.
After a siege of several months Merida, called by the Arabs Maridah
(nju), fell to Musa b. Nusayr in June, 713.
The only rare Visigothic coins of Emerita are those of Gundemar
(four specimens), of Iudila (one only, in the HSA collection), and of
Chindasvinth and Reccesvinth (two specimens).
34. EMINIO.1
Rulers: Reccared, Liuva, Witteric, Sisebut, Suinthila, Chintila.
Spelling: AEMINIO (Reccared); IMINIO (Reccared, Liuva, Witteric, Sisebut);
EMINIO (Sisebut, Suinthila, Chintila). AEMINIO is the earlier and more
correct spelling, but it was abandoned after Reccared; while IMINIO and
EMINIO are about equally frequent, I have chosen the latter, being closer
phonetically to the original form, as the standard Visigothic spelling.
Epithets: IVSTVS Reccared, Sisebut. PIVS Reccared, Liuva, Witteric,
Sisebut, Suinthila, Chintila.
Types: Reccared: first type, obverse, facing bust (5 d); reverse, facing bust of
of Lusitanian type (8 b); second type, various combinations of
facing busts (8 b: 5 m, 5 d:5 a, 5 1:5 r).
Liuva: facing busts of standard Lusitanian type (8 c, 7).
Witteric: facing busts (obverse, standard Lusitanian type 8 c; reverse,
51).
Sisebut: first type, obverse, facing bust of standard Lusitanian type
(8 c) or a variation (8 d); reverse, standard Lusitanian reverse facing
bust (7); second type, unknown.
Suinthila, Chintila: facing busts of standard Lusitanian type (8 c, 7).
Modern Coimbra, capital of the district of the same name and of
the province of Beira Litoral in Portugal, on the Mondego River, 108
miles north-northeast of Lisbon; ancient Aeminium, one of the
civitates stipendiariae of Lusitania. The actual site of ancient Aemin-
ium appears to have lain on the road between Olisipo and Bracara,
between Conimbrica (or Conimbriga) and Talabriga. The later name
of the town and episcopal see of Conimbrica (Coimbra)2 was taken
from that of the ancient Conimbriga, which lay 12 kilometers south of
the existing city on the site of what is today known as Condeixa a
Velha, between ancient Aeminium and Collippo. Thus it seems that
in Visigothic times the urban center of the district was for some
1 Catholic Encycl., IV, p. 95; al-Himyari, p. 197; Levi-Provencal, Histoire,
p. 22; Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, pp. 69-70; Menendez Pidal, pp. 36, 37, 40,
75, 279; Mel6n, p. 171; P.-W. I, cols. 593-594, IV, col. 884; Vazquez de Parga,
pp. 22-31.
* Also spelled Conimbria, Conibria, Colitnbria, etc. in the mediaeval ecclesi-
astical lists.
LUSITANIA
121
reason, probably economic, shifted from Conimbriga to Aeminium,
but the name of the originally more important locality was trans-
ferred to the new site. In the second half of the 5th century Coimbra
appears to have suffered heavily as it repeatedly changed hands
between Suevians and Visigoths.
The first known bishop was Lucentius, who was present at the
First Council of Braga (561); the see was suffragan to Braga until
transferred to Emerita (q.v.) in the middle of the 7th century. To the
Arabs the town was known as Qulumrlyah (L'^Jj); it fell to 'Abd
al-'Aziz b. Musa ca. 714.
With the exception of the coins of Reccared, specimens of Eminio
are very scarce, those of Liuva, Suinthila and Chintila being unica,
and there are only two of Witteric and four of Sisebut.
35. LAMEGO.1
Rulers: Sisebut, Sisenand, Chindasvinth.
Spelling: LAMEGO, possibly LAMECO: there is too little evidence to enable
one to decide definitely which spelling is preferred. Only throe specimens are
known. The specimen of Sisebut clearly has Q (i. e., G); that of Sisenand has
never been reproduced, and the fact that it is transcribed C means nothing;
the one of Chindasvinth is damaged at this point in the legend and could be C
or C.
Epithet: PIVS.
Types: Sisebut: obverse, facing bust (5 1); reverse, variant of obverso.
Sisenand: unknown.
Chindasvinth: facing busts of standard Lusitanian type (8 c, 7).
Modern Lamego, a town in Vizeu district, Beira Alta province,
about five kilometers south of the Doura. Although Heiss and others
have stated that Lamego was the ancient Lamacum, Lamaecum or
Lamecum, I have not been able to trace this name in classical geo-
graphy. The episcopal see of Lamego appears to have been founded
between 569 and 572; the first authentic bishop was Sardinarius, who
was present at the Second Council of Braga in 572. At first suffragan
to Braga, the diocese of Lamego was later (in 666) placed under
Emerita. After the Arab conquest and until the reconquest by
Ferdinand I of Castile and Leon in the 11th century the bishopric was
probably titulary, the actual seat being vacant. The city was said to
have been destroyed on one occasion (982) by al-Mansur ibn abi-
'Aimr. In Arabic the first two consonants of the city's name were
transposed, i.e., Malego (iii.).
1 Catholic Encycl., VIII, pp. 761-762; Dozy, Histoire, II, p. 261, III, p. 74;
Elias Garcia, Lamecum, pp. 7-8; Heiss, p. 54; Ibn 'Idhari, II, p. 319; La Ca-
pUla, p. 113; Menendez Pidal, pp. 40, 278-279; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
122
THE MINTS
36. MOTfECIPIO.1
Ruler: Reccared.
Spelling: MONECPIO, MONECIP.*
Epithet: IVSTVS.
Types: first type, obverse, facing bust of standard Lusitanian reverse type (7);
reverse, facing bust (5 1); second type, facing busts of general type
Tentatively identified as modern Monsanto, a town about six kilo-
meters northeast of Idanha a Velha (Egitania, q. v.) in Beira Baixa
province, Portugal. Documentary evidence relating to the ancient and
mediaeval locality is scanty: the words Mene followed by Cipio
(=Menecijrio7.) are mentioned in some versions of the mediaeval
ecclesiastical divisions, included in the diocese of Egitania; and a
Bishop Eucharius of Municipio is reported to have been present at
the Council of Elvira (see Eliberri). The proximity of Monecipio to
Egitania (if this identification is correct) would help explain the
abandonment of the diocese and mint after Reccared.
Rulers: Reccared, Witteric, Suinthila, Ervig, Egica, Egica & Wittiza.
Spelling: SALAMANTECA (Reccared); SALMANTECA (Reccared); SALA-
MANTICA (Witteric); SALAMANTC (Suinthila); SALMANTICA (Ervig);
SALMATICA( ?) (Egica).
Epithet: IVSTVS? Reccared. PIVS Reccared( ?), Ervig.
Types: Reccared: facing busts (5 l, d).
Witteric, Suinthila: facing busts (5 e).
Ervig: observe, bust, right, facing cross (2 11); reverse, symbol of sun
(?) (12 f). Neither of these types can be considered verified, as the
only illustration of the coin is a dubious drawing in Florez.
Egica: obverse, crude facing head in the form of a cross; reverse, cross
3 steps.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting figures (13 i); reverse, mint
monogram.
1 Beltran, p. 411; Beltran, Suevia, pp. 86-87, 104; Elias Garcia, Monecipio,
pp. 14-19; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 97, 113.
2 I take it that IS, following these letters, stands for IVSTVS. Among other
problems connected with the identification of the mint is the fact that at least
two of the coins have Q (not C), which usually stands for G.
3 Catholic Encycl., XIII, p. 391; E. of I., s. v. Salamanque (French ed.);
al-Himyari, p. 249; Levi-Provencal, Histoire, pp. 20, 50, 310, 321, 421; Liibker,
p. 907; Menendez Pidal, p. 279; P.-W. IA, col. 1985; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-
31.
(5f).
37. SALMANTICA.3
LUSITANIA
123
Modern Salamanca, capital of the province of the same name, on
the Tonnes River, in western Spain, ancient Salmantica, a large city
of the Vaccaei or of the Vettoni, besieged by Hannibal in 220 B. C,
later a municipium. Salmantica (also sometimes rendered Helmantica)
lay on the military highway connecting Emerita and Asturica. A large
bridge of originally Roman construction, probably built by Trajan,
crosses the river at this point. The episcopal see of Salmantica (also
spelled Salamaniica, a variant represented on the coinage)1 report-
edly dates from immediately post-Apostolic times; at all events it
was represented as early as the Third Council of Toledo (589).
Probably occupied by Musa b. Nusayr ca. 713, the city, known as
Shalmantiqah (icuLi) to the Arabs, is reported to have been recover-
ed, at least temporarily, as early as 754 (or 757 ?) by Alfonso I, but
about 920 the bishop of the diocese was the prisoner of'Abdal-Rahman
III, and during this period and later, until 1055, Salamanca changed
hands many times.
Specimens of the coinage are rare, the known specimens of Witteric
and Egica being unica. There were four specimens of Suinthila in the
hoard of La Capilla and the only one of these whose whereabouts is
known is the piece in the collection of the Hispanic Society of America,
where also is located one of the two specimens of Egica & Wittiza.
38. TOTELA.2
Rider: Reccared.
Spelling: TOTELA.
Epithet: VICTOR (spelled VECTOR).
Type: facing busts (obverse, 5 f; reverse, 5 o).
Location unknown. A locality by the name of Tutela, in the diocese
of Viseu, appears in the Liber Itacii, the "Division of Wamba," and
the Acts of the Council of Braga. Pio Beltran has suggested to me that
the place was probably captured in the campaign against the Suevians
in 585.
39. VALENTIA.3
Ruler: Chintila.
Spelling: VALENTIA.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: facing busts of standard Lusitanian type (8 c, 7).
1 Salmatice in the Itinerarium Antonini.
8 Blazquez, p. 84; Elias Garcia, Lusitania, p. 66; Madrid, p. 361; Vazquez de
Parga, pp. 98, 113 etc.
* Beltran, p. 434; Heiss, pp. 63-64.
124
THE MINTS
Presumably, because of the Lusitanian busts on the unique speci-
men, modern Valencia de Alcantara, a commune in Caceres province,
47 miles west of Caceres. The identification, originally made by Heiss,
is supported by'Tabondance de monuments romains qu'elle renferme,''
but unfortunately there is no ancient or mediaeval literary docu-
mentation to establish the existence of a Roman or Visigothic Valentia
in Lusitania. For this reason and because "el grabado de Heiss da la
sensation de clara falsedad," Beltran rejects the coin in question as
a fabrication; but it appears to me genuine. See the remarks following
catalogue No. 293.
40. VESEO.1
Ruler: Sisebut.
Spelling: VESEO.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: facing busts of standard Lusitanian type (8 c, 7).
Modern Viseu (Vizeu), a commune in north central Portugal, capital
of the district of the same name and of the province of Beira Alta, 41
miles northeast of Coimbra, in the vicinity of a locality known as
"Cava de Viriato," which is identified as the site of a camp founded by
Decius Brutus and captured by Viriatus. The diocese of Viseu
(spelled variously Veseo, Viseo, Beseo in the mediaeval lists) dates
from the 6th century, the first recorded bishop being Remissol
(572-585), who was present at the Second Council of Braga (572).
The continuity of the see was interrupted at various times after the
Arab conquest, which took place under Musa b. Nusayr in 713.
According to an unconfirmed tradition preserved in the chronicle of
Alfonso III, the tomb of Roderic was located in a church at Veseo,
marked by an inscription, "Hie requiescit Rudericus, ultimus rex
Gothorum." Veseo is reported to have been among the cities recap-
tured by Alfonso I in 754; in the 10th century it was the capital of
the Christian province of Beira, known by the Arabs simply as
"Galicia." The Arabic name for the city was Bazu (jjl).
The mint is represented by a single specimen in the Museu Muni-
cipal of Lisbon.
1 Akhbar Majmu'ah, p. 264; Ballesteros, I, pp. 882-883; Catholic EncycL.
XV, pp. 496-497; Dozy, Histoire, II, p. 258, III, p. 9; idem, Recherches, I, pp.
121, 150; Levi-Provencal, Histoire, p. 50; Maqqari, I, p. 291; Menendez Pidal,
II, p. 155; Menendez Pidal, pp. LTV, 40, 279; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
F. GALLAECIA
41. ALIOBRIO.1
Ruler: Suinthila.
Spelling: ALIOBR:0.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: unknown.
Location uncertain. The name of Aliobrio, which appears in some
of the mediaeval ecclesiastical lists as subject to the diocese of Porto-
cale, is undoubtedly the place named on the coin. Hiibner suggested
that the site was to be sought near Portus Cale. Russell Cortez places
it just north of the Douro, due north of Lamego. Fernandez y Lopez
cannot have been right in proposing the "Caeliobriga" of Ptolemy,
which is identified with Caliabria (q. v., p. 114).
The present location of the two known specimens of the mint, both
from the hoard of La Capilla, is unrecorded.
42. ABROS.2
Rulers: Reccared, Witteric.
Spelling: ARRES (Reccared). ARROS (Witteric).
Epithet: PIVS:SVS Reccared. PIOSVS Witteric.
Types: Reccared: facing busts (obverse, 5 d; reverse, 5 1).
Witteric: facing busts (obverse, 5 v; reverse, variation).
Identity and locality uncertain. Hiibner's view was that the lo-
cation was to be sought in the neighborhood oilria Flavia,which in turn
is to be identified with Padron Santa Maria on the Ulla River in La
Coruna province; and that the name was perhaps associated with the
Arconi, an Asturian people mentioned by Pliny. Beltran, however,
after suggesting other possibilities, concluded, on the basis of inform-
ation given by Maciiieira, that Arros and Aron were probably iden-
tical, the latter being in the valley of Montojo, between Cedeira and
1 Blazquez, p. 84; Hiibner, Revista Crltica, p. 97; La Capilla, pp. 79-80;
Russell Cortez, p. 71; Vazquez de Parga, p. 98.
! Beltran, Suevia, pp. 131-134; Fernandez-Guerra, II, pp. 439-446; Heiss,
pp. 43-44; Madrid, p. 379 (quoting Beltran); P-W. II, col. 1260, IX, col.
2035.
126
THE MINTS
the mouth of the River Mera (in the extreme north of La Coruna
province). Heiss' speculations chiefly concern villages named Arros in
Lerida province.
While I have no knowledge whether any traces of antiquity are
present at the locality, or whether the site is otherwise likely, I would
suggest the possibility of an identity with Ares, on the Ria de Ares,
south of El Farrol and Mugardos and northeast of the capital city of
La Coruna. The spelling ARRES on the unique specimen of Reccared
(Hispanic Society collection) might support this identification.
43. ASTUBIE.1
Rulers: Reccared, Suinthila, Chindasvinth.
Spelling: ASTVRIE (Reccared, Chindasvinth). ASTORICA (Suinthila).
Epithet: PIVS.
Types: Reccared: facing busts (obverse, 5 a; reverse, 5 d).
Suinthila: crude facing busts resembling 5 q.
Chindasvinth: facing busts (5 e).
Modern Astorga, a commune in Leon province, 28 miles west-
southwest of the capital city of Leon, ancient Asturica Augusta,
administrative and military capital of Asturia and an important
road-center. As an episcopal see Asturie or Astorica antedates the
Visigothic period and was founded perhaps as early as the 3rd century.
Spelled Asturica or Astorica, and also known as Asturiense or Astu-
ricense, it was suffragan to Bracara. In 445 the existence of a Mani-
chaean group in the city came to light and in the subsequent inves-
tigation Bishop Toribio of Astorga took a prominent part. The city
was sacked by Theodoric (ca. 456); and the Suevian population is
reported to have successfully resisted Leovigild's attacks in 569, but
this event appears to lack solid documentation. Certainly Leovigild
carried his arms into the region in 573 and 575.
Astorga, known to the Arabs as Ashturqah (iijlil), was captured
by Miisa b. Nusayr in 714, but by the middle of the 8th century it
was recovered by Alfonso I, and thereafter it played an important
part in the struggle between Islam and Christianity.
The coins of Reccared and Suinthila are unica, the former hitherto
unpublished and in the collection of the Hispanic Society of America.
1 Cambridge, II, p. 166; Campaner, 1866, p. 134; Catholic Encycl., II, p. 18;
Gorres, Leovigild, pp. 140-141; Heiss, p. 44; al-Himyari, p. 246; LeVi-Proven-
cal, Histoire, pp. 21, 49-50; Menendez Pidal, pp. XH, 30, 33, 100, 270, 279;
P.-W. II, col. 1864; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
GALLAECIA
127
44. ATXRENSE.1
Ruler: Chindaavinth.
Spelling: AVRENSE.
Epithet: PI VS.
Type: facing busts (5 f).
Modern Orense, capital of the province of the same name, on the
Mino river. The name, but not the precise locality, appears to be
associated with Aquae Originae (or Aquis Originis), on the road bet-
ween Bracara and Asturica, and probably to be identified with the
springs of Santa Comba de Bande or Baflos de Rio Caldo. The diocese
(Aurien&is, also sometimes Auria in the mediaeval lists) dates at least
from the 5th century, perhaps as early as 433. Bishop Witimir of
Aurense was present at the Second Council of Braga in 572. Leovigild
appears to have reached the area in his campaign of 575. The city,
known to the Arabs as Criyah I), was temporarily held by 'Abd
al-'Aziz b. MQsa in 716.
The unique specimen of the mint is in the collection of the Academia
de la Historia.
45. BEROAXCIA.2
Rulers: Reccared, Witteric.
Spelling: BERGANCA (Reccared). BERGANCIA3 (Witteric).
Epithets: VICTOR Reccared. PIVS Witteric.
Types: Reccared: facing busts (5 o).
Witteric: facing busts (5 e).
Near modern Betanzos inLaCorufia province, about 18 kilometers
southeast of the city of Corufia, ancient Brigantium, a town of the
Lucensian Callaici, situated on the coastroad between Lucus Augusti
and Asturica. The place was marked by a high lighthouse, perhaps
that of La Corufia {Flavium Brigantium) itself, which has a Roman
foundation.4 Variant Latin spellings were Brigantia and Bregantium.
1 Catholic Encycl., XI, pp. 295-296; Heiss, p. 44; al-Himyari, pp. 246-247;
Menendez Pidal, pp. 40, 101, 279; P.-W. II, col. 303; Vazquez de Parga, pp.
22-31.
3 Beltran, Suevia, pp. 89, 104; Blazquez, p. 84; Campaner, 1866, p. 120;
Gorres, Miscellen, p. 440; Hiibner, Revista Critica, p. 97; Mateu y Llopis,
HaUazgos V, pp. 72-73; Mel6n, p. 181; Menendez Pidal, p. 383; P.-W. Ill, col.
847.
3 I take J (in the HSA specimen) to be read as G.
4 Beltran (and following him, Mateu y Llopis) suggested that the identifi-
cation with Betanzos is to be rejected in favor of Berganca (or Berganza) in
extreme northeast Portugal. He observes that the C of Reccared's issues must
12S
THE MINTS
Attached to the Metropolis of Bracara, the locality appears as Bre-
gantia, Bregancia or Bergancia in certain recensions of the mediaeval
ecclesiastical lists, as Brigantia in the Parroquial of Lugo of the year
569. One cannot be certain which of Reccared's Basque campaigns is
alluded to by the epithet VICTOR.
Ruler: Sisebut.
Spelling: BERGIO.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: facing busts (5 n).
The ruins of Bergio, ancient Flavium Bergidum, are probably those
known as Castro de la Ventosa, located near the modern Villa-Franca
del Bierzo (or Vierzo) in the province of Leon, about 60 kilometers
northwest of Astorga and 100 kilometers west of Leon. Flavium
Bergidum lay on the road between Bracara and Asturica. Nothing is
known of the Christian history of Bergio (Bergido, Beriso in late
ecclesiastical lists) other than that it lay in the diocese of Asturica.
Rulers: Leovigild, Witteric, Suinthila, Sisenand( ?), Chindasvinth, Reccesvinth
Egica, Egica & Wittiza.
Spelling: BRACARA.
Epithets: VICTOR Leovigild. PIVS Witteric, Suinthila, Sisenand( ?),
Chindasvinth, Reccesvinth, Egica.
Remarkable legend: PhSBT-R^OR (Sisenand).
Types: Leovigild: obverse and reverse, bust right of "Early Visigothic" type
(1 c). The authenticity of the unique specimen has been questioned.
(see catalogue, p. 197); certainly the correctness of the description
(bust, right, on reverse, instead of cross on steps) is dubious.
have the value Z. But there can be little doubt of the identity of the Visigothic
mint-name with the ancient name Brigantium, etc., and in view of the variant
classical spellings (specifically Brigantia) and the BERGANCIA spelling under
Witteric, I see no reason as yet to abandon the older view.
1 Beltran, Suevia, p. 164; Florez, p. 234; Heiss, pp. 45-46, 65; Mel6n, p. 181;
P.-W. III, col. 291.
s Catholic Encycl., II, pp. 728-729; Garcia Villada, II1, pp. 52, 201-202, 208;
al-Himyari, pp. 83, 246; Levi-Provencal, Histoire, p. 50; Madrid, pp. 255, 341 -
342, 365-366; Mel6n, p. 172; Menendez Pidal, pp. XII, 40, 70, 106, 278-279,
294; P.-W. III, col. 802.
46. BERGIO.1
47. BRACARA.2
Monogram:
GALLAECIA
129
Witteric: obverse, facing bust of standard Lusitanian reverse type (7);
reverse, facing bust (5 n, varation).
Suinthila: crude facing busts (5 j).
Sisenand( ?): facing busts (5 e).
Chindasvinth: first type, facing busts (5 e); second type, standard
Lusitanian busts (8 c, 7).
Reccesvinth: obverse, bust, right, of distinctive type (2 a, and variant);
reverse, cross on 3 and 4 steps, in one case the cross extending up-
ward into the border and interrupting the legend.
Egica: obverse, uncertain bust; reverse, cross on steps.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts (13 f); reverse, mint mono-
gram.
Moder n Braga, capital of the district of Braga and of the province
of Minho, in northwest Portugal, Roman Bracara Augusta (also
known as Augusta Bracaria and simply as Bracara), the ancient
capital of the Bracarian Callaici. In the Augustan division Bracara
fell in Hispania Tarraconensis and was capital of the Conventus Bra-
carensis; in the later Empire, however, the city was the capital of
Gallaecia, and in the Suevian division, capital of the Bracarian synod
as well as chief city of the Lusitanian realm. The ecclesiastical and
political connection with Lusitania is reflected in several of the coin
issues bearing Lusitanian types.
The exact date of the founding of the episcopal see is uncertain, but
a Bishop Paternus, ca. 390, is known. In 416, or perhaps later (after
the destruction of Asturica in 456 by the Visigoths), Bracara, which
also suffered in the invasion, became an arch-diocese (period of St.
Leo I, 440-461), a dignity which it shared for some time with Lucu
(Lugo). After 589 and, with a few interruptions to the present, Bra-
cara has continued to be the Metropolis. In theVisigothic period it was
the capital of the ecclesiastical province of Gallaecia. Bracara is
famous, among other reasons, for its councils, especially those of 561,
572 and 675.
Bracara came definitively into Visigothic hands when Leovigild
took the city from Andeca in 585, and it must have been in allusion
to this event that the epithet VICTOR appears on the unique coin
of that ruler.1 Known asBraqarah (jJ\j) to the Arabs, the city was
only temporarily in Moorish hands; it was apparently among those
cities retaken by Alfonso I in the middle of the 8th century, and it
rapidly recovered its importance as the principal city of the northwest.
Coins of Bracara are not common, in spite of the relatively large
(for Gallaecia) number of kings who issued coins there; those of Leo-
1 The question of the authenticity of this coin is discussed in the catalogue,
p. 197; see also above, p. 45.
9 Visigoth
130
THE MINTS
vigild, Witteric, Sisenand (?), Egica and Egica & Wittiza are unica.
All but two of the seven specimens of Suinthila were from the hoard
of La Capilla.
48. CALAPA.1
Rulers: Receared, Sisebut, Suinthila, Chindasvinth.
Spelling: CALAPA(Sisebut, Suinthila,Chindasvinth).CALABACIA(Receared).
Epithets: VICTOR Receared. PIVS Sisebut, Suinthila, Chindasvinth.
Types: Receared: facing busts (5 o).
Sisebut: facing busts (5 1).
Suinthila: unknown.
Chindasvinth: facing busts of standard Lusitanian type (8 c, 7).
Both Calapa and Calabacia are probably to be identified with
modem Calabor in the province of Zamora, just over the northern
border of Portugal, about 17 kilometers north af Braganca. The
proximity to Lusitania is clearly reflected in the Lusitanian types
on Chindasvinth's coin. The name Calapages majores (Calabazas ma-
jor es, Calabacas maiores, etc.) appears in the ecclesiastical lists under
the diocese of Aurense.2
Mateu y Llopis suggests that the legend on Reccared's coin is to be
read CALABACIA VICTOR (I A), but VICTOR would appear to me
to be an epithet referring to Receared as on other specimens, and the
reference is probably to one of Reccared's Gallaecian campaigns
(cf. Bergancia).
Only one specimen of each of the first three named rulers is known:
and there are two of Chindasvinth.
1 Blazquez, p. 85; Beltran, Suevia, pp. 147, 149, 151-152, 161; Campaner,
pp. 208-210, 216; Fernandez-Guerra, II, pp. 439-446; Heiss, pp. 46-47;
Hubner, Deutsche Litleraturzeitung, col. 501: idem, Revista Critica, 1897, p. 95;
Madrid, p. 375; Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos TV, p. 248, note 2; Vazquez de Parga,
pp. 98, 101, 113.
2 Fernandez-Guerra and Heiss attempted to identify the locality with the
ruins of Caladuna (of the Itinerarium Antonini,) between Cualedro (42 kilo-
meters southeast of Orense) and Moimenta (25 kilometers northwest of Bra-
ganca on the Portuguese frontier). Campaner considered Calapa and Cala-
bacia to be two different mints. Hubner rejected the identification with Cola-
pages majores, etc., and suggested a corruption of Caliabria, but CALABACIA
is so clear that this view can hardly be accepted. Fernandez y Lopez misread
the mint entirely on the La Capilla specimen of Suinthila.
GALLAECIA
131
49. CASSAVIO.1
Ruler: Suinthila.
Spelling: CASSAVIO (actually OSSAVIOPIS:).
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: obverse, crude facing busts of unusual types (obverse, 12 e; reverse,
5y).
Beltran suggests that this name is to be identified with Casaio, the
name of a stream which flows into the Sil near Puente Nuevo, and of
two villages, one on each bank of the stream, in the present diocese
of Astorga. I have not been able to locate the name on available maps.
The name Casavio (Casayo) appears in the Acts of one of the Councils
of Braga as a parish of Aurense.
50. CATORA.2
Ruler: Witteric.
Spelling: CATORA.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: facing busts (5 f).
Identity and location uncertain. On the basis of fabric and style
Heiss assigned the mint to Lusitania or Gallaecia, but his speculations
with regard to exact identification were not pertinent. Pio Beltran
has agreed with Heiss on the possibility of identification with a
locality named Catoira, near (10 km. ?) Caldas de Reyes, which latter
is about 20 kilometers north of Pontevedra. The name is listed in
Pauly-Wissowa with the suggestion that its location is to be sought
in Gallaecia.
51. celo or inceio (?).3
Ruler: Sisebut.
Spelling: IN CEIO.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: obverse, facing bust of Lusitanian type (8 c?); reverse, facing bust of
Gallaecian type.
Identity and location uncertain. A place named Celo, subject to
Bracara, appears in certain mediaeval ecclesiastical lists. We might,
therefore, read IN CELO (comparable to IN TVDE, except that
1 Beltran, Suevia, p. 149; Blazquez, p. 85.
1 Beltran, Suevia, p. 119; Fernandez-Guerra, II, pp. 439-446; Heiss, pp. 47-
48; Madrid, p. 379; Mel6n, p. 182; P.-W. III, col. 1794.
3 Mateu y Llopis, Nombrea de Lugar, 1942, p. 33; idem, Ampurias, VII-VIII
(1945-1946), pp. 471-473; Reinhart, Ampurias 1944, p. 209.
132
THE MINTS
VICTOR is not present), assuming L to have been defectively written
as I, which latter letter, according to Mateu y Llopis, is clear on the
coin. Or the name may be INCEIO, perhaps to be identified with the
modern locality of Incio, northeast of Orense and Monforte, in the
province of Lugo. The issue is discussed in full by Mateu y Llopis in
his review of Elias Garcia's note. His argument with reference to the
epigraphy I cannot evaluate, not having seen the coin or a reproduc-
tion.
52. CEPIS.1
Rulers: Leovigild, Reccared.
Spelling: CEPIS.
Epithet: IVSTVS.
Types: Leovigild: unknown. Reccared: facing busts (obverse, 5 o; reverse,
5dt).
Cepis (Cepio), location undetermined, was subject to the diocese of
Portocale, according to the Liber Itacii and the Acts of one of the
Councils of Braga.
53. FLAVAS.*
Rulers: Reccared, Witt-eric.
Spelling: FLAVAS3 (Reccared). FLABAS (Witteric).
Epithet: PI VS.
Types: Reccared: facing busts of Gallaecian type.
Witteric: facing busts (5 j).
Modern Chaves, a commune in Vila Real district, Tras-os-Montes
e Alto Douro province, in extreme north-central Portugal, between
Braga and Braganca, ancient Aquae Flaviae or ad Aquas (in the
Itinerarium Antonini) of Gallaecia. The Roman bridge across the
Tamega still stands, and numerus Latin inscriptions have been found
in the neighborhood. In the Suevian period Aquas Flavias, as it is
known in some of the mediaeval lists, was an episcopal seat: the
bishop-historian Idacio (Hidacio) resided there, and it was in the
church of Aquas Flavias that he was taken prisoner by Frumarius,
contender for the Suevian throne, in 460.
1 Blazquez, p. 84; Campaner, p. 210; Vazquez de Parga, p. 98.
2 Mateu y Llopis, Ampurias, 1945-1946, pp. 473-474; Menendez Pidal, pp.
30, 35; P.-W. H, col. 300.
8 Or FLAVIAS or FLAVIIS?
GALLAECIA
133
54. FRATTCELLO.1
Rulers: Witteric, Suinthila, Chindasvinth.
Spelling: FRAVCELLO (FRAVCEL:0 on the coin of Chindasvinth).
Epithet: PIVS.
Types: Witteric, Suinthila: unknown.
Chindasvinth: facing busts of standard Lusitanian type (8 c, 7).
According to Campaner and Beltran, probably to be identified with
modern "Frogelos," in the "Forcellos" valley, at the source of the
Ulver, which empties into the Sil river at Puente de Domingo Florez
about 12 kilometers east of El Barco on the border between Orense
and Leon provinces. It can scarcely be Frogelle in Lugo province, a
few miles west of the capital, or Forcela, some 15 miles south of the
same city, for in the mediaeval lists Frogellos (Frogelos, Frogello,
Francellos, FranceUoe, etc.) appears under the diocese of Asturica. Nor
is it likely that the place is the Francelos, west of Orense, suggested by
Heiss. The fact that the specimen of Chindasvinth is of modified
Lusitanian type is curious but does not necessarily rule out the pro-
posed identification.
55. GEORRES.2
Rulers: Witteric, Sisebut, Suinthila.
Spelling: GEORRES (Witteric). GIORRES (Sisebut, Suinthila).
Epithet: PIVS.
Types: Witteric: facing busts (5 f).
Sisebut: facing busts (obverse, 5 w; reverse, 5 a).
Suinthila: facing busts of a type somewhat resembling the Lusitanian
obverse type (8 e).
Apparently to be identified with the site of modern Puebla de Val
de Orras (or Orres) in the province of Orense, near the frontier of Lugo
and Leon, known in mediaeval times as Val de Geurrez (or Jurres). I
have not succeeded in identifying Puebla de Val de Orras on available
maps, but it is doubtless in the vicinity of Villamartm de Valdeorras
and El Barco de Valdeorras on the river Sil in northeasternmost
Orense province. Beltran gave "Cigarrosa," near "Puente de Petin,"
as the location of Georres, but neither of these names occurs on maps
to which I have had access.
1 Beltran, Suevia, pp. 99, 166-168; Blazquez, p. 86; Heiss, p. 52; La Ca-
pilla, pp. 67, 93; Madrid, p. 380; Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos TV, p. 248; Mel6n,
p. 182; Vazquez de Parga, p. 98.
1 Beltran, Suevia, p. 148; Heiss, pp. 52-53; Madrid, p. 375; Mel6n, p. 182;
P.-W. VTI, cols. 1357-58.
134
THE MINTS
The name Georres is associated with the ancient Gigurri of Pliny
(06po; rtyouppwv of Ptolemy), a people of Asturia, the location of
whose city, Calubriga, is unknown.
56. LAETEKA.1
Rulers: Witteric, Sisebut, Tulga.
Spelling: LAETERA.
Epithet: PIVS.
Types: Witteric, Sisebut: facing busts (5 1).
Tulga: facing busts (5 n).
Probably to be identified with the Latra, Ledra or Ledera of the
mediaeval lists, in the diocese of Bracara. Latra is said to be the
modern name of one of the affluents of the Mifio and of a village on its
banks, but I have been unable to locate either the stream or the
locality.
The specimens of Sisebut (HSA) and of Tulga are unica.
57. LATJRE.2
Ruler: Sisebut.
Spelling: LAV RE.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: facing busts (5 o).
The only specific identification that has been proposed is Laubis
(diocese of Bracara), occurring in some versions of the mediaeval
divisions, but I do not know on what basis. Mateu y Llopis, who
proposed this identification, later suggested that LAV RE = Laurencio
= LAVRVCLO, q. v. Only two specimens of the mint are known.
58. LAUKUCLO.3
Ruler: Witteric.
Spelling: LAVRVCLO.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: facing busts (5 f).
1 Beltran, Sueina, p. 134; Blazquez, p. 83; Heiss, p. 54; Madrid, p. 372;
Mateu y Llopis, HaUazgos IV, p. 248; Mel6n, p. 182.
2 Mateu y Llopis, Nombres de Lugar, 1942, p. 33, note 14.
3 Beltran, Suevia, pp. 129-130; Blazquez, p. 84; Bouza Brey, Laurencio,
pp. 359-363; Bouza Brey, Lauruclo y Vallearitia; Mateu y Llopis, Ampurias V,
p. 359 (review of F. Bouza Brey, "Una coca sueva desconocida en la diocesis de
Portucale" in Revista de Ouimardes, LII (1942), pp. 52-60); idem, HaUazgos IV,
p. 247.
GALLAECIA
135
Probably to be identified with Labrencio (Laurencio), a pagus (or
country district) in the diocese of Portocale, mentioned in the Acts of
the Council of Lugo (569), and in the form Lambrencio {Lambrecio,
Laborencio, etc.) in other mediaeval lists. The name probably also
appears on a Suevian triens in the form (Munita) Laurentina. It is
assumed that the name derived from a church or monastery dedicated
to St. Lawrence (Laurentius). The mint is represented by a single
specimen.
59. LEBEA.1
Ruler: Leovigild.
Spelling: LEBEV = LEBEA. The epithet IVSTVS is written IASTAS, the V's
inverted; therefore the letter V in the mint-name may be assumed to be
inverted, that is, A.
Epithet: IVSTVS.
Type: facing busts (5m).
Identification uncertain. Campaner first very tentatively suggested
Iulia Libica, perhaps modern Llibia or Livia, in the Pyrenees near
Puig Cerda; Heiss proposed the Libia of the Itinerarium Antonini, in
the region of the upper Ebro on the military road from Caesaraugusta
to Asturica, perhaps to be identified with ruins near a locality named
Herramelluri( ?), not far from Leiba (or Leiva) in northwestern Log-
rono province. Beltran has questioned the reading of the name on the
single specimen known, particularly the B, but having examined the
coin itself I am satisfied at least that LEBEV is correct.
CO. LEIONE.2
Ruler: Suinthila.
Spelling: LEIONE.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: Unknown.
Modern Leon, capital of the province and of the former kingdom
of the same name, the Roman military station Legio VII Gemina.
The city was in Suevian hands when captured about 585 by Leovigild.
As a diocese its history dates at least to the 3rd century, but while
1 Beltran, p. 409; Campaner, p. 207; Campaner, 1866, p. 116; Fernandez-
Guerra, II, pp. 439-446; Heiss, p. 54; Mel6n, p. 182; P.-W. X, col. 8, XIII,
col. 111.
1 Catholic Encycl., /X, pp. 175-177; LaCapilla, pp. 95-96; Levi-Provencal,
Histoire, pp. 21, 50; Madrid, p. 381; Mel6n, p. 169; P.-W. XII, cols. 1629-42;
Smith, Dictionary, II, pp. 153-154; Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
136
THE MINTS
its name (Legione) appears on some of the mediaeval lists as a diocese
of the Metropolis of Bracara, at most times it seems to have been
subject to Astorga, or independent of any metropolis. Leon (j^J,
Liyun) was seized by Musa b. Nusayr in 714 but was recovered by
Alfonso I in the mid-8th century and thereafter frequently changed
hands in the Moslem-Christian wars.
The only known specimens or specimen (perhaps only one) were in
the hoard of La Capilla.
61. LUCU.1
Rulers: Reccared, Sisebut, Suinthila, Chintila, Tulga, Chindasvinth, Egica &
Wittiza.
Spelling: LVCO (Reccared, Suinthila). LVCV (Sisebut, Chintila, Tulga( ?),
Chindasvinth.
Epithets: IVSTVS Reccared. VICTOR Sisebut, Suinthila. PIVS Chintila,
Tulga( ?), Chindasvinth.
Monograms:
Types: Reccared: facing busts (5 o).
Sisebut: obverse, facing bust of Lusitanian type (8 c); reverse, facing
bust (5 e).
Suinthila: obverse, facing bust (5 f); reverse, facing bust of distinctive
type (12 a).
Chintila: facing busts (5 u).
Tulga: unknown.
Chindasvinth: obverse, facing bust of Lusitanian reverse type (7, var-
iation) ; reverse, mint monogram of distinctive type.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting figures of indeterminate type;
reverse, mint monogram.
Modern Lugo, capital of the province of the same name in north-
western Spain, ancient Imcus Augusti in the territory of the Kapari,
settled by the Romans as early as 27 B. C, capital of the Conventus
Lucensis, on the highway between Asturica and Brigantium. The
city was fortified as an outpost against the Germanic invasions in the
3rd century. About the year 460 Lucu, then capital of one of the two
Suevian ecclesiastical divisions, was taken by the Visigoths. The
earliest authentic bishop of the diocese of Lucu (also spelled Luco and
Lugo in the mediaeval lists) was Agrescius (433), ranked as an arch-
1 Ballesteros, I, p. 870; Beltran, Suetria, p. 134; Catholic Encycl., IX, pp.
417-418; Garcia Villada, II1, pp. 200-202, 208; al-Himyari, pp. 35, 223, 247;
Levi-Provencal, Histoire, p. 50; Maqqari, I, p. 291; P-W. XIII, col. 1709;
Vazquez de Parga, pp. 22-31.
GALLAECIA
137
bishop. Lucu's position as a Metropolis of Gallaecia continued at least
until 572, although from 416 the Bishop of Bracara also claimed the
title of Metropolitan, a confusion resulting from the heritage of an
earlier political division of Gallaecia under the Suevians into a
Synodus Lucensis and Synodus Bracarensis. Later, certainly from
589, the diocese was suffragan to Bracara. Councils were held at Lucu
in 559, 572 and possibly 610.
Known to the Arabs as Luqu, Luqush or Lakkuh (^j), the city
was temporarily under Arab control in the early years of the con-
quest but was among those places recovered by Alfonso I about
754.
The epithet VICTOR used by Sisebut is doubless to be connected
with the punitive expedition against the Asturians under the general-
ship of Rechila and Suinthila, mentioned by Isidore; and the occur-
rence of the adjective again under Suinthila must have reference to
the same event or else to a similar success in the course of his cam-
paign against the Cantabrians and Basques.
The specimens of Reccared, Sisebut (in the HSA collection) and
Chintila are unica.
62. MAVE.1
aulers: Sisenand, Chintila, Chindasvinth.
Spelling: MAVE.
Epithet: PIVS.
Types: Sisenand: facing busts (obverse, 12 d; reverse, 5 e ?).
Chintila: facing busts (obverse, 5 n; reverse, 5 e).
Chindasvinth: facing busts (5 q).
Uncertain, but probably the modern Mave, a small town on the
Pisuerga river, about 8 kilometers north of Alar del Rey, which in
turn is 35 kilometers northeast of Saldafia, in the province of Palencia.
Heiss and Fernandez-Guerra argued rather for a locality named San
Tirso de Mabegonda (Mavegunda) near Betanzos, but Beltran quite
reasonably urges the identification with the present Mave because of
the identity of name and the similarity of the Mave issues to those of
Petra and Saldania. Also, so far as the type is concerned, it is typically
"frontier." Certainly Fernandez-Guerra's suggestion that Mave on the
coins represents the capital of Mavitania (Murcia) is to be rejected.
1 Beltran, Suevia, pp. 119-120, 129; Botet y Sis6, Notes Numismatiques,
p. 26; Campaner, 1866, p. 130; Fernandez-Guerra, II, pp. 439-446; Heiss, p. 55;
Madrid, pp. 383-384; Mel6n, p. 183.
138
THE MINTS
63. NANDOLAS.1
Rulers: Liuva, Witteric, Gundemar, Suinthila.
Spelling: NANDO LAS*
Epithet: PIVS Liuva, Witteric, Gundemar. IVSTVS Suinthila.
Typea: Liuva: facing busts (obverse, 5 o; reverse, 5 x).
Witteric: facing busts (obverse, 6 a, variant; reverse, 5 n, variant).
Gundemar: unknown.
Suinthila: facing busts (5 q).
Not positively identified. In the mediaeval ecclesiastical lists the
nearest approximation to the name as it appears on the coins is that
of a locality in the diocese or Portocale, variously given as Flandolas
and Mendolis or Mendolas. Most numismatic writers have listed the
mint as Mandolas, because of an initial mistaken reading of Cam-
paner's. The first letter is clearly N on all the specimens I have seen,
including the unique specimen of Suinthila in the HSA collection.
However, as noted above, Reinhart transcribes the Niepoort col-
lection specimen of Gundemar with M (and no final S); but I have
not seen this coin.
64. oliovasio( ?).3
Ruler: Witteric.
Spelling: OL IO VA-'O O.
Epithet: VS (for IVSTVS ?).
Type: facing busts (5 e).
This mint is extremely uncertain. I have rejected all the specimens
of Reccared (see p. 462), and would be inclined also to dismiss the
specimen of Witteric as a forgery, were it not for two considerations:
(a) my notes taken while examining the Vidal collection record no
suspicion of the authenticity of the piece (although in fact I did not at
that time have it in mind to look at it particularly critically), and (b)
in the absence of any reasonable identification of the mint-name, it is
difficult to imagine why a forger should have made such a piece. We
know of instances of the invention of coins to fill some historical or
antiquarian desideratum, but it is not reasonable to expect a counter-
feiter to invent a specimen for a very obscure if not unidentifiable
1 Blazquez, p. 84; Campaner, 1866, pp. 121-122; Hiibner,Deutsche Littera-
turzeitung, col. 500; idem, Revista Critica, p. 97; La Capilla, p. 123; Mel6n, p. 183.
a Gundemar, according to Reinhart: MANDOLA.
3 Beltran, Suevia, p. 119; Campaner, 1866, p. 124; Fernandez-Guerra, II,
pp. 439-446; Florez, pp. 213-214; Heiss, pp. 56-57; Madrid, pp. 377-378; Me-
16n, p. 183.
GALLAECIA
139
mint. No conclusive identification for the mint if it exists has
been proposed. Florez tentatively suggested a colony deriving its
name from Ologasis in Paphlagonia; Campaner proposed Oeaso, Oleaso
or Olarso of the Basques; Heiss, with much reserve, Santa-Maria de
Olibes, some 30 kilometers north of Pontevedra and 21 kilometers
south of Santiago in the extreme northwest, or Olicio, a village in the
province of Oviedo. Beltran considered all the proposals doubtful.
65. PALENTUCIO.1
Ruler: Witteric.
Spelling: PAL-:NTVCIO.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: Facing busts (obverse, 5 q; reverse, 5 1).
Exact locality unknown, but undoubtedly the Palanticio {Palan-
tusmo) of the mediaeval lists, subject to the diocese of Bracara. The
unique specimen is in the Vidal Quadras y Ramon collection.
66. PANNONIAS.2
Rulers: Reccared, Witteric.
Spelling: PANNONIAS (Witteric).
Epithet: PIVS Witteric.
Types: Reccared: unknown.
Witteric: obverse, facing bust of Lusitanian reverse type (7); reverse,
facing bust (5 1).
Modern Panoias, in the vicinity of Valnogueiras, about 20 kilometers
southwest of Braganca in Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro province, Por-
tugal, to be identified with the region of the Roman Cividade of the
Lapiteae. The name ultimately derives from the Danubian Pannonia.
In certain mediaeval church lists the name of Pannonias (Pannoias)
appears as a parish of Bracara. The Lusitanian obverse of Witteric's
coin is suggestive of the proximity of the mint to the southwestern
province.
67. PESICOS.3
Ruler: Sisebut.
Spelling: PESICOS.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: facing busts (5 o).
1 Blazquez, p. 84; Heiss, p. 57; P.-W. XVTIP, col. 2515.
1 Blazquez, p. 83; Russell Cortez, pp. 8f., 69ff.
3 Beltran, Suevia, pp. 165-166; Blazquez, p. 86; Fernandez-Guerra, II, pp.
439-446; Madrid, p. 830.
140
THE MINTS
Probably Pesoz (spelled "Pezos" by Beltran), about seven kilo-
meters northeast of Grandaa de Sabime on the west bank of the
Navia, in westernmost Oviedo province. The name Pesicos (Paesicos,
Besicos) appears in certain mediaeval lists (e. g., Acts of one of the Coun-
cils of Braga) as a parish of the diocese of Astorga. The unique specimen
is in the Madrid Museum.
68. PETRA.1
Rulers: Chintila, Chindasvinth.
Spelling: PETRA.
Epithet: PI VS.
Types: Chintila: facing busts (obverse, 5 t; reverse, 5 v, variant).
Chindasvinth: facing busts (5 q).
Probably Piedrafita (spelled "Piedrahita" by Beltran and, after
him, by Mateu y Llopis), a village about 22 kilometers northwest of
Villafranca and eight kilometers southeast of Los Nogales, in western
Leon province. This locality has been identified with the Pefra-
Speranti of certain mediaeval lists (Acts of the Councils of Braga), a
parish in the diocese of Astorga. Boudard's suggested identification of
the name as Betri (= Petra-Lata) is to be rejected.
69. pincia.2
Rulers: Reccared, Sisebut, Suinthila.
Spelling: PINCIA.
Epithets: PIVS Reccared, Sisebut, Suinthila. VECTOR {sic) Reccared.
Types: Reccared: facing busts (obverse, 5 o; reverse, 5 b, w).
Sisebut: facing busts (5 1).
Suinthila: obverse, facing bust (5 f); reverse, facing head (12 c).
Modern Pinza, a village near Viana del Bollo in Orense province,
about 65 kilometers southeast of Orense and roughly 50 kilometers
northwest of Braganca, the Pincia (Pinza) of certain mediaeval lists,
a parish in the diocese of Aurense.3 The VECTOR (VICTOR) of
Reccared's coin must have reference to one of his campaigns against
the Basques, possibly the same as that commemorated on his coins of
Bergancia, Tornio and Tude. The unique specimen of Sisebut is in the
collection of the Hispanic Society of America.
1 Beltran, Suevia, p. 164; Blazquez, p. 86; Boudard, p. 349; Heiss, p. 57;
Madrid, p. 380.
8 Beltran, Suevia, pp. 148-149, 150-151; Blazquez, p. 85; Madrid, p. 375,
Mel6n, p. 184.
3 Mel6n has modern Pentes, ancient Pinctum.
GALLAECIA
141
70. PORTOCALE.1
Rulers: Leovigild, Reccared, Liuva, Sisebut, Suinthila.
Spelling: PORTOCALE (Leovigild, Reccared, Liuva, Sisebut). PORT CALE
(Suinthila).
Epithet: PIVS Reccared, Liuva, Sisebut, Suinthila.
Remarkable legend: PORTOCALE VICTI (Leovigild).
Types: Leovigild: facing busts (obverse, 5 aa; reverse, 5 1).
Reccared: facing busts (5 f).
Liuva: facing busts (5 d).
Sisebut: obverse, facing bust of Lusitanian type (8 c); reverse, facing
bust (5 e).
Suinthila: facing busts of standard Lusitanian type (8 c, 7).
Modern Porto (OTorto), the well-known seaport at the mouth of
the Douro, capital of Porto district and of Douro Litoral province,
ancient Cale, a name doubtless of Iberian origin, later referred to as
Portu Cale, Portu Cale castrum, Portumcale castrum, etc. The original
name is preserved in that of Villanova de Gaya, opposite Porto. As a
diocese, subject to the archbishopric of Bracara, Portocale dates at
least from the mid-sixth century. Leovigild brought Portocale defin-
itively into the Visigothic dominion in 585 during his campaign
against Andeca, and it is doubtless to this event that the legend
PORTOCALE VICTI refers.
The town was occupied by the Arabs and was known to them as
Burtuqal (Jlilj), but it was temporarily recaptured by the Chris-
tians under Alfonso I in the mid-eighth century, and again but not
permanently recovered by Count Vimarano Perez at the instigation
of Alfonso III in 868. The final Christian reconquest did not occur
until the beginning of the 12th century.
71. SEMTJRE.2
Rulers: Sisebut, Suinthila.
Spelling: SIMVRE (Sisebut). SENVER (Suinthila).
Epithet: PIVS.3
Types: Sisebut: facing busts (obverse, 5 1; reverse, 5 o).
Suinthila: facing busts (5 f).
1 Catholic Encycl., XI, pp. 260-261; Elias Garcia, Portocale; Garcia Villada,
IP, p. 52; al-Himyari, p. 246; Levi-Provencal, Histoire, pp. 50, 223; Madrid,
pp. 366, 369-371; Menendez Pidal, p. 279; P.-W. III, col. 1347; Vazquez de
Parga, pp. 22-31.
2 Beltran, pp. 411-412; Beltran, Suevia, pp. 165, 167; Blazquez, p. 86;
Catholic Encycl., XV, pp. 747-749; G6mez-Moreno, Zamora, p. 83; al-Himyari,
pp. 120-122; Ibn 'Idhari, II, p. 127; Levi-Provencal, s. v. Zamora in E. of I.;
Madrid, pp. 382-383; Mel6n, p. 184 (who says modern Seura in Le6n?);
P.-W. XVII, col. 1766.
3 Misspelled PTVS on Sisebut's coin.
142
THE MINTS
Modern Zamora, capital of the province of the same name, possibly-
identical with or near the Ocelo Duri of the Itinerarium Antonini. The
name occurs in mediaeval documents as Semure, Senure, Senimure,
Senuire, Sumere, Semura, etc., under the diocese of Astorga. The
episcopal see of Zamora appears not to have been created until 905 in
the time of Alfonso III. The strange spelling of the name on Suinthi-
la's coins eludes explanation.1 It would appear to me that the legend
on the specimen of Sisebut is the more nearly correct, especially if we
allow the I to be an intended E, the horizontal strokes having been
omitted, as they sometimes are, by error.
Semure, called by the Arabs Sammurah (ijJL.), was occupied by-
Berbers at the time of the Moslem conquest but appears to have been
evacuated in the middle of the 8th century as a result of the Christian
advance from Leon. It was then reconquered by the Moslems, again
taken by the Christians under Alfonso III in 893, attacked by 'Abd
al-Rahman III in 939, and captured by al-Mansur in 989 and by his
son in 1005; whereafter, in Christian hands again it played an im-
portant part in the history of Castile. It is interesting to note that
the chronicler Ibn 'Idhari remarks that Zamora was founded by the
"foreigners of Toledo," i. e., the Visigoths (ilkiL jU
72. SENABRIA.2
Ruler: Suinthila.
Spelling: SENABRIA .Actually on the unique specimen the legend isSE-NABR-A;
the first point obviously does not indicate an omission, and therefore it might
be argued that the second point likewise is meaningless, giving SENA BRA.
But in view of the modern name and the spelling in the early ecclesiastical
lists it would appear that the second point does indicate an omitted I.
Epithet: PI VS.
Type: Facing busts (5 q).
Modern Puebla de Sanabria in the Valle de Sanabria, in western-
most Zamora province, about 30 kilometers northeast of Braganca.
The name is of Celtic or Iberian origin, from Senabriga, the element
-briga or -brica (hill, fortress) occurring in several ancient names in the
peninsula. The name (Senabia, Sanabria) appears in the mediaeval
church lists as a parish in the diocese of Asturie or of Aurense.
1 Further confusion has resulted from various misreadings and mis-trans-
criptions of the name by modern numismatic writers.
1 Beltran, Sueina, p. 149; Blazqucz, p. 85; La Capilia, p. 101; Madrid, pp.
375, 415; P.-VV. IIA, col. 1453, Suppl. Vol. III, col. 216.
GALLAECIA
143
73. TORIVIANA.1
Rulers: Sisenand, Chintila ( ?), Chindasvinth.
Spelling: TVRIVIANA (Sisenand). TORIVIANA (Chindasvinth).
Epithet: PIVS.
Types: Sisenand, Chintila(T): unknown.
Chindasvinth: facing busts of distinctive type (12 b).
Location unknown. Toriviana is probably the Torceptiana of Pto-
lemy, or the Torebia or Torevia of the mediaeval lists, a parish in the
diocese of Portocale.
74. TORNIO.2
Ruler: Reccared.
Spelling: TORNIO.
Remarkable legend: VICTORIA.
Type: facing busts (5 n).
Probably modern Torroiio (Torrofia), a parish of San Pedro de
Burgeyra in the district of Tiiy in the province of Pontevedra,3 the
Turonio (Turinio, Toronio, Torono) of the mediaeval lists. The vari-
ous possible identifications advanced by Campaner, Heiss, GOrres and
Melon are purely speculative. The significance of the legend VICTORIA
is likewise obscure, but one may assume that the reference relates to
one of Reccared's campaigns against the Basques (cf. Tude, below).
75. TUDE.4
Rulers: Reccared, Witteric, Sisebut, Chindasvinth, Reccesvinth, Egica, Egica
& Wittiza.
Spelling: TVDE.
Epithets: PIVS Reccared, Reccesvinth, Egica. IVSTVS Witteric, Sisebut,
Chindasvinth.
1 Beltran, Suevia, p. 104; Campaner, 1866, p. 135; Heiss, p. 62; Madrid, p. 369;
Mel6n, p. 184.
1 Beltran, Suevia, pp. 113, 162-163; Campaner, 1873, p. 51; Gorres, Miscellen,
p. 440; Heiss, p. 62; Madrid, pp. 373, 415; Mel6n, p. 185.
3 Mateu y Llopis, without elucidation, gives Torrona (diocose of Tude),
which I have been unable to locate.
4 Beltran, Suevia, pp. 162-163; Catholic Encycl., XV, p. 105; Gorres, Mis-
ccllen, p. 441; Heiss, pp. 39, 63, 87; al-Himyari, pp. 77, 246; La Capilla, p. 121;
Levi-Provencal, Histoire, pp. 50, 223, 310; Madrid, pp. 373-374; Melon, p. 172;
Menendez Pidal, pp. LI, 111, 133, 139, 279; P.-W. VIIA1, col. 771; Vazquez de
Parga, pp. 22-31.
144
THE MINTS
Remarkable legends: VICTORIA IN TVDE (Reccared). PlVS IN TVDE (Reccar-
ed). IN TVDE PlVS (Reccared).
Monogram: uncertain.1
Types: Reccared: first two types, facing busts (obverse, 5 n; reverse, 5 f(?) and
5 1); third type, facing busts of Lusitanian obverse type (8 a).
Witteric: obverse, facing bust of standard Lusitanian type (8 c); re-
verse, facing bust of general type (5 e).
Sisebut: obverse, facing bust of standard Lusitanian type (8 c); reverse,
facing bust of distinctive general type (5 i).
Chindasvinth: obscure facing busts (5 v).
Reccesvinth: obverse, bust, right, of modified "Early Visigothic" type
(1 h); reverse, cross on 3 steps extending into margin.
Egica: obverse, bust, right, holding cross (2gg); reverse, cross on 3 steps.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts (?); reverse, mint mono-
gram.
Modern Tuy on the Mino river, in the province of Pontevedra, on
the Portuguese frontier, the ancient castellum Tyde of Pliny, To 58a'.
of Ptolemy, Tuda of the Itinerarium Antonini. The episcopal see dates
at least from the 6th century and was represented at the First Council
of Bracara in 561. The first historically known bishop was Anila,
suffragan to Lucu, present at the Second Council of Bracara in 572.
In the mediaeval lists the name of the diocese appears as Tude, some-
times Teude. As there are no recorded Suevian uprisings in Reccared's
reign, it has been suggested that the legend, VICTOR IA IN TVDE (cf.
Tornio), signifying perhaps "Recaredo consigue una victoria en Tude,"
refers to one of Reccared's Basque campaigns in which the road to
Gallaecia had been cut off. Heiss' explanation of the legend the
commemoration of Reccared's taking of Tude in 587 from the rebels
Sunna, Segga and Witteric is inadequately documented.
The city was the governmental seat of Wittiza during the joint rule
of Egica and his son (698-702); his residence has been identified with
the site known as Pazos de Reyes.
Tude, known by the Arabs as Tudha or Tawdhah (i'sja , ^jy),
and (later) Tuyah ('< was occupied during the conquest but ap-
pears to have been returned to Christian hands, at least temporarily, in
the middle of the 8th century, and was later (ca. 868) recolonized by
Alfonso III. Ermogius, Bishop of Tude, was taken prisoner by 'Abd
al-Rahman III in 920.
1 The reproduction of the unique specimen is obscure.
GALLAECIA
145
76. VALLEARITIA.1
Rvler: Witteric.
Spelling: VALLEARITIA.
Epithet: none.
Type: facing busts (5 n).
Modem Vilari9a de Moncorvo, in the district of Braganca, province
of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, about 70 kilometers southwest of the
city of Braganca. The mediaeval and modern name (= Villa Aritia) is
apparently to be identified with ancient Aritium or Aritia* The locali-
ty appears as Vallericia and, corruptly, as Vallacia (diocese of Porto-
cale) in the Acts of the Council of Lugo, and as Valeritia in the so-
called Hitacion of Wamba. The etymology is doubtless "Valle-Aritia"
(= "Valla de Ariza," not "Vila-Ariza"). Ancient ruins have been
found at the presumed site.
77. VALLEGIA.
Ruler: Reccared.
Spelling: VALLEGIA?
Epithet: none.
Type: facing busts (5 z).
Uncertain. In a personal communication Pio Beltran suggests that
we have here another specimen of Vallearitia. The letter which I have
read as G is admittedly obscure, but I find it difficult to make an R
of it, and unless it is R the word can scarcely be an abbreviation of the
name VaUearitia. There is today a locality by the name of Vallega, just
south of Ovar, 35 kilometers south of Oporto, which might possibly
be the Vallacia (in the diocese of Portocale) in the mediaeval lists.3
The unique coin is in the collection of the Hispanic Society of America.
78. VENTOSA.4
Ruler: Suinthila.
Spelling: VENTOSA.
Epithet: PIVS.
Type: facing busts (5 v).
xAmpurias, 1945-1946, p. 471; Bouza Brey, Lauruclo y VaUearitia; idem,
Valencia, pp. 304-306; Blazquez, p. 84; Madrid, p. 371.
1 It cannot be the Aritium of Ptolemy and the Aritium Praetorium of the
Itinerarium Antonini, which lay on the road between Olisipo and Emerita
(cf. P.-W. H, cols. 1116-17).
3 Pio Beltran, however, writes me that Vallacia is corrupt; also that Vele-
giam (Iria), in the Suevian "division," is an erroneous form of Salagiam.
Beltran, Suevia, pp. 113, 164-165; Blazquez, p. 80; Madrid, p. 380;
Melon, p. 185; Vazquez de Parga, p. 107.
10 Visigoth
146
THE MINTS
Tentatively identified by Pio Beltran as modern Benavente,1 a
town in the province of Zamora, about 55 kilometers north of the
capital of the province and 65 kilometers south of Leon, the Ventosa
(Asturica) of the mediaeval lists. Melon suggests Castro de la Ventosa,
ruins near Villafranca del Bierzo.
79. UNIDENTIFIED MINT:
Rulers: Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth, Beccesvinth, Egica & Wittiza.
Monograms: as above.
Types: Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth: obverse, bust, left, of distinctive type
(2 dd); reverse, mint monogram.
Reccesvinth: obverse, bust, left, of uncertain type; reverse, mint
monogram.
Egica & Wittiza: obverse, confronting busts (13 f); reverse, mint
monogram.
The identity of the mint represented by these apparently related
monograms is unknown. Earlier writers have either left the question
open or have suggested Egessa, "Gesta," or "Egesta," and Beatia.
While "Egessa" could be read, there is no evidence that Egessa
(Segia) was a diocese in the Visigothic period,3 its occurrence in the
"Nomina Oretense" being a later interpolation. It has occurred to me
that, faute de mieux, one might read "Cesaragusta," but there are
strong arguments against this: (a) the essential letter "R" is lacking;
(b) the monogram for Cesaragusta occurs under Egica & Wittiza
and it is unlikely that two quite different monograms (not simply
variations in letter positions, which frequently occur in other mono-
grams) for the same mint would occur in the same reign.
1 According to the Encyclopedia Universal Ilustrada, VIII, p. 22, Benavente
is believed by some to be the Interammium Flavium of Ptolemy. But P.-W.
IX, col. 1603, places this ancient site near Bembimbre between the rivers
Noceda and Baeza.
"Beltran, pp. 415-416, 425-426; Campaner, pp. 217, 219; Campaner, 1866,
pp. 138-139; Campaner, 1873, p. 54; Heiss, p. 123; Madrid, pp. 281-282.
3 The coin of Leovigild is a forgery (see Forgeries, No. 9, p. 453). Beltran
(pp. 416, 426) compares the coin of Egica & Wittiza to Madrid no. 308, and
reads "Elvora," but the monograms on the coins in question are not similar.
In a personal communication to me Beltran has suggested VESEV, but the
letter at the top of the monogram on the coins of Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth
and of Reccesvinth is certainly distinct from the V (or A) at the bottom,
and the corresponding letter on the monogram of Egica 4c Wittiza (at the right)
is definitely Cor <J, not V or A.
EPIGRAPHY
The table between pp. 148149 gives the principal forms of the
letters used in the Visigothic numismatic alphabet, together with the
several combined letters or ligatures. For obvious reasons all the var-
iations represented here could not be reproduced in type in the corpus;
the type used in the transcriptions is a compromise in which the shapes
of the letters are somewhat conventionalized and only the chief
variations in actual letter forms are represented. The following obser-
vations may be made with regard to individual letters of the alphabet:
A This, with variations in shape, is the common form. A is very un-
common: there are instances of its use on coins of Leovigild at
Barcinona, Cesaragusta and Saldania, of Reccared at Saldania
andEmerita, and of Sisenand at Tarracona. A also is exception-
al: Leovigild at Cesaragusta, Reccared at Saldania, Liuva II
at Barcinona, and Witteric at Cordoba. A is sometimes turned
on its side and sometimes formed with wedge punches.
B Occasionally retrograde. Sometimes P: Leovigild, Suinthila at
Narbona and Cordoba.
C Resembles the modern form. Occasionally retrograde.
D Many forms. D and p are equally common. A occurs on Leovigild's
early issues and on some coins of Reccared, Witteric, Gundemar,
Sisebut, Suinthila, Sisenand, Tulga, Wamba, Ervig, Egica, and
Egica & Wittiza. It is especially common in Baetica, particu-
larly at Cordoba, where the Greek influence was strong. Some-
times it is inverted. Numerous other forms, such as P, b, 6, 4,
and q occur at various times.
E Usually resembles the modern capital. Rarely in the uncial form :
Leovigild at Italica and Emerita; in the name of Reccesvinth
with his father at Toleto, and during his sole rule at Gerunda,
Toleto and Cordoba; Wittiza at Gerunda. The E form is oc-
casionally retrograde, or lacks the central horizontal. In the
middle period the horizontals are frequently formed by dots
or wedge punches and are separated from the perpendicular.
F A rare letter. An unusual form i> occurs at Reccopolis under
Reccared.
10*
148
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
G Several forms. C, 1, Cand other forms occur on Leovigild's early
issues; but beginning with his regular later issues and thence-
forward the common form is 6, with variations, and C, becomes
less common. Q occurs at Gerunda under Chintila, Reccesvinth
and Wittiza (frequently misrepresented as S in transcriptions).
L Occasionally retrograde. Commonly *f* on one of Leovigild's early
types.
M In the later period frequently misrepresented as N or H.
N Very frequently H. In the later period often misrepresented as H.
O Occasionally with a central dot. Frequently small.
P Occasionally b : Reccared at Cordoba. Frequently P in the middle
and later periods.
R Numerous shapes but usually closely resembling the modern
capital.
S Frequently retrograde or on its side, oo or co.
0 Often O, O or O. Occurs for TH in Chindasvinth's and Recces-
vinth's names; and at Gerunda under Wittiza.1
V Stands for both U and V.
W Always formed by two free-standing Vs.
X Also very commonly -+-. Frequently small.
Z Equally frequently represented as s.
The earliest ligatures are V^l and ^ on a unique coin of Leovigild at
Ispali and A on one of his issues of Emerita; and at Cordoba there are
rare specimens with N under Sisenand. But the common use of liga-
tures begins with Chindasvinth in the spelling of his name and in the
introductory DN, etc., formulae; and their use continues throughout
the rules of Reccesvinth and Wamba, becoming somewhat less fre-
quent during the succeeding and final reigns.
1 See p. 84.
NOTESONMINTINGTECHNIQUE
All genuineVisigothiccoins werestruck with dies, unhinged but
evidently marked or notched so that diepositions arerelatively
constant, at least fromReccared's timeto about theperiod ofWamba.
Of760 specimens thediepositions ofwhich I havebeen ableto record,
roughly 85%havetheir reverses placed approximately at 6 o'clock
with relation to theobverse( | or / or \ and 60%, or 462 speci-
mens, havetheir reverses amost exactly at 6 o'clock ( | ). Thetotal
\
\
/
t
\
/
->
Leovigild
24
1
6
4
2
1
Hermenegild
1
1
Reccared
66
3
3
LiuvaII
5
Witteric
12
1
3
Gundemar
5
1
1
Sisebut
40
5
4
Suinthila
120
6
34
1
Sisenand
81
2
58
5
1
11
Iudila
1
Chintila
12
1
1
Tulga
5
1
Chindasvinth
27
3
4
1
Chindasvinth &
Reccesvinth
1
1
Reccesvinth
30
6
8
8
1
3
Wamba
5
8
6
1
5
1
Ervig
8
4
3
8
0
1
Egica
5
2
9
6
3
10
2
Egica&Wittiza
13
1
4
9
3
2
2
Wittiza
2
1
3
2
AchilaII
1
462
36
149
53
11
44
5
1
1 Theobversedie, unexpressed, is understood to stand at 12 o'clock.
150
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
number of coins taken into consideration in this regard is admittedly
small, but the following statistics are presumably a reasonably reliable
indication of the usual practice. Under the several rulers the positions
recorded are :1
It will be observed that under Leovigild the pattern is uncertain;
at Toleto, for example, Leovigild's type B has 2 specimens at t and
1 at \, whereas all 8 recorded die positions of type C are | . However,
under Reccared and succeeding rulers down through Reccesvinth,
there is an overwhelming preference for the reverse die position at or
near 6 o'clock ( | ); in fact, until we reach Sisenand there is only one
recorded instance of position f , this being a single specimen of Barbi
under Suinthila (one of 15 recorded die positions of that mint
and ruler). Under Reccesvinth position | is still preferred, but there
is an increase in 12 or 1 o'clock positions; from Wamba to the end the
pattern is completely confused. Reverting to the earlier period, it is
interesting to note the record at a few of the mints where we have a
fairly large number of observed die positions: for example at Ispali
under Sisebut, Suinthila and Sisenand, of 67 recorded positions, 53
are | , 1 is \ , and 13 are / ; at Emerita under the same rulers, of 79
recorded positions, 55 are | , 2 are \ , 8 are /, 5 are f , and 9 are />.
In the case of Emerita all the instances of approximate 12 o'clock
positions are coins of Sisenand of one type, corpus No. 273 (a); types
273 (b), (c), (d), (f) and (g) are all at approximately 6 o'clock, as are
two specimens of 273 (a).
Chiefly as the result of the opportunity to study in detail a large
part of the hoard of LaCapilla (see pp. 166-171), it has been possible to
record a considerable number of coins from identical pairs of dies, and
of other die combinations. There are doubtless many more among the
numerous specimens of the same mint-ruler-type in the corpus, but
the following are the only ones I have been able to record by close
examination at first hand.2
1 The diagonal positions (\ / \ / ) are only approximate in this summary,
but the angle is seldom more exaggerated than 5, 7, 11 or 1 o'clock.
! One should not conclude from the accompanying lists that die pairs and
other combinations were more common under Suinthila and Sisenand than at
other times; they are prominent here only because of the large number of hoard
specimens of these rulers in the collection of the Hispanic Society of America.
MINTING TECHNIQUE 151
PAIRS:
Ruler-Mint Pairs
a
b
c
e
Reccared -Emerita
2
2
Sisebut-Ispali
5
Suinthila-Toleto
2
,, -Cordoba
2
-Eliberri
2
2
2
2
,, -Ispali
4
2
2
2
,, -Tucci
3
2
2
,, -Emerita
3
2
2
2
3
Sisenand-Asidona
2
,, -Barbi
2
3
-Cordoba
2
-Eliberri
2
3
3
2
,, -Ispali
2
4
2
2
2
,, -Tucci
2
,, -Emerita
7
3
2
4
2
Ervig-Narbona
21
f g h i
The largest number of observed specimens of a single die is 12, the
obverse of Sisenand-Emerita, corpus No. 273(a) 1-7 (also same reverse
die), 8-10 (another reverse die), 11-12 (another reverse die). There is
little evidence of die wear among these, except that the globular eyes
of the ruler's face on a few of them are blurred or nearly obliterated.
It is interesting to note that the die positions of 1-7 are the same ( /),
as are those of 11-12 where a different reverse die was used, while
8-10, with another reverse die, are aligned at 12 o'clock exactly ( f ).
The use of punches in executing both the legends and the busts on
the dies is evident from the time of Reccared onward. The simpler
letters are formed with single punches, while the more complex ones,
especially those containing diagonals, lines at right angles, and loops,
are constructed by using combinations of punches or the same punch
in different positions or at different angles. The technique is most clear-
ly revealed in the coins of Suinthila and Sisenand, especially at such
mints as Acci, Barbi, Eliberri and Tucci. During this period at these
mints the die-engravers were so careless in constructing their letters
that the several punches used frequently are improperly coordinated
or stand free, or else essential elements of letters are missing because
certain punches were omitted.
152
VISIGOTHSOF SPAIN
OTHERDEE COMBINATIONS
Ruler-Mint
Reccared-Toleto
Sisebut-Tarracona
-Ispali
Suinthila-Mentesa
-Barbi
-Cordoba
-Ispali
-Emerita
Sisenand-Mentesa
Obv.
repeat
Al
Die Combinatons1
SAME 1 YPBCOMBINED TYPES
Obv. Rev.
repeat repeat
Rev. Obv.&
repeat Rev.
repeat
Al
Al
A1B2(2)
Al
Al
Al
Al
B2
B2C3(3)
D2
Al
-Toleto
Al
n
-Asidona
Al(3)
A2
i
-Barbi
A1A2
B4
A3
ii
-Cordoba
A1D4
B2
it
-Eliberri
B2(2)
Al(3)
99
-Ispali
Al(4)
E4(2)
F5G6
a
-Tucci
Al
A3D6
99
B2(2)
-Emerita
Al(3)
C5D6
B3(4)
99
A2(2)
E7(3)
B4(2)
Chindasvinth-Toleto
Al
Reccesvinth-Toleto
Al
-Ispali
-Emerita
Al
Al
99
ti
Wamba-Ispali
Al
Ervig-Toleto
Al
-Emerita
Al
Egica-Cesaragusta
Al
C5D5
C3E5
B2C3(2)
D2H7
C4D5
F8(2)
1 The letters indicate obverse dies, the figures reverse dies. By"types"are
meant sub-entries under a given number in the corpus, "combinedtypes"
beingcoins havingan obverse of one sub-type anda reverse of another sub-
type. For example, the coin of Sisebut-Tarracona referredto is corpus No. 177
(c)l, in which an obverse die of type 177(c) is combinedwith the same re-
MINTING TECHNIQUE
153
At Barbi under Suinthila, for example, it is quite evident that the
same perpendicular stroke punch was used for B, E, I, L, P, and some-
times N. The letter R is frequently constructed by using the punch for
A with the same half-circle punch which forms the loops of B and P and
the eye-brows of the bust. The small triangular or wedge punch () is
widely employed for the horizontal lines of the letters E and L; when
carelessly omitted, as it frequently is (see especially Suinthila-Eli-
berri), the same letters appear as I; and when the horizontals of E are
widely separated from the perpendicular, the legend appears to read 11
(and is frequently so represented in my transcriptions especially
when the separation is great). The same wedge forms the arms of the
cross, and is often used for the diagonal stroke of R in combination
with the perpendicular. At Tucci under Suinthila there are examples
of R represented as I *, and P as I, the half-circle punch having been
omitted or not strongly enough impressed to show on the coin. Prob-
ably the worst die execution, from this standpoint, is that at Acci
during Sisenand's rule.
verse die as that used for No. 177(a)l. In the table the figure in parentheses re-
cords the number of specimens of the given combination, when there are more
than one.
METROLOGY
The legal weight of the Visigothic triens (or tremissis), which is the
only denomination of Visigothic coinage during the period under
consideration in this volume, was based on the Constantinian stand-
ard, i. e., the solidus aureus = 1/72 of the late Roman pound, equi-
valent to 4.548 grams, or 1.516 grams for the triens. References in the
Visigothic code to the siliqua (1/24 of the solidus) must have concerned
Roman silver still in circulation, for no true silver Visigothic coin has
ever come to light. Nor is there any genuine Visigothic copper or
bronze coinage, and again the plentiful Celtiberian and Roman bronze
must have served for small change.1
The accompanying table sets forth the average weights of Irientes
at the various mints and under each ruler, so far as I have been able
to record weighed specimens. The amount of material taken into
consideration here far exceeds that heretofore assembled, and, except
where the preserved coinage of certain rulers and mints is very scarce,
and with due allowance for wear, we may consider the averages to be
as close an approximation of the true averages in Visigothic times as
can be arrived at. The graph illustrates the rise and fall of the stand-
ard with reference to the legal weight; it reaches its highest point
during the joint rule of Chindasvinth and Reccesvinth, its lowest under
Wittiza. It is interesting to note that the graph in some respects
reflects the course of general political well-being in the kingdom
throughout the period of its history with which we are concerned. If
we omit the few specimens of Hermenegild (which belong actually with
the earlier period of Leovigild's coinage) we note a rise to roughly
1.44-1.47 grams during the reigns of Reccared, Liuva II, Witteric,
Gundemar and Sisebut; there follows a decline until Chintila, where-
after, under Chindasvinth and especially under Reccesvinth, the
standard rises to 1.48-1.50 grams, very close to the legal requirement.
This restitution coincides with a reform in the style of the coinage and
with other administrative activities such as the codification of the
laws. Then, beginning with Wamba, there is a steady decline to
1 For largely theoretical discussions of Visigothic metrology, see Heiss, pp.
24-26; Reinhart, pp. 87-89; Madrid, pp. 173-189; Josse, p. 3.
METROLOGY
155
156
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Wittiza's low of 1.25. The relatively high averages under Roderic and
Achila are unreliable, for only four specimens of the former and six
of the latter have been taken into consideration.
Of the important mints of whose coinage we have a well-represented
and continuous, or nearly continuous, series, the capital, Toleto, has
the highest average,11.465, almost always above the general average,
the standard never dropping below 1.417, and standing at 1.474 even
during the rule of Wittiza when the general average of all mints drops
to 1.250. The over-all averages for other important mints are: Emerita,
1.440; Ispali, 1.428; Tarracona, 1.410; Cesaragusta (only 11 rulers),
1.399; Cordoba, 1.377.
So far as I am aware, no assay of Visigothic gold has been made in
modern times. To judge by appearances, the gold of the earlier rulers
is very fine; during Egica's rule2 marked debasement begins, and there-
after the proportion of silver increases greatly. During the joint rule of
Egica and Wittiza the majority of the coins are of "pale gold" or
electrum, and many actually have the appearance more of silver than
of gold.
RECORDED WEIGHTS
MINT NO. OF HIGH LOW AVERAGE
SPECI-
MENS
Leovigild (No mint-name).
29
1.51
1.04
1.299
Leovigild
(Mints). General average:
1.382.
Narbona
2
1.50
1.47
1.485
Barcinona
2
1.48
1.27
1.375
Cesaragusta
6
1.51
1.29
1.448
Rodas
3
1.51
1.27
1.410
Tarracona
1
1.48
Tirasona
1
1.21
Reccopolis
3
1.46
1.25
1.350
Saldania
1
1.35
Toleto
23
1.58
1.25
1.446
1 Average of averages under the rulers.
2 The appearance of the coins that I have been able to examine shows no
evidence of a decline in fineness during the rule of Tulga when the remarkable
decrease in weight standard takes place.
METROLOGY
157
Cordoba
3
1.52
1.03
1.316
Ispali
7
1.55
1.08
1.367
Italica
1
1.21
Elvora
13
1.53
1.09
1.405
Emerita
10
1.60
1.06
1.356
Lebea
1
1.36
Hermenegild.
6
1.42
1.26
1.333
Reccared.
General Average: 1.4711.
Narbona
7
1.50
1.41
1.468
Barcinona
11
1.52
1.40
1.488
Cesaragusta
13
1.52
1.25
1.452
Dertosa
1
1.43
Rodaa
3
1.51
1.48
1.496
Tarracona
18
1.51
1.40
1.456
Tirasona
6
1.49
1.37
1.413
Mentesa
1
1.34
Reccopolis
3
1.50
1.40
1.433
Saldania
1
1.56
Toleto
41
1.60
1.32
1.496
Cordoba
12
1.55
1.48
1.504
Eliberri
6
1.44
1.38
1.418
Ispali
20
1.55
1.35
1.480
Contosolia
1
1.28
Elvora
18
1.57
1.37
1.499
Emerita
50
1.58
1.28
1.483
Eminio
2
1.50
1.48
1.490
Monecipio
2
1.48
1.45
1.465
Salmantica
3
1.50
1.39
1.453
Arros
1
1.57
Asturie
1
1.58
Bergancia
1
1.48
Cepis
1
1.39
Oliovasio
1
1.70
Pincia
2
1.52
1.42
1.470
Tornio
1
1.16
Tude
2
1.50
1.37
1.435
Vallegia?
1
1.48
VISIGOTHSOFSPAIN
Liuva II. General Average: 1.4663.
Barcinona
1
1.30
Cesaragusta
2
1.44
1.43
1.435
Tarracona
2
1.49
1.45
1.470
Toleto
1
1.45
Ispali
5
1.52
1.48
1.494
Elvora
2
1.50
1.45
1.475
Emerita
5
1.52
1.46
1.488
Nandolas
1
1.44
Witteric.
General Average:
1.4628.
Narbona
2
1.50
1.48
1.490
Barcinona
2
1.50
1.44
1.470
Cesaragusta
3
1.50
1.45
1.476
Gerunda
1
1.33
Tarracona
4
1.45
1.38
1.425
Tirasona
1
1.42
Mentesa
1
1.40
Saldania
1
1.48
Toleto
9
1.55
1.45
1.502
Eliberri
3
1.44
1.41
1.430
Ispali
9
1.53
1.40
1.467
Elvora
5
1.51
1.37
1.472
Emerita
8
1.50
1.45
1.480
Salmantica
1
1.49
Arros
1
1.45
Bergancia
2
1.48
1.44
1.460
Bracara
1
1.45
Catora
1
1.34
Georres
2
1.44
1.41
1.425
Lauruclo
1
1.40
Nandolas
2
1.50
1.41
1.455
Palentucio
1
1.60
Tude
1
1.58
Vallearitia
1
1.27
Gundemar
. General Average
: 1.4476.
Cesaragusta
1
1.46
Sagunto
1
1.47
Tarracona
4
1.47
1.42
1.452
METROLOGY
15
Tirasona
2
1.50
1.44
1.470
Mentesa
1
1.43
Toleto
1
1.42
Eliberri
2
1.47
1.44
1.455
Ispali
4
1.50
1.24
1.427
Emerita
1
1.46
Sisebut.
General Average: 1.4599.
Cesaragusta
6
1.44
1.35
1.400
Tarracona
13
1.52
1.33
1.426
Tirasona
1
1.40
Acci
1
1.44
Mentesa
1
1.46
Toleto
12
1.52
1.46
1.481
Barbi
1
1.41
Cordoba
1
1.51
Eliberri
2
1.49
1.34
1.415
Ispali
32
1.57
1.44
1.488
Egitania
1
1.34
Elvora
4
1.52
1.45
1.480
Emerita
13
1.53
1.43
1.490
Eminio
2
1.48
1.37
1.425
Lamego
1
1.38
Bergio
1
1.31
Georres
1
1.30
Laetera
1
1.38
Lucu
1
1.56
Pesicos
1
1.45
Pincia
1
1.26
Portocale
1
1.45
Semure
1
1.50
Tude
1
1.51
Suinthila
. General Average: 1.4109.
Narbona
1
1.37
Cesaragusta
5
1.45
1.26
1.344
Tarracona
10
1.47
1.25
1.361
Tirasona
1
1.22
Acci
6
1.40
1.28
1.341
Mentesa
12
1.52
1.14
1.380
Toleto
16
1.51
1.30
1.440
100
VISIGOTHSOFSPAIN
Barbi
25
1.51
1.26
1.415
Cordoba
20
1.54
1.30
1.430
Eliberri
26
1.49
1.03
1.384
Ispali
26
1.55
1.32
1.449
Tucci
22
1.50
1.14
1.345
Egitania
3
1.46
1.21
1.373
Emerita
50
1.54
1.34
1.466
Salmantica
1
1.17
Asturie
1
1.30
Bracara
2
1.40
1.33
1.365
Georres
1
1.47
Lucu
1
1.30
Nandolas
1
1.39
Portocale
1
1.41
Semure
1
1.39
Ventosa
1
1.35
Sisenand. General Average: 1.3430.
Narbona
1
1.30
Gerunda
1
1.30
Tarracona
3
1.36
1.21
1.283
Acci
2
1.20
1.12
1.160
Castelona
9
1.30
1.03
1.171
Mentesa
7
1.30
1.00
1.151
Toleto
13
1.57
1.11
1.428
Asidona
5
1.41
1.25
1.354
Barbi
15
1.40
1.08
1.275
Cordoba
21
1.40
1.01
1.272
Eliberri
14
1.37
1.16
1.280
Ispali
33
1.54
1.25
1.446
Malaca
1
1.13
Tucci
15
1.37
1.01
1.230
Egitania
4
1.35
1.06
1.260
Emerita
47
1.57
1.07
1.442
Mave
1
1.30
Emerita
Iudila.
1
1.44
METROLOGY
161
Chintila. General Average: 1.3671.
Cesaragusta
1
1.37
Gerunda
1
1.25
Acci
2
1.33
1.24
1.285
Castelona
1
1.05
Toleto
10
1.54
1.37
1.472
Cordoba
4
1.49
1.04
1.317
Eliberri
1
1.22
Ispali
2
1.46
1.38
1.420
Tucci
2
1.20
1.05
1.125
Emerita
6
1.50
1.32
1.423
Eminio
1
1.46
Valentia
1
1.21
Lucu
1
1.45
Have
1
1.20
Petra
1
1.45
Tulga. General Average: 1.3134.
Narbona
1
1.38
Tarracona
1
1.37
Beatia
1
1.25
Toleto
5
1.51
1.25
1.442
Barbi
1
1.15
Cordoba
11
1.35
1.01
1.203
Ispali
2
1.46
1.40
1.430
Egitania
1
1.48
Emerita
2
1.48
1.48
1.480
Laetera
1
1.25
Chindasvinth. General Average: 1.4391.
Narbona
6
1.46
1.13
1.376
Saldania
1
1.50
Toleto
12
1.55
1.35
1.495
Cordoba
10
1.56
1.32
1.448
Eliberri
1
1.30
Ispali
10
1.58
1.43
1.502
Emerita
13
1.64
1.26
1.453
Asturie
1
1.67
Aurense
1
1.60
Bracara
7
1.58
1.33
1.478
11 Visigoth
VISIGOTHSOF SPAIN
Calapa 1 1.15
Fraucello 1 1.55
Lucu1 1.48
Mave 1 1.40
Petra 1 1.30
Toriviana 1 1.47
Tude 2 1.48 1.40 1.440
Chindasvinth & Reccesvinth. General Average: 1.5057.
2 1.60 1.49 1.545
3 1.51 1.46 1.476
1 1.52
1 1.50
Reccesvinth. General Average: 1.4882.
Narbona
2
1.42
1.40
1.410
Gerunda
1
1.55
Tarracona
12
1.57
1.37
1.465
Toleto
41
1.58
1.33
1.482
Cordoba
21
1.66
1.35
1.499
Ispali
26
1.57
1.43
1.503
Emerita
28
1.56
1.38
1.492
Bracara
1
1.50
Tude
1
1.35
Toleto
Ispali
Emerita
T5
Wamba. General Average: 1.4655.
Tarracona
3
1.53
1.47
1.496
Toleto
24
1.60
1.25
1.471
Cordoba
6
1.55
1.37
1.463
Ispali
13
1.55
1.42
1.496
Emerita
22
1.54
1.27
1.437
Ervig. General Average: 1.4596.
Narbona
8
1.55
1.15
1.448
Cesaragusta
5
1.60
1.40
1.486
Tarracona
2
1.48
1.46
1.470
Toleto
24
1.60
1.23
1.469
Cordoba
7
1.51
1.20
1.410
METROLOGY
163
Eliberri
2
1.51
1.48
1.495
Ispali
15
1.51
1.33
1.456
Tucci
1
1.38
Egitania
1
1.48
Emerita
23
1.60
1.35
1.463
Egica.
General
Average:
1.4483.
Narbona
6
1.53
1.44
1.473
Barcinona
1
1.47
Cesaragusta
5
1.50
1.36
1.428
Gerunda
4
1.50
1.30
1.405
Tarracona
7
1.55
1.46
1.495
Acci
2
1.52
1.35
1.435
Mentesa
3
1.45
1.36
1.393
Toleto
28
1.64
1.13
1.455
Valentia
2
1.49
1.48
1.485
Cordoba
5
1.50
1.36
1.430
Eliberri
1
1.45
Ispali
11
1.57
1.30
1.461
Egitania
1
1.51
Emerita
10
1.50
1.31
1.406
Suniefred.
Toleto
1
1.25
Egica &Wittiza. General Average: 1.3684.
Narbona
12
1.56
1.15
1.401
Barcinona
1
1.06
Cesaragusta
8
1.54
1.25
1.362
Gerunda
6
1.35
1.10
1.260
Tarracona
1
1.43
Mentesa
4
1.35
0.87
1.170
Toleto
11
1.55
1.27
1.417
Cordoba
11
1.53
1.25
1.438
Eliberri
2
1.43
1.08
1.255
Ispali
21
1.50
1.25
1.361
Tucci
4
1.50
1.10
1.265
Egitania
2
1.45
1.40
1.425
Elvora
4
1.50
1.45
1.485
Emerita
15
1.50
1.20
1.387
164
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Salmantica
1
1.47
Bracara
1
1.22
1
1.37
Wittiza.
General Average:
1.2500.
Narbona
3
1.30
1.20
1.233
Cesaragusta
7
1.32
1.10
1.188
Gerunda
4
1.34
0.99
1.137
Tarracona
2
1.14
0.95
1.045
Mentesa
2
1.16
1.15
1.155
Toleto
11
1.60
1.22
1.474
Cordoba
3
1.36
0.86
1.040
Eliberri
1
1.37
Ispali
2
1.15
1.15
1.150
Emerita
5
1.45
0.92
1.204
Roderic.
General Average:
1.4400.
Toleto
1
1.46
Egitania
3
1.47
1.43
1.435
Achila II
. General Average.
. 1.4233.
Narbona
5
1.50
1.30
1.418
Tarracona
1
1.45
HOARDS OF VISIGOTHIC COINS
1. Garrobillas, 1731.
The earliest recorded hoard of Visigothic coins of which I am aware
is that of Garrobillas, which was unearthed in 1731. The name is
evidently that of a locality entitled Garrovillas de Alconetar, in the
diocese of Coria, province of Caceres. The hoard contained at least 11
coins of Reccared, and others, including some of Leovigild, the
majority probably from mints in Baetica and Lusitania. The exact
composition of the hoard cannot de reconstructed, but we do know
that part of it, at least, was acquired by the Real Academia de la
Historia and is now there.1
2. Bordeaux, 1803.
A hoard of 140 Merovingian and 38 Visigothic trientes was found in
Bordeaux in November, 1803, "lors de la demolition d'une vieille
maison situee pres de la porte de l'ancien palais de l'Ombriere." The
earliest Visigothic coins in the hoard were two specimens of Leo-
vigild's "mintless" issues; the latest, two of Wamba. The mints were
scattered, most of them common ones in all the provinces except
Gallaecia. Unfortunately the integrity of the hoard is open to some
doubt, for its reconstruction was attempted only in 1936. P. Le Gen-
tilhomme2 admits that some of the coins which he illustrates in his
article on the hoard may not actually have belonged to the find and
that they are rather duplicates of specimens in the hoard already in
the Cabinet du Roi. The most serious reflection on the integrity of the
hoard, or of its reconstruction, is the presence of three fabrications,
one of Leovigild-"Valenta," one of Reccared- "Massilia," and one of
Chintila-Narbona (see the appendix on forgeries, Nos. 15, 31, and 56).
1 See Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pp. 244-245.
1 "Trouvaille de monnaies d'or des M^rovingiens et des Wisigoths faite a
Bordeaux en 1803," RN, 1936, pp. 87 ff. Cf. Mateu y Llopis, Hispania Tarra-
conense, p. 21. Throughout Le Gentilhomme's article, for "Hess" read "Heiss."
166
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
3. La Gras8a, 1816.
According to a manuscript deposited in the archives of the Acade-
mia de Buenas Letras in Barcelona, a hoard of "some 800" Visigothic
coins was found on December 10, 1816, in a bronze vessel buried in a
vineyard belonging to the widow of a farmer by the name of Rafael
Morera, located in the district of La Grassa, parish of Constant!, "one
and a half hours" distant from Tarragona, "one and a quarter hours"
from Reus, and "three-quarters of an hour" from Constant!. The hoard
was scattered soon after its discovery, and all that is known of its
composition is that it appears to have been buried toward the end of
Chindasvinth's sole reign, and that the following 32 coins were acquir-
ed by Jose Mariano Cabanes: Suinthila: Barbi (2), Emerita (1);
Sisenand: Toleto (1), Emerita (2); Chintila: Emerita (1); Tulga:
Emerita (1); Chindasvinth: Ispali (2), Emerita (18), Asturie (1),
Bracara (1), Lucu (2).1
4. La Capilla, 1891.
The hoard of La Capilla is the largest and most important find of
Visigothic coins that has been recorded, and the fact that a very
considerable portion of the hoard found its way into the collection of
the Hispanic Society of America is of special interest in connection
with the present publication. The find was made on August 27, 1891,
by a construction worker digging at the foundations of a wall near the
farmhouse of La Capilla (formerly known as Lortes), located about
five miles east of Carmona, a town in the province of Seville, eighteen
miles northeast of the capital. The farm of La Capilla was the property
of General Jose Chinchilla. At a depth of about 25 centimeters the
workman's pick shattered an earthenware pot containing a large
quantity of Visigothic coins. The exact number will never be known,
as some were lost in the nearby river and others were divided among
some of the finder's companions before the farmer of La Capilla arrived
on the scene and attempted to reassemble all the coins, but there were
probably between 800 and 1000 pieces,2 perhaps even more.
1 Elias de Molins, p. 12; Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos VI, no. 470.
2 On the day following the find, 755 pieces were counted, but undoubtedly
many were held back by the workmen (La Capilla, p. 12). Chabas gives the
total reported on in the Academia do la Historia as 752. Beltran's unpublished
inventory gives 767 (766, but wrongly added upas T70,inAmpurias 1941,p.99):
Pujol y Camps (according to Beltran) registered 763. Some less reliable re-
ports give even more as many as 1500 (e. g., BN 1892, p. 187). That there
were more than the 767 in Beltran's inventory can be deduced from at least
HOARDS
167
The bulk of the hoard was sold by the workmen to a merchant in
Seville at seven pesetas apiece, while some 250 specimens were
commandeered by the landlord, General Chinchilla.1 Fortunately,
Manuel Fernandez y Lopez made a visit to Carmona and was able to
record most of the different legends (at least their essential elements)
before the coins were entirely dispersed, so that we have a certain
amount of reliable information about the composition of the hoard
gathered on the spot.
My own particular interest in the hoard began with two observa-
tions which I made while first sorting out the Visigothic coins in Mr.
Huntington's collection when that collection was transferred from
the Hispanic Society of America to the custody of the American
Numismatic Society. One discovery was that of the presence of the
unique piece of Iudila struck at Emerita, which I found had at one
time belonged to Rafael Cervera y Royo,2 and which belonged before
him to General Chinchilla; from other literary souces I knew that
Cervera's collection had been acquired by Mr. Huntington.3 The other
almost simultaneous observation was that many of the coins in Mr.
Huntington's collection, especially the numerous specimens of Sisebut,
Suinthila and Sisenand issued at certain mints (e. g., Mentesa, Barbi,
Eliberri, Ispali, Tucci, etc.), among them many from the same dies,
bore traces of soil of a particular consistency and color, which in the
catalogue I have referred to as "La Capilla soil." Subsequent research
and observations, supported by Pio Beltran's valuable inventory of
the recorded specimens in the hoard and by his list of Visigothic coins
one detail of my analysis of the HSA collection (see below): viz., Sisenand's
issues at Tucci are known only from the hoard, yet the HSA collection has
16 specimens, but Beltran's information supplies only 8 specimens from La
Capilla.
1 According to Fita, General Chinchilla acquired 200, and 500 went to the
merchant Saturnino Fernandez in Seville. This individual is doubtless the
Fernandez y Gonzalez who figures so prominently in Pio Beltran's unpublished
list. It was probably he who mended and mounted some of the coins now in the
HSA collection (see the footnote to No. 187(f) in the corpus). Chabas says that
Saturnino Fernandez Gomez (sic) acquired 504; surely this was the same
merchant or jeweler.
1 Cf. Engel, 1898, p. 128.
3 E. g., A. Vives y Escudero, La Moneda Hispdnica (Madrid, 1926), p.
CLXXXII; and P. Arturo Garcia de la Fuente, "Resumen hist6rico de la
numismatica espafiola," Publicaciones de la Sociedad Qeogrdfica National (Ma-
drid, 1934), p. 25. These references chiefly concern the Celtiberian and Roman
portions of Cervera's collection, but they are sufficient to establish the later
history of that collection as a whole. As pointed out in the Foreword to the
present volume, no direct information with regard to the provenance of any
part of the HSA collection has been available to me.
168
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
in the Cervera collection (see below), have established beyond any
possible doubt that at least the major portion of General Chinchilla's
share1 of the hoard of La Capilla (mostly via Cervera), as well as other
coins from the hoard, ultimately found their way into the collection
now known as that of the Hispanic Society of America.2 In fact, it
would appear that nearly one-third of the hoard is in this collection.
In analyzing the composition of the hoard of La Capilla I have been
immeasurably aided by the inventory so courteously furnished me by
Pio Beltran, to which I have referred above. None of the published
accounts of the hoard, including Fernandez y Lopez' El Tesoro Visi-
gdtico de la Capilla, gives a detailed listing of the number of specimens
of each ruler and mint. Beltran's list, however, compiled from material
in the Academia de la Historia which was first handled by Pujol y
Camps in 1891, and after his death by Fernandez-Guerra and Fita,
but published by none of them, contains a presumably accurate
inventory of that part of the hoard which received scholarly scrutiny
before it was scattered. In it the number of coins of each ruler and
mint are listed along with a not always complete break-down of the
distribution of the specimens among the following individuals: Gene-
ral Chinchilla; Fernandez y Gonzalez, Fernandez y Lopez, Mariano
Fernandez, and Caro, all of Seville; Vidaurre of Madrid; Juan Fer-
nandez, Barrajo, Manuel Nieto, Alberto Garcia Sola, Jose Siles, and
a laborer and a barber, all of Carmona; and Cervera (obviously pre-
vious to his acquisition of a large portion of the hoard, for only four
specimens are here assigned to him). Rough transcriptions of the
principal legends are included in the inventory, but there are no
descriptions of types except by reference to Heiss, where appropriate,
and to Fernandez y Lopez. The details of distribution among the
1 Apparently not all of Chinchilla's share, for there are instances where Bel-
tran's inventory lists specimens acquired by Chinchilla but not now in the
HSA collection: e. g., Sisebut-Tucci.
2 The evidence of these relationships is so plentiful that it is unnecessary to
give here more than a few of the very many possible examples: (a) there was
only one specimen of Liuva-Emerita in the hoard, it was acquired by Chin-
chilla, later by Cervera, and it is now in the HSA collection; (b) there are 12
specimens of Sisebut-Ispali with traces of "La Capilla soil" in the HSA collec-
tion, certain of which are identifiable as ex-Cervera, and Beltran's list gives 12
specimens of this ruler and mint to Chinchilla (see the discussion under No.
187(i) in the corpus); (c) there was only one specimen of Sisebut-Tude in the
hoard, it was acquired by Chinchilla, was in the Cervera collection, is now
HSA 16117, and has traces of "La Capilla soil"; (d) Campaner (p. 566) re-
cords Cervera's specimens of Leovigild-Saldania and Sisebut-Acci (now HSA
16001 and 16103); etc., etc.
HOARDS
169
original owners appear at the relevant places in the corpus, infra.
Here I give only a summary of the composition of the hoard by rulers
and mints:1
Ruler
Province
Mint
Number
Specimens
of
Reccared
Baetica
Ispali
1
Liuva II
Lusitania
Emerita
1
Witteric
Tarraconensis
Cesaragusta
1
Carthaginensis
Toleto
1
Lusitania
Elvora
1
Gallaecia
Bergancia
1
Fraucello
1
Gundemar
Baetica
Ispali
1
Lusitania
Emerita
1
Sisebut
Tarraconensis
Tarracona
3
Carthaginensis
Toleto
2
Baetica
Barbi
1
Eliberri
1
Ispali
32
Tucci
2
Lusitania
Elvora
1
Emerita
4
Gallaecia
Tude
1
Suinthila
Tarraconensis
Cesaragusta
2
Tarracona
3
Carthaginensis
Acci
13
Mentesa
27
Saldania
1
Toleto
15
Baetica
Barbi
42
Cordoba
31
Eliberri
53
Ispali
49
Tucci
36
1 The distribution by rulers differs in some minor respects in Beltran's note
on the hoard in Ampurias 1941, p. 99, where the table is obviously in error in
more than one detail: e. g., the column of figures adds up to 766, not 770; and
Witteric is assigned only one specimen.
1 Possibly 2.
170
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
Euler Province Mini Number Totals
of
Specimens
Lusitania Coleia 1
Egitania 3
Emerita 98
Eminio 1
Salmantica 4
Gallaecia Aliobrio 2
Bracara 5
Calapa 1
Fraucello 1
Leione 2
Lucu 1
Nandolas 1
Senabria 1 393
Sisenand Carthaginensis Acci 12
Castelona 14
Mentesa 15
Toleto 12
Baetica Asidona 7
Barbi 23
Cordoba 42
Eliberri 27
Ispali 48
Tucci 23
Lusitania Egitania 2
Emerita 88
Lamego 1
Gallaecia Bracara 1
Toriviana 1 316
Iudila Baetica Eliberri 1
Lusitania Emerita 1 2
TOTAL 767
It will be noted that all the provinces, except Narbonensis, are
represented, and that Baetica has by far the largest number of
specimens (420), followed by Lusitania (207), Carthaginensis (112),
Gallaecia (19) and Tarraconensis (9). In other words, the bulk of the
recorded portion of the hoard (627 specimens) came from the south,
where, a priori, one would expect it to originate in view of the location
of the find. Remarkable is the considerable number of Gallaecian
HOARDS
171
mints (11 altogether), including several mints unknown to Visigothic
numismatics previous to the discovery of the hoard.
While in all instances it has not been possible to determine which
coins in the HSA collection come from La Capilla, I am quite confident,
after laborious calculations based on close examination of the coins
themselves and comparisons withBeltran's list (which calculations are
recorded in detail throughout the pertinent sections of the catalogue),
that there are at the very least 248 specimens from the hoard in the
collection, and in all probability many more (e. g., pieces not showing
traces of "La Capilla soil" but interlocked by dies or otherwise
related with specimens that can confidently be assigned to the hoard)
perhaps as many as 300. Obviously, therefore, Mr. Huntington
acquired more than General Chinchilla's share,1 which as noted above
was variously recorded as 200 or 250 specimens. This fact incidental-
ly is already apparent in several places in the catalogue, where the
number of obviously La Capilla pieces in the HSA collection exceeds
the number of specimens assigned to Chinchilla in Beltran's list.
Among the many interesting elements provided by the opportunity
to study this large portion of the hoard at first hand has been the
study of die relationships (see pp. 150-152).
The principal literature relating to the hoard of La Capilla is: La
Capilla; Campaner, pp. 561-567; R. Chabas, El Archivo (Valencia),
V (Oct. 1891), pp. 259-260; Fidel Fita, Bol. delaR. Acad, de la Hist.,
XIX (1891), p. 456; RN, 1892, p. 187; Bulletin de Numismatique,
1891-2, p. 109; Hiibner, Deutsche Litteraturzeitung, XVIII (1897),
cols. 498-501; idem, Revista Critica, II (1897), pp. 93-97; Beltran,
Ampurias 1941, pp. 99-100.
5. Mauleon, 1896 (1.).
A Basque peasant found five Visigothic coins (Suinthila: Toleto,
Eliberri, Ispali, Tucci; Sisenand: Castelona) while demolishing an
old wall in the castle of Mauleon in the Basses-Pyrenees. The coins
were deposited in the Museum of the Societe de Borda at Dax.2
6. Abusejo, 1932.
Early in 1932 a hoard of approximately 110 Visigothic coins was
found in an earthenware pot in a field near the village of Abusejo,
1 Some of his specimens are missing, however; see p. 168, footnote 1, above.
1 RN, 1897, pp. 105-106.
172
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
between the Huebra1 and the Yeltes rivers, between Salamanca and
Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. Thirty-five coins from
this hoard were acquired by the Museo Arqueologico Nacional in
Madrid; the rest by the Institute de Valencia de Don Juan. The rulers
represented were Reccared (1 specimen), Reccesvinth (2), Wamba (3),
Ervig (12), Egica (20), Egica and Wittiza (53), Wittiza (19). The mints
were widely distributed, somewhat as follows:2 Narbona (5), Barci-
nona (2), Cesaragusta (13), Gerunda (4), Tarracona (3), Mentesa (5),
Toleto (23), Cordoba (11), Eliberri (5), Ispali (12), Tucci (1), Egitania
(3), Elvora (2), Emerita (18), Salmantica (1), Tude (1), uncertain (1).
7. Zorita de los Canes. 1945.
A hoard consisting mostly of Visigothic trientes was discovered on
September 12, 1945, during the course of scientific excavations at
Cerro de la Oliva, Zorita de los Canes, province of Guadalajara, the
presumed site of Reccopolis. There were 90 coins in the hoard, clas-
sified as follows: "Merovingian" type, 6; Suevian, 1; "Narbonese"
Visigothic, 5; imitations of Justinian, 14; of Justin II, 41; "primitive
Leovigildan," 23. The find, which should be of salient importance
in the classification of the early "pre-national" Visigothic coinage
(outside the scope of this volume), is thoroughly discussed by
Juan Cabre Aguilo in Zorita de los Canes (see especially pp. 33-41 for
the circumstances and exact find-spot). A brief summary will be found
in the section in the present volume dealing with the mint of Recco-
polis, pp. 96-98.
1 Mateu y Llopis (Madrid, p. 33) writes "Huedra," but the atlases give
"Huebra."
2 There are certain discrepancies in Mateu y Llopis' two discussions of the
hoard. Cf. Madrid, p. 37, footnote 36, and my own observations in the present
catalogue. Among other things the weights are in many instances differently
reported. Also, in Mateu y Llopis' Cordoba three specimens of Tulga-Cordoba
are described as coming from the Abusejo hoard, but in response to my inquiry
Mateu has acknowledged in correspondence that this is an error possibly due
to "a confusion of plaster-casts." The hoard and its discovery is discussed in
Madrid, pp. 31-38, and Adquisiciones en 1932, pp. 4-8.
THE CORPUS
NOTE ON THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE CORPUS
The corpus is arranged in the following manner: Ruler, Province
(Narbonensis, Tarraconensis, Carthaginensis, Baetica, Lusitania, Gal-
laecia, in that order), Mint (alphabetically within the Province), Type
(as far as determinable chronologically at the given mint under the
given ruler). Each Type receives a main corpus number; varieties are
sub-listed with (a), (b), etc. Obverse description is on the left, reverse
on the right. Specimens of each variety are listed beneath the de-
scription and are numbered 1, 2, 3, etc. The equality sign (=) con-
necting two or more citations (see the list of sources for abbreviations)
signifies that these references concern the identical specimen. Speci-
mens illustrated in the works referred to are marked*. Weights (in
grams), diameters (in millimeters) and die-positions, where available,
are given in parentheses after the last reference to each specimen. In
general the order of citations is: HSA, other museums, private
collections, other published specimens, auction and sales catalogues.
The mark # after HSA numbers signifies that the coin bears traces
of "La Capilla soil" (see p. 107).
In most publications lack of special type precludes the represen-
tation of the true forms of the letters in the transcriptions of legends;
hence it is not always possible to determine just which variety a
specimen should be assigned to, especially as many of the varieties
differ from each other only in the form of one or two letters. Where
the true forms of the letters are known or can be surmised, either by
reproductions or by comparison with coins actually seen, the normal-
ized or formalized letters appearing in the transcriptions are altered
to the presumed form; but in some cases, in the absence of compara-
tive material, it has been necessary to reproduce the transcriptions as
given in the original publication, with the exception that A is always
substituted for A. In many cases where D or X occurs in the trans-
cription of the legends of unillustrated coins, the form may well be p
or +, etc.
Bust types are described as "facing," "right," "left," "confronting,"
etc., and further identified, as closely as possible, by reference to a
type number and letter; see pp. 54-66 for the key to these bust forms.
LEOVIGILD
A.D. 575-586
I. WITHOUT MINT-NAME
Type A.1
1(a). Bust, right. Type 1 a. Victory, right.
oiiivst iiiavac cuvviqiLDireni2
1. Madrid, no. 64* = Velazquez, no. 6 (Leyrens) = Florez,
p. 169* (Gabriel) = Masdeu, p. 5 = Heiss, no. 1* =
Robert, no. 1*.
2. Lonja del Almid6n, no. 690*.
(b) . OIIIV2TI IIIAVAC VCLIVVICILDIReilS
1. Reinhart, 1937, pL XXXVII, 18* (Inst, de Valencia de
Don Juan) = Reinhart, Oermanen-Erbe, p. 72, no. 7*. Plate 1,1
2. Reinhart, pi. 10, no. 4* (Hans H. Volkers, Prague) =
Reinhart, 1945, fig. 4, no. 11* (1.30).
3. Reinhart, pi. 10, no. 5* (Archivo Municipal de Sevilla).
(c) . ONTSNV IVNSTC LIVVID ICVS
In exergue: CO
1. Zorita de los Canes, no. 82* (1.44). Plate I, 2
(d) . DNIVSTIIIIAVA2 CLIVVIGILDIREGIS
1. Jusue, p. 484 (given to Museo Municipal de Santander)
= Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos III, no. LXXXVII, 3.
(e) . Similar to (a)-(d), but exact legends uncertain.
1. Lonja del Almid6n, no. 691.
1 Assigned by Reinhart to Andalusia ( ?).
1 Mateu y Llopis, HaUazgoa III, has G in place of A at the end. I have
followed Jusue's transcription.
176
LEOVIGILD
Type B.1
2. Bust, right. Type 1 b. Victory, right.
DN-IVIVGILV IAIVNIS
In exergue: OHO
1. Madrid, no. 68* (1.28).
Type C.
3(a). Bust, right. Type 1 b. Victory, right.
ONLEVVCILDIR VIITOI IAVCCC
In exergue: CON
1. Zorita de lot Canes, no. 84* (1.20). Plate I, 3
(b). Obverse as (a). VISTOI AVCCC
In exergue: CON
1. Zorita de los Canes, no. 85* (1.15).
Type D.2
i. Bust, right. Type 1 a. Victory, right.
OVCLIVVICCILDIRECI VCLIVVGILDIREGIS
1. Reinhart, 1945, fig. 4, no. 12* (no provenance) (1.18).
These legends are copied from Reinhart's transcriptions; they are
not legible in the plates. Reinhart (1945, p. 228) observes that this
specimen is "del mismo cuno" as no. l(b)l, above; by which he must
mean "the same style" or mint, because the reverses are certainly not
from the same die.
Type E.
5. Bust, right. Type 1 a. Victory, right.
...IVVIGILDVS... LI...LDIREGIS
1. Madrid, no. 69* (fragmentary coin).
1 Assigned by Reinhart to Merida( ?). Both Reinhart (pp. 83, 85) and
Mateu y Llopis (Madrid, p. 171) recognize this specimen as a transition issue
connecting one class of early types with Reinhart's Group Otype G, below.
The legends are copied from Mateu's transcription, the reproduction not being
fully legible.
1 Assigned by Reinhart to Andalusia ( ?).
WITHOUT MINT-NAME
177
TypeF.
6. Bust, right. Type 1 d. Victory, right.
JVIOOV2REX LVVVV-VwREX
1. Reinhart, pi. 10, no. 14* (Hans H. Volkers, Prague). Plate I, 4
Reinhart (p. 85) includes this very crude specimen among his
Group C (Merida?), my type G, but I see no resemblance in style
whatever. It appears to me to be rather a distinct issue, unrelated to
other types.
Type G.1
7(a). Bust, right. Type 1 b. Victory, right.
AHLIVVIQILAVSREX1 AHLIVVICLDVSREX
In exergue: ONO
1. Madrid, no. 65* = (?) Fernandez-Guerra, pi. I*3 (1.45).
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 6* = Reinhart, pi. 10, no. 15*. Plate I, 5
(b) . AHLIVLICILAVSRE AHLIVV...REX
In exergue: ON O
1. Madrid, no. 67* (fragmentary coin).
The reproduction is not sufficiently clear to guarantee the reading
of the legends.
(c) . AHLIVVIQILDVSRE AHLIVVIQILDVSREX
In exergue: O H O4
1. Reinhart, 1945, fig. 4, no. 17* (no provenance).
(d) . DNLIVVICILAV2REX DHLIVVIQILDV2REX
In exergue: C ON
1. Madrid, no. 66* (1.32).
The legends are not clear in the reproduction but appear to be as
transcribed above; they do not conform with the transcriptions as
given in the Madrid catalogue.
1 Assigned by Reinhart to Merida ( ?).
* The X is not transcribed in the Madrid catalogue but is probably present.
3 Very inaccurate drawing, if this is the coin illustrated in Madrid.
4 Sic. Not CON as transcribed in Reinhart, 1945, p. 234.
12 Visigoth
178 LEOVIGILD
(e). DMLIVVIQILDVSREX DULIVVIQILAVSREX
In exergue: Add.
1. HSA 15990 ( 4 18, 1.34). PlateI,6
2. Heiss, no. 6* (Cabinet de Madrid) = Robert, no. 6*.1
3. Ennes, no. 6.
(I). ////HLIVVIQ3LDVSREX DHLIVV///////VSREX
In exergue: /////dd
1. Reinhart, pi. 10, no. 17* (no provenance).
(g) . DMLIVVICILAVSREX DMLIVVIQILAVSRE
In exergue: X
1. Reinhart, pi. 10, no. 16* (no provenance).
(h) . DNLIVVILDVSRE LIVVILDVSR
In exergue:?
1. Jusu6, p. 484* (given to Acad, de la Historia) = Mateu
y Llopis, Hallazgoa HI, no. LXXXVII.4 (1.36).
The illustration is scarcely legible and the transcriptions cannot be
relied upon.
(i) . LIVVI6I LAIREXPS LIVVICTIL AIREXN
In exergue: 1VH
1. Zorita de los Canes, no. 83* (1.51). Plate I, 7
Type H*
8(a). Bust, right. Type 1 c. Victory, right.
*IVVI|QI + PVco oo|RE*|IMC*ITV
In exergue: OM 0
1. Heiss, no. 2* (BM) = Robert, no. 2* = Keary, 1886, pi.
Ill, no. 67* (1.30).
(b) . XIVVIICIXDVSb S|REX|IHCXITV
In exergue: OM O
1. Reinhart, pi. 11, no. 13* (Archivo Municipal de Sevilla)
= Reinhart, 1945, fig. 4, no. 23* (1.23). Plate I, S
(c) . *IVVIiqi+PVSoo oo[RE*|IHC*ITV
In exergue: OMO
1. Florez, p. 170*.
1 This specimen is not in the Madrid catalogue.
2 Assigned by Reinhart to Toledo.
WITHOUT MINT-NAME
179
(d) . + IVV//////|qi*DVI</> </>|RE+|IHC*ITI
In exergue: ONO
1. HSA 7892 (^20,1.37 [broken & repaired]). Plate I, 9
(e) . LIVVICI|LDV2D 2|RCX|INCLTV
In exergue: ONO
1. Mahudel, pi. 11, no. 5* = Velazquez, no. 15.
(f) . LIVVICI|LDV2V 2|t*|XNCLITV
In exergue: ON O
1. Mahudel, pi. 11, no. 4* = Velazquez, no. 16.
(g). fclVVICIfcDVSI1
(h).
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 2 (1.24).
XlVVICfclXPVwl
1. HSA 16002 19, 1.31).
(i). XIVViq*IXPVco
1. HSA 16003 (| 22, 1.32).
2. VQRno. 5015.
(j). XIVVIC*IXDVI
1. HSA 16781 K19, 1.30).
(k). XIVVI*CILDVS2
1. Madrid, no. 70* (1.04).
(l). XIVVIC*ILDVSO
1. Madrid, no. 71* (1.29).
(m). * IV VIGILD VS (illegible in plate) I|REX|INCLIT(?)
In exergue: OHO
1. Madrid, no. 72* (1.34).
oo|REX|INC*ITV
In exergue: ON O
l|REX|INCXV
In exergue: OHO
Plate I, 10
I|REXI|INCXITV
In exergue: OHO
Plate I,11
l|REX|INCXV
In exergue: OHO
Plate I, 12
I|REX|INCLIT
In exergue: OHO
l|REX|INCXV
In exergue: OHO
1 Two specimens in the Inst, de Valencia de Don Juan (nos. 7* and 8*)
bear legends apparently similar to the obverse here, but I cannot make out
the reverse legends on the plate.
* The transcriptions of the legends on this and other Madrid specimens
below are based on my reading of the plates, which are not very clear; they do
not always conform with the readings in Mateu's text, which is, among other
things, limited in accuracy by the lack of adequate type fonts.
12
180 LEOVIGILD
(n). XIVVI*CIXDV ?|REX|INCXV
In exergue: OHO
1. VQR no. 5017*.
(o). XIVVIC*IXDV</> REX|INCXV
In exergue: OHO
1. VQR no. 5016 = Piot, p. 268 (pi. VE.l)* = Meynaerts,
no. 5 = Heiss, no. 4* = Robert, no. 4* (1.29).
(p). XIVVICIXDV REX|INCXVS
In exergue: OHO
1. Velazquez.no. 14 (Juan Antonio de las Infantas, Toledo).
(q). LIVVIGILDVS REX|INCLI
In exergue: OHO
1. Museu de Belem, Lisbon (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa V,
p. 70).
(r). * IVVI*CIXPVoo REXIINCXITVS
In exergue: OHO
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 1 = Reinhart, 1937, pi. XXXVII, 19*
(Shore) = idem, Germanen-Erbe, p. 72, no. 8* = Rein-
hart, pi. 11, no. 14* = idem, 1941, pi. 33, nos. 3-4*
(exceptionally large flan: 23,1.12). Plate I, 13
(8). LDVooR*LIVVICI 2|RCQN|INCLITV
In exergue: ON O
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 1* = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 3* =
Lenormant, p. 328 (pi. XII, no. 9)* = Heiss, no. 3* =
Robert, no. 5* (1.29).
2. Reinhart, pi. 11, no. 15* (provenance).
(t). LDV2R|LIVVIQI 2|RCX|INCLTV
In exergue: ONO
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 2* = Heiss, no. 4a= Robert, no.
3* (1.28).
(u). DV2RX|LIVVIQL 2|REX|INCLITV
In exergue: ON O
1. Ratto, no. 2433*.
(v). * IVVIOH*VII*DV RE*|HCHIV
In exergue: OHO
1. Zorita de los Canes, no. 88* (1.34). Plate I, 14
(w). * IVVI*I*PVSI RE*|INC*V
In exergue: OHO
1. Zorita de los Canes, no. 89* (1.36).
WITHOUT MINT-NAME
181
In addition to the specimens categorized under types A-H, above
there are a few published coins which may possibly carry the name of
Lieovigild but which are anomalous and equivocal in the form of their
legends and in style. These include:
(a) Zorita de los Canes, nos. 86*-87*, perhaps related to type G,
obverse and reverse legends consisting of a series of I's and Vs.
(b) Carles-Tolra,no. 1000*, with DVVCILDV... and VIVRIVV31V
(as transcribed, not legible in plate).
(c) Jusue, p. 483*, obverse type obscure, cross on breast: CLIVVI-
GILDIR EG IS (as transcribed, reproduction not legible); reverse legend?
(d) Glendining, July 1, 1936, no. 259, not illustrated.
n. WITH MINT-NAME
NARBONENSIS
Narbona.
Type, A
9. Facing bust, crowned. Type 3 a. Facing bust, crowned. Type
3 c.
* LIVVI6ILDVSREXPIV *-NARB0NA6AL-E-R-
1. HSA 16005 = Heiss, no. 21* (Ponton d'Amecourt) =
Robert, no. 10* = Belfort, no. 3139* ( \ 20,1.47). Plate II, 1
Documentary evidence that the HSA specimen is that which was
owned by Ponton d'Amecourt is lacking,1 but to judge by the engrav-
ing in Heiss (not that in Robert, which is faulty) there can be little
doubt of the identity: on both obverse and reverse the striking is
weak in exactly the same places, and the centering appears to be
identical.
Type, B
10. Facing bust, crowned. Type 3 a. Facing bust. Type 3 b.
Legend as No. 9. N ARt> ON ACALER-A
1. VQR no. 5027 = Meynaerts, 1850, p. 1* = Meynaerts,
no. 6 = Heiss, no. 20* = Campaner, 1866, no. 11 =
Robert, no. 9* = Belfort, no. 3140* = Blanchet, p. 188
(1.43).
There are minor differences in the several engravings of this coin,
but it is apparent that Vidal Quadras y Ramon acquired Meynaerts'
piece and that only one specimen is known.
Type C
11(a). Facing bust. Type 5 c. As obverse.
*DNLEOVI6ILDVSREX * NARBONAnoPI VS
1. HSA 15989 (\ 16, 1.50). Plate II, 2
1 I have not been able to find the specimen listed in any of the Ponton
d'Amecourt catalogues.
NARBONENSIS
183
For the defense of the authenticity of this piece, see the appendix
on forgeries, pp. 452-3.
(b). * DNLEOVICILDVSREX * NARDONAroPIVoo ~
1. Florez, p. 187* = Masdeu, p. 8 = Beltran, p. 433, fig.13*.
The forgeries designed after the illustration of this type in Florez
are discussed on p. 453.
TypeD
12. Facing bust. Type 5 k. Facing bust. Type 5 b. * at
* at left. right.
* LEOVICILDVSRE* * NARBONAPIVS
1. VQR no. 5026 = Piot, p. 268* = Meynaerts, no. 7 = .
Boudard, p. 344 = Campaner, 1866, no. 10 = Heiss, no.
18* = Robert, no. 7* = Belfort, no. 3141* (1.44). Plate II, 3
TARRACONENSIS
A. Barcinona.
Type A
13. Bust, right. Type 1 c. Cross on 4 steps.
XIVVlCILDVS REXVARCINONA:-
(begins at 7 o'clock)
1. Gabinete Num. de Cataluna, no. 9869 (Mateu y Llopis,
Barcelona, no. 1 *) = (probably) Campaner, p. 205, note 3
(Coll. Luis Bolos, Olot) = Madrid, p. 273 = Mateu y
Llopis, Barcelona, no. 2 (1.27).1
Type B
14. Facing bust. Type 5 c, variant. As obverse.
*LEOVIOIJDVSREI * BARCINONVIVSTV2
1. Gabinete Num. de Cataluna, no. 9870 (Mateu y Llopis,
Barcelona, no. 3*) (1.48).
1 Mateu y Llopis lists the Bolos and Gabineto Num. de Cataluna specimens
separately, b ut I imagine they are the same piece.
184
LEOVIGILD
B. Cesaragusta.
Type A
15. Bust, right. Type 1 c. Cross on 4 steps. At r. and
LIVVICILDVS L: * (orpellet ?). Beneath:
m-
CE:ARACO:TA (begins at
7 o'clock)
1. Madrid, no. 93* = Florez, p. 186* (Gabriel) = Masdeu,
p. 325 = Lenormant, p. 328 = Heiss, no. 7* = Madrid,
p. 192* (1.29).
Type B
16(a). Facing bust. Type 4 a. Facing bust. Type 4 b.
* LIVV!CIU>VSRE CE:AR:CO:TAIV:TV:
(begins at 1 o'clock)
1. VQRno. 5018 = Heiss, no. 8* = Traiti, fig. 118* (1.45).
(b). Facing bust. Type 4 d. As obverse.
* LE0VI6ILPVSREX CE:AR:CO:TAIV:T'
(begins at 1 o'clock)
1. VQR no. 5019 = Campaner, 1866, no. 8 = Heiss, no. 9*
= Madrid, p. 192* (1.46).
(C). As (b).
*LEOVI6ILDVSRE CE:AR:CO:TAIV-T:
1. Johns Hopkins (Schulman, 1921) (16,1.48).
(d) . Facing bust. Type 4 a, b, or d. As obverse.
* LIVVIGILDVSRE CE:AR:CO:TAlV:TV:
1. Campaner, 1866, no. 7 (ex Coll. Jaime de Puiguriguer)
(1.51).
(e) . As (b).
* LEOVI61LDVSRE CE:AR:C O:TAIV:T:
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 46151 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 4* (1.50). Plate H, 4
1 Published transcription inaccurate.
TARRACONENSIS
185
Type C
17. Facing bust. Type 4 d.
* TOLXOBGLDV</>
(begins at 1 o'clock)
1. HSA 16669 (ex Cervera) =
Fernandez-Guerra, p. 368
0.97).
As obverse.
BICEooARCAIV
(begins at 1 o'clock)
= Campaner, p. 206, note 2 =
= Beltran, pp. 412-413 (/16,
Plate II, 5
This unique coin has been much discussed (see the references above)
but never illustrated, and the legends have never been correctly
transcribed. Campaner and Fernandez-Guerra assigned the piece to
Cesarea; Beltran, I believe rightly, to Cesaragusta. After a long
period of doubt, during which I was inclined to consider the coin a
fabrication because of its strange legends, its anomalous epigraphy
and its extremely light weight, I have finally concluded that it is
genuine. There is no prototype or reasonable explanation for such a
fabrication. With Beltran, I cannot explain the legends in full; see the
discussion on p. 82.
At the time of Campaner's writing this piece belonged to Cervera;
its previous owner (1862) was Antonio Calvo Cassini.
18. Bust, right. Type 1 c
* LVVIQ|LDV</>R
(begins at 1 o'clock)
1. VQRno. 5029
= Madrid, p. 269* (1.27)
Type B
19(a). Facing bust. Type 51.
* LEOVICILDVSRE
1. HSA 16007 (| 16,1.45).
(b). * LEOVICILPV2RE
C. Rodas.
Type A
Cross on 3 steps.
In exergue: ON O
CVMDIIROPA
(begins at 12 o'clock)
Heiss, no. 24* = Campaner, 1873,p. 47*
Plate II, 6
As obverse.
* ROfAS NIVSTVS
Plate II, 7
* RO^ASMIVSTVS
1. Heiss, no. 25* (Stroganoff) = Bradley, p. 326* =
Madrid, p. 269*.
2. Berlin, no. 2 (provenance unknown).
186
LEOVIGILD
Type. A or B
20. Not described.
1. Gabinete Num. de Cataluna (Madrid, p. 270, note 273)
(1.51).
D. Tarracona.
21. Facing bust. Type? Facing bust. Type?
* LEOVIGILDVSRE * * TR-A-C-NAIVSTVS
1. Ferreira, no. 1 = Campaner, p. 208, note 2 = Heiss, 1891,
p. 100 = Botet y SLs6,1, p. LXXXI = Mateu y Llopis,
Tarragona, p. 82, no. 1 (1.48).
E. Tirasona.
22. Bust, right. Type 1 c. Cross on 4 steps. X at r. and
LIVVIC'LPVS 1. Faint circle enclosing cross
and all but bottom step. In
exergue: fn'.
TIRA-S-H-
1. HSA 16670 (j 20, 1.21). Plate II. 8
Beneath the legends of both obverse and reverse are traces of faint
relief which may possibly indicate a previous striking of the flan; but
these traces are illegible and it is equally possible that the relief is
simply that which frequently is to be observed between the letters of
the legends on Visigothic coins caused by the hard striking of thin
flans. The faint circle on the reverse (which appears on some other
coins of Leovigild, e. g., at Toleto) is perhaps the die-engraver's
centering device. In spite of the peculiarities of the coin and the fact
that Tirasona as a mint under Leovigild is hitherto unrecorded, there
can be no doubt whatever of the authenticity of the piece. The exist-
ence of the mint under Leovigild's son Reccared is well documented.
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Reccopolis.
Type A
23(a). Bust, right. Type 1 c. Cross on 4 steps.
UVVICILDVSREX In exergue: CON OB
RECCOPOLIT
1. HSA 16006 (ex Cervera) ( j 19,1.25). Plate II, 9
CARTHAGINENSIS
187
(b). LIVVICILDVSRE+ In exergue: * ONO *
RECCCUPOUTA
1. Copenhagen, no. 1 = Heiss, no. 22* = Thomson, no.
1087* = Reinhart, pi. 11, no. 20* (23,1.34).
Type B
24. Facing bust. Type 5 a. As obverse.
*LEVVIQILbVSREX * RECCOPOLIFECIT
1. VQR no. 5028 = Heiss, no. 23* (Campaner) = Cam-
paner, 1873, p. 50* (1.46).
Type C
25. Facing bust, crowned. Type 3f. Facing bust, crowned. Type
3g.
LIVVICIILDVSRE RECCOXPOLIFECIT
(begins at 7 o'clock) (begins at 1 o'clock)
1. Ram6n y Fernandez, p. 88* (found at El Alijar, district
of Robledillo de Trujillo, Caceres, property of G6mez-
Moreno) = Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, no. 298 =
Beltran, p. 439 = Cabre y Aguil6, p. 352 = Mateu y
Llopis, Hallazgoa VI, pi. I, no. 21* (18 mm.).
While there are differences in the drapery of the busts, the types
resemble that on the obverse of a coin of Emerita,1 as bothMateuand
Pio Beltran have pointed out. In consideration of its provenance and
of his examination of a cast provided by Gomez-Moreno, Mateu has
no doubts with regard to the authenticity of this coin, and its appear-
ance as shown in Ramon y Fernandez' plate offers no grounds for
suspicion.
B. Saldania.
26. Facing bust. Type 5l. As obverse.
LIVVECELVV2RE+ SALVAHIAIVSTV2H
(begins at 7 o'clock) (begins at 6 o'clock)
1. HSA 16001 (ex Corvera) = Campaner, pp. 208, 566 =
Fernandez-Guerra, I, p. 321 (information of Pujol y
Camps) ( j- 17,1.35). Plate II, 10
1 See No. 40, below. For forgeries of the Emerita coin, see p. 455.
188
LEOVIGILD
C. Toleto.
Type A
27. Bust, right. Type 1 c. Victory, right. In exergue:
*IVVIC*IXPVSI COHO
TOLEITOREX
(begins at 8 o'clock)
1. Florez, p. 175* = Masdeu, p. 6 = Heiss, no. 26* =
Madrid, pp. 192*, 289* (23 mm.).
Type B
28(a). Bust, right. Type 1 c. Cross on 4 steps. Very faint
PMLIVVICILPVS circle surrounding cross and
upper 2 steps. In exergue:
COMOB
TOLETRE+
(begins at 8 o'clock)
1. HSA 15993 ( | 18,1.30).
2. HSA 15994 ( f 18,1.31).
3. HSA 16000 ( f 17.1.25).1 Plate H, 11
4. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4618 = Campaner, 1866, no. 6!
= Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo, no. 2* (1.33).
5. Berlin, no. 12 (provenance unknown).
6. Schulman, Oct. 1927, no. 818* = Rackus, fig. 24*.
(b) . PMLIVVICILPVS TOLETOREX
In exergue: COMOB
1. Heiss, no. 27* (Noguez) = Madrid, p. 289*.
2. Reinhart, pi. 11, no. 19* (location ?).3
3. Schrotter, pi. 8, no. 125*.
4. Schulman, Jan. 1929, no. 446.
(c) . PHLIVVICIH(?)pVS TOLETORE+
In exergue: COMOB
1. Madrid, no. Ill* (1.32).
1 One of the three HSA specimens is from the Cervera collection.
* Delgado, whom Campaner copied, was mistaken in transcribing TOLETO
PIVS. Beltran {Reetificacionea, p. 408), who left the question open, not having
seen the specimen, now in Stockholm, rightly remarks that it is difficult to
understand how Delgado could have read PIVS for RE +. The legend is per-
fectly clear.
3 Dr. Reinhart writes me that he cannot recall the provenance of thispiece.
CARTHAGINENSIS
189
(d). DNLIVVIGILDVS TOLETOREGE1
In exergue: COMO
1. Campaner, 1866, no. 5 (Biblioteca Nacional) = Heiss,
no. 27a (Cabinet de Madrid) (1.33).
Type C
29(a). Facing bust. Type 5 a.2 As obverse.
* LEOVIJILt>VSRE+ * TOLETOIVSTV</>
1. HSA 15992 ( X 16,1.43).
2. HSA 15996 (| 16,1.51). Plate II, 12
3. HSA 15997 (I 17,1.49).
4. HSA 15998 (| 17,1.50).
5. BM no. 3A (acquired 1864) = Heiss, no. 28* (X 17,1.58).
6. Madrid, no. 112* (1.40).
7. Madrid, no. 115* (same dies as no. 6; 1.50).
8. Madrid, no. 113* (1.55).
9. Madrid, no. 114* = Catalogo-Guia, pi. X,2 (1.52).
10. Copenhagen, no. 2 = Thomson, no. 1088 (1.49).
11. Stockholm=Lorichs, no. 4617 = Mateu y Llopis, Esto-
colmo, no. 3* (1.51).
12. Cabinet des Medailles.
13. Grierson Coll. ( X 1.51).
14. Reinhart Coll., no. 3 = Reinhart, 1937, pi. XXXVII, 21 *
= Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 3* (1.49).
15. VQR no. 5031.
16. Florez, p. 176*.
17. Lenormant, pi. XII, 11*.
18. Hess, June 1922, no. 109* (Berlin, no. 3) = Rackus,
fig. 25*.
19. Bourgey, no. 303* = Hess, loc.cit., no. 110* (Berlin, no. 1).
20. Schulman, Jan. 1931, no. 652*.
21. Glendining, May 1936, no. 287*.
22. Wayte Raymond, July 1939, no. 33*.
23. Marques de LI., no. 1496* (1.56).
24. Inst, de Valencia, no. 10*.
(b). * LEOVI6ILbVSRE+ * TOLETOIVSTVco
1. HSA 15991 ( X 16,1.55). Plate H, 13
1 Could this be a misreading of one of the types above ? It does not appear in
Mateu y Llopis' catalogue. One the other hand, the two authorities, Campaner
and Heiss, are excellent.
1 This bust varies considerably; on all the specimens, however, the breast
decoration consists of four, rather than three, vertical lines, and the neck of the
obverse is usually more rounded than that of the reverse. There is also some
difference in the rendering of the hair on obverse and reverse.
190
LEOVIGILD
(c) . * LEOVI6ILP////SRE+ * TOLETOIVSTVS
1. HSA 15995 (Pierced at 7 o'clock on obverse, | 17.1.47)1.
Plate EE, 14
(d) . LE0VI6ILIVSREX TOLETOIVSTVw
1. VQRno. 5030.
(e) . Similar to (a)-(d), but forms of letters uncertain.
1. Augustin, p. 294 = Masdeu, p. 7.
2. Velazquez, no. 13 (Academia).
3. O'Crouley, p. 523.
4. Lisbon, no. 9 = Ennes, p. 105, no. 7 (1.43).
BAETICA
A. Cordoba.
30(a). Facing bust. Type 9 a. Facing bust. Type 9 a (vari-
ant).
* LEOVI6ILt>V2RE:X CRt>0BABISl>TIHVIT
1. VQR no. 5020 = Heiss, no. 10* = Mateu y Llopis,
Cordoba, pi. I, 1* (1.52).
(b) . Facing bust. Type 9 b. As obverse.
* LEOVI6ILDVSREX C0RPBABISPTINVIT
1. Velazquez, no. 12* (Pedro Villaceballos, C6rdoba).
2. Florez, p. 181* (Gabriel) = Masdeu, p. 8.1
3. Dias, no. 1.
(c) . Facing bust. Type? Facing bust. Type?
* LEOVIGILDVSRE+ *CORDOBABISOPTINVIT
1.-2. Ferreira, nos. 2-3 (1.03, 1.40).
Mateu y Llopis states3 that specimens of this issue of Leovigild at
Cordoba are not rare, there being specimens "en otras muchas colec-
ciones publicas o privadas," but I know of the above six specimens
only, and of these several perhaps are relistings of pieces in collections
that have changed hands. Mateu lists the VQR specimen as separate
1 One of the 6 HSA specimens of type C is from the Cervera collection.
2 Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, p. 51, names this as a forgery, but I am inclined to
believe that it represents a genuine specimen. There is little doubt that Florez'
illustration served as the original for the common forgery (see p. 454, No. 11(b)).
But what became of the Gabriel specimen? It is not included in the Madrid
catalogue, either as a genuine piece or as a forgery.
3 Cordoba, p. 51.
BAETICA
101
from that illustrated in Heiss, but they are the identical piece. The
existence of many forgeries of this issue (see p. 454) may have misled
him, although he was aware of certain forgeries himself. It would be
interesting to know where the other genuine pieces referred to by him
are located.
B. Ispali.
Type A
31(a). Bust, right. Type 1 c.
RE+LIVVIQILDVS
(begins at 7 o'clock)
l.HSA 16004 (/18,1.24).
(b). REXLIVVICILDVS
(begins at 7 o'clock)
Cross on 4 steps.
CVMDOOPtNVITSPALI
(begins at 7 o'clock)
Plate II, 15
CVMDCOPTINIT2PI
(begins at 6 o'clock)
1. HSA 15988 (ex Cervera) = Campaner, p. 208, note 4
(then Coll. Sanchez, Seville) = Beltran, p. 413 ( | 17,
1.30). Plate II, 16
It is to be noted that while Beltran corrected Campaner's reading
of this coin, he was not in possession of an adequate reproduction of
the specimen, with the result that his reading (CVMDOOPTIN VITSPI)
is not exactly correct.
Type B
32. Bust, right. Type 1 c. Cross on 4 steps.
PIVSLIVVICIL>VS CVMDESPALIADGVISITA
(begins at 7 o'clock) (begins at 10 o'clock)
1. Reinhart, pi. 11.no. 18* (MuseuMunicipal,Lisbon t). Plate II, 17
Although I believe this coin to be genuine, one must admit the
possibility of its being a forgery. The legend with the word ADQUIS-
ITA may perhaps reveal the attempt of a forger to create a type
recording the first capture of Ispali in the year 572; but obviously a
coin of the above type could not have been struck in this year (see
the discussion of the evolution of Leovigild's types, p. 44). There is
some confusion about the location of the piece: Reinhart records it
as being in the Cabinet des Medailles in Paris, but I did not see it
when I examined the Visigothic coins there in May, 1951; Pio Beltran,
who in a personal communication expresses the view that the coin is a
forgery, assigns it to the Municipal Museum in Lisbon.
192
LEOVIGILD
Type C
33(a). Facing bust. Type 5 a. Facing bust. Type 5 h.
* LEOVICILDVSRE *CVMDOPTINITSPL
1. HSA 8114 (/17.1.50). Plate II, 18
(b) . Facing bust. Type 5 h. Facing bust. Type 5 a.
*LEOVICILDVSREX * CVMDOPTINITSPLI
1. BM no. 1A (acquired 1863) = Heiss, no. 16* (| 17.1.08).1
Plate II, 19
2. Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 2* (Staatl. Munzsamml., Munchen).
(c) . Facing bust. Type 5 k. Facing bust. Type 5 a.
* LEOVI6ILPVSRE * CVMDOPTINITSPI
1. Madrid, no. 204* = Florez, p. 179* (Gabriel) = Velaz-
quez, no. 11* (Leyrens) = Masdeu, p. 9 = Heiss, no. 16a
(1.49).
2. Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1181.
(d) . Facing bust. Type 5 m. As obverse.
* LEOVICILbVSRE *CVMDOPTNVTSPI
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 4 = Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 1* (1.41).
(e) . Facing bust. Tvpe 5 l. As obverse.
* LOVI6ILDV2REX C\A1DEOTN>T2PAK
1. HSA 16668 (ex Cervera ?) ( \ 16,1.55). Plate II, 20
(f) . Inadequately described.
1. Cumano, no. 1504.
C. Italica.
34. Bust, right. Type 1 c. Cross on 4 steps.
PIV2LlVVICILDV2R CVMDEOETALICA
(begins at 7 o'clock) (begins at 6 o'clock)
1. HSA 16751 ( f 20,1.21). Plate IH, 1
D. Tucci.
35. No description.
1. Campaner, 1866, p .116 = Heiss, no. 28a = Campaner,
p. 208, note 3.
1 Heiss gives the weight as 1.62, but the BM reports 1.08.
LUSITANIA
193
Tucci is not listed by Reinhart as a mint for Leovigild, probably
because of the inadequacy of Campaner's documentation. However,
in view of Campaner's reliability and of the fact that he took the pains
to list the issue and explain that he had unfortunately lost the source,
I am inclined to accept it as authentic in spite of the fact that we know
of no other issues at Tucci until Sisebut.
LUSITANIA
A. Elvora.
Type A
36(a). Bust, right. Type 1 c. Cross on 4 steps.
In exergue: ONO
bNLIVVICILpVS ELVOR*ARE*
(begins at 7 o'clock) (begins at 7 o'clock)
1. HSA 15982 ( \ 17,1.09). Plate III, 2
2. HSA 15987 ( f 16,1.39). Plate in, 3
3. Grierson Coll. (ex Reinhart Coll., no. 6) = Reinhart, pi.
11, no. 17* = Reinhart, 1941, pi. 33, nos. 7-8* (1.20).
(b) . DNLIVVIQILDV Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 15986 (ex Cervera) (\ 16,1.19). Plate III, 4
(c) . DNLIVVICILDVS ELVORARE+
1. Moraleda y Esteban, p. 531* (found in excavations at
Talavera de la Reina).
Type B
37(a). Facing bust. Type 5 a. As obverse.
* LE'VICILJ>VSRE+1 * TOSELVORAIVS
1. HSA 15984 (| 16,1.50). Plate IH, 5
2. HSA 16008 ( j 17,1.49). Plate HI, 6
3. HSA 16010 K 16,1.50).'
4. Madrid, no. 298* = Augustin, p. 329 = Florez, p. 184*
= Masdeu, p. 330 = Heiss, no. 12 (Cabinet de Madrid)3
= Garcia de la Torre, no. 5727 (1.51).
1 Sometimes 6 in place of C.
1 One of these three specimens was in the Cervera collection.
3 Heiss cites two specimens under no. 12, with RE in place of RE+, but it is
to be assumed that the specimen in the "Cabinet de Madrid" is Mateu's no. 298,
and that the difference in the legend was inadvertently not noted.
13 VUigoth
194
LEOVIGILD
5. Johns Hopkins (Schulman, 1921) (17,1.53).
6. VQRno. 5022.
7. Severim, p. 149.
8. Cantos Benitez, p. 10.1
9. Velazquez, no. 10 (Academia).
10. Merino, pi. 16, no. 1*.
11. Schulman, Cat. no. 76 (fixed price), Oct. 1921, no. 2766*
(1.53).
12. Maison Florange, 1952 (1.55, same dies as no. 3).*
(b) . * LEOVIJILWSRE Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 15983 (| 17,1.44). Plate HI, 7
2. HSA 16009 (| 16,1.50).
3. Academia de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi.
I, 3*) = Velazquez, no. 9 = Heiss, no. 12*.
4. VQR no. 5021 = Piot, 1850, no. 5* = Meynaerts, no. 8.
(c) . Obverse not described. * TOSELVORIVS
1. Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1180.
B. Emerita.
Type A
38(a). Bust, right. Type 1 c. Cross on 3 steps.
DNLIVVICILDVSREX EMERITAVICTORIA
(begins at 7 o'clock) (begins at 11:30 o'clock)
1. Soares, no. 1.730, p. 128* (1.31).
(b) . Obverse as (a). Cross on 4 steps.
DNLIVVICILDV2RE+ Legend as (a) (begins at 12
(begins at 7 o'clock) o'clock)
1. HSA 16498 (ex Cervera) (| 19,1.22). Plate in, 8
2. Teixeira, no. 333.3
(c) . DNLIVVICILDV2RGX Reverse as (b).
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 5 = Reinhart, 1937, pi. XXXVH,
20* (1.29).
(d) . DNLIVVICILDV2REX Cross on 3 steps. Legend as
above.
1 Wrongly attributed to Toleto.
2 Not included in mint and weight statistics.
3 S not retrograde in the transcription, but the actual forms of letters are not
represented in this catalogue.
LUSITANIA
195
1. BM no. 2A (acquired 1849) = Heiss, no. 13* = Madrid,
p. 346* - Elias Garcia, Luaitdnia, no. 5 ( j 19,1.06). Plate III, 9
2. Ferreira, no. 4 (1.27).1
(e) . DNLIVVICILpVSRE Cross on 3 steps. Legend as
above.
1. VQR no. 5023 = Campaner, 1866, no. 4.
(f) . DNLIVVICILDVSRE2 Cross on 3 steps.
EMERIAVICTORIA
1. Academia de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa IV, pi.
I, no. 1*) = Heiss, no. 13 (1.50).
2. Elias Garcia, Luaitdnia, no. 3 (Casa Almeida, Lisbon).
3. Ibid., no. 3 (Coll. Ant6nio Marrocos, Idanha-a-Velha).
(g) . DN LIVVIC* ILD VS R E Cross (potent, pointille) on 3
steps. Legend as (f) (begins
at 10 o'clock).
1. VQR no. 5024* = (probably) Moline, p. 267* (Juan
Praty Sancho) (1.30).
(h) . DNLIVVICILDVSRE EMERTITAVICTORIA
(number of steps not indic-
ated)
1. Mateu y Llopis, HaUazgos V, p. 71 (Coll. Nieport, Oporto).
(i) . Types similar to above, but obverse legend not transcribed
and number of steps not specified. VICTOREMER1TA.
1. Heiss, no. 13 (A.C.H.).3
Type B
39. Facing bust. Type 3 d. Facing bust. Type 6 d.
*DNLEOVI6ILDV2RE * PIV2EMERITAVICTOR
1. Heiss, no. 14* (A.C.H.)4 = Madrid, p. 346* (1.50).
2. Ferreira, no. 5 (1.34).
3. Stack's 1942, no. 10209B (1.60).
4. Inst, de Valencia, no. 11* (obv.bust variant; rev. bust more like 5 k).
i RE+ .
Mateu transcribes RX, but the plate appears to show RE.
3 The initials "A.C.H." are not listed in Heiss' key to abbreviations. One
might suppose that "Ac.H." (Heiss' abbreviation for "Academia de la His-
toria") is intended, but there is no equivalent to the present piece in Mateu's
inventory; nor to Heiss, no. 14, which is also designated "A.C.H." (see No.
39, below).
* See footnote 3, above.
196
LEOVIGILD
Type C
40(a). Facing bust, crowned. Type 3e. Facing bust. Type 5 l.
* DNLEOVI6ILDV2RE * PIV2EMERITAVICTOR
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. I,2*)
= Beltran, p. 439.
(b) . * DNLE0VI6ILDVSREX Reverse as (a).
1. Florez, p. 182* = Masdeu, p. 7 = Heiss, no. 15* =
Madrid, pp. 215*, 349* = Antonio Beltran, pi. XCVI, fig.
F* = Beltran, p. 439, fig. 17*.
There has been considerable discussion of the authenticity of both
(a) and (b). There is no doubt whatever that (b), via the drawing in
Heiss, served as the model upon which numerous modern forgeries
were designed (see p. 455), and some1 have condemned (b) itself as a
forgery. I am, however, inclined to agree with Pio Beltran2 that the
specimen illustrated by Florez and copied by Heiss is genuine, this
position being supported by an analogous issue of Reccopolis.3 As for
(a), Mateu4 is undecided, there being no certainty that the coin was
found in the hoard of Garrovillas; and Beltran considered it somewhat
suspect. Having judged (b) to be authentic, I see no intrinsic reason
to suspect (a); but the ultimate decision must rest upon critical exam-
ination of the coin itself. The argument for the authenticity of the
type is strengthened if the next specimen (c), the most recent to come
to light, is genuine.
(c) . Facing bust, crowned. Reverse as (a).
*DNLEOVIGILDVSREX
1. Molder, May 1950, no. 407* (rev. only illustrated).
The reverse of this specimen is certainly not that of the well-known
forger; whether the piece is genuine or not cannot be determined from
the very inferior reproduction of the reverse.
Type D
41(a). Facing bust. Type 8 a. Facing bust. Type 5 l.
*DNLEOVI6ILDV2RE * PIV2EMERITAVICTOR
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4616 = Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo, no. 5* (1.48). Plate HI, 10
1 Reinhart, Arte, p. 57.
'Beltran, p. 439.
3 See No. 25, above.
4 Hallazgos IV, pp. 245-246.
GALLAECIA
197
(b). Obverse as (a). Facing bust. Type 6 a, vari-
ation. Legend as (a).
1. Freeman Collection. Plate TTT, \\
This specimen must be accepted with some reserve; the piece itself
should be reexamined with an eye to doubtful traits of fabric and
"feel." At first I was inclined to reject the coin on account of the bust
types, but subsequent examination of the Stockholm piece, (a), re-
moves my objections on this score, at least with respect to the ob-
verse.
GALLAECIA
A. Bracara.
42. Bust, right. Type 1 c. Bust, right. Type 1 c.
*LEOVIGILDVSREX BRACARAVICTOR
1. Estaco, p. 241 = Florez, p. 185 = Masdeu, p. 324 -
Heiss, no. 6a = Campaner, p. 205.
The authenticity of this piece, or the accuracy of its description, was
questioned by both Heiss and Campaner. Pio Beltran1 leaves the
question open, perhaps mclining toward accepting the coin as genu-
ine, in view of the existence of a triens of Portocale with an analogous
legend (No. 45, below). I see no intrinsic reason for suspecting the coin,
although the description of both obverse and reverse busts is almost
certainly wrong. The chronology (A. D. 585) calls for facing busts. But
to be certain, one should examine the coin, and it has disappeared.
B. Cepis.
43. Type unknown. Type unknown.
* LEOVIGILIVSRE *CEPISIVSTVS
1. A Madrid collector (communicated by W. Reinhart,
Nov., 1951).
C. Lebea.
44. Facing bust. Type 5 m. As obverse.
* LEOVICILPV2RE' * LE&EVIASTAS
1. VQR no. 5025 = Campaner, 1866, no. 9 = Heiss, no. 17* = Campaner, p. 207, note 1 (1.36). Pirate III, 12
1 Beltran, p. 407.
198
LEOVIGILD
D. Portocalc.
45. Facing bust. Type 5 aa. Facing bust. Type 5 L
* LEOVICILDS3E * PORTOCALEVICTI
1. Heiss, no. 21a* (Joaquim dos Santos) = Campaner,
p. 207, note 2 = Elias Garcia, Portocale, p. 5.
As Elias Garcia remarks, this coin does not appear in the Schulman
sales catalogue of the Dos Santos collection (June, 1906); in like
manner others from this collection appear to have been disposed of
before Schulman's sale. Pio Beltran believes the specimen to be authen-
tic.1
1 Beltran, p. 407.
HERMENEGILD
A.D. 579-584
WITHOUT MINT-NAME (Seville).
Type A
46(a). Bust, right. Type 1 c. Victory, right. In exergue:
ONO
ERMENIEQILDI INCLIT{I|RCq
(begins at 1 o'clock) (begins at 1 o'clock)
1. HSA 16013(117,1.42). Plate HI, 13
(b) . ERMENI-EQLD-' INCLIT|R|cqi
1. Bibliotheque Nationale = Heiss, no. 2* (Cabinet de
France) = Robert, no. 11* = Bradley, p. 323* =
Madrid, p. 222* = Reinhart, pi. 11, no. 21* = Raekus,
fig. 26* (1.37).
(c) . ERMEN|iqiLDI.- INCLIT|IREC
1. VQR no. 5032 = Heiss, no. 1* = Robert, no. 12* (1.32).
Type B
47(a). Bust, right. Type 1 c. Victory, right. In exergue:
ONO
ERMENIEQILDI REC,IADE|0|VITA
(begins at 1 o'clock) (begins at 1 o'clock)
1. Madrid, no. 73* (p. 228) = Espana Sagrada, vol. 24, p.
3341 = Florez, p. 190* (Gabriel) - Masdeu, p. 10 =
Lenonnant, p. 329 = Fernandez-Guerra, pi. I* (1.35).
(b). -ERMENIEQILDI- Beverse as (a), but in exer-
gue: OMO
1. BM no. 4A (acquired 1863) = Heiss, no. 3* = Robert,
no. 13* = Keary, pi. HT, no. 15* = Madrid, p. 222*
(119,1.26). Plate HI, 14
1 Florez wrote: "yo la tengo en mi coleccion.'1
200
HERMENEGILD
(c) . Obverse as (a). In exergue: OHO
REQIAbE|0|VITA
1. Johns Hopkins (20,1.28). Plate IT1, 15
This piece is a little suspicious.
(d) . A specimen probably similar to (a), (b) and (c), presented by
Philip II of Spain to the Escorial in 1580, but evidently no
longer preserved there.
1. Morales, Bk. 11, fol. 76r = (?) Augustin, p. 295 =
Mariana, I, p. 312 = de Yepes, I, fol. 353v-354r =
Velazquez, no. 18 = Cantos Benitez, p. 8 = Escorial,
p. 273.
Augustin and Velazquez read "REGNMBONOOVITA," but even
the former was in some doubt and said, "muy mal se leen." Morales
read "REGEMDEVITA."1 Both are quite patently misreadings of the
legend occurring on the Madrid, British Museum and Johns Hopkins
specimens. There is no proof that the piece described by Augustin,
Morales, Mariana, etc. is the one which was given to the "Monasterio
de El Escorial," and which according to the entry in the contempo-
rary inventory read "REGIMINEVICTA," but in view of Augustin's
close connection with the Escorial, I believe we may safely assume
this to be the case.2
Reinhart quite rightly draws attention to the fact that authentic
specimens of Hermenegild's coinage are excessively rare, much rarer
than commonly believed;3 in 1940 he knew of only three. As set forth
above I recognize seven (or perhaps six), of which one has dis-
appeared. Another specimen, not included above, is listed in the
catalogue of the Royal Mint, London (no. 4784); but not having seen
the coin or a reproduction of it I cannot tell whether it is genuine or
one of the forgeries, of which several different varieties exist (see
p. 457). The same remark applies to a specimen recently men-
tioned by Mateu y Llopis (Hallazgos VI, no. 408), the property of
Jaime Butina of Bariolas.
1 Cf. Mariana, "Hombre Luye al rey."
2 On the relationship of Augustin to the Escorial and the transfer of his
collection to that library, see Escorial, pp. 20, 274-275, 282-283, and Mateu y
Llopis' InverUari numismatic.
3 Reinhart, p. 85.
RECCARED
A.D. 586-601
NARBONENSIS
A. Narbona.
Type A
48(a). Facing bust. Type 5l. As obverse.
*RECCAREDVSREX * NARBONAFELIX
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. I,
16*).
(b) . * RECCAREDVSRE Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16043 (ex Cervera) ( | 16,1.50). Plate IV, 1
2. Heiss, no. 22* (Acad, de la Hist.)1 = Robert, no. 15*
(1.50).
3. Musee de Narbonne (Belfort, no. 3143*) (1.47).
4. Coll. d'Amecourt, formerly Dassy (Belfort, no. 3143)
(1.50).
(c) . Obverse? NARVONAFELIX
1. Cantos Benltez, p. 11.
Type B
49(a). Facing bust. Type 5 d. As obverse.
* RECCAREDVSRE * NARBONAPIVS
1. HSA 16044 (ex Cervera) (| 15,1.41). Plate IV, 2
(b). Obverse as (a). *HARBONAPIVS
1. Campaner, 1866, no. 5 (Acad, de la Hist.)1 = Heiss,
no. 22 = Robert, no. 16 = Belfort, no. 3144 (1.45).
2. Musee de Narbonne (Boudard, p. 344*) = Campaner,
1866, no. 5. = Amardel, Muse de Narbonne, no. 1 -
Belfort, no. 3144* (1.45).
1 Not in Mateu y Llopis' inventory of the Academia collection.
202
RECCARED
TARRACONENSIS
A. Barcinona.1
Type A2
50(a). Facing bust. Type 6 a.3 As obverse.
* RECCAREDVSREX * BARCINONAIVSTVS
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, no. 13).4
(b) . *RECCAREDVSRE+ * BARCINONAIVSTV
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 7 = Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, no. 12
(1.47).
(c) . *RECCAREDV2RE+ * BARCINONAIV2T
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, no. 15*)
= idem, Barcelona, no. 11.
2. Lonja del Almid6n, no. 692*.
3. Ferreira, no. 9 (1.40).
(d) . Obverse as (c).5 * BARCINONAIVX
1. Pi y Arim6n, p. 128, no. 3* (obvious inaccuracies in draw-
ing and transcription )= Botet y Sis6, Noticia, pi. I, 39*
(Coll. Ripoll) = Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, no. 9* =
1 The inventory of Reccared's issues at Barcelona is not simplified by
Mateu y Llopis' La Ceca Visigoda de Barcelona, in which there is a good deal of
confusion, inaccuracy and reduplication. For example, the two specimens cited
under his no. 1 are not the same; the citation for no. 6 is the same as the second
reference under no. 4; no. 16 is the same specimen as no. 4; no. 17 is the same as
no. 5; no. 9 is the same as no. 14; no. 18 is Heiss, no. 3a, not no. 3; retrograde
letters are not indicated in the transcriptions; the "diadem" is omitted from
no. 7; no. 15 has a "diadem," not a cross, etc., etc. In the circumstances it is
impossible to determine whether the unillustrated specimens in this monograph
are correctly described and transcribed, and in the listing below, while I have
done my best to straighten out the equivocations, I cannot guarantee the
accuracy of the description of pieces which I have not seen.
2 The types are essentially similar, differing fundamentally only in respect
of the , or # on the reverse.
3 There are many varieties of this bust, even with due allowance for in-
accuracies in the drawing of specimens in the older literature. For the sake of
simplification I have given all the busts a single type number.
4 I do not know why this specimen does not appear in Mateu's inventory of
the Academia collection in Hallazgos IV. Perhaps it is no longer there.
5 This specimen may well be one of the counterfeited copies of Florez
referred to by Beltran, p. 440. It is impossible to tell from the inaccurate draw-
ings. If the "29 grans" indicated by Botet y Sis6 are English grains, the piece
is certainly a forgery.
TARRACONENSIS
203
ibid., no. 14 (reduplicated reference, here given as
"Salat, Tratado, Vol. Ill," signifying Botet y Sis6's
Noticia).
(e). *RECCAREDVSRE * BARCINONAIVSTV
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 12* = Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, no. 10.
Type B
51(a). Facing bust. Type 6 a. As obverse.
* RECCAREDV2RE ^BARCINONAIVSTV
1. HSA 10620 (| 15,1.51). Plate IV, 3
(b) . Obverse as (a). ,~BARCIN0NAIV2T
1. Johns Hopkins (Schulman, 1922) (15,1.50).
(c) . Obverse as (a). ^ B ARC IN OH AIV2 T
1. Botet y Sis6, Noticia, pi. IV, 43* (drawings obviously
inaccurate) = Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, no. 15 (in-
accurately described).
2. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa III, no. XC* (found by and
in possession of Juan Serra Vilar6, Solsona).1
3. Florez, p. 208* (misprinted 280) = Masdeu, p. 323.
(d) . Obverse as (a). ^BARCINONAIAooT
1. HSA 16067 (ex Cervera) (j 14,1.50). Plate IV, 4
(e) . Obverse as (a). ^BARCINOHAIVSTX
(or.)
1. Carles-Tolra, no. 1001* (1.50).
(f) . * RECCVREDV2RE /tnBARCINOHAIV2T
1. VQR no. 5034 = Heiss, no. 2* = Carreras y Candi, p.
146* = Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, nos. 5 and 17
(16,1.49).
2. Heiss, 1891, p. 101 (Ferreira).
(g) . * rEQQAREDV2RE tnBARCINONAIV2T
1. Stuttgart, no. 1334. Plate IV, 6
1 Thia specimen is transcribed ... IVSTV, but in the illustration the V
appears not to be present.
204 RECCARED
TypeC
52(a). Facing bust. Type 6 a. As obverse.
*RECCAREDVSRE BARCINONAIAST
1. VQR no. 5033 = Heiss, no. 1* = Carreras y Candi,
p. 146* = Madrid, p. 273* Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona,
nos. 4* and 16 (16,1.52).
(b) . Obverse as (a). * BARCINONAIVST
1. Hoffmann, 1886, no. 25.
(c) . Obverse as (a). * BARCINONVIAST
1. Copenhagen, no. 3 = Thomsen, no. 1089 (15,1.49).
(d) . * RECCAREDVSAE BARCINONAIVSTV
1. HSA 16582 (ex Cervera) (/ 16,1.50). Plate IV, 6
TypeD
53(a). Facing bust. Type 6 a. As obverse.
* RECCAREDVSRE BARCINONAIVS
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 4* = (probably) Bouteroue, p.
179* = Heiss, no. 3* = Carreras y Candi, p. 146* =
Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, no. 6 (but not no. 4, although
designated Cabinet de France) (14,1.49).
(b) .iObverse as (a). BARCINOMAIVS
1. Salat, p. 267* = Pi y Arim6n, p. 127, no. 2* = Mateu y
Llopis, Barcelona, no. 8*.
(c) . *RECCAREDVCRE BARCINOIIAIVS
1. Mahudel, pi. 11, no. 9* = Velazquez, no. 35 = Gusseme,
VI, p. 24, no. 2.
Type A,B,CorD
54. Specimens presumably similar to above with incomplete
descriptions.
1. Cantos Benitez, p. 11.
2. Elias de Molins, Catdlogo, p. 309, no. 104.
3. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, no. 299 (property of X.
Calic6).
My reasons for rejecting Heiss' no. 3 (with BARCINONAPIVS)
are given in the appendix on forgeries, p. 458.
1 Very inferior drawings. Possibly a forgery. The weight is given as "30
granos."
TARRACONENSIS 205
B. Cesaragusta.
Type A
55(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* RECCAREDVSREX CE:AR:CO: TAIV: T:
1. HSA 16015 (\ 17,1.52). Plate IV, 7
(b) . Obverse as (a). CE:AR:C-0: TAIV:T"
1. Madrid, no. 94* (1.45).
(c) . *RECCAREDVSRE CE:AR:CO:TAIV:T-
1. HSA 16016 (| 16,1.48). Plate IV, 8
2. Florez, p. 208* (misprinted "280") = (probably)
EspaOa Sagrada, vol. 24, p. 333.
3. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 302* = Rackus, fig. 29
(wrongly attributed to Heiss) (1.50).
(d) . * RECCAEDVSRE CE:AR:CO:TAIV:TO
1. BM no. 7A (acquired 1860) (| 17,0.93).
(e) . *RECCAREdVSREX CE:AR:CO:TAIV:T
1. HSA 16018 (ex Cervera) (| 17,1.46). Plate IV, 9
(f) . *RECCAREdVSRE CE:AR:C-0: TAIVS+
1. Madrid, no. 95* (1.25).
(g) . Obverse as (f). CE:AR:O0:TAV: +
1. Johns Hopkins (Wayte Raymond, 1923) (19,1.47).
(h) . Obverse as (f). * CE:AR:CO: TA: +:
(begins at 1 o'clock)
1. BM no. 6A (DeSalis) = Heiss, no. 6* = Madrid, p. 277*
(\ 19,1.45). Plate IV, 10
(i) . Obverse as (f). * CE:AR:C-0: TAIV:+
1. VQR no. 5037 = Piot, no. 5* = Meynaerts, no. 14.
(j). Obverse as (f). XCE:AR:C: O:TAIV+
1. Velazquez, no. 50 = Gusseme, VI, p. 24, no. 4.
(k). Obverse as (c). * CE:AR:C O:TA: l:
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 15*.
206
RECCARED
Type B
56. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* RECCAREWSRE -/5VCE:AR:C-0:TAIV
1. HSA 16069 (ex Cervera) (| 19,1.45). Plate IV, 11
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 14*.
Type C
57(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* RECCAREdV2RE *CE:AR:O0:TAIV:T
1. VQR no. 5036 = Heiss, no. 5* (1.45).
(b). *RECCAREDV2R: #OE:T:VI:V:TV:
1. HSA 16017 (| 18,1.44). Plate IV, 12
Type D
58. Facing bust. Type 4 d. As obverse.
* RECCAREVVSRE CE:AR:O0:TAIVT:
1. Carles-Tolra, no. 1002* (1.50).
Type E
59. Facing bust. Type 4 d. As obverse.
*RECCAREDVSR C-E2TAVVIIVST:1
1. VQR no. 5038 = Campaner, 1866, no. 15* = Heiss, no.
42* = Madrid, p. 283*.
The above coin is discussed under forgeries, p. 45S. The specimen
in the Hispanic Society collection (No. 57(b), above) throws further
light on the question of the identification of "Cestavi" as Cesaragusta,
so competently elucidated by Beltran, pp. 409-411. See also Mateu y
Llopis, Ampurias 1941, p. 86. Quite apparently some of the con-
temporary die-engravers became careless in the rendering of the
abbreviated mint-name (which takes so many forms) to such an
extent perhaps that they ignored the significance of the letters. Both
HSA 16017 and VQR no. 5038 are examples. Beltran suggests that
the VQR specimen was inaccurately reproduced in Heiss, but I
imagine that the principal fault is that of the die-engraver himself, as
it is in the case of the HSA specimen.
1 The reproductions of the legends in Campaner and Heiss do not agree in
every particular.
TARRACONENSIS
Uncertain type
60. Inadequate descriptions.
1. Florez, p. 210 (San lldefonso).1
2. Cumano, no. 1506.
3. O'Crouley, p. 382.
4. Reinhart Coll., no. 13 (1.46).*
C. Dertosa.
Type A
61. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* RECCAREdVSRE DERTOSAIEECr:
1. VQR no. 5040 = Campaner, 1866, no. 2 = Heiss, no. 9*
- Madrid,?. 275* (1.43).
Type B
62(a). Facing bust. Type 4 d. As obverse.
*R-ECCA-R-EDA2RE ooPERT02AIV2-A
1. Florez, p. 210* (Ildefonso) = Masdeu, p. 329 = Heiss,
no. 8* = Botet y Sis6, Noticia, pi. V, no. 28* = Madrid,
p. 275*.
(b). Bust types?
* RECCAREDVSRE * DERTOSAIVSAS
1. Velazquez, no. 32 (Pedro de la Cueva, Granada) =
Gusseme, VI, p. 24, no. 6.
D. Rodas.
Type A
63(a). Facing bust. Type 6 a. As obverse.
RECCAREDV2REX ^RODA21V2TV2
1. Mabbott Coll., = Boudeau, 1913 (Berlin no. 16) =
Bourgey, no. 304* = Stack's 1942, no. 10209c (i 15,
1.48). Plate IV,
2. VQR no. 5056 = Boudard, p. 348 = Campaner, 1866, no.
6 = Heiss, no. 27* = Madrid, p. 270* = Mateu y Llopis,
Hispania Tarraconense, pi. II, 16* (1.50).
1 D of RECCAREDVS retrograde.
1 CE: AR:C.:TAIVT.
208 RECCARED
Type B
64. Facing bust. Type 6 a. As obverse.
* RECCAREAVSRE -SftROOASIVSTVS
1. VQR no. 5057 = Campaner, 1866, no. 7 = Heiss, no. 28*
= Madrid, p. 270* (1.51).
E. Tarracona.
Type A
65(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* RECCAREbV2RE* TERR:C*NAIV:T*<n>
1. HSA 16050 (ex Cervera) (| 18,1.42). Plate IV, 14
(b) . *RECCAREPV2RE[X?] TARA:CONAIV:T'
1. Heiss, no. 31* (Stroganoff) = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
no. 7*.
(c) . * RECCAREDVSREX TARR CONAIV
1. Velazquez, no. 33 (supposedly Mahudel, but not there ?)
= Gusseme, VI, p. 24, no. 16 = Mateu y Llopis, Tarra-
gona, no. 8.
(d) . *RECCAREbV2 R E TERR:CONAIV:TO
1. VQR no. 5060 = Piot, 1850, no. 6* = Meynaerts, no. 15
= Campaner, 1866. no. 12 = Heiss, no. 33* = Madrid,
p. 267*= Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 15* (1.46).
2. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa VI, no. 409 (found in Montpe6,
Cervera, L6rida province).
(e) . *RECCARE8V2RE IV:TOSTERR:CONA1
1. Augustin, p. 272 = Velazquez, no. 34 = Espana Sagrada,
vol. 24, p. 334 = Gusseme, VI, p. 24, no. 17.
Type B
66. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* RECCAREbV2RE * TARR:CNAIV-
1. HSA 16046 (I 17,1.45). Plate IV, 13
1 As given by Augustin; Velazquez has TOS:TERR:CONA . One cannot tell
where the legend actually begins.
TARRACONENSIS 209
Type C
67(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*RECCAREbV2RE* #TARR:CONAiV: T
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 46261 = Mateu y Llopia,
Eatocolmo, no. 11* (1.40). Plate IV, 16
(b). * RECCAREbVZRE #TARR:CONAIV:T
1. Madrid, no. 84* - Campaner, 1866, no. 9 = Mateu y
Llopis, Tarragona, no. 6* (1.47).
Type D
68(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* RECCAREbVSREX /?\TARR-COHAIV-
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 16* = Mahudel, pi. 11, no. 12* =
Florez, p. 207 = Masdeu, p. 343 = Heiss, no. 30* =
Traiti, fig. 119* = Madrid, pp. 259*. 267* = Mateu y
Llopis, Tarragona, no. 10* (1.47).
(b) . *RECCAREDVSREX /?\TARR:CONAIV:T
1. O'Crouley, p. 382.
(c) . *RECCAREbVSRE /ftTARR:CO:AIV:
1. HSA 16047 ( j 19,1.48). Plate IV, 17
2. Stuttgart, no. 1336.
(d) . * RECCAREbV2RE /ftTARRCONAIV-
1. VQR no. 5059* = Campaner, 1866, no. 11 = Mateu y
Llopis, Tarragona, no. 9 (1.44).
Type E
69(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* RECCAREWSRE+ * TARR:CONAPIV'+
1. Madrid, no. 85* = Campaner, 1866, no. 10 = Heiss, no.
34* = Madrid, p. 259* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
no. 2* (1.48).
(b). * RECCAREDVSRE * TARR-.CONAPI-
1. Gabinete Num. de Cataluna (Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
no. 3* (1.43).
1 Inaccurately described by Delgado.
14 Visigoth
210
RECCARED
(c) . Bust type? Bust type?
* RECCAREbVSRE ^TARR:CON:API
1. Ferreira, no. 8 = Heiss, 1891, p. 101 (1.50).
(d) . Obverse not described. [*]TARRACONEPIVS
1. Heiss, no. 35a (Academia de la Hist.) = Mateu y Llopis,
Tarragona, no. 4 (1.40).1
TypeF
70(a). Facing bust. Type 4 o. Cross beneath arch.
RECCAREDVSREX TARRCOHAIVSTV
1. BM no. 14A (acquired 1849) = Heiss, no. 32* = TraiU,
fig. 123# = Madrid, pp. 260*, 267* = Mateu y Llopis,
Tarragona, no. 11* (| 17,1.43).
(b) . RECCAREbV2RE+ TARR:CHAIV: T:
1. HSA 16056 (| 16,1.51). Plate IV, 18
(c) . RECCAREbVSRE TARR:CONAIV:T
1. HSA 16048 (ex Cervera) ( \ 16,1.47). Plate IV, 19
(d) . * RECCAREDVSR TARRACOHAIV:T
1. Gabinete Num. de Cataluna (Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
no. 12* (1.48).
(e) . Obverse as (d). TARRACOHAIVS
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 13* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarra-
gona, no. 13*.
TypeG
71. Facing bust. Type 5l. As obverse.
* RECCAR:t>V:RE -TARRAON :SIV-
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. I,
17*) = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 51 (15 mm).
1 To judge from Mateu y Llopis' inventory of the Academia collection
(Hallazgos IV), this specimen is no longer in that cabinet. Mateu's listing in
Tarragona gives a different reading of the reverse from that in Heiss (which
latter I have adopted), and also gives the obverse legend, which is lacking in
Heiss. This would imply that Mateu had seen the specimen; but if so, why is it
not in his Academia inventory?
* The transcriptions in these two publications do not agree with each other,
nor with the photograph in the former.
TARRACONENSIS 211
Type H
72. Facing bust. Type 5 k, Equilateral cross.
variation.
* RECCAREDV2RE BTARACONAIVT2
1. BM no. 15A (acquired 1860) = Heiss, no. 35* = Madrid,
pp. 260*, 267* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 14*
(| 15,1.43). Plate IV, 20
2. Soares, no. 1.733, p. 129* = Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V,
p. 71 (small diam., 1.49).
Uncertain type
73. No description.
1. Botet y Sis6,1, p. LXXXI (R. Bosch Alsina).
F. Tirasona.
TypeA"
74(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* RECCAREdVSRE * TIRA: 0:HAIV:
1. Madrid, no. 107* = ( ?) Florez, p. 212 (Real Biblioteca)
(1.37).
(b) . Obverse as (a). * TIRA: OHEIV:+
1. VQRno. 5062*.
(c) . Obverse as (a). /ftTIRA: OME1V:
1. Heiss, no. 36* (Noguez) (1.37).
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 16*.
(d) . Obverse as (a). * TIRA: 0:HAIV: T
1. HSA 16072 (ex Cervera) (j 18,1.49). Plate V, 1
2. VQR no. 5061 = Heiss, no. 37* (1.48).
Type A"
75(a). Facing bust. Type 4 d. As obverse.
* RECCAREdVSRE * TIRA: O+HAIV:
1. Madrid, no. 108* (1.40).
(b). * RECCAREt>V2RE TIRA:0:HAIVI:T
1. Madrid, no. 109* = Velazquez, no. 51 (Leyrens) =
Florez, p. 212 (Gabriel) = Gusseme, VI, p. 24, no. 18 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 13 (1.37).
n*
212
RECCARED
Type B
76. Facing bust. Type 4 d. As obverse.
* RECCAR:IV2R TIR:2:HAIPIV:
1. Florez, p. 211* = Masdeu, p. 345 = Heiss, no. 38*.
Uncertain type
77(a). Type A( ?).
1. Velazquez, no. 52 (Cueva).
(b) . "Tipo tarraconense."
1. Mateu y Llopis, Ampurias 1948, p. 439 (found at Castro
de Esturaos, and described by F. Russell Cortez in
Arquivo de Alto Minho, 1946).
(c) . Uncertain.
1. Mateu y Llopis, Ampurias 1945-46, p. 474 (found in the
Rio Pavia, about 1 km. from Viseu, and described by
Jos Coelho, "Notulas numismaticas" in Beira Alta, TV,
pp. 37-47).
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Mentesa.
78(a). Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
* RECCAREbVSREX * MENTEio APIV</>
1. Florez, p. 199* (Villacevallos) = Masdeu, p. 337.
2. Velazquez, no. 48 (Academia) = Gusseme, VT, p. 24, no.
13.1
(b) . * RECCARE/////SRE+ Reverse as (a).
1. VQR, no. 5052 = Heiss, no. 21* = Madrid, p. 313*
(1.34).
(c) . * RECCARED VSRE+ Reverse as (a).
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 19*.
1 The forms of the S's on the reverse are not indicated in Velazquez, but
they are probably as above. The specimen is evidently no longer in the
Academia collection.
CARTHAGINENSIS 213
B. Reccopolis.
79(a). Facing bust. Type 5 a. As obverse.
* RECCAREVVSREX *RECCOPOLIFECIT
1. Florez, p. 197* = Gusseme, VI, p. 24, no. 15 = Masdeu,
p. 12.
(b) . * RECCARlPVSREX Reverse as (a).
1. VQR no. 5055 = Meynaerts, no. 16 = Heiss, no. 26* =
Madrid, p. 300* = Menendez Pidal, p. 102* (1.40).
(c) . *RECCAREDVSREX *RECCOPOLVFECI
1. Acad, de la Hi9t. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa IV, pi. I,
18*) = Heiss, no. 26a (1.40).
(d) . * RECCAREDVSR * RECCOPVLIpEI
1. Mabbott Coll. = Rokesmith, p. 9 = Stack's 1942, no.
10209E (| 18,1.50). Plate V, 2
2. VQR, no. 5054*.1 Plate V, 3
(e) . * RECCERILVSREX2 * RECCOPOLIFECIT
1. VQR, no. 5053*. Plate V, 4
C. Saldania.
80. Facing bust. Type 5 d. As obverse.
*RECCAREAVooRE * 2ALAAHIAPIV2
1. HSA 16045 (| 17,1.56). Plate V, 5
D. Toleto.
81(a). Facing bust. Type 5 d. As obverse.
* RECCAREDVSREX * T LET0PIV</>
1. HSA 16055 (| 18.1.51).3 Plate V, 6
2. Madrid, no. 126* (ex Basiiio Sebastian Castellanos de
Losada) (1.50).
1 The dies of these two specimens appear to be identical. There can be no
doubt of the authenticity of either piece, both of which I have examined.
5 The transcription of the obverse, which differs from the rendering in the
VQR catalogue, is mine; the second E( ?) and the L( ?) are obscure. The star at
the beginning of the legend is blurred.
3 One of the 12 HSA specimens was in the Cervera collection.
214
RECCARED
(b) . * RECCAREpVSREX Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16052 (| 17,1.42). Plate V, 7
2. Madrid, no. 117* (1.52).
3. Madrid, no. 118* (1.52).
4. Wayte Raymond, July 1939, no. 34*.
(c) . * RECCAREDVSRE+1 Reverse aa (a).
1. HSA 16049 (/17,1.50). Plate V, 8
2. HSA 16051 (/17,1.59).
17,1.44).
16,1.51).
17,1.50).
17,1.57).
18,1.53). Plate V, 9
3. HSA 16053 (\ 17,1.51)
4. HSA 16054 (/17,1.53)
5. HSA 16057 (
6. HSA 16058 (
7. HSA 16059 (
8. HSA 16060 (
9. HSA 16063 (
10. HSA 8102 (|'17,1.48).*
11. BM no. 16A (acquired 1860) ( \ 17,1.52).
12. Madrid, no. 116* = Adauisiciones en 1932, pi. I, 4*
(1.60).
13. Madrid, no. 119* = ( ?) Fernandez-Guerra, pi. I* (1.50).
14. Madrid, no. 122* (1.47).
15. Madrid, no. 123* (1.47).
16. Madrid, no. 124* (1.47).
17. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4627 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 10* (1.54).
18. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4628 = Mateu y Llopis, loc.cit.,
no. 9* (1.51).
19. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4629 = Mateu y Llopis, loc.
tit., no. 6* (1.49).
20. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4630 = Mateu y Llopis, loc.
tit., no. 8* (1.48).
21. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4631 = Mateu y Llopis, loc.
tit., no. 7* (1.55).
22. Stuttgart, no. 1337.
23. Dumbarton Oaks.
24. Freeman Coll. (same obv. die as no. 9).
25. -26. Freeman Coll.
27. Grierson Coll., no. 7888 (ex Bute, Sotheby, 7 May, 1951,
no. 117*) (| 1.52).
28. Grierson Coll., no. 7889 (ex Bute, loc.cit., no. 119)
(|1.47).
29. Reinhart Coll., no. 10 = Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 7* (1.48).
30. Reinhart Coll., no. 11 (1.47).
31. Niggeler Coll. (1.46).
32. VQRno. 5063.
1 The busts vary considerably in style.
2 All these specimens from different dies.
CARTHAGINENSIS
215
33. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa IV, pi. I,
13*) = (probably) Velazquez, no. 37 = Gusseme, VI,
p. 24, no. 19.
34. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi.
I,14*) = Heiss, no. 39* = Madrid, p. 289* (1.50).
35. Le Gentilhomme, no. 17* = ( ?) Mahudel, pi. 12, no. 25*
= Velazquez, no. 39 = ( ?) Trait, fig. 117* (1.48).
36. Le Gentilhomme, no. 18 = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 5* =
(probably) Mahudel, pi. 12, no. 15* = Velazquez, no. 38
(1.50).
37. Ferreira, no. 17 (1.49).
38. Carles-Tolra, no. 1004* (1.50).
39. Carles-Tolra, no. 1005* (1.50).
40. Florez, p. 194*.1
41. Lelewel, pi. I, no. 25*.s
42. Bourgey, no. 305*.
43. Huth Collection, no. 231*.
44. Schulman, Mar. 1930, no. 326*.
45. Schulman, Jan. 1931, no. 653*.
46. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2147* (1.46).
47. Forrer 1950 (1.47).
48. Marques de LI., no. 1497*.
49. Inst, de Valencia, no. 18*.
1. Madrid, no. 125* (1.32).
(f). As (a)-(e), but forms of letters uncertain.
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 98v.3
2. Augustin, p. 296 = Velazquez, no. 40.
3. Velazquez, no. 37 (Infantas).
4. Cantos Benitez, p. 11.
5. Garcia de la Torre, no. 5728.
6. -7. Cumano, no. 1507 (2 spec.).
8. Teixeira, no. 336.
9. O'Crouley, p. 382.
10. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, no. 255.4
11. Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1180.
12. Stack's 1942, no. 10209D (1.50).
1 Florez, p. 196, remarks that there are specimens with RE, but I have seen
* This specimen, represented by a faulty engraving, is not a Becker, which
most of Lelewel's are.
3 Morales wrote that some specimens have a bust on obverse and reverse,
others a cross on the reverse; the latter assertion is certainly wrong.
4 A specimen found in ancient Segobriga, according to Pelayo Quintero,
(d) . Obverse as (c).
1. Madrid, no. 121* (1.49).
(e) . * RECCARE4VSRE+
*TOLETOPIVS(?)
Reverse as (a).
none.
UeUs,pp. 131 ff.
216 RECCARED
BAETICA
A. Cordoba.
82(a). Facing bust. Type 9 (c). As obverse.
* RECCAREDVSREX * CORDOBAPIVoo1
1. Madrid, no. 180* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. I, 2*
(1.50).
2. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4621 = Mateu y Llopis, Cor-
doba, p. 52 = idem, Estocolmo, no. 13* (1.48).
3. Le Gentilhomme, no. 6* = (probably) Mahudel, pi. 11,
no. 10* = Velazquez, no. 47 = (probably) Heiss, no. 7M
(1.50).
(b) . Obverse as (a). * CORDOBAPIVw
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa IV, pi.
I,11*.
(c) . * RECCAREDV2REX Reverse as (b).
1. HSA 16020 (\ 16,1.53). Plate V, 10
(d) . * RECCAREDVwREX Reverse as (b).
1. VQR no. 5039 = Piot, p. 272* (attributed to Reccared
II) = Meynaerts, no. 28 = Heiss, no. 7*s = Mateu y
Llopis, Cordoba, pi. I, 3* (1.52).
(e) . *RECCAREAVsREX *COR0ObAbIVS
1. Cabinet des Mdailles.
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 20* (obv. legend ?).
(f) . * RECCAREDVcREX Reverse as (b).
1. Madrid, no. 179* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. I, 4*
(1.52).
(g) . Obverse as (f). * CORDODAbIVS
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 8 (1.55).
2. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4620 = Mateu y Llopis,
Cordoba, p. 52 (incorrectly described) = idem, Estocolmo,
no. 12* (1.55).
(h) . Obverse as (f). * CORDOfAPIVS
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4621.
1 The D varies in form from conventional to round or almost square.
2 Heiss represents the D's as A, but this is probably the same specimen.
3 The drawing of the reverse in Heiss suggests that the bust is of a different
type, but I imagine that this impression is given by the worn state of the
specimen or by poor copying.
BAETICA
217
(i). fcRECCAREAVCREX1
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 7 --
Velazquez, no. 46 (1.50).
*RECCAREDVTEX
(j)
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 5
Mahudel, pi. 12, no. 23*
no. 7 (1.48).
(k). Obverse as (f).
*COR0OBAb I Voo
Mahudel, pi. 12, no. 22* =
*COROOBAPVoo
LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 6*" =
: Velazquez, no. 45 = Heiss,
Reverse as (j).
1. Velazquez, no. 44 (Villaceballos) = Gusseme, VI, p. 24,
no. 5.
(l). *RECCAREDVCPEX * CORDOBAPVto
1. BM no. 8A (Banks Coll.) ( \ 18,1.48). Plate V, 11
(m). Obvers-e as (f). * CORDORIt> Vw
1. HSA 16019 (ex Cervera, \ 18,1.44, damaged). Plate V, 12
(n). As (a)-(m), but lettering uncertain.
1. Le Gentilhomme, p. 126 (formerly in Cabinet des
Medailles, sold to Hoffmann in 1863).
2. Cantos Benitez, p. 11.3
3. Florez, p. 201 = Masdeu, p. 327.
B. Eliberri.
Type A
83(a). Facing bust. Type 5 d.
* RECCAREWSRE+
1. HSA 16065 ( | 18,1.43).
2. Madrid, no. 169* (1.42).
3. VQRno. 5042.
4. Reinhart Coll., no. 16 (1.38).
5. Inst, de Valencia, no. 23*.
As obverse.
* ELIBERRIPIVS
Plate V, 13
* ELIBERIPIVS
(b) . Obverse as (a).
1. Cabinet des Medailles = Heiss, no. 12* (1.44).
(c) . Obverse as (a). * LIBERIPIVS
1. HSA 16023 (ex Cervera ?) ( | 18,1.42).
2. Florez, p. 202 (Calvelo) = Masdeu, p. 332.
Plate V, 14
1 Legends as copied by me in the Cabinet des Mdailles.
1 The legends in the engraving in LeBlanc do not conform in full with those
given in Le Gentilhomme, but this is probably the same specimen. The legends
given above are as copied by me in the Cabinet des Medailles.
* Surely not CORDOVA, as given.
218
RECCARED
(d) . Obverse as (a). * LIB ER RIPI Voo
1. Heiss, no. 12a* (Dos Santos).
2. Ferreira,no. 10 (1.42).
(e) . As (a)-(d), but lettering uncertain.
1. Huth Coll., no. 230.
Type B
84. Facing bust. Type 5 d. As obverse.
* RECCAREPVSRE * TVSILIBERRIIVS
1. VQR no. 5041 = Campaner, 1866, no. 31 = Heiss, no. 11*.
C. Ispali.
Type A
85(a). Facing bust. Type 5 d. As obverse.
* RECCAREt>VSRE+ * ISPALIPIVS
1. BM no. 13A (De Salis) = Heiss, no. 19* (\ 18,1.42!).
Plate V, 15
2. Le Gentilhomme, no. 14* = Le Blanc, p. 32, no. 7* =
Mahudel, pi. 11, no. 11* (1.48).
3. Stockholm (ex Thieme) = Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo,
no. 14* (1.53).
4. VQR no. 5049 = Campaner, 1866, no. 4 (1.45).
5. VQR no. 5050 (billon).3
(b) . *RECCAREDVSREX * ISPALIPIVS
1. Ferreira, no. 11 (1.42).
(c) . *RECCAREDVSRE"4 * ISPALIPIVS"
1. HSA 16037 = (perhaps) La Capilla, no. 1 (Fernandez y
Gonzalez5). ( | 18,1.48). Plate V, 16
1 Campaner, inadvertently probably, has REX.
* Heiss mistakenly gives the weight as 1.18.
3 Described as "ensayo.. .en vell6n." Beltran (p. 417) plausibly suggests
that this is probably a contemporary counterfeit. I have examined the coin,
and while it is of billon it is certainly contemporary and probably not a forgery
but an "ensayo."
. 4 The X is very small and almost invisible.
5 The . at the end of the reverse legend is not noted, but the equivalence is
possible. There was only one specimen of this mint and ruler in the hoard of
La Capilla. One of the six HSA specimens is from the Cervera collection.
BAETICA 219
(d) . * RECCAREPVSRE Reverse as (a).
1. Grierson Coll., no. 1075 = Shore Sale, no. 614* (1 19,
1.41).
2. Reinhart, Ampwrias 1944, pi. I, 2 (top row)* and no. 6*
(same coin).
(e) . *RECCAREDVSRE" * ISPALIPIVS"
1. Dumbarton Oaks. Plate V, 17
(f) . As (a)-(e), but lettering uncertain.
1. O'Crouley, p. 382.1
2. -3. Inst, de Valencia, nos. 21*-22* (plate obscure).
Type B
86(a). Facing bust. Type 5 d. As obverse.
* RECCAREpVSREX * PIVSISPALI
1. HSA 16041 (j 17,1.55).
2. HSA 16509 ( \ 18,1.51). Plate V, 18
3. Madrid, no. 207* (1.52).
4. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4624 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 16*.s
5. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, HaUazgos IV, pi. I,
12*).3
6. Berlin no. 15 (provenance unknown).
(b) . * RECCAREPVSRE+ Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16038 ( X 18,1.51). Plate V, 19
2. HSA 16036 ( J 18,1.54).
3. Musee de la Ville de Pau.
4. Grierson Coll. (1950) (1.49).
5. Reinhart Coll., no. 15 (1.45).
6. Heiss, no. 19a (Stroganoff).
7. Florez, p. 200*.
(c) . As (a)-(b), but form of X uncertain.
1. Augustin, p. 320.
2. Velazquez, no. 42 (Trabuco) = Gusseme, VT, p. 24, no. 11.
(d) . * RECCAREpVSRE Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16039 (| 17,1.51). Plate V, 20
2. Madrid, no. 205*1 = ( ?) Velazquez, no. 43 (Leyrens)
(1.44).
1 The H in the transcription is obviously to be ignored as an error of
copying.
1 Photograph interchanged with no. 15.
3 X is evident in the plate, although omitted from the transcription in
Mateu's inventory.
4 The E of RE is not entirely clear.
220
RECCARED
3. Reinhart, Ampurias 1944, pi. I, 1 (top row)*.
4. Ratto, no. 2434*.
5. Lonja del Almid6n, no. 693.1
(e) . * RECCAREDVSRE" Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 206* (1.49).
2. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4625 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 15" (1.35).
3. Stuttgart, no. 1339.
4. Grierson Coll., no. 7892 (ex Bute Coll., Sotheby, 7 May,
1951) (], 1.55).
5. VQR no. 5051 = Piot, no. 4* = Meynaerts, no. 13.3
(f) . * RECCAREPVSRX Reverse as (a).
1. Reinhart, Ampurias 1944, pi. I, 1 (2nd row)*.
(g) . * RECCAREpVSR. Reverse as (a).
1. Freeman Coll. = Schulman, July 1922, no. 140* =
Rackus, fig. 28* (wrongly attributed to Heiss).
(h) . As (a)-(g), inadequate description.
1. Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1184.
LUSITANIA
A. Coleia.
87. Type? Type?
* RECCAREDVSRE TA+COLEIV+IV
1. Campaner, 1866, no. 18 (Coll. Bruna, Sevilla) = Heiss,
no. 6a = Campaner, p. 210, note 2.
B. Contosolia.
88. Facing bust. Type 5l. As obverse.
* RECCAREPVSRE *CONTONSAlVS
1. Stockholm = Lorichs.no. 4619 = Campaner, 1866, no. 1
= Heiss, no. 6,J4 = Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo, no. 19*
(1.28). Plate VI, 1
1 The transcription HISPALI is obviously an error.
* Photograph interchanged with no. 16.
3 The pellet after RE, although omitted from the transcription in the VQR
catalogue, is present.
4 Delgado transcribed CONTONSPIVS, which is possible, but I believe the
legend is as given above (i.e., IVS[TVS]). There is a flaw in the die at this point
in the legend, a "blob" which makes either reading acceptable. Pio Beltran in a
communication of July, 1950, writes that he finds it difficult to accept this
coin as authentic; he had not, however, seen the coin, or the photograph which
is reproduced in Plate VI. Had he had this opportunity, I believe he would have
agreed that the specimen appears to be perfectly genuine.
LUSITANTA
221
C. Egitania.
89. Facing bust. Type 5 d. As obverse.
* RECCARIfVSRE(x?) * EC ITANIAPIVS
1. Thomson, no. 1090 = Heiss, no. 10* = Madrid, p. 358*
= Elias Garcia, Egitdnia, p. 16*.
D. Elvora.
Type A
90(a). Facing bust. Type 5 d. As obverse.
* RECCAREWSRE+ * TVSELVORAIVS
1. HSA 16021 (| 17,1.48). Plate VI 2,
2. HSA 16022 (j 17,1.49).
3. BM, no. 9A (acquired 1849) = Heiss, no. 13*1 = Madrid,
p. 357* (| 18,1.48).
4. Madrid, no. 299* (1.47).
5. Madrid, no. 300* (1.44).
6. Madrid, no. 301* (1.37).
7. Le Gentilhomme, no. 9* = Mahudel, pi. 11, no. 13* = ( ?)
Velazquez, no. 30 (1.55).
8. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4622 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 18* (1.50).
9. Johns Hopkins (Schulman, 1921) (17,1.47).
10. VQR no. 5043 = (probably) Piot, no. 3* = Meynaerts,
no. 12.
11. Amardel, Muaie de Narbonne, no. 6 = Elias Garcia,
Luaitdnia, no. 100.
12. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 99r = Estaco, p. 172 = Faria y
Sousa, I, p. 343 = Masdeu, p. 330.s
13. Florez, p. 206.
14. Schulman, Oct. 1913, no. 297*.
15. Schulman, Cat. No. 76 (Oct. 1921), no. 2767* (1.47).
(b). Obverse as (a). * TOSELVORAIVS
1. HSA 16024 (1 17,1.57).
2. HSA 16071 (I 18,1.52). Plate VI, 3
3. Madrid, no. 302* = Velazquez, no. 28 (Leyrens) =
Gusseme, VI, p. 24, no. 7 (1.57).
4. Madrid, no. 303* (1.57).
1 The engraving in Heiss mistakenly shows the second R on the obverse as
retrograde. i
1 Morales does not give the obverse legend, but records the reverse as
ELBORAIVSTVS. The later authors give RECAREDVSREX for the obverse.
These irregularities are probably errors in copying. Estaco, citing Morales,
gives both ELBORAIASTVS and IVSTVSELVORA.
222
RECCARED
5. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa IV, pi. I,
10*) = Velazquez, no. 28 = (?) Heiss, no. 14*1 (1.50).
6. Grierson Coll. (ex Reinhart Coll., no. 14) (1.51).
7. Florez, p. 205*.
8. Inst, de Valencia, no. 27*.
(c) . * RECCAREpVSRE Reverse as (b).
1. HSA 16025 (| 18,1.52). Plate VI, 4
2. VQRno. 5044.
3. Augustin, p. 329.*
(d) . As (a)-(c), but lettering uncertain.
1. Severim, p. 152.
2. Velazquez, no. 229.
3. O'Crouley, p. 382 (1VSTOS).
4. Huth Coll., no. 229.
5. Glendining, 1 July, 1936, no. 260.
6. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa VI, no. 469 (found in Torre de
Don Jimeno).
Type B
91. Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* RECCAREOVSRE* * ERBO:RA:PIVS
1. Grierson Coll., no. 1074 = Reinhart, 1941, pi. 33, nos.
9-10*3 = Shore Collection, no. 613* = Beltran, p. 435
( \ 1.41). Plate VI, 5
Through correspondence with Messrs. Grierson, Reinhart and Bel-
tran I have established the fact that all the above references concern
the same specimen. It was illustrated by Reinhart before its sale by
Glendining to Mr. Grierson. The latter has very kindly made the
specimen available to me for examination, first in the form of a
plaster-cast and later by sending me the coin itself.
Outwardly the piece has almost every aspect of authenticity: weight,
general style, and feel present no cause for suspicion. The metal differs
somewhat in appearance from that of other specimens of this mint and
ruler which I have seen; but this is perhaps a legitimate aberration.
The legends, however, and to some extent the epigraphy, are definitely
anomalous and raise the question of genuineness. The form of the
name, ERBORA, is without precedent: ELVORA is the usual form.
No support is to be gained from the very dubious EBORA under
1 The drawing in Heiss, not resembling the photograph in Mateu's inventory,
raises the question of identity.
2 Transcribed ELVOIA, but probably as here.
3 The mint-name mistakenly rendered ERVORA on p. 192 of this reference.
LUSITANIA 223
Suinthila (No. 234); a little perhaps from the specimens of Egica
with ELBORA (No. 446), and of Egica & Wittiza with monograms
composed of the letters E, L, B, O and A (Nos. 485 (a), (b), (h)), and
with E, B, O, R, A (Nos. 485 (f) and (g)). PIVS is exceptional at Elvora,
but not unknown (Ervig and, perhaps, Egica); under Reccared and
the four kings successively following him, the adjective is always
I VST VS. With respect to the epigraphy, the forms of R, D and X
differ markedly from those of all other issues of Reccared at Elvora.
Beltran condemns the coin, both in the reference cited and in personal
correspondence, but after long consideration I have concluded that
the piece is genuine. If it is genuine, it is certainly the product of a
different die-engraver from the one who designed all the other known
coins of Reccared at this mint, possibly of a different workshop, even
of a different mint with a name resembling that of the common Elvora.
E. Emerita.
Type A
92(a). Facing bust. Type 8 b. Facing bust. Type 5 l, vari-
ation.
*DNRECCAREPVSRE* * PIVSEMERITAVICTOR
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 13* = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 9* =
Mahudel, pi. 11, no. 6* = Velazquez, no. 19 = Florez,
p. 204 = Gusseme, VI, p. 24, no. 10 = Masdeu, p. 14
(1.51).
2. Teixeira, no. 334.
3. O'Crouley, p. 523.
4. Inst, de Valencia, no. 26*.
(b) . Obverse as above. * PIV2EMERITAVICTOR
1. Madrid, no. 245* (1.45).
(c) . * DNRECCAREPV2RE* Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 244* (1.54).
(d) . * DNRECCAREPVSRE1 Reverse as (a), bust vari-
ation.
1. BM no. 12A = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1182 = Heiss,
no. 17*1 (| 17,1.50). Plate VI, 6
2. VQRno. 5048.3
1 A minute x is possibly present.
1 Heiss mistakenly gives the weight as 1.63.
3 Reverse bust type?
224
RECCARED
Type B
93(a). Facing bust. Type 8 b and 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
* RECCAREDVSRE*1 * EMERITAVICTOR
1. HSA 16027" (| 17,1.46, pierced). Plate VI, 7
2. HSA 16028 (| 18,1.45).
3. -7. Madrid, nos. 246*. 251*. 253*-255* (1.49, 1.45, 1.45,
1.45, 1.52).
8. Madrid, no. 258* = (probably) Heiss, no. 16* (1.49).
9. Le Gentilhomme, no. 12 (1.50).
10. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4623 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 17* (1.51).
11. Copenhagen, no. 5 (1.51).
12. Zurich (1.45).
13. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. I, 6*
= Velazquez, no. 20.
14. Reinhart Coll., no. 9 = Reinhart, 1937, pi.XXXVII, 25*
= Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 10* (1.41).
15. Lisbon, no. 11.
16. VQR, no. 5046.
17. Soares, no. 1. 731, p. 129* (1.28).
18. -20. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 16 (Collections Antonio
Marrocos, Paiva Pessoa, Elias Garcia).
21. Severim.pp. 151-152.
22. Augustin, p. 328.
23. -24. Velazquez, no. 20 (Buriel, Infantas) = Gusseme, VI,
p. 24, no. 8.
25. Florez, p. 203*.
26. Merino, pi. 16, no. 2*.3
27. Dias, no. 3.
28. Berlin, no. 17 (provenance unknown).
29. Weber, no. 3351 (Berlin, no. 18).
30. Hess, April 1928, no. 5047*4 = Rackus, fig. 27*
(wrongly attributed to Heiss).
31. Molder, April 1948, no. 220.
32. Molder, May 1948, no. 196.
33. Schulman, N.Y., 1950.
34. Inst, de Valencia, no. 25*.
(b). Obverse as (a). * EMERITAVCTOR
1. Madrid, no. 256*5 (1.52).
1 Some variation in the form of the D and the size of the X.
2 The obverse bust of this specimen combines the features of both types 8 b
and 8 c.
3 The drawing of the obverse bust cannot be correct.
4 The E of REX appears to be retrograde.
5 The transcription does not notice the omission of I in VICTOR.
LUSITANIA
225
2. BM no. 11A1 = Piot, no. 1* = Meynaerts, no. 10 ( \ 17,
1.48). Plate VI, 8
(c) . * RECCAREDVSRE+ Reverse as (a).
1.-3. Ferreira, nos. 13-14, 16 (1.51, 1.50, 1.46).
(d) . * RECCAREDVSER* Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16029 (| 18,1.51). Plate VI, 9
2. Madrid, no. 257* (1.48).
3. VQR no. 5047* = Piot, no. 2* = Meynaerts, no. 11.
4. Dias, no. 4.
(e) . * RECCAREDVSRE* Reverse as (a).
1. Ferreira, no. 15 (1.50).
(f) . * RECCAREDVSRE2 Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16030 (| 18.1.54).3 Plate VI, 10
2. HSA 16042 = Dos Santos, no. 2907* (same dies,
| 18,1.53).*
3. HSA 16032 (1 18,1.51).
4. HSA 16034 ( I 17,1.51).
5. Madrid, no. 247* (1.42).5
6. -9. Madrid, nos. 248*-250*, 252* (1.49, 1.57, 1.49, 1.42).
10. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi.
I, 4*) = ( ?) Velazquez, no. 21.
11. Acad, de la Hist, {loccit., pi. I, 5*) = (?) Velazquez,
no. 23.
12. Acad, de la Hist, (loccit., pi. I, 7*) = (?) Velazquez,
no. 24.
13. Acad, de la Hist, (loccit., pi. I, 8*) = (?) Velazquez,
no. 25.
1 This specimen is recorded as coming from the Banks collection, but almost
certainly this is an error, the piece probably having been at some time in-
advertently exchanged with BM no. 10A (Type C, below), which is labeled as
"De Salis Gift." Certainly there is no doubt of the identity of the present
specimen and the piece illustrated in Piot.
* The E of RE is frequently very narrow, insufficient space being left for the
horizontal strokes.
3 One of the HSA specimens in this group is ex Cervera.
* Adhering to this specimen are some faint traces of red sealing-wax. A cast
forgery in the Madrid collection (see forgeries, No. 28, p. 461) appears to be
from the same dies as this piece. It is not altogether unlikely that the forgery
was cast from a mold made by taking a wax impression of this coin at some
date prior to its acquisition by Mr. Huntington. I reject the possibility that
HSA 16030 and 16042 are forgeries, despite the die identities. They appear to
me perfectly genuine. For the relationship between the Dos Santos collection
and Mr. Huntington's collection, see Miles, Umayyads, pp. viii and 6.
5 Mateu transcribes REX, but X is not evident in the plate.
* Transcribed RX, but what has been read as X is probably a narrow E.
The same remark applies to no. 11.
15 Visigoth
226
RECCARED
14. Anderson Collection (same dies as no. 4) (1.51).
15. Carles-Tolra, no. 1003* (1.50).
16. Soares, no. 1.732, p. 129* (1.41).
17. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 18 (Coll. Pavia, Estremoz).
18. Ferreira, no. 12 (1.51).
19. Faria y Sousa, I, p. 343*.1
(g) . * RECAREDVSRE Reverse as (a).
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, no. 300 (found in Banolas,
Gerona).
(h) . Obverse as (a)-(g), but Reverse as (a).
exact lettering uncertain.
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 93v.
2. Cantos Benitez, p. 11.
3. Velazquez, no. 21 (Villaceballos).
4. Velazquez, no. 22 (Pedro de la Cueva).
5. Cumano, no. 1505.
6. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos VI, no. 410 (property of Jaime
Butina, found in Beuda, Olot, Gerona province).
Type C
94(a). Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.2
*RECCAREDVSREx * EMERITAPIVS
1. HSA 16033 (| 19,1.48). Plate VI, 11
This particular specimen is evidently a transitional type. The reverse
has the shorter bust of the VICTOR type, and the lettering is quite
distinctive (note the form of the M and the A with bar).
(b). * RECCAREWSRE+ * EMERI|T|APIVS
1. HSA 16026 ( | 18,1.47, frg. lacking). Plate VI, 12
2. Copenhagen, no. 4 = Heiss, no. 15* = Thomsen, no.
1091 (1.50).
3. BMno. 10A (| 18.1.58).3
4. The Hague.
5. VQR no. 5045.4
6. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 22 (Coll. Paiva Pessoa).
1 The drawing, which appears to be tolerably accurate, shows the S on its
side.
2 The sides of this bust now extend into and interrupt the legend. The
vertical bars indicate the letter or letters enclosed within the base of the bust.
Note that the obverse bust is now exclusively 8 c.
3 See note to No. 93(b)2, above.
* In the transcription the X is represented as normal, the S on its side. The
division of the legend is not indicated. The specimen is not illustrated.
LUSITANIA
227
7. Severim, p. 151*.
8. Florez, p. 204*.
9. Dias, no. 2.1
(c) . *RECCAREt>VSRE' * EMERI |T|APIV</>
1. Madrid, no. 259* = (T) Velazquez, no. 26 (Leyrens)
(1.50).
2. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 23 (Coll. Elias Garcia).
3. Schulman, Dec. 1934, no. 111.
(d) . * RECCAREPVSRE Reverse as (c).
1. HSA 16035 (ex Cervera) (| 18,1.48). Plate VI, 1$
2. GriersonColl. (| 1.48).
3. Grantley Sale, no. 2795 (withdrawn from sale).'
(e) . As (a)-(d), but obverse legend not recorded.
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 93r.
(I). * RECCAREPVSREX * EMERE|T|APIV</>
1. HSA 16031 ( \ 18,1.49). Plate VI, 14
2. Madrid, no. 260* (1.47).
3. Cabinet des M6dailles.
4. Reinhart Coll., no. 8 (1.45).
5. Inst, de Valencia, no. 24*.
(g) . * RECCAREDVSRE+ * EMERE]T|APIVS
1. Lisbon, no. 10*.4
(h) . * RECCAREPVSRE+ * EMERE|TA|PIVco
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 11* = LeBlano, p. 32, no. 10* =
Mahudel, pi. 11, no. 7*5 = Velazquez, no. 27 = Gusseme,
VI, p. 24, no. 9 = Heiss, no. 15a = Traiti, fig. 120*
(1.45).
F. Eminio.
Type A
95(a). Facing bust. Type 5 d. Facing bust. Type 8 b.
* RECCARIWSRE+ * AEM:NIOIVSTVS
1 Form of letters and division not indicated.
1 Form of letters and division not indicated. This coin was apparently with-
drawn because it was adjudged to be a forgery, possibly a contemporary one.
3 The style of this specimen, particularly the border of the obverse, is quite
distinctive.
1 Weight given as 0.48 (for 1.48 ?).
. 1 Appears to read NECCAREDVS etc., but this is the result of careless copy-
m8; R is clear in Le Gentilhomme's plate.
15
228 RECCABED
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi.
I, 9*) = Velazquez, no. 31 = Gusseme, VI, p. 24, no. 1
= Heiss.no. 18a (1.50).1
(b). Types of busts unknown.2
*RECCAREDVSREX * IVSTVSAEMINIO
1. Florez, p. 206 = Masdeu, p. 321.
Type B
96(a). Facing bust. Type unknown. Facing bust. Type unknown.
*RECCARIDVSREX * IMINIOPIVS
1. Dias, no. 5.
2. Teixeira, no. 335.
3. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 148 (Museu Municipal de
Gaia, "famoso exemplar").
(b) . * RECCAREDVSREX Reverse as (a).
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Coll. Nieport,
Oporto).
(c) . Facing bust. Type 8 b. Facing bust. Type 5 m.
*RECCARICVSRE * IMINIOPIVS
1. Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 11* (Cale, Portugal).
(d) . Facing bust. Type 5 d. Facing bust. Type 5 a.
*RECCARIt>VSRE * IMINIOPIVS
1. Grierson Coll., no. 7894 (ex Reinhart Coll., no. 12) (1.48).
Plate VT, 15
(e) . Facing bust. Type 5 l. Facing bust. Type 5 r.
*RECCAREt>A32 * IMIHIOPIVS
1. Heiss, no. 18* = Thomson, no. 1092 = Madrid, p. 360*.
(f) . Facing bust. "Lusitanian" Facing bust. "Lusitanian"
type. type.
* RECCAREDVSRE * IMINIOPIVS
1. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 149 (Cat. Maria Guilhermina
de Jesus, Jan. 1902, no. 1143).
2. Ibid., no. 149 (Coll. Ant6nio Marrocos, Idanha-a-Velha).
1 The transcriptions vary slightly throughout the literature. The above are
copied from the illustration in Mateu's inventory. His transcriptions do not
agree with the illustration.
2 This coin may possibly be the same specimen as the one in the Academia,
No. 95(a). At all events, the order of the words on the reverse may be identical;
the earlier writers were not consistent in their system of transcribing.
LUSITANIA
229
(g). Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
Legend as (c). * IMINITIVS
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 28*.
G. Monecipio.
Type A
97(a). Facing bust. Type 7. Facing bust. Type 5 l.
* RIDV2REXRECCA * OIV2TV2MONEQPI
1. Elias Garcia, Monecipio, p. 11* (property of Julio
d'Almeida, found at Demoura, near Guarda, Portugal)
(1.48).
(b) . Obverse as (a). * IV2TV2MONEQPIO
1. Beltran, Suevia, no. 8 (Viceate Paredes) = Elias Garcia,
Monecipio, p. 10.
(c) . * RIDV2RE+RECCA Reverse as (a).
1. Elias Garcia, Monecipio, p. 13* (property of Manuel
Paiva Pessoa, found near Lousa, near Castelo Branco,
Portugal) (1.45).
Type B
98. Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
* APIV2REXRECC * IMoo+MONEC-
1. Campaner, 1866, no. 16* (Manuel y Alejandros Cerda,
Valencia) = Heiss, no. 43* = Campaner, p. 211, note 2
= Beltran, Suevia, p. 86 & no. 7 = Elias Garcia,
Monecipio, p. 7*.1
2. Berlin, no. 40 ("L. Hamburger, XI, 1926").1
H. Salmantica.
99(a). Facing bust. Type 5 l. As obverse.
* RECCAREDVSRE* * SALAM-VNTECM
1 In Campaner's and Heiss' time this coin was not identified as an issue of
Monecipio. Egitania was suggested. Later Beltran read it correctly (Rectifica-
ciones, p. 411).
* While Heiss' engraving of no. 1 shows P instead of R in REX, and the point
after C on the reverse is omitted, the drawings of no. 1 otherwise so closely
resemble the coin of which the Munzkabinett possesses a plaster-cast that it
must be considered very likely that nos. 1 and 2 are the same coin. However,
documentary evidence of identity is lacking.
230
RECCARED
1. VQR no. 5058 = Heiss, no. 29* = (probably) Campaner,
1866, no. 8* (ex Coll. Jaime Fustagueras y Fuster)1 =
Madrid, p. 363* (1.50).
(b) . Facing bust. Type 5 d.
* RE+RECCAREDVS
1. Madrid, no. 166* (1.47).
(c) . Facing bust. Type?
* RECCAREDVSRE
As obverse.
ECASA+AHNT2
Facing bust. Type?
SALMANTECAIP
1. Ferreira, no. 7 = Heiss, 1891, p. 101 (1.39).
(d). Facing bust. Type? Facing bust. Type?
*RECCAREDVSREX * SALAMVNFECIT
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos VI, no. 418 (from a description
in El Averiguador Universal, 31 Mar., 1879).3
I. Totela.
100. Facing bust. Type 5 f. Facing bust. Type 5 o.
* RECCAREDV2REX * TOTELAVECTOR
1. Ex. Coll. Romulo Bosch Alsina4 = Madrid, p. 361 =
Reinhart, Ampurias 1944, p. 209 = Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia,
p. 66.
Reinhart (p. 101) places this mint in Gallaecia.
1 The drawings and transcriptions in Campaner and Heiss do not conform in
several particulars, and written evidence that Vidal Quadras y Ram6n ac-
quired Fustagueras' specimen is lacking, but I imagine that the two descrip-
tions concern the identical piece. The engraving in Campaner is probably
faulty. Mateu remarks (Madrid, p. 364) that in the reverse legend V is for A and
I represents IVSTVS.
2 Mateu did not at first identify this obscure legend as representing Salman-
tica (Madrid, p. 315), but later ("Addenda et Corrigenda" at end of book) he
attributed the coin correctly. Cf. Beltran, p. 415.
3 Mateu y Llopis suggests that the legend is probably not as given, but
SALAMANTECAI (VSTVS).
* Types and legends communicated to me by Pio Beltran, who writes that if
the owner did not dispose of the coin in his lifetime it must have gone to the
Museo Arqueol6gico de Barcelona. Reinhart locates the specimen in the
Gabinete de Barcelona.
GALLAECIA
231
GALLAECIA
A. Arros.
101. Facing bust. Type 5 d. Facing bust. Type 5 1.
*RECCARIAVSRE ARRE~PIV2:co Vco
1. HSA 16061 (118,1.57). Plate VI, 16
B. Asturie.
102. Facing bust. Type 5 a. Facing bust. Type 5 d.
* RECCAREbVSRE * ASTVRIEPIOS.-.
1. HSA 16014 (| 17,1.58). Plate VI, 17
C. Berganica.
103(a). Facing bust. Type 5 o. Facing bust. Type 5 o.
Pellet either side of head.
*RECCAREPV</>RE BERCAHCAVICTOR
(legend begins at 7 o'clock)
1. BM no. 5A = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1183 = Heiss,
no. 4* = Gorres, Miscellen, p. 440 = Beltran, Suevia,
p. 89 & no. 9 (| 19,1.48). Plate VI, 18
(b). Description lacking.
1. VQR (Campaner, 1866, no. 17).
2. D. N. Bruna of Seville (Campaner, 1866, no. 17).
D. Calapa.
104. Facing bust. Type 5 o. As obverse.
* RECCAREAVSRE TORCALABACIAV:C
1. VQR no. 5035* = Campaner, p. 208, note 6 = Engel,
1893, p. 89, note 1 = Beltran, Suevia, no. 2.
. Cepis.
105(a). Facing bust. Type 5 o. Facing bust. Type 5 d?
* RECCAREDVSRE * CEPloo IVSTVou
1. Ferreira, no. 61 = Campaner, p. 210, note 1 = Heiss,
1891, p. 101* (1.39).
Transcribed RE+.
232
RECCARED
(b). Obverse as (a). Facing bust. Uncertain type.
*CEPIcs>IV~T
1. Heiss, 1891, p. 101* (Manuel Sanchez Arteaga, Orense).
F. Flavas.
106. Facing bust. "Gallaecian" As obverse,
type.
RECCAREDVSRE- FLAVASPIVS1
1. Coll. Dr. Montalvao (A. Elias Garcia, "Um triente de
Recaredo batido em Chaves," in Revista de Guimardes,
LIV (1944), pp. 36-392) = Reinhart, Ampuria* 1944,
p. 209 = Mateu y Llopis, Ampurias, 1945-1946, pp.
473-474 = Beltran, p. 414.
G. Lucu.
107. Facing bust. Type 5 o. As obverse.
* RECCAREDVwRQ * LVCOIV^TVw
1. Madrid, no. 320* = (probably) Campaner, p. 210, note 4
= Beltran, Suevia, no. 1 - Ballesteros, I, p. 855*
(0.52 [sic!]).
H. Pannonias.
108. No details.
1. Reinhart, Ampurias 1944, p. 210 (Monetario del Museo
Municipal de Lisboa).
I. Pincia.
109(a). Facing bust. Type 5 o. Facing bust. Type 5 b.
* RECCAREAVSRE * PINCIAPIVS
1. Cabinet des Medailles (17,1.52).
1 Mateu y Llopis notes that the legend is obscure: possibly FLAVIAS or
FLAVIIS, and F more resembling K.
a I have not seen this article and am familiar with it only through Mateu y
Llopis' review in Ampurias.
GALLAECIA
233
(b). Facing bust. Type 5 o. Facing bust. Type 5 w.
* RECCAREDV-S RE: * PMCIAVECTOR1
1. Madrid, no. 318* = Velazquez, no. 49 (Leyrens)2 =
Florez, p. 198* (Gabriel)* = Gusseme, VI, p. 24, no. 3 =
Masdeu, p. 12 = Heiss, no. 24* = Beltran, Suevia, no. 3
= Madrid,?. 377* (1.42).
J. Portocale.
110. Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
* RECCARIPVSRE * PORTOCALEPIVS
1. Heiss, no. 25* = Dias, no. 6 = Leite de Vasconcellos,
Etnografia Portuguesa, p. 8, fig. 1* = Madrid, p. 370* =
Elias Garcia, Portocale, p. 7.3
2. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Coll. Nieport,
Oporto).
K. Tornio.
111. Facing bust. Type 5 n. As obverse.
* RECCAREdVSRE+ * TORNIOVICTORIA
1. VQRno. 5064 = Heiss, no. 40* = Campaner, 1873, p. 51*
= Campaner, p. 210, note 6 = Gorres, Miscellen, p. 440
= Beltran, Suevia, no. 6 = Madrid, p. 374* (1.16).
The style and fabric and the broad margin of this coin are unusual,
but I do not question its authenticity.
L. Tude.
Type A
112. Facing bust. Type 5 n. Facing bust. Type 5 f?
* RECCAREt>VSRE+ * VICTORIAINTVpE
1. Madrid, no. 317* = Campaner, 1866, no. 14 = Heiss, no.
41*4 = Campaner, p. 211, note 1 = Gorres, Miscellen,
p.441 = Beltran, Suevia, no.4 = Madrid, p. 374* (1.37).
1 The various drawings and transcriptions do not conform entirely with the
photographs in Madrid; my reading of the latter, which is by no means clear,
is the basis of the transcriptions given here. Beltran read PINCIN . or PINCIA:.
a Misread "Beacia" = Baeza. Cf. Beltran, p. 408.
3 This coin was published by E. A. Allen in 1862, Noticia e deacripcdo de uma
moeda inedita (not available to me).
4 Heiss inadvertently assigns this coin to the British Museum; but the one
he describes (the only one known) is clearly this specimen in the Madrid
collection.
234 RECCARED
Type B
113. Facing bust. Type 5 n. Facing bust. Type 5 l.
*RECCAREbVSRE+ * PIVSINTVbE:
1. HSA 16062 (| 17,1.50). Plate VI, 19
Type C
114. Facing bust. Type 8 a. Facing bust. Type 8 a, vari-
ation.
* RECCAREDVSRE * INTVt>EPIVS
1. VQR no. 5064a* = Campaner, p. 211, note 1 = Beltran,
Suevia, no. 5.
M. Vallegia?
115. Facing bust. Type 5 z. As obverse.
* RECCARIDVSRE * VAU-EG |-AT(or X ?)
1. HSA 16064 (ex Cervera) ( \ 18,1.48). Plate VI, 20
LIU VA II
A.D. 601-603
TARRACONENSIS
A. Barcinona.
116(a). Facing bust. Type 6 b. Facing bust. Type 6 c.
*LE-oVARE"+" * BARCINONA IVS I1
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi.
I, 19*) = Heiss, no. la* = Madrid, p. 274 = Mateu y
Llopis, Barcelona, no. 19* (1.30).
(b). * LEoVARE+. * BARCINONAIVST
1. Pi y Arimn, p. 127, no. 1* = Campaner, 1866, no. 1 =
Botet y Sis, Noticia, pi. IV, no. 42* (Ripoll) = Mateu y
Llopis, Barcelona, no. 20*.
B. Cesaragusta.
117(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
/&LIVVAREX *CE:AR:C-0:TAIV
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 19* = Mahudel, pi. 11, no. 2* =
Velazquez, no. 55 = Florez, p. 217 = Gsseme, IV,
p. 324, no. 2 (1.43).
(b). /ftLIVVAREX. Reverse as (a).
1. VQR no. 5065 = Campaner, 1866, no. 2 = Heiss, no. 1*
= Madrid, p. 259* (1.44).
C. Tarracona.
118(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* t>H:LIVVAREX /SVPIV:TARR:CO-
1. HSA 16074 (|18,1.49). Plate VH, 1
(b). Obverse as (a). /*\PIV:TARR:CO
1. Campaner, 1868, p. 129 (Coll. Luis F. de Alos or Marqus
de Dou, Barcelona) = Campaner, Review of Heiss, p.
261* = Campaner, p. 211, note 3 = Mateu y Llopis,
Tarragona, no. 16 (1.45).
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 29* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarra-
gona, no. 17*.
1 The last letter is transcribed T by both Heiss and Mateu y Llopis,- but the
illustrations appear to show I.
236 LIUVAII
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Toleto.
119. Facing bust. Type 5 n. As obverse.
*DNLIVVAREX fcT'LET'PIVw
1. HSA 16075 (ex Cervera) (| 18,1.45). Plate VII, 2
2. Augustin, p. 2941 = Heiss, no. 8a.
3. Campaner, 1866, no. 4 (former Bruna collection).*
BAETICA
A. Ispali.
120(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*t>NLIVVAREX3 *PIVSISPALI
1. BM no. 17A (acquired 1863) = Heiss, no. 6* (| 18,1.48).
2. VQR no. 6067 = (probably) Meynaerts, no. 17.
3. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 106v* = Velazquez, no. 53 =
Giisseme, IV, p. 324, no. 1.
(b). *pNLIVVARE+ Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16076 (ex Cervera) (| 19,1.51). Plate VII, 3
2. Madrid, no. 208* = Florez, p. 216* (Gabriel) = Masdeu,
p. 14 = Fernandez-Guerra, PI. I* (1.52).
3. Grierson Coll., no. 6418 = Glendining, June 1949, lot
148 (| 19,1.48).
4. Reinhart, Ampurias 1944, pi. I, 2 (2nd row)*.
5. O'Crouley, p. 383.
6. Ferreira, no. 18 (1.48).
7. Berlin no. 21 (Boudeau, 1913) = Bourgey, no. 306*.
A specimen in Glendining, July 1, 1936 (no. 261), supposedly with
LIVVAREX and PIVSISPALIS, is doubtless incorrectly described.
1 The form of the S is not indicated.
1 Legends not given, but assumed to be as here.
3 I do not believe that Mateu y Llopis (Madrid, p. 332) is correct in taking P
to be a ligature of I and D.
4 Possibly the same coin as (b) 2, below; and also probably the source of
Mariana's statement (Vol. I, p. 334) to the effect that there are coins of Liuva
with"HISPALIPIVS."
LUSITANIA
237
LUSITANIA
A. Elvora.
121. Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* PNLIVVARE+1 * TVSELVORAIVS
1. Madrid, no. 304* = Florez, p. 217* (Gabriel) = Gusseme,
IV, p. 324, no. 4 (1.50).
2. Cabinet des Medailles = Heiss, no. 2* - Madrid, p. 357*
(1.453).
3. VQR no. 5066.
4. O'Crouley, p. 523.3
B. Emerita.
122(a). Facing bust. Type 8 o. Facing bust. Type 7.
*PNLIVVAREX *EMER|ET|APIV</>
1. HSA 16077 (ex Cervera) = La Capilla, no. 59 (Chin-
chilla) (| 19,1.50). Plate VII, 4
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 30* = Garc1a de la Fuente, pi.
in, 1*.
3. Reinhart Coll., no. 17 (1.46).
(b) . * PNLIVVARE+ * EMER|ET|APIVS
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 20 = Mahudel, pi. 11, no. 1* =
Heiss, no. 4* (1.46).
2. LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 1* (mentioned by Le Gentilhomme
under his no. 20).
3. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4632 = Heiss, no. 4s* =
Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo, no. 20* (1.52).
(c) . Obverse as (b). * EMERE|T|APIVt/>
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi.
I, 20*) = Heiss, no. 3* = Madrid, p. 346* (1.50).
(d) . As (a)-(c), but form of X and S, and division of reverse legend
not indicated.
1. Teixeira, no. 337.
2. Gusseme, IV, p. 324, no. 3.5
1 The X of REX is sometimes almost in its normal position.
2 My approximate weighing; Heiss gave 1.38.
3 Transcribed LIWA and ELVORA JUSTUS, but doubtless as above.
4 Wrongly transcribed by Delgado (and Heiss).
* Obvious errors in transcription.
238
LIUVA II
(e). *DNLIVVAREX * EMERITAPIVS1
1. Florez.p. 216.
2. Severim, p. 152.
Nos. 1 and 2 are possibly the same specimen.
C. Eminio.
123. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*DIILIVVARE+:a * IMINIOPIVS
1. Heiss, no. 5* = Thomsen, no. 1093.
GALLAECIA
A. Nandolas.
Type A
124. Facing bust. Type 5 o. Facing bust. Type 5 x.
* LIVVARE+S * N AHDOLASPIVco
1. VQR, no. 5068 = (probably) Meynaerts, no. 18 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 3* = Heiss, no. 7* = Madrid,
p. 370* (1.44).
Type B
125. Types not described.
LIVVAREX.S NANBOLASIJVS3
1. O'Crouley, p. 383.
B. Portocale.
126(a). Facing bust. Type 5 d. As obverse.
* PNLEVVARE* * PORTOCALEPIvS
1. Teixeira, no. 338 - Heiss, no. 8* = Madrid, p. 370* =
Elias Garcia, Portocale, p. 7.
(b). Types not described.
* DN LEVVAREX * PORTOCALE4
1. Madrid, p. 371, note 358 (in a Portuguese catalogue,
communicated by A. Viana de Morais).
1 The order is PIVSEMERITA in Florez, but the words are probably in the
usual order. The form of X and S, and the division, are not indicated.
2 DM for DN.
3 This legend must be considered suspect; it is probably a misreading of a
specimen similar to No. 124, above.
4 Is PIVS actually lacking, or only omitted by error in the transcription?
WITTERIC
A.D. 603-609
NARBONENSIS
A. Narbona.
127(a). Facing bust. Type 5 r.*
right and left of bust.1
Facing bust. Type 5 r, vari-
ation.
*NARBONAPIVS
* VVITTERICVSR:
1. Heiss, no. 14* = Robert, no. 17* = Gariel, no. 354 =
Belfort, no. 3146* (1.50).
(b). As (a), but* at right only.
1. Boudard, pp. 344-5* = Campaner, 1866, no. 5 = Belfort,
no. 3145* (Coll. Tarboriech) (1.48).
2. VQR no. 5076.
When examining the VQR specimen I was unable to compare it
with the engraving in Boudard, but so far as I can recall the two were
very similar, and it is possible that Vidal Quadras acquired the
Tarboriech piece. The V QR specimen is certainly suspicious because
of its strange apperance and feel, the character of the epigraphy in
high relief, and its careless busts. But in view of the anomalous
character of many of the issues of Narbona, I am not ready to condemn
it and have listed it. as genuine. However, for future reference, it might
be well to bear in mind the possibility that both (a) and (b) are fabric-
ations.
TARRACONENSIS
A. Barcinona.
128(a). Facing bust. Type 6 a.
rvVVITTIRICVSREx
1. HSA 16080 (\ 18,1.44).
Facing bust. Type 6 c.
* BARCINONAIVwT
Plate VII, 5
The engraving in Heiss omits the stars.
240
WTTTERIC
(b). i^VVITTIRICVSR Reverse as (a).
1. Copenhagen, no. 6 = Heiss, no. I*1 = Thomsen, no.
1095 = Carreras y Candi, p. 146 = Madrid, p. 273* =
Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, no. 21* (1.50).
8. Cesaragusta.
129(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* WITTERICVSRE * CE:AR:C-0:TAIVO
1. HSA 16092 (ex Cervera) (| 19,1.48). Plate VH, 6
(b) . Obverse as (a). * CE:AR:C'0:TAIV*
1. Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 5* (location?).
2. Cabinet des Medailles = Heiss, no. 7*.*
(c) . * VVITTERICVSRE: *-CE AR:CO:TAIV#
1. La CapiUa, no. 4 (Fernandez y Gonzalez).
(d) . * VVITTIRICSVREX * CE:AR:C O:TAIVO
1. HSA 16090 (| 18,1.45). Plate VH,"
(e) . Obverse as (d). * CE:AR:COTAIV-
1. Florez, p. 223* (Calvelo) = Masdeu, p. 325.'
(f) . * VVITTIRICVSRE * CE:AR:C-0:TAIVO
1. Heiss, no. 6* (Noguez) = Madrid, p. 277*.
2. Ferreira, no. 20 (1.50).
(g) . Obverse as (f). * CE:AR:C-0:TAVIO
1. Dias, no. 7.
In Hallazgos V, p. 70, Mateu y Llopis describes a coin in the Nie-
poort collection (Oporto), supposedly with the legends VITERIC VSREX
and CEARCOTAPIVS (types?). In view of the unusual character of
the legends I requested verification and a more complete description
from Professor Mateu y Llopis. Unfortunately he had no cast or rub-
bing of the coin and in his communication he implied that he had
examined the coin hurriedly and that his transcriptions might not be
correct.
1 Mistakenly labeled 9 in plate HI.
2 Heiss has "CM.", for "Cabinet de Madrid," but the coin is not there and
the description corresponds with the specimen in Paris, which I have examined.
Undoubtedly Heiss' notation was a slip for "C.F.", "Cabinet de France."
3 Transcription not accurate.
TARRACONENSIS 241
C. Gerunda.
130(a). Facing bust. Type 5 j. Facing bust. Type 6 a.
* VVITTIRICVSRE -X-qERNDAIVSTx
1. Botet y Sis6, Gerona, p. 224* = Mateu y Llopis, Gerona,
no. I*1.
2. Schulman, Jan. 1931, no. 654*.
(b) . Types not described.
VVITTIRICVSREX QERONDAIVSTXX2
1. Campaner, p. 212, note 2 (Arturo Pedrals) = Elias de
Molins, 1899, p. 372 (then acquired by Disputaci6n
Provincial de Barcelona) = Mateu y Llopis, Gerona,
no. 2.
(c) . Types not described.
* VVITTIRICVSRE3 GERONDAIVST
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 19 = Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, no. 3
(1.33).
D. Tarracona.
Type A
131(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* VVITTIRICVSRE+ * TARRACO:AIV::
1. Stuttgart, no. 1343. Plate VII, 8
(b). * VVITTIRICVSRE * TARRACO:AIVO
1. Madrid, no. 86* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 20*
(1.45).
2. Gabinete Numismatico de Cataluna, no. 9899 (Mateu y
Llopis, Tarragona, no. 21*) (1.42).
Type B
132(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* VVITTIRICV2RE **PIV:TARR:CO:
1. VQR no. 5080 = Campaner, 1866, no. 8 = Heiss, no. 18*
= Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 18* (1.38).
1 Mateu (loc.cit.) states that this coin was published by Pujol y Camps in
Memorial Numismatico Espaiiol, I, but I do not find it there.
* The transcriptions of these legends by Campaner, Ellas de Molins and
Mateu y Llopis do not agree; I have adopted those in EUas de Molins' article.
1 Mateu has VVITTE RICVS, but according to the list which Reinhart has
furnished me, the name is spelled as given above.
16 Visigoth
242
WITTERIC
(b). * VVITTERICVSREX TARRACOPIVS
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 107r = Velazquez, no. 60 = Florez,
p. 222 = Eapana Sagrada, vol. 24, p. 335 = Gusseme,
VI, p. 618, no. 4 = (probably) Heiss, no. 18a (Cabinet
de Madrid)1 = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 19
(1.45).
Type unknown
133. Description lacking.
1. Botet y Sis6,1, p. LXXXI (R. Boseh).
2. Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 22 (Coll. Llagostera,
Barcelona).
E. Tirasona.
134. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
* VVITTIR1CVSRE *TIRA:OHEI#
1. HSA 16093 (ex Cervera) (/19,1.42). Plate VIM
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Mentesa.
135(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* VVITTIRICVSRE+ * MENTESAPIVSX
1. Heiss, no. 13b* (Dos Santos).
(b) . * VVITTIRICV2REI *MENTESAPIVS
1. Soares, no. 1.734, p. 129* (1.40).
(c) . Obverse as (a). * MENTESAPIV
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 31*.
B. Saldania.
136. Facing bust. Type 5 r. As obverse.
Pellets above and at sides of
bust.
* VV1TTIRICVSRE * SAL'AAMIAP IV S
1. VQR no. 5079 = Heiss, no. 17* = Madrid, p. 300* (1.48).
1 Not now in the National collection in Madrid. The transcriptions of
Morales down through Gusseme are probably inaccurate (normalized) render-
ings of the legends of a genuine piece similar to (a), but the Heiss entry is
puzzling, as one would suppose it concerns a coin with the reverse legend
actually so arranged.
CARTHAGINENSIS 243
C. Toleto.
.37(a). Facing bust. Type 5 d. As obverse.
* VVITTIRICVSREX *TOLETPIVco
1. HSA 16087 (I 18,1.49).
2. HSA 16088 ( j 19.1.55).1 Plate VII, 10
3. Heiss, no. 19* (1.50).
4. Madrid, no. 127* = Campaner, 1866, no. 9 (1.52).
5. Reinhart Coll., no. 22 (1.50).
6. VQR no. 5081 = (probably) Piot, 1850, no. 7* =
Meynaerts, no. 20 = Campaner, 1866, no. 9 (1.49).
7. Carles-Tolra, no. 1007* (1.50).
8. Covarruvias, p. 491 = Bouteroue, p. 178.
9. O'Crouley, p. 524.3
(h). * VVITTIRICVSRE+ * TOLETOPIVS
1. Ferreira, no. 23 (1.45).
2. Ferreira, no. 24 (1.52).
(c) . * VVITTIRICVSRE: Reverse as (a).
1. Florez, p. 218* (S. Ildefonso de Alcala).
(d) . As (a)-(c), inadequate descriptions.
1. Augustin, p. 298 = Velazquez, no. 56 = Gusseme, VI,
p. 618, no. 5.
2. Florez, p. 218 (a specimen seen in Seville).
3. La Capilla, no. 6 (number of specimens and ownership
unknown).
4. Cumano, no. 1508.
BAETICA
A. Cordoba.
138. Facing bust. Type 9 b. As obverse.
* VVITTERICV2RE * CORDOBAPlVoo I
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, HaUazgos IV, pi. I,
23*) = Heiss, p. 148, no. 6* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba,
p. 52.
Heiss considered this coin a forgery because of the flat relief and the
forms of the A and S. Pio Beltran,4 however, accepts it as genuine,
1 One of the two HSA specimens is ex Cervera.
2 According to Heiss, in the British Museum; but it is not there now.
3 WITIRICVS, but probably wrongly transcribed.
1 Rectijicaciones, p. 387.
it*
244
WTTTERIC
baaing his belief partly on the inadequacy of Heiss' objections and
partly on the assurance of Gomez-Moreno, who had seen the specimen.
Mateu y Llopis concurs. I also see no reason to reject it. So far as the
form of the A is concerned, there are sufficient other examples
(e. g., Nos. 17, 80, 116(a), (b)) to place it beyond suspicion on that
score.
B. Eliberri.
139(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* VVITTIRICVSRE * PIVSELIBERRI
1. BM no. 18A = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1182 = Heiss,
no. 8* (| 20,1.41). Plate Vn, 11
2. Madrid, no. 170* = Florez, p. 220* (Gabriel) = Masdeu,
p. 332 (1.44).
3. Madrid, no. 171* (1.44).
4. VQRno. 5072.
5. O'Crouley, p. 524.1
6. Hoffmann, 1886, no. 26.
(b). * VVITTIRICVSREX Reverse probably as (a), but
misread PIVSBITTERRI (or
BITERRI).
1. Bouteroue, p. 179 = Florez, p. 224 = Masdeu, p. 16 =
Heiss, no. 2a = Campaner, p. 212, note 2 = Blanchet,
p. 187.
2. O'Crouley, p. 524.
This misreading gave rise to the belief, until recently prevailing,
that there was a Visigothic mint of Biterri (Beziers). Some of the
earlier writers doubted that such a mint existed,2 and recently
Beltran has definitely laid the fancy to rest, suggesting that the coin
was a specimen of Eliberri misread, retouched or falsified.3
C. Ispali.
140(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* VVITTERICVSREX * PIVSISPALI
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 18 (1.48).
1 Probable errors in transcription.
2 E.g., Heiss, p. 46, Campaner, loc. cit.
3 Beltran, p. 407; cf. Madrid, p. 233, note 249, Mateu y Llopis, Ampurias
1941, p. 90, note 1. Reinhart properly omits the supposed mint from his table
(p. 100).
BAETICA
245
(b) . * VVITTERICVSRE+ Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16082 (/18,1.47). Pirate VH, 12
2. HSA 16086 ( j 18,1.34, damaged).1
3. Madrid, no. 210*" = Velazquez, no. 57 (Leyrens) =
Giisseme, VI, p. 618, no. 3. (1.49).
4. Madrid.no. 211* (1.40).
5. Le Gentilhomme, no. 21* = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 11* =
Mahudel, pi. 12, no. 16* = Reinhart, Ampurias 1944,
pi. I, no. 3* (1.53).
6. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi.
l,21*).
7. VQR no. 5075 = Heiss, no. 12* = Trait, fig. 116*
(1.40).
8. Ferreira, no. 22 (1.46).
9. Florez, p. 219* = Masdeu, p. 15.
(c) . * VVITTERICVSRE- Reverse as (a).
1. VQR no. 5076 = (probably) Meynaerts, no. 22 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 4 = Heiss, no. 12a (1.51).
2. Berlin, no. 22 = Bourgey, no. 307* = Hess, June 1922,
no. I11* = Rackus, fig. 30*.
3. Marques de LI., no. 1499* (1.50).
(d) . * VVITTERICVSRE Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid.no. 209* (1.47).
2. Augustin, p. 319 = Masdeu, p. 15.
For a supposed issue with HISPALIPIVS, see forgeries, p. 464.
LUSITANIA
A. Caliabria.
141. Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* VITTIRI//////E //////CALIABRIAP/////3
1. Madrid, no. 312* - Velazquez, no. 59 (Leyrens)
Florez, p. 221* (Gabriel) = Giisseme, VI, p. 618, no. 1 =
Masdeu, p. 312 = Heiss, no. 4* = Beltran, Suevia, no. 20
- Russell Cortez, p. 72 = Madrid, p. 362*.
1 One of the two HSA specimens is ex Cervera.
1 Not RE, as transcribed in the text.
3 There are several differences among the various transcriptions of the
legends, and Mateu's transcription is normalized without indicating the
missing portions. I have copied what I can see in Mateu's plate.
246
WITTERIC
B. Elvora.
142(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* VVITTIRICVSRE * TVSELVORAI V</>
1. HSA 16081 (X 19,1.51). Plate VII, 13
2. HSA 16095 ( I 19.1.51).1
3. Madrid, no. 305*1 = Fernandez-Guerra, PI. I (1.47).
4. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4633 = Mateu y Llopis, Esto-
colmo, no. 21* (1.37).
5. Heiss, no. 9* = Thomsen, no. 1096.
6. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 104 (Coll. Elias Garcia).
7. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 304 (1.50).
8. Inst, de Valencia, no. 33*.
(b) . Obverse as (a). * TVSELVORAIVS
1. Schrotter, pi. 8, no. 126*.
2. Florez, p. 221*.
(c) . As (a)-(b), but form of final S uncertain.
1. O'Crouley, p. 524.3
(d) . * VVITTERICVSRE * ELVORAIVSTVS4
1. La Capilla, no. 61 (Chinchilla).
(e) . * VVITTIRICVSREX * TVSELVRAIVS
1. Marques de LI., no. 1498* (1.44).
Covarrubias' description5 of a triens with reverse, ELBORAPIVSis
undoubtedly mistaken.
C. Emerita.
143(a). Facing bust Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
* VVITTIRICVSREX * EMERE|T|APIVS
1. Madrid, no. 261* = Adquisiciones en 1932, p. 4, no. IV
(1.50).
1 One of the two HSA specimens is ex Cervera.
2 S of IVS not so markedly on its side.
3 Probable errors in transcription.
4 One cannot be certain that the order of the letters has not been normalized
in transcription. If so, and if E in the king's name is an error for I, then this
specimen would be one of the HSA pieces described above; in view of the
relationship Chinchilla-Cervera-HSA, this is more than likely.
5 Covarrubias (ed. 1606), p. 491.
LUSITANIA 247
(1>). * VVITTIRICVSRE + Eeverse as (a).
1. HSA 16083 (| 18,1.50). Plate VII, 14
2. HSA 16084 (
18,1.49).
3. Teixeira, no. 3391 = Heiss, no. 10*.
(c) . As (a)-(b), but form of X uncertain.
1. Velazquez, no. 58 (Infantas) = Gusseme, VI, p. 618,
no. 2.
(d) . Obverse as (b). * EMERE|T|APIV</>
1. Florez, p. 220* (S. Ildefonso) = Merino, pi. 16, no. 6**
= Masdeu, p. 333.
(e) . * VVITTERICVSRE+ Reverse as (d).
1. HSA 16085 (/18.1.48).3 Plate VII, 15
2. Johns Hopkins (Schulman, 1922) (17,1.45).
3. Stuttgart, no. 1342.
4. Inst, de Valencia, no. 32* (S of reverse nearly upright).
(f) . Obverse as (e). * EMERITAPIVS
1. Ferreira, no. 21 (1.46).
(g) . * VVITTERICVSREX * EMERETAPIVS
1. Grierson Coll. (ex Reinhart Coll., no. 20) (1.51).
(h) . Obverse as (e), but form of X Reverse as (a).
uncertain.
1. VQR no. 5073 = Campaner, 1866, no. 3.
2. Lisbon, no. 12.*
3. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 30 (Coll. Ant6nio Marrocos).
4. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 305 (1.45).
(i) . Obverse lettering uncertain. Reverse as (f).
1. Meynaerts, no. 23 = Heiss, no. 10a.5
2. Severim, p. 153.
(j). * WITTERICVSRE * EMERI|T|APIVS
1. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 32 (Cat. Maria Guimermina
de Jesus, Jan. 1902, no. 1144).
1 +of RE+ omitted from transcription.
* Completely inaccurate drawing.
3 This specimen lacks the pellets on the obverse bust. One of the three HSA
specimens (see above) is ex Cervera.
* "EM ERE LA," probably an error in transcription. Weight given as 0.46
(for 1.46 ?).
* This description should perhaps be rejected. As Meynaerts' collection went
to the BM and VQR, this piece should turn up in one of these collections, but
it is in neither. Perhaps it is VQR no. 5073, (h), above.
248
WITTERIC
D. Eminio.
144. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 5 l.
* VVITTIR CVS: * IMINIOPIV</>
1. Stuttgart, no. 1344 = Russell Cortez, p. 72.1 Plate VU, 16
E. Salmantica.*
145. Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* VVITTIRICVSRE * SALAMANTICA3
1. Madrid, no. 313* = Ballesteros, I, p. 858 (1.49).
GALLAECIA
A. Arros.
146. Facing bust. Type 5 v. Facing bust. Type 5 v, vari-
Pellets right and left of bust. ation.
* viittiricsr; *svsarrospio
1. VQR no. 5069 = Meynaerts, no. 21 = Campaner, 1866,
no. 1 = Heiss, no. 22* = Beltran, Suevia, no. 11 =
Madrid, p. 379* (1.45).
B. Borgancia.
147. Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* VITTIRICV2RE * BERJANCIAMVS*
1. HSA 16094 (ex Cervera) = La Capilla, no. 67 (| 21,
1.48).s Plate VHT, 1
2. VQR no. 5070 = Heiss, no. 2* = Beltran, Suevia, no. 19
= Madrid, p. 372* (1.44).
1 Reinhart, p. 100, lists Eminio as a mint under Witteric. Whether he refers
to the Stuttgart specimen or another is not known.
a Salmantica as a mint under Witteric is omitted from the table in Reinhart,
p. 101.
3 The second A is omitted from the transcription in the Madrid catalogue,
although it is clear in the plate.
4 At first glance the N on the HSA specimen looks like II, but with a strong
glass one can detect the diagonal stroke. The form of the G on the VQR
specimen, as given by Heiss, is Q. I failed to check it when I examined the
collection in Paris.
8 According to Fernandez y L6pez (p. 37), this was one of the coins sent to
Madrid by Pujol y Camps. The former did not see the coin and was not certain
GALLAECIA
249
C. Bracara.
148. Facing bust. Type 7. Facing bust. Type 5 n, vari-
ation.
* VVITTIRICVSRE * BRACARAPIVS
1. Ferreira, no. 19 = Heiss, no. 3* = Russell Cortez, p. 72
= Madrid, p. 373* (1.45).
D. Catora.
149. Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
* VV:T:RICV:RE * CATORA:PIV[2]
1. VQR no. 5071 = Boudard, p. 349* = Campaner, 1866,
no. 2 = Heiss, no. 5* = Beltran, Suevia, no. 12 =
Madrid,p. 380* (1.341).
E. Flavas.
150. Facing bust. Type 5 j. As obverse.
*VVITTIRICSR *FLAbA</>PI</>
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 34* = Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos
IV, pi. VI, 12* = Beltran, Suevia, pp. 151, 161, and
no. 13 (then property of Guillermo Osmo) = Mateu y
Llopis, Ampurim 1945-46, p. 473 = Beltran, p. 414* =
Russell Cortez, p. 72.
F. Fraucello.
151. Types unknown.
* VVITTERICVSR3 FRAVCELLOP
1. Campaner, p. 562 = La Capilla, no. 5, p. 67 (Fernandez
y Gonzalez) = Beltran, Suevia, no. 18.
of the details of the legends (which is evident, because he transcribes VVIT-
TERICVSREX and PIVSBERGANClA). Pio Beltran has written me that there
was probably only one specimen in the hoard and this was acquired by Chin-
chilla, although according to other reports a specimen went to Vidaurre of
Madrid. The HSA piece is undoubtedly Chinchilla's and was probably the only
one in the hoard.
1 Campaner gives 1.10 as the weight.
1 Beltran points out that he had originally (in Suevia) misattributed the
coin to Calabacia.
3 Beltran gives * WITTIRICV- R: and * FRACELLO.
250
WITTERIC
G. Georres.
152(a). Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse, but one pellet
Three pellets at right of bust. each side of bust.
* VVITTIRICVRE * CEORRE2PIVoo
l.HSA 16091 (ex Cervera) = Beltran, Suevia, no. 14
(| 18,1.41). Plate VIII, 2
(b). * VVITTIRICV:RE *QEORRE2PIV</>
No pellets. No pellets.
1. VQR no. 5074 = Campaner, 1866, no. 71 = Heiss, no.
11* = Beltran, Suevia, no. 14 = Madrid, p. 376* (1.44).
2. Campaner, 1866, no. 7 (N. Vera, Seville).
H. Laetera.
153(a). Facing bust. Type 5 l. As obverse.
* VVITTIRICVSRE * LAETERAPIVS
1. Teixeira, no. 340 = Heiss, no. 13* = Russell Cortez,
p. 72 = Madrid, p. 372*.
(b). Details lacking.
1. Hiibner, Deutsche Litteraturzeitung, col. 501.z
I. Lauruclo.
154. Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
* VVITTIRICVooR * LAVRVCLOPIV2X
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. I,
22*) = Heiss, no. 13a* = Campaner, p. 212, note 4 =
Beltran, Suevia, no. 15 = Bouza Brey, Laurencio, p. 361
= Bouza Brey, Lauruclo y Vallearitia, p. 258 (1.40).
Mateu y Llopis attributes Inst, de Valencia, no. 171*, to Witteric
at Lucu (transcribed *VETIECVS and LVCV PIVSV), but to judge by
the debased style and the reverse type (cross-on-steps), as evident in
the plate, the coin certainly cannot be an issue of Witteric. I cannot
read the legends in the illustration.
1 Campaner read the mint as SEOBRES.
! A specimen mounted on a ring seen by Hiibner in Braga.
GALLAECIA 251
J. Nandolas.
155. Facing bust. Type 6 a, variant. Facing bust. Type 5 n, var-
iant.
* VVITTIRICV2RES * NANDLASPIVS
1. Carles-Tolra, no. 1006* (1.50).
2. Reinhart Coll., no. 21 = Russell Cortez, p. 72 (1.41).
K. Oliovasio.
156. Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* VVITTIRICVSRE1 * OUO WVovOVS
1. VQR, no. 5077 = Piot, p. 271* = Meynaerts, no. 19 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 6 = Heiss, no. 15* = Beltran,
Suevia, no. 21 = Madrid, p. 377* (1.03).
L. Palentucio.
157. Facing bust. Type 5 q. Facing bust. Type 5 1.
* WTT R CVSRE+ * PAL-:NTVCIOP:VS
1. VQR no. 5078 = Heiss, no. 16* = Russell Cortez, p. 72
= Madrid, p. 372* (1.60). Plate VIII, 3
M. Pannonias.
158(a). Facing bust. Type 7. Facing bust. Type 5 1.
* VVITTIRICV2REX * PANNONIASPI:S
1. Reinhart, 1937, pi. XXXVII, 26* (Casa da Moeda,
formerly Camara Municipal, Lisbon) = Russell Cortez,
p. 70, pi. XX, 21*. Plate VIII, 4
(b). Description lacking.
1. Russell Cortez, p. 72 (Coll. Bosch).
N. Tude.
Type A
159(a). Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 5 e.
* VVITTIRICVSRE *TVDEPIVS:
1. Heiss, no. 21* (Dos Santos) = Beltran, Suevia, no. 17 =
Madrid, p. 374*.
1 Heiss has FE in place of RE, but the engraving in Piot shows that this
letter is partly off the flan and is probably R.
252 WITTERIC
(b). Types not described.
Legend as (a). TVDEPIVS
1. Bias, no. 8.
2. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Coll. Nieport).
Type B
160. Facing bust. Type 8 c.1 Facing bust. Type 5 e.
* VVITTIRICVSRE *TVtEIVSTVS
1. VQR no. 5082 = Heiss, no. 20* = Campaner, 1873, p. 52 =
Beltran, Suevia, no. 16 (1.58).
0. Vallearitia.
161. Facing bust. Type 5 n. As obverse, but with cres-
cents at either side of neck
* VVITIRICVSRE* * VALLEARITIA
1. Madrid, no. 315* = Bouza Brey, Valencia, p. 304 =
Bouza Brey, Lauruclo y Vallearitia, pp. 258-262 =
Russell Cortez, p. 72 (1.27).
1 Lacking the pellets on the bust.
GUNDEMAR
A. D. 609-612
TARRACONENSIS
A. Cesaragusta.
162(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*CONdEMARVSRE * CE:AR:CO:TAIVO
1. Florez, p. 227 (Acad, de la Hist.)1 = Masdeu, p. 17 =
Heiss, no. 1*.
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 35*.
(b). *C ONdEMARVSR: * CE:AR:CO:TAIV: O
1. HSA 16098 (ex Cervera) (| 20,1.46). Plate VIII, 5
B. Sagunto.
163. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*6VNDEMARVSREX * SAC VNTOIVSTV:
1. Gab. Num. de Cataluna, no. 9902, ex Bosch y Alsina
(Mateu y Llopis, Ampurias 1941, p. 90*) = Madrid,
p. 284, note 288 = Mateu y Llopis, Inscripciones, no.
456a = Beltran, p. 388 (1.47).
Mateu y Llopis2 argues effectively for the genuineness of this piece.
C. Tarracona.
164(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*q-OHt>EMARVSRE * TARRACO:AIV:
1. HSA 16759 (| 19,1.47). Plate VHI, 6
2. Madrid, no. 87* = Florez, p. 226* (Gabriel) = Masdeu,
p. 343 = Heiss, no. 3* = Botet y Sis6, Noticia, pi. V,
1 Apparently to judge by Mateu y Llopis' inventory, no longer in the
collection of the Academia.
! Ampurias 1941, p. 90, note 2; cf. Inscripciones, loc cit.
254
GUNDEMAR
29* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, nos. 23* and 25*1
(1.47).
3. Madrid, no. 88* (Basilio Sebastian Castellanos de
Losada) = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 24* (1.45).
4. VQRdo. 5083.
(b) . * COM>EMARVSRE * TARRAC:AIV:
1. Soares, no. 1.736, p. 130* (1.42).
(c) . *C-OH:OMARVSRE * TARRACO:AIV: O:
1. Schulman, March 1930, no. 329* = ( ?) Mateu y Llopis,
Tarragona, no. 26* (F. Stefan) and 27* (Schulman).*
(d) . *C-OWYEMARVSRE * TARRACOAIVO:
1. Augustin, p. 272 = Velazquez, no. 63 = Espaha Sagrada,
vol. 24, p. 337 = Giisseme, HI, p. 401 = Mateu y Llopis,
Tarragona, no. 28.
D. Tirasona.
165(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*C-ONqEMARVSRI * TIRA:ONEIVTO
1. BM no. 19A = Sotheby, July 16,1850, no. 356 = Heiss,
no. 4* ( 20,1.44). Plate VIII, 7
(b). *COHbEMARV:R *TIRA:OHEIO:
1. BM no. 20A (acquired 1860) = Heiss, no. 5* = Madrid,
p. 280* (\ 20,1.50).
CARTHAGENENSIS
A. Mentesa.
166(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*6VNt>EMARVSRE* *MEHTESAPIVS
1. HSA 16096 (ex Cervera) = Campaner, p. 212, note 5 (/ 18,1.43). Plate VIII, 8
1 This specimen in the Madrid collection is surely the one published by
Florez. Mateu has confused the identity by giving it two entries in his Tarra-
gona, one illustrated by the photograph in his Catdlogo, the other by Florez'
(Heiss') drawing. Heiss transcribed IVS:, but in Florez it is clear that what
Heiss took to be S is an incomplete O. The letter S in place of O does appear to
be present on a specimen below (b). Mateu is mistaken in equating this
specimen with Espaiia Sagrada, vol. 24, p. 337 (p. 226), which is the one first
published by Augustin.
2 This appears to be another duplicated reference. The illustration in
Schulman shows that Mateu's no. 27 is not correctly transcribed; also, appar-
ently, that Stefan acquired the Schulman specimen.
BAETICA 266
(b). Types as above?
*GVNDEMARVSRE * MENTESAPIVS
1. Reinhart Coll. (communicated Nov. 1951) (1.42).
B. Toleto.
167. Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* 6VNDEMARVSREX * TOLETOPIVco
1. HSA 16089 (| 18,1.42). Plate VIII, 9
2. Madrid, no. 128* = Campaner, 1866, no. 1 = Heias, no.
5" (1.30, frgs. lacking).
3. Inst, de Valencia, no. 36*.
BAETICA
A. Eliberri.
168(a). Types not illustrated, but "ordinary."
*GVNDEMARVSREX * PIVSELIBERRI
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 108r = Velazquez, no. 62 = Florez,
p. 226 = Gusseme, III, p. 401, no. 2 = Heiss, no. la.
(b). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* 6VNDEMARVSRE Legend as (a).
1. Carles-Tolra, no. 1008* (1.60).
2. Grierson Coll. (ex Miinzen u. Medaillen) (\ 1.47, same
dies as no. 1 ?).* Plate VIII, 10
3. Reinhart Coll., no. 25 (1.44).
B. Ispali.
Type A
169(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*CVNPEMARV2REX * IcoPALlPIVZ
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 24 = Reinhart, 1937, pi. XXXVII,
24* = idem, Germanen-Erbe, p. 72, no. 9* = idem,
Ampurias 1944, pi. I, no. 4* (1.47). Plate VIII, 11
1 In Heiss the legends are transcribed GVND'MARVS etc., T'LETO etc.;
but the illustration in Madrid shows that the dots represent letters missing due
to the fragmentary state of the coin.
4 This specimen apparently was formerly in Reinhart's collection.
256
GUNDEMAR
(b) . * C VN >EMARV2RE* * I2PALIPIV2-
1. Boons, no. 1.735, p. 130 (1.50).
(c) . *GVNDEMARVSREX- * ISPALIPIVS1
1. La Capilla, no. 8 (Fernandez y Gonzalez).
(d) . * <JVNDEMARV2RE * I2PALIPIV2-
1. Heiss, no. 2* (Acad, de la Hist.) (1.50).*
(e) . * GVNDEMARVSRE3 * ISPALIPIVS
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V (Museo de Belem, Lisbon).
2. Ferreira, no. 25 (1.24).*
Type B
170. Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*CVNAEMARVSRE * PIVSISPALI
1. Cabinet des Medailles.
LUSITANIA
A. Elvora.
171. Facing bust. Type? As obverse.
* GVNDEMARVSRE * TVSELVRAIVS
1. Dias, no. 9.
B. Emerita.
172(a). Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*VNDEMARVSREX * EMERE|T|APIVS
1. Lonja del Almid6n, no. 695*.5
2. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 34 (Coll. Elias Garcia).
(b) . Facing bust. Type? Facing bust. Type?
* GVNDEMARVSRE * EMERITAPIVS
1. La Capilla, no. 7, p. 69 (Fernandez y Gonzalez) =
Campaner, p. 562.
(c) . * GVNDEMARVSRE * EMERETAPIVS
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 23 (1.46).
1 Forms of letters uncertain.
2 Apparently not now in the Academia.
3 Forms of letters uncertain.
4 Is this perhaps the same specimen as no. 1?
5 The X of REX very small and obscure; it is lacking in the transcription.
GALLAECIA
GALLAECIA
A. Nandolas.
173. Types unknown.
GVNDEMARVSRE MANDOLAPIVS
1. Coll. E. Niepoort (communicated by Wm. Reinhart).
17 Visigoth
SISEBUT
A. D. 612-621
TARRACONENSIS
A. Cesaragusta.
Type A
174(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSREx * CE:AR:CO:TAIV: O
1. HSA 16100 ( | 20,1.42).
2. HSA 16101 ( | 19,1.37).
3. HSA 16102 (I 19.1.44).1 Plate VHI, 12
4. VQR no. 5086* = Campaner, 1866, no. 1 = Heiss, no. 2a
(1.41).
(b). *SISEBVTVSRE+ * CE:AR:C-0:TAIVS
1. VQR no. 5085 = Heiss, no. 2* (1.35).
Type B
175. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSRE* /?\CE:AR:C-0:TAIVS-
1. HSA 16104 (ex Cervera) ( \ 19,1.41). Plate VIII, 13
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 37*.
B. Sagunto.
176. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSREX * SAC VNTOIVSTV:0
1. Mateu y Llopis, Ampurias 1941, p. 91* (Miguel Marti
Esteve)2 = Campaner, 1866, no. 4 = Heiss, no. 9s*
(Jose Llanos, Valencia) = Mateu y Llopis, Inscripciones,
under no. 456a = Beltran, p. 388.
Mateu y Llopis and Beltran agree that this coin is authentic.3
1 One of the above three specimens is ex Cervera.
2 The interesting "pedigree" of the coin is given here.
3 See Ampurias, 1941, p. 91, note 1, and Beltran, loc.cit.
TARRACONENSIS
259
C. Tarracona.
Type A
177(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSREX * TARR:C:AIV::
1. HSA 16128 ( \ 19.1.52).1 Plate VIII, 14
(b) . Obverse as (a). * TARRACO:AIVO:
1. VQR no. 5091* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 39.
(c) . * SISEBVTVSRE+ Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16115 19,1.42, same rev. die as HSA 16128,
(a), above). Plate IX, 1
2. Ferreira, no. 30 (probably) (1.44),
(d) . Obverse as (c). * TARR:CO:AIVO:
1. VQR no. 5090 = Campaner, 1866, no. 5 = Heiss, no. 10*
= Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 29* (1.40).
2. Madrid, no. 89* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 30*
(1.50).
(e) . Obverse as (c). Reverse as (b).
1. BM no. 5 (Banks Coll.) ( | 19,1.42).
2. Ferreira, no. 29 (1.43).
(f) . Obverse as (a), form of X Reverse as (a).
uncertain.
1. Teixeira, no. 345 = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 40.
2. Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 31 (Antonio Ellas).
(g) . Obverse as (f). * TARR:COIVSTO
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Coll. Nieport).
Type B
178(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSRE+ * C :IV:TTARR:
1. HSA 16129 (| 19,1.50). Plate IX, 2
(b). Obverse as (a). * COIV: TOTARR-
1. VQR no. 5092 = Heiss, no. 11* = Mateu y Llopis,
Tarragona, no. 37* (1.42).
2. Berlin, no. 26 ("L. Hamburger, XI, 1926").
1 This specimen, or HSA 16115 (below), is ex Cervera.
It*
260 SISEBUT
(c). Obverse as (a). * COIV:T [?]TARR:1
1. Gab. Num. de Cataluna, no. 9910 (Mateu y Llopis,
Tarragona, no. 33*) (1.43).
(d) . Obverse as (a). * COIV:TOTARR-
1. Gab. Num. de Cataluna, no. 9909 (Mateu y Llopis,
Tarragona, no. 34*) (1.40).
2. Ferreira, no. 28 (prob. as above) (1.33).
(e) . Obverse as (a). * COIVSTOTARR:2
1. Gab. Num. de Cataluna, no. 9911 (Mateu y Llopis,
Tarragona, no. 32*) (1.33).
(I). Obverse as (a). * COIVSTOTARR"2
1. Florez, p. 234* = Espaiia Sagrada, vol. 24, p. 338* =
Gusseme, VI, p. 221 Heiss, no. 11a = Mateu y Llopis,
Tarragona, nos. 38 and 413.
(g). Obverse as (a), form of
X uncertain. * CIV:TTARR-
1.-3. La Capilla, no. 13 (Fernandez y Gonzalez).
D. Tirasona.
179. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSRE * TI/?AOHAIV2
1. VQR no. 5093 = Heiss, no. 12* = ( ?) Campaner, 1866,
no. 6 (Coll. "late" Gen. Pineiro) = Madrid, p. 280*
(1.40).
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Acci.
180. Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*2l2EBVTVooRi * IV2TV~ACCI
1. HSA 16103 (ex Cervera, ex La Capilla) = Campaner,
p. 566 ( | 19,1.44). Piate IX, 3
2. -3. Two other specimens from La Capilla, formerly in
Cervera collection.4
1 The photograph is scarcely legible.
2 The second O is incomplete.
3 Mateu lists the Florez and EspaiiaSagrada references as distinct specimens,
but I imagine they describe the same coin.
4 There is no Sisebut-Acci issue listed in Campaner's or Fernandez y Lopez'
analysis of the hoard, nor is there an entry in Beltran's list. However, Beltran's
inventory of Cervera's collection compiled from Vives' rubbings records three
specimens, all from La Capilla.
CARTHAGINENSIS
261
B. Mentesa.
Type A
181(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. Facing bust. Type 5 g.
* SISEBVTVSRE * PIVSMENTESA
1. BM no. 4 = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1185 = Heiss, no.
8* ( | 19,1.46, pierced). Plate IX, 4
(b). * SISEBVTVSR: Reverse as (a).
1. Florez, p. 229* (Nava).
Type B
182. Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
/////ISEBVTVSR////// * PIVSM////////ESA
1. HSA 16127 (| 19,1.05, approx. 1/3 of coin lacking). Plate IX, 5
C. Toleto.
183(a). Facing bust. Type 5 d. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSREX fcTOLETOPIV^1
1. HSA 16116 ( \ 18,1.51).
2. HSA 16132 ( | 18,1.50).
3. HSA 16133 (\ 18,1.49).
4. HSA 16135 ( \ 18,1.47).* Plate IX, 6
5. BM no. 6 = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1183 ( | 19,1.46).
6. Madrid, no. 129* = Velazquez, no. 64 (Leyrens) =
Florez, p. 228* (Gabriel) = Gusseme, VI, p. 221, no. 10
(1.47).
7. Le Gentilhomme, no. 25* = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 14* =
Mahudel, pi. 12, no. 21* (1.48).
8. Johns Hopkins (Wayte Raymond, 1923) (17,1.47).
9. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4638 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 22* (1.51).
10. VQR no. 5094 = Piot, no. 2* = Meynaerts, no. 25 =
Heiss, no. 13* (1.49).
11. -12. La Capilla, no. 14 (Fernandez y Gonzalez).
13. Reinhart Coll., no. 29 (1.41).
14. Berlin, no. 27 = Bourgey, no. 308*.
15. Inst, de Valencia, no. 38* (S of reverse more nearly ver-
tical).
1 The loop of the P is usually far removed from the vertical member.
1 One of the four HSA specimens is ex Cervera.
262
SISEBUT
(b) . * SISEBVTVSRE+ * TOLETOPIVS
1. Ferreira, no. 31 (1.52).
(c) . Legends?
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgas VI, no. 390 (found at Alma-
tret, Lerida).
BAETICA
A. Barbi.
184(a). Facing bust. Type? Facing bust. Type?
fcSISEBVTVSRE1 * PIVSBARBI
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 26 = Madrid, p. 322, note 328 (1.41).
(b). * SISEBVTVSRI Reverse as (a).
1. La Capilla, no. 9, p. 71 = Campaner, p. 562.
B. Cordoba.
185. Facing bust. Type 9 b. As obverse.
*SISIBOTVSRI *CORAOBAPIV2
1. HSA 16105 (ex Cervera) = Campaner, p. 213, note 2
(| 19,1.51). Plate IX, 7
C. Eliberri.
186(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSRE * PIVSEHBERI
1. HSA 16106 # (ex Cervera) = Campaner, p. 562" = La
Capilla, no. 10 (Fernandez y Gonzalez) (| 19,1.49). Plate IX, 8
2. Freeman Coll.
3. Augustin, p. 321 = Velazquez, no. 65 = Florez, p. 230
= Gusseme, VI, p. 221,no. 7 = Masdeu, p. 332.3
1 Mateu y Llopis has REX, but Reinhart's list shows RE.
2 Campaner transcribed REX and ELIBER, but as there was only one
specimen in the hoard of La Capilla, and the HSA specimen not only shows
traces of soil which I have concluded is that characterizing the hoard specimens
in the HSA collection but also belonged to Cervera, I propose that Campaner's
transcriptions are in error and that we have here the specimen of La Capilla.
3 Sometimes transcribed E LIBERRI. Florez remarks equivocally that in the
"originales" and the "copias mas puntuales" (sic !), there are two R's.
BAETICA
263
(b). Obverse as (a).
* PIVSELIBERRI
1. VQR no. 5088* = Campaner, p. 213, note 3.
2. Heiss, 1891, p. 101* (Ferreira) = ( ?) Campaner, p. 213,
note 3.1
(e). Obverse as (a).
1. Heiss, no. 3a* (Dos Santos).*
(d) . Obverse as (a).
1. Ferreira, no. 27 (1.34).
(e) . Obverse as (a).
* PIVSELIBERR:
(cross incomplete)
PIVSELIBERR-.-
PIVSEL:BERRI-:
1. Ferreira, no. 26 = Campaner, p. 213, note 3 (1.33).
D. Ispali.
187(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e.
*S!SEBVTVSRE
As obverse.
* ISPALIPIVS
1. HSA 16121 (| 20,1.50). Plate IX, 9
2. HSA 16244 # ( X 19,1.51).
3. HSA 16376 # (I 20,1.53).
4. HSA 16418 # (| 20,1.52).
5. Madrid, no. 212* = Velazquez, no. 66 (Leyrens)
(1.44).
6. BM no. 3 (Banks Coll.) (1 19,1.49, clipped).
7. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4636 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 23* (1.51).
8. Stuttgart, no. 1346.
9. Carles-Tolra, no. 1009* (1.50).
10. Granada, pi. XXXVII, no. 1* (p. 133) = Mateu y Llopis,
HaUazgos III, no. XCIII.
11. Augustin, p. 320 = Masdeu, p. 335.
12. Florez, p. 229*.
13. LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 13*.
14. Hoffmann, 1898, no. 2522.
15. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2148* (1.50).
(b). Obverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 214* (1.50).
* ISPALIPIVS-
1 One cannot be certain of the equivalence proposed. Campaner transcribes
ELI BERRv and EL: BERRI': (see (e), below) for the two Ferreira specimens he
mentions, but none like the Ferreira specimen illustrated by Heiss. I suggest
that Campaner misread this specimen. The lettering of these coins (particularly
the E's and other multi-punch letters) is frequently obscure.
'I do not understand why Heiss later (1891) says, "On n'avait pas encore
publie de monnaie de Sisebut, emise dans cette ville."
264
SISEBUT
(c) . Obverse as (a). * ISPALIPIVS-
1. HSA 16120 (| 20,1-48).
2. HSA 16124 # (ex Cervera, La Capilla) ( J. 19,1.52, same
obv. die as no. 1).
3. HSA 16426 # (ex Cervera, La Capilla) (/19.1.57, same
obv. die as No. 181(a)3). Plate IX, 10
4. Reinhart Coll., no. 27 = Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 9* = idem,
Ampurias 1944, pi. I, 5* (1.49).
(d) . * -SISEBVTVSRE Reverse as (c).
1. HSA 16416 #( | 20,1.49). Plate IX, 11
2. Madrid, no. 213* (1.44).
3. Merino, pi. 16, no. 10*.
4. Berlin, no. 39 ("Ball Nachf.").
(e) . * -SISEBVTVSRE- Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16125 # ( / 20,1.46). Plate IX, 12
(f) . Obverse as (e). Reverse as (c).
1. HSA 16110 # (| 20,1.51). Plate IX, 13
2. HSA 16111 #( | 19,1.50, same dies as no. 1).
3. HSA 16123 ( X 19,1.45, same dies as no. 1).
4. HSA 16126 ( I 20,1.49, same dies as no. 1, mended). Plate IX, 14
5. HSA 16427 # ( /19,1.52, same dies as no. 1).
6. HSA 16122 # ( / 19.1.46).1 Plate IX, 15
7. Madrid, no. 215* (1.47).
8. Madrid, no. 216* (1.50).
9. Copenhagen, no. 8 = Thomson, no. 1098 (1.48).
10. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4635 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 24* (1.50).
11. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV,
pi. I, 24*).
12. Le Gentilhomme, no. 24* = (probably) Mahudel, pi. 12,
no. 20* (1.47).
1 This specimen has two curious flat, circular, tooled copper excrescence
about 1/8 inch apart on the surface of the reverse between the head and the
cross. There are faint traces of "La Capilla soil" adhering to the coin. These
two elements open a wide field of speculation. It is unlikely, given the nature of
the rest of the hoard, in which there are many specimens from the same dies,
implying that many of the coins remained together almost from the time they
were issued by the mint, that any mounting was attempted before burial. And
indeed the shiny appearance of the copper suggests that the excrescences are
the result of fairly recent tampering (but not more recent than, say, 1900). It
would seem rather that some of the specimens of the La Capilla hoard were
mounted by a jeweller( perhaps by Saturnino Fernandez) after the discovery
of the hoard and before their acquisition by Mr. Huntington. This conclusion
finds support in the presence of the mended piece (HSA 16126) with its three
copper clamps on the edge which hold the cracked coin together. This coin is
from the same dies as four others, three of which show "La Capilla soil," and
one may be almost certain that it also is from the hoard.
BAETICA
265
13. Freeman Coll.
14. VQR no. 5089* = (?) Meynaerts, no. 26 = Heiss, no.
7a.1
15. Ratto, no. 2435*.
16. Berlin, no. 25 = Hess, June 1922, no. 112* = Rackus,
fig. 31*.
17. Inst, de Valencia, no. 39*.
(g) . * 2ISEBVTVSRE- Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 8094 ( \ 19,1.45). Plate IX, 16
2. HSA 16437 # ( \ 19,1.49).
3. Heiss, no. 7* (VQR ?) (1.49).a
(h) . As (a)-(g), but points and form of letters uncertain.
I.-19. La Capilla, no. 12 (19 specimens unaccounted for among
the HSA specimens above: Fernandez y Gonzalez).
20. O'Crouley, p. 383.3
21. Teixeira, no. 344.
22. -23. Velazquez, no. 66 (Trabuco, Infantas) = Giisseme,
VI, p. 24, no. 6.
24. Museo Episcopal de Vich (Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona,
p. 51, note 6).
25. Reinhart Coll., no. 28 (1.41).
26. Spink, Aug. 1894, no. 16896.
27. -28. Glendining, 1 July 1936, nos. 262-3 (transcribed
REX, but probably RE as all others).
(i) . * SISHBVTVSRE * ISPALIPIVS (?)
1. La Capilla, no. 12 (Chinchilla) = Campaner, p. 562.4
E. Tucci.
188. Facing bust. Type? Facing bust. Type?
* SISEBVTVSRE * IVSTVSTViCI
1.-2. La Capilla, no. 15, p. 77 (Chinchilla and Fernandez y
Gonzalez) = Campaner, p. 562.
1 Heiss no 7a is listed as BM, but there is no like specimen in the BM and I
have assumed V QR no. 5089 was intended.
1 Not in VQR collection.
3 Obvious errors in transcription.
4 It is not altogether unlikely that Campaner misread one of the specimens
of La Capilla accounted for in the classes above. Pio Beltran's list gives Chin-
chilla one specimen with this legend (similar to Campaner): this, again accord-
ing to Beltran's inventory, would make 12 specimens acquired by Chinchilla,
which is the exact number of HSA specimens on which I believe I detect "La
Capilla soil." Beltran figures a total of 32 La Capilla specimens, including the
present one.
266 SISEBUT
LUSITANIA
A. Coleia.
189. Facing bust. Type 5 e, crude. As obverse.
fcSISEBVTVSREX1 *COLEIAPIAT'
1. VQR, no. 5086* = Campaner, p. 213, note 1 = Engel,
1893, p. 90, no. 2.
B. Egitania.
190. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*SISIBVTVSRE+ *Et7ITAH|l|APIVoo
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 22* = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 15* =
Mahudel, pi. 12, no. 17* = Velazquez, no. 70 = Florez,
p. 232 = Gusseme, VI, p. 221, no. 3 = Masdeu, p. 18 =
Heiss, no. 3* = Madrid, p. 359 * = Elias Garcia, Egitania.
pp. 9, 17 (1.34).
C. Elvora.
191(a). Facing bust. Type 5 d. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSREX * TVSELVORAIVS
1. HSA 16107 (| 18,1.45). Plate IX, 1"
2. HSA 16118 ( I 19,1.48).
3. Madrid, no. 306* (1.47).
4. Florez, p. 231* (Calvelo) = Heiss, no. 4*.
5. Florez, p. 231 (Pimentel).
(b). * SISEBVTVSREX- Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16372 # (ex Cervera ?) = (?) La Capilla, no. 62
(Chinchilla) ( | 19,1.52). PLATE X, 1
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 42*.
D. Emerita.
Type A
192(a). Facing bust. Type 8c Facing bust. Type 7.
*SISEBVTVSRE* * EMERI|T|APIVS
1. HSA 8109 (| 18,1.47).
2. HSA 16119 ( \ 18,1.53). Plate X, 2
3. Copenhagen, no. 7 = Heiss, no. 5* = Thomson, no. 1097 (1.51).
1 V QR has in place of X, but when I examined the coin I noted a faint X.
LUSITANIA
267
4. VQR no. 5087 = (probably) Meynaerts, no. 27 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 2 (1.43).
5. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 35 (Cat. ... Jodo Manuel da
Costa, Coimbra, 1911).
6. Severim, p. 155.
7. O'Crouley, p. 523.
8. Ram6n Martinez, p. 196 (seen in travels).
9. Schulman, Jan. 1929, no. 447.
10. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 306 (1.50).1
(b) . Obverse as (a). * EMERI|T|APIVS*
1. HSA 16108 = (?) La Capilla, no. 11, p. 65 (Chinchilla)
(|19,1.46). . Plate X, 3
2. HSA 16454# = ( ?) La Capilla, no. 11, p. 65 (Chinchilla)
(| 19,1.52).
3. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 46342 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 25* (1.49).
4. Lisbon, no. 13 = Ennes, no. 8 (1.48).
5. Grierson Coll. (ex Reinhart Coll. no. 30) (1.45).
6. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 36 (Coll. Paiva Pessoa).
(c) . Obverse as (a). * EMERE|T|APIVS
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 23*3 = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 12* =
Mahudel, pi. 12, no. 18* (1.51).
2. Friedlaender, 1882, p. 9 (Berlin Museum).
3. Mahudel, pi. 12, no. 19* = Velazquez, no. 68 = Gusseme,
VI, p. 221, no. 4.*
4. Bradley, p. 334*.
5. Inst, de Valencia, no. 40*.
(d) . Obverse as (a). * IMERITAPIVS
1. Teixeira, no. 341.
(e) . * :SISEBVTVSREX: * :EMERE|T|APIVS:
1. BM no. 1 (acquired 1863) = Heiss, no 5a ( | 20,1.50). Plate X, 4
(f) . * SISEBVTVSRE * EMERETAPIVS
1. Augustin, p. 328.
(h). *SESEBVTVSREX Reverse?
1.-2. La Capilla, no. 11 (Fernandez y Gonzalez).
1 Schulman notes "authenticity douteuse," but in view of the fact that there
are, to my knowledge, no forgeries of this mint under Sisebut, and considering
the satisfactory weight, I see no reason to suspect the specimen's authenticity.
2 Wrongly transcribed by Delgado.
3 p, not P.
4 The fantastic transcriptions of the legends on this coin are surely the result
of an attempt to read the very bad drawing in Mahudel. I imagine the original
was an ordinary issue with EMERETA.
268 SISEBUT
(i). Legends uncertain.
1. Teixeira, no. 342.
Type B
193. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7. The
>b SISEBVTVSREx hxxat is smaller than usual
and does not extend into or
interrupt the legend.
* EMERITAPIVS*
1. BM no. 2 (acquired 1856) ( \ 18,1.50). Plate X, 5
Type C
194. Facing bust. Type? Cross on 3 steps.
*SISIBVTVSREX * EMERITAPIVS
1. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 40 (Coll. Elias Garcia).
E. Eminio.
Type A
195(a). Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*SISIBVTVSREX * IMIN|I|0PIVS
1. Madrid, no. 311* = Velazquez, no. 71 (Leyrens) =
Florez, p. 232* (Gabriel) = Gusseme, VI, p. 221, no. 5 =
Masdeu, p. 321 = Heiss, no. 6* = Madrid, p. 360* (1.37).
(b) . Facing bust. Type 8 d. Reverse as (a).
*SISIBVTVSRE+ * IMINI|0|PIVoo
1. HSA 16109 (ex Cervera) (| 18,1.48). Plate X, 6
(c) . Facing bust. "Emeritan type." As obverse (?).
*SISEBVTVSRE * EMINI|0|PIVS
1. Severim, pp. 154-5*.
Type B
196. Types not described.
* SISEBVTVSREX * IMINIOIVSTVS
1. Dias, no. 10.
GALLAECIA
269
F. Lamego.
Facing bust. Type 5 1. Facing bust. Type 5 1,
variant.
*SISEBVTVSRE * LAMEQOPIVS
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4637 = Campaner, 1866, no. 3
= Heiss, no. 7b = Elias Garcia, Lamecum, p. 9* = Mateu
y Llopis, Estocolmo, no. 26* (1.38). Plate X, 7
G. Veseo.
Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*SISEBVTVSREX * VESE|0|PIVS+
1. Teixeira, no. 343 = Heiss, no. 14* (King of Portugal) =
Madrid, p. 361* = Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 12* (Museu
Municipal, Lisbon).1 Plate X, 8
GALLAECIA
A. Bergio.
199. Facing bust. Type 5 n. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSRE * BER6IOPIVS
1. VQR no. 5084 = Piot, no. 1* = Meynaerts, no. 24 =
Heiss, no. 1* = TraiU, fig. 115* = Beltran, Suevia, no.
26 = Madrid, p. 381* (1.31).
2. Florez, p. 234* = Gusseme, VI, p. 221, no. 1 = Masdeu,
p. 323 = Beltran, Suevia, no. 26.
B. Calapa.
200. Facing bust. Type 51. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSRE * CALAt>A'-'PIVS
1. Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 14* (in possession of a resident of
Astorga). Plate X, 9
1 Reinhart'sphotograph closely resembles Heiss'drawing, and I have assum-
ed the two to represent the identical coin.
270
SISEBUT
C. Celo (?).
201. Facing bust. Lusitanian type. Facing bust. Gallaecian
type.
SISEBVTVSRE INCEIOPIVS1
1. EliaB Garcia, "Un triente inedito de Sisebuto," in Alti-
tude (Guarda), No. 4, Apr. 1942, pp. 129-130* = Rein-
hart, p. 101 (cast from Elias Garcia) = Mateu y Llopis,
Nombrea de Luqar, 1942, p. 33, note 14 = Reinhart, Am-
purias 1944, p. 209 = Mateu y Llopis, Anvpurias VII-
VIII (1945-1946), pp. 471-473.
The coin was found near the Roman fortress of Tintinolho, three
kilometers from Guarda, on a height overlooking the valley of the
Mondego and about one kilometer from the locality now known as
Cavadoude.
D. Georres.
202. Facing bust. Type 5 w. Facing bust. Type 5 a.
*SISIBVTV2RE * tflORRESPIVoo
1. Heiss, no. 5b* (Musee de Madrid)3 = Beltran, Suevia,
no. 23 = Madrid, p. 376* (1.30).
E. Laetera.
203. Facing bust. Type 5l. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSREx * LAETERAPIVS
1. HSA 16112 (ex Cervera) (| 18,1.38). Plate X, 10
F. Laure.
204(a). Facing bust. Type 5 o. As obverse.
*SISIBVTVSRE * LAVREPIVS
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 43* = Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 13*
(reverse).*
1 The S's, I judge from Mateu's description, are turned on their sides.
2 I have not seen this article and am acquainted with it only through Ma-
teu's review.
3 Present location unknown?
4 Beltran informs me that Reinhart's pi. 12, no. 13 confuses two coins: the
obverse is Suinthila-Cassavio, the reverse is the present coin. Mateu y Llopis
(Nombres de Lugar, 1942) states that this coin is from the hoard of La Capilla,
but I think this must be an error, for neither Fernandez y L6pez nor Pio Bel-
tran (in the list which he has furnished me) mentions it.
GALLAECIA 271
(b). Obverse as (a), but pellet As obverse,
right and left of bust.
1. Madrid, recent acquisition (communication from Pio
Beltran).
G. Lucu.
205. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 5 e.
*SISIBVTVSRE *LVCVVICTOR
1. HSA 16113 (ex Cervera) = Campaner, p. 213, note 4 =
Beltran, Suevia, no. 22 (j 19,1.56). Plate X, 11
H. Pcsicos.
206. Facing bust. Type 5 o. As obverse.
*SISEBVTVSRE * PESICOSPIVS+
1. Madrid, no. 321* = (probably) Beltran, Suevia, no. 27
(rubbing from Vives) = Ballesteros, I, p. 866* (1.45).
I. Pincia.
207. Facing bust. Type 51. As obverse.
*2I2IBVTV2RE * PIHCIAPIV2
1. HSA 16114 (ex Cervera) = Campaner, p. 213, note 5 =
Beltran, Suevia, no. 24 (| 19,1.26). Plate X, 12
J. Portocale.
208(a). Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 5 e.
*SISIBVTVSREX * PORTOCALEPIV:
1. Madrid, no. 314* = Velazquez, no. 72 (Leyrens) = Flo-
rez, p. 233* (Gabriel) = Gusseme, VI, p. 221, no. 8 =
Masdeu, p. 340 = Heiss, no. 9* = Traiti, fig. 121* =
Madrid, p. 370* = Elias Garcia, Portocale, p. 8(1.45).1
(b). Exact legends uncertain, PORTOCALEPIV
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos VI, no. 408 (property of Jaime
Butina of Banolas).*
1 While Elias Garcia recognizes that Velazquez and Florez were dealing with
the same specimen, he deals with the Madrid specimen separately.
2 This might, of course, be one of the forgeries.
272
SISEBUT
K. Semure.
209. Facing bust. Type 5 1. Facing bust. Type 5 o.
*2I2EPVTV2RE * SIMV-R EfTVS
1. Madrid, no. 322* = Campaner, 1866, no. 7* = Heiss,
no. 15* = Campaner, p. 213, note 6 = Beltran, Suevia,
no. 28 = G6mez-Moreno, Zamora, p. 83 = Beltran, p.
411 (1.50).
Gomez-Moreno is, I believe, in error when he speaks of two coins,
one with SIM VREPIVS and the other with SEM VRE ;x these are simply
two readings of the single specimen in Madrid.
L. Tude.
210(a). Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 5 i.
*SISEBVTVSRE+ * TVfE-IVSTVS
1. HSA 16117 # (ex Cervera) = Campaner, p. 562 = La
Capilla, no. 63, p. 121 (Chinchilla) = Beltran, Suevia,
no. 25 (| 18,1.51). Plate X, 13
(b). Obverse, as (a), variant. Reverse as (a), variant.
* sisebvtvsre: * tvdeivstvs
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 41*.
1 Quoted without comment by Mateu, Caidlogo, p. 383.
SUINTHILA
A.D. 621-631
NARBONENSIS
Narbona.
211. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*SMTILARi *NARbOHA:*
1. VQR no. 5103 = Lelewel, 1836, p. 325* (Chalon) = Piot,
no. 3* = Meynaerts, no. 31 = Boudard, p. 345 = Cam-
paner, 1866, no. 9 = Heiss, no. 13* = Robert, no. 18* =
Belfort, no. 3147*1 = Madrid, p. 236 (1.37).
TARRACONENSIS
A. Calagorre.
212. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
XSVIHTHILARE- * C=A: LAC-ORREIV:
1. VQRno.5095b = Campaner,p.214,note3 = Engel, 1893,
p. 90, no. 4* = Madrid, p. 283*." Plate X, 14
B. Cesaragusta.
213(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
XSVIHTHILAREX3 XCE:AR:CO: TAIV
1. HSA 16150 # (ex Cervera) = La Capilla, no. 22 (Chin-
chilla) ( \ 19,1.36).
2. Madrid, no. 97* (1.26).
1 Belfort implies that there are two specimens (Chalon and VQR), but I
imagine, although the documentary evidence is not available to me, that Vidal
Quadras y Ram6n acquired the Chalon piece and that only one specimen is
known. While none of the drawings can be considered wholly reliable, that in
Piot (i. e., VQR) so closely resembles that in Lelewel (i.e., Chalon) that the
identity seems highly probable.
2 My transcriptions, taken directly from the coin, differ slightly from those
in VQR.
3 The A is usually almost on its side, with the closed portion toward the
right.
13 Vliigotb
274
SUINTHILA
3. Heiss, no. 5* (Stroganoff).
4. La Capilla, no. 22 (Fernandez y Gonzalez).
5. Berlin, no. 30 (provenance unknown).
(b) . Obverse aa (a). XCE:AR:CO:TAIV:
1. Madrid, no. 96* = Campaner, 1866, no. 4 (1.27).
2. VQR no. 5096.
(c) . Obverse as (a). XCE:AR:C O:TAIV
1. Stuttgart, no. 1351.
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 45*.
(d) . Obverse as (a). * CE:AR:CO: TAIVX1
1. Augustin, p. 271 = Velazquez, no. 83 = Florez, p. 241
= Gusseme, VI, p. 255, no. 2*.
(e) . XSVIHTHILAREX- XCE:AR:CO:TAIV:
1. HSA 16149 (\19,1.38). Plate X, 15
(I). XSVIHTHILAREt XCE:AR:CO:TAIVS
1. Madrid, no. 98* = Campaner, 1866, no. 3 = Heiss, no. 5a
= Catdlogo-Guia, pi. X, 3* (1.45).*
(g). Obverse? [X?]CE:AR:CS:TA
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos III, p. 221 (found in Pamp-
lona).4
C. Tarracona.
Type A
214(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*SVINTHILAREX * TARR-C:AIV:
1 Actually this type may not exist: the X supposedly at the end of the
legend may be the cross on its side common to these issues, erroneously repeat-
ed in transcription.
1 Another specimen (or perhaps the same one), wrongly assigned by Augus-
tin to Tarracona, gave rise to Velazquez, no. 82, and Gusseme, VI, p. 255,
no. 9. Cf. Beltran, p. 406.
3 I have no doubt that the specimen cited by Campaner and by Heiss in the
references above is Madrid, no. 98, although neither Campaner nor Heiss men-
tion the "palm" in place of X, and although Heiss' transcription of the reverse
legend does not conform in every particular with respect to the points. Mateu
(p. 278) remarks on the unusual "mark" on the obverse and on the exceptional
color of the gold.
4 This specimen was wrongly assigned to Tarracona in Ampurias 1941, p.
86, note 1.
TARRACONENSIS
275
1. La Capilla, no. 39 (2 specimens ?, Fernandez y Gonzalez,
and Vidaurre ?).'
(b) . *SViNTHILARE- *COIV:TOTARR*
1. HSA 16278 (| 19,1.34).
(c) . *SVINPIHILARE * COIV:TOTARR*
1. HSA 16277 (| 19,1.47). Plate X, 16
2. Florez, p. 240* (at right) = Espana Sagrada, vol. 24,
p. 339* = Heiss, no. 14a* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
nos. 42-43.3
Type B
215(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*SVINTHILAREX *COPIV-TARR-
1. VQR no. 5104 = Heiss, no. 14* = Madrid, p. 267* =
Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 45* (1.25).
(b) . Obverse as (a). * COPIVSTARR-*
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 116v = Velazquez, no. 80 = Mateu
y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 51.
2. Augustin, p. 271 = Velaquez, no. 81 = Masdeu, p. 344 =
Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 52.
(c) . Obverse as (a). * PIVSTARR5
1. Velazquez, no. 79 (Burriel) = Gusseme, VI, p. 255, no. 8
= Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 50.
(d) . * SVINTHILARE+ Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16280 (| 19,1.44). Plate X, 17
2. Madrid, no. 90* = Espana Sagrada, vol. 24, p. 339*
(Perez) = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 47* (errors in
transcription).
1 One cannot be certain that the legends are properly transcribed, nor of the
number or precise ownership of the specimens. Beltran's inventory of the hoard
lists three specimens of the mint under Suinthila in all, including La Capilla,
no. 38 (see no. 215(e)). But another specimen from the hoard is in the Institute
de Valencia de Don Juan (see no. 215(g)).
a Heiss wrongly transcribed SVINPHILARE.
3 Mateu refers to the specimens in Florez and in Espana Sagrada as distinct
coins.
4 Actually this legend is transcribed by the early writers TA R RACO PIVS or
PIVSTARR["]CO, but one can be almost certain that the order of the lettering
is the usual one for these issues.
5 One can only speculate whether this legend is correctly transcribed; prob-
ably not.
IS*
276
SUINTHILA
(e). *SVINTHILARE *COPIV:TARR-
1. HSA 16279 # (ex Cervera?, La Capilla) = ( ?) La Ca-
pilla, no. 38, p. 103 (Chinchilla ?) (| 20.1.43).1 Plate X, 18
2. VQR no. 5105 = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 48.*
(I). Obverse as (e). * COPIVTARR-
1. HSA 16265 (| 20,1.33). Plate XI, 1
2. BM no. 8 (acquired 1849) ( \ 19,1.44).
3. Musee de Toulouse (Roschach, p. 2*) (1.28).
4. Reinhart Coll., no. 40 (1.30).
5. Florez, p. 240* (at left).
(g) . Obverse as (e). * COPIVTARR-
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 44* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
no. 46*.3
(h) . * SVIHTHILARE Reverse as (f).
1. Dumbarton Oaks. Plate XI, 2
(i) . *SINTILARE *TAR:AONAP
1. VQR no. 5106* = Piot, p. 272* = Meynaerts, no. 29 (leg-
ends wrongly transcribed) = Campaner, 1866, no. 10 =
Heiss, no. 14b = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, nos. 44 and
49* (1.33).
1 There is a very marked deposit of "La Capilla soil" on this specimen. Al-
though Fernandez y L6pez' transcription under his no. 38 differs from the leg-
end here (RE: and PIVSTAIAP), -which incidentally gave rise to speculation
regarding an unknown mint, I suspect that the equivalence I have proposed is
correct and that the legends were misread. Although it cannot be proved that
this is Chinchilla's specimen (as Beltran's inventory simply lists the three La
Capilla specimens together, La Capilla, nos. 38-39, and assigns the three to
Fernandez y Gonzalez, Chinchilla and Vidaurre see 214(a), above), the
evident presence of so many of Chinchilla's specimens in Cervera's collection,
supports this identification. A fourth La Capilla specimen, apparently not
provided for in Beltran's list, appears below (215(g)).
! Not Heiss, no. 14, as stated by Mateu.
3 The illustration is scarcely legible; Mateu has REX in transcription, but I
can see no X; the lettering of the reverse is problematical in view of the char-
acter of the reproduction. This specimen, according to Mateu, is from the
hoard of La Capilla. The complications of identifying the La Capilla pieces are
discussed in footnote 1 on p. 275 and footnote 1, above.
4 Mateu lists the same coin (with errors in transcription) under two en-
tries as separate specimens, apparently not recognizing the identity of Heiss,
no. 14b and VQR no. 5106. Mr. Philip Grierson informs me .that in the cata-
logue of the collection of H.M. Leclercqz (orLeclerqz), Bruxelles, 1838, and the
sales catalogue of the same collection (2 Apr. 1839), p. 123, there is listed a coin
with inscriptions similar to the above; this specimen was from the Mons hoard
of Byzantine and Merovingian coins found in 1820. Almost certainly this is the
CARTHAGINENSIS
277
D. Tirasona.
216(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
XSVIHTHILAREX /^TIR-A: OHEIVS-
1. BM no. 9 = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1185 = Heiss, no.
15* (| 19,1.22). Plate XI, 3
(b). Obverse as (a). /?\ TIR-A: ONAIVS
1. Florez, p. 242* (Velasco) = Masdeu, p. 345 = Heiss,
no. 15a.
E. Valentia.
217. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*2VINTHILAREX * VALEHTIAIVSTv'
1. Biblioteca Universitaria de Valencia (Mateu y Llopis,
Ampurias 1941, p. 93, figs. 9-10*) = Campaner, 1866,
no. 13 = Heiss, no. 18a (then N. Fuster, Valencia) =
Campaner, p. 214, note 5 = Martinez Aloy, p. 347 =
Mateu y Llopis, N ombres de Lugar, 1940, p. 71 = idem,
Inscripciones, no. 459a = Beltran, p. 388.
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Acci.
218(a). Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
* (MVINTILARi; * IVSTVSACC:
1. HSA 16236 (/21,1.39). Plate XI, 4
(b) . *SVlNTII-ARI * IVSTVSACI
1. HSA 16136 (| 21,1.28). Plate XI, 5
(c) . *SVINTILAR * IVSTVSACC.1
1. Copenhagen, no. 9 = Heiss, no. 1* = Thomsen, no. 1100*
=Madrid, p. 312* (1.40).
2. -4. La Capilla, no. 16 (Fernandez y Gonzalez (2), Vidaur-
re (1)).
coin acquired by Meynaerts and later by Vidal Quadras y Ram6n, for not only
are the legends identical, but also Mr. Grierson writes me that he has evidence
that Leclercqz was a purchaser at the sale in question. Cf. RNB, I (1842), pp.
115-116, where mention is made of the purchase by Leclercqz of a ring from
the Mons hoard.
278
SUTNTHILA
(d) . Obverse as (c). Reverse as (b).
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi.
H,5*) = Campaner, 1866, no. 1 = Heiss, no.2*1 = Cam-
paner, Review of Heiss, p. 264 (1.30).
2. Fernandez-Guerra, pi. I*.*
3. -10. La CapUla, no. 16 (Fernandez y Gonzalez (6), Chin-
chilla (2)).
(e) . *SVINTIIAR Reverse as (b).
1. HSA 16237 = (?) La CapUla, no. 16 (ChinchUla)
(|21,1.29).3
(f) . * SVINTILA-.E * IVSTVSACC!
1. HSA 8095 (| 20,1.39). Plate XI, 6
(g) . "* JAJITAPIVS" * IVSTVSACI
1. La Capilla, no. 3, p. 55 (Fernandez y L6pez) = Hiibner,
Deutsche Litteraturzeitung, col. 500 = Campaner, p. 565
= Beltran, Ampurias, 1941, p. 100 = Beltran, pp. 413-
414.
This piece was (and still is) the cause of much fruitless speculation
regarding the identity of "Jajita" (cf. p. 29). Pio Beltran has offered
the obvious explanation: the obverse with a retrograde SVINTILAR
legend was misread by Fernandez y Lopez. The inferior quality of the
epigraphy at Acci under Suinthila fully supports the argument.
Beltran slipped (Rectificaciones, p. 414) when he suggested that
Lorichs, no. 4640, might be a duplicate: that coin is Chintila's, not
Suinthila's.
B. Mentesa.
Type A
219(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*SVINTHILV.RE * PIVSMENT:SA*
1. HSA 8100 (| 20,1.52). Plate XI, 7
2. HSA 16216 (/20,1.37).
1 Heiss in transcribing omitted the V from the obverse.
2 This specimen was, it seems, no longer in the Madrid collection when Mateu
compiled his catalogue.
3 Fernandez y L6pez gives the obverse as SVINTILAR, but he may have
normalized the L in transcription. There is no evidence that this HSA specimen
is from the hoard of La Capilla, but as one specimen belonged to Chinchilla this
may well be his.
* There is a faint point after the second S on HSA 8100, but this is proba-
bly a die-cutter's slip.
CARTHAGINENSIS
279
(b). *SVINTILAR: Point right
and left of head.
* PIVSMENTHSA
1. HSA 16213 (/20.1.29).
2. HSA 16215 (/20, 1.45).
3. HSA 16266 (-t-20,1.30, same rev. die as no
Plate XI, 8
* PliSMENTESA
Plate XI, 9
* PIVSMIiNThSA
Plate XI, 10
* PIVM-.NTES-*-
(c) . Obverse as (b).
1. HSA 16255 # (/ 19,1.40).
(d) . *SVIIITII.ARI:I
1. HSA 16212 # (| 20,1.14).
(e) . *SVINTH:L.*.R"
1. HSA 16247 # (ex Cervera) (/20,1.45).
(I). *SVINTH:L.%Ri * PIV-MENT-Sv
1. HSA 16267 # (ex Cervera) (/ 20, 1.52). Plate XI, 11
(g). *SVINTH:L.*.R:. * PIVM.-.NTESA
1. VQR no. 5101 = Heiss, no. 12* (1.34).
(h) . * SVINTI| ARE The "L" is
twice the height of the other
letters.
1. La Capilla, no. 34, p. 97.
(i) . *SVINTHIL:RX
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 35 (1.32).
(j). Obverse as (a)?
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 47*.
* PIVSIII: IITI:S.
* PIVSMENTSA
Reverse as (i).
Type B
220(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*SVINTHIL-ARI! * MENTIiSAPIVS
1. HSA 16268 (ex Cervera) (/ 20.1.46).1 Plate XI, 12
(b). *SVIHTHIL"ARI: * MEHTESAPIVS
1. VQR no. 5102* = Engel, 1893, p. 91, no. 6*.
1 And, according to Beltran, ex La Capilla. There are no traces of "La Ca-
pilla soil," but there is a spot of green oxide on the reverse.
280
SUTSTHILA
(e). *SVINTHILAR *MENTESAPIVS1
1. August in, p. 312 = Velazquez, no. 73* = Florez, p. 236
= Giisseme, VI, p. 255, no. 7.
Type A or B
221. Types A or B. Lettering uncertain.
1.-21. La Capilla, no. 35, p. 97 (approximately 21 speci-
mens).
There were, according to Beltran's inventory, 27 specimens in the
hoard of La Capilla. I have accounted for a possible six in the HSA
collection (five belonging to Chinchilla and one other). However, it is
quite possible that other HSA specimens came from La Capilla; it is
impossible to tell. Except for one specimen, No. 219 (h), Fernandez y
Lopez gives only one set of legends (his no. 35): SVINTHIL:RE and
PIVSMENT-SA; this obviously is an oversimplification. Furthermore
he cannot have been accurate in another respect, for this set of legends
does not provide for HSA 16268, which is from La Capilla, with the
less common order of words on the reverse. Beltran's inventory lists
the following owners in addition to Chinchilla: Fernandez y Gonzalez
(17 specimens), Vidaurre (3), Campaner (1), Mariano Fernandez (1).
C. Saldania.
222. Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*SVINTHILARE * SALDANIAPIS
1. Museo Arqueol6gico de Pamplona (Mateu y Llopis,
Ampurias, 1941, p. 86, note 1 = idem, Hallazgos III,
no. LXXXVIII*).3
2. La Capilla, no. 36, p. 99 = Campaner, p. 563.4
D. Toleto.
223(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*SVINTHILAREX5 * TOLETOPIVoo*
1 Presumably points have been omitted and the legends normalized in trans-
cription.
* Velazquez wrongly reversed the order of the words.
3 From a find in the Pamplona region made in 1895 (according to Ampurias
1941) or in 1916 (Hallazgos III). The reproduction is too poor to permit ac-
curate reading of the forms of the letters.
4 Obverse transcribed SUN etc., reverse with delta-shaped D. Pujol does not
record how many specimens were found in the hoard of La Capilla, and Beltran
therefore reckons only one in his inventory.
5 The X is sometimes small.
* There is frequently a wide space between o and the cross.
CARTHAGINENSIS
281
1. HSA 16271 (| 19,1.45). Plate XI, 13
2. HSA 16288 # ( | 20,1.47, same dies as no. 1).
3. HSA 16273 ( j 20,1.48). Plate XI, 14
4. HSA 16274 ( \ 20,1.51, mended).
5. HSA 16281 # 4 (20,1.40).
6. HSA 16282 # ( I 20,1.49).
7. HSA 16283# ( \ 19,1.50).
8. HSA 16286 (/20,1.44).
9. HSA 16287 (j 18,1.30). Plate XII, 1
10. Madrid, no. 130* = Garcia de la Torre, no. 5729 (1.40).
11. Copenhagen, no. 11 = Heiss, no. 16* = Thomsen, no.
1102 (1.36).
12. Anderson Coll. (1.36).
13. Reinhart Coll., no. 37 (0.42).
14. Florez, p. 236* (S. Ildefonso) = Masdeu, p. 19.
15. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2150 (1.49).
16. Inst, de Valencia, no. 50*.
17. -1 La Capilla, no. 40.1
(b) . *SVINTIHLAREX
1. HSA 16285 (| 19,1.50).
(c) . *SVINTHILARE
1. HSA 16284 # ( \ 19,1.48).
2. VQR no. 5107.
(d) . Legends uncertain.
1. RN 1897, no. 14 (found at Mauleon, Basses-Pyrenees).
For a contemporary (?) forgery in the HSA collection, see p. 469.
Reverse as (a).
Plate XII, 2
Reverse as (a).
Plate XII, 3
BAETICA
A. Barbi.
224(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* SVINTH1LARE * PIVSBARBI
1 It is impossible to determine just how many specimens should be entered
here. According to Beltran's inventory there were 15 specimens in the hoard
(Fernandez y Gonzalez (12), Chinchilla (3)). If we subtract the five specimens,
including (c) below, on which I detect "La Capilla soil", this would eliminate
Chinchilla's three and two others. But I suspect that there are more La Capilla
specimens in the HSA collection (e.g., no. 2, above, from the same dies as no. 1),
on which there are no traces of soil. Also one cannot be certain that all the
hoard specimens bore the exact legends of (a), as given by Fernandez y L6pez;
for example (c), with RE in place of REX, is one exception. According to Bel-
tran's list there was only one specimen in Cervera's collection, but this cannot
be considered conclusive.
282
SUINTHILA
1. HSA 16143 # (/21.1.41).1 Plate XTL 4
2. Stuttgart, no. 1348.*
3. Lisbon, no. 14 (1.42).
4. Ferreira, no. 35 (1.31).
5. -6. Velazquez, no. 76 (Infantas, Trabuco) = Gusseme,
VI, p. 255, no. 1.
(b) . Obverse as (a).
1. VQR no. 5095.
(c) . *SVIMTHILARE
* PVSBARBI
Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16138 # (/ 19,1.38).
2. HSA 16140 # ( I 20,1.51).
3. HSA 16141 # ( I 20,1.45).
4. HSA 16144 # (/20,1.40).
5. HSA 16145 # ( | 20,1.45).
6. HSA 16238 ( t 20,1.42).
7. Madrid, no. 168* = Adquisiciones en 1932, 111,1 (1.45).
8. The Hague.
9. Stuttgart, no. 1350.
10. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. 11,6*
= ( T) Heiss, no. 4*3 = Madrid, p. 322* (1.40).
11. Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 8* (location?).
12. La Capilla, no. 18* (the one specimen illustrated) (obv.
die apparently same as HSA 16238, no. 6, above).
13. Florez, p. 238* (S. Ildefonso) = Merino, pi. 16, no. 3*4 =
Masdeu, p. 322.
14. Piot, 1850, no. 8* = Meynaerts, no. 32.
15. Ratto, no. 2436*.
16. Inst, de Valencia, no. 48*.
Plate XH, 3
(d) . Obverse as (c).
1. HSA 16137 (/ 20,1.45).
2. HSA 16139 # ( j 20,1.47).
3. HSA 16146 # (/ 20,1.39).
4. HSA 16147 # (/19,1.30).
(e) . *SVIHTHILARE:
1. HSA 16148 (/21,1.46).
* PIVSBARBI:
Plate XII, 6
Reverse as (d).
Plate XII, *>
1 According to Beltran's list , at least two of the HSA specimens are from the
hoard of La Capilla and were in the Cervera collection. It will be observed,
however, that there are traces of "La Capilla soil" on many more of the HSA
pieces.
2 L engraved !.
3 The engraving in Heiss appears not to represent the coin illustrated by
Mateu, but I assume that t he same specimen is under consideration; if this is
true, the engraving is very faulty.
4 Inaccurately transcribed.
BAETICA
283
(f) . *SVIHTHILARC * PIVSBARBI
1. HSA 8093 (| 19,1.26). Plate XII, 8
2. HSA 16142 # (I 20,1.43, same obv. die as no. 1).
3. HSA 16248 # (| 21,1.45, same obv. die as nos. 1 and 2).
4. Schulman, Jan. 1929, no. 448*.
(g) . *SVIHTHILARI *MVSBARBI
1. Schulman, Dec. 1934, no. 112*.
(h) . *SVIHTILARE *PIVSBARBI
1. HSA 16240 # (/19,1.45). Plate XII ,9
2. Reinhart Coll., no. 31 (1.43).1
3. Schulman, Oct. 1912, no. 1113* (1.45).
4. Marques des LI., no. 1502* (1.49).
(i) . *SVINTILARI2 * PIVSBARBI
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos III, no. LXXXIX (found in
N. Cordoba province, now C6rdoba Museum ?).
(j). *SVIHTHILII>R *MVSBARBI
1. Madrid, pi. E.16* (1.30).
Mateu classifies this specimen as a forgery of the class deriving
from Heiss' drawings. There is no likely prototype in Heiss; and
furthermore I see nothing in the photograph to suggest that the coin
is not authentic. The weight is light, but so are other legitimate pieces
of this mint and ruler.
(k). Similar to (a)-(j), but exact lettering uncertain.
l.-29( ?). La Capilla, no. 18 (approximately 29 specimens).3
30. Reinhart Coll., no. 32 (1.49).
31. -32. Spink, Aug. 1894, nos. 16888-9.
33. Glendining, July 1936, no. 265.
34. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos VI, no. 438 (found in Nueva
Carteya).
35. -36. La Grassa.
37. Inst, de Valencia, no. 49* ( ?, illustration obscure).
1 N or H?
1 N in transcription, but probably M.
3 There were, according to Beltran's list, 42 specimens in all in the hoard,
the original distribution being: Fernandez y Gonzales (30), Chinchilla (10),
Vidaurre (1), Mariano Fernandez (1). I have accounted for 13 specimens above
(HSA and the one illustrated in La Capilla); but this can only be approxi-
mate, for several of the other HSA specimens are in all probability from the
hoard, although they now lack traces of "La Capilla soil."
284
SUTNTHILA
B. Cordoba.
Type A
225(a). Facing bust. Type 9 b. As obverse.
*SVIHTHILARE * CORf OBAPIVS
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 26* = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 16* =
Mahudel, pi. 12, no. 26* = Velazquez, no. 78 = Gusseme,
VI, p. 255, no. 4 = Heiss, no. 7* = Mateu y Llopis, Cor-
doba, no. 5* (1.45).1
2. Spink. Aug. 1894, no. 16890.
(b). * SVINTILARa * C-RD. BAPIVS
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 36 (1.42).
Type B
226(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e.
SVINTHIL-REX3
As obverse.
*CORAOBAPIVS4
Plate XII, 10
1. HSA 16153 # ( / 21.1.36).1
2. HSA 16154 # ( | 21,1.41).
3. HSA 16155 #(/21,1.46).
4. HSA 16157 # (/ 20,1.41).
5. HSA 16158 # ( | 20,1.40, same dies as no. 4). Plate XII, 11
6. HSA 16159 # (I 20,1.47).
7. HSA 16161 (| 22,1.40, same obv. die as no. 2; same rev.
die as nos. 4-5). Plate XII, 12
8. La CapUla, no. 24, p. 83* (the one specimen illustrated).
9. Johns Hopkins, no. 12 (ex Schulman, 1922) (21,1.34).
10. Freeman Coll. = (almost certainly) Huth Coll., no. 232*.
11. Carles-Tolra, no. 1010* (1.50).
12. Schulman, Oct. 1912, no. 1114* (Joaquim de Freitas da
Silva) (1.40).
1 It seems to me clear that all the above references concern the same speci-
men. There are one or two confusing factors which can be explained as follows:
(a) Heiss gives the location as "CM", i.e., Cabinet de Madrid, but this is doubt-
less an error for "CF", Cabinet de France, for there is no specimen in the Ma-
drid collection and furthermore the engraving in Heiss very closely resembles
the illustration of Le Gentilhomme (curiously, Mateu does not raise the quest ion
in his Cordoba); (b) Heiss' engraving shows A with a cross-bar in both the name
of the king and that of the mint, which, considering the period, would place the
genuineness of the coin under suspicion; but an examination of Le Gentilhom-
me's photograph establishes, I believe, that these apparent bars are simply
flaws in the dies or in the striking.
2 Exact forms of letters not known.
3 X sometimes small.
4 A sometimes not closed at the bottom.
5 According to Beltran's list there was one specimen (from La Capilla) in the
Cervera collection.
BAETICA
285
(b) . Obverse as (a).
1. HSA 8101 (\ 21,1.54).
(c) . Obverse as (a).
1. HSA 16151 (| 21,1.51).
2. HSA 16152 # (| 22,1.42).
(d) . *SVINTHIL:REX
1. HSA 16156 (/21,1.46).
2. HSA 16160 (| 21,1.52).
*COR-AOBAPIVS
Plate XII, 13
*CORAOBAPIVS
Plate XII, 14
*CORAOBAPIVS
Plate-Xin, 1
3. Stockholm (ex Bank of Sweden) = Mateu y Llopis, Cor-
doba, p. 531 = idem, Estocolmo, no. 27* (1.42).
4. VQR no. 5097*.
5. Florez, p. 237* = Masdeu, p. 327 = Heiss, no. 7a.
6. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 311* (Castro) (1.30).
(e). Similar to (a)-(d), exact lettering uncertain.
l.-23( ?). La Capilla, no. 24 (approx. 23 specimens).1
C. Eliberri.
227(a). Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
*SVINTILARE * PIVSENBERI:
1. Berlin, no. 33 ("L. Hamburger XI, 1926").
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 52*.
(b) . *SVINTILARi; * PIVSEIIBER
1. HSA 16239 #(| 21,1.39).3 Plate XIII, 2
(c) . *SVINTILARI: *PIVSELIBERI
1. Schulman, Nov. 1911, no. 1* (Noguet).
(d) . *SVINTILARI:. * PIVSENBER
1. HSA 16169 # (| 20,1.42). Plate XIII, 3
(e) . Obverse as (d). * PIVSELIBERI:
1. HSA 16242 # (| 20,1.47). Plate XIII, 4
1 Mateu compares this to Heiss, no. 7; possibly at this time he had not seen
the piece.
1 There were, according to Beltran's list, 31 specimens in all in the hoard, the
original distribution being: Fernandez y Gonzalez (16), Chinchilla (13), Vi-
daurre (2). I have accounted for 8 specimens above, but the same remarks apply
here as those in the footnote to No. 224 (k), above.
3 Beltran's list shows two La Capilla specimens in the Cervera collection.
286
SUINTHILA
(f) . *SVINTIIARI:.
1. HSA 8099 (/21.1.46).
2. HSA 16243 # ( 4 20,1.31).
3. Marques de LI., no. 1504* (1.47).
(g) . Obverse as (f).
1. HSA 16167# ( | 20,1.45).
(h) . Obverse as (f).
1. HSA 16168 ( 4 21,1.37).
(i) . *SVINTIIARIi
1. HSA 16166 # ( 4 20,1.47).
(j). Obverse as (i).
1. HSA 16171 ( j 20,1.42).
(k). *SVINTIIARI
1. HSA 8097 ( 4 20,1.38).
(1). *SVINTII-ARI
1. HSA 16172 # ( X 21,1.39).
2. HSA 16259 # ( J 20,1.47, same dies as no. 1)
* PIVSEI-IBERI
Plate XIII, 5
* pivcoeiiber:
Plate Xm, 6
Reverse as (d).
Plate XHI, T
Reverse as (d).
Plate XLH, 8
*pivsenber;
Plate XHI, 9
Reverse as (b).
Plate XHI, 10
* PIVSE1-IBERR:
Plate XHI, 11
(m). Obverse as (1).
1. HSA 16251 # ( 4 20,1.37).
2. Madrid, no. 173* (1.40).1
(n). Obverse as (1).
1. Stuttgart, no. 1349.
(o). *SVINTIIARE
1. HSA 16170 ( 4 20,1.39).
Reverse as (f).
Plate XTTI, 12
*PIVSENBER:-
* PIVSELIBER
Plate XIII, 13
2. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, HaUazgos IV, pi. II,
7*) = ( ?) Heiss, no. 8*2 = Madrid, p. 323* (1.40).
3. Piatt, 1951.
(p). *SVINTIIAR
* PIVSEIIBER
1. HSA 16162 ( 4 20,1.34).
2. HSA 1G206 # ( 4 20,1.30, same dies as no. 1).
1 There are several divergences between text-transcription and reproduction
of the throe specimens in the Madrid catalogue. I have followed my own reading
of the plates in preference to the text, but the quality of the plates renders con-
fident readings impossible.
1 There is, as noted elsewhere, an apparent dissimilarity between the illus-
trations in Heiss and in Mateu's inventory, but I assume the same specimen is
under consideration. The L in the king's name is perhaps complete.
BAETICA
287
3. HSA 16163 # ( \ 20,1.33). Plate XIII, 14
4. HSA 16165 # (| 20,1.40, same dies as no. 3).
5. HSA 16164 # ( I 20,1.03).
6. Madrid, no.174* (1.49).1
(q). Obverse as (p). * PIVSE-IIBER
1. HSA 16241 (| 21,1.38). Plate XIV, 1
2. HSA 16253 # ( | 21,1.39, same dies as no. 1).
Reverse as (p).
Plate XIV, 2
* PIVSIEIIBER
(r). *SVIIITIIAR
1. HSA 16252 # ( | 21,1.39).
(s). Obverse as (r).
1. Cabinet des Medailles.
(t). * SVIHTILARE Reverse as (c).
1. Madrid, no. 172* (1.39).1
(u). Similar to (a)-(t), but exact lettering uncertain.
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 114V
2. Augustin, p. 321 = Velazquez, no. 75 = Gusseme, VI,
p. 255, no. 5.3
3. Florez, p. 238*4 = Masdeu, p. 19.
4. RN 1897, no. 14 (found at Mauleon, Basses-Pyrenees).
5. Spink, Aug. 1894, no. 16891.
6. -43( ?). La Capilla, no. 26 (approx. 38 specimens).5
D. Ispali.
228(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e.
*SVINTHILARE
As obverse.
* ISPALIPIVS
1. HSA 16218 (
2. HSA 16227 (
3. HSA 16249 (
19,1.41).
18,1.42, same dies as no. 1).
19,1.42, same dies as no. 1).
Plate XIV, 3
1 See the note to (m), above.
* SVINTILAREX PIVSELIBERI. I have seen no specimen with REX; Mo-
rales probably supplied the X.
3 Augustin has SVINTI LA RE; Velazquez introduces an H, although he refers
to Augustin.
4 The engraving shows SVINTI LA RE PIVSE LIBER, but I suspect the art-
ist normalized the letters.
5 The only legends given by Fernandez y L6pez are SVINTI LA Rl and
PIVSELIBERI, but it is clear from the HSA specimens described above that
this description is a generalization. There were, according to Beltran's list, 53
specimens in the hoard, the original distribution being: Fernandez y Gonzalez
(34), Chinchillas (15), Vidaurre (4). I have accounted for 15 specimens above,
but the same remarks apply here as in the footnote to No. 224 (k).
288 SUTNTHILA
4. Mabbott Coll. = Stack's, 1942, no. 10209F (| 1.43, same
dies as no. 1).
5. HSA 16222 (| 20,1.51). Plate XIV, 4
6. HSA 16263 # (20, 1.47, same obv. die as no. 5).
7. HSA 16223 # (| 20,1.45).
8. HSA 16224 (| 20,1.42).
9. HSA 16225 # ( | 19,1.55). Plate XTVt, 5
10. HSA 16226 ( | 20,1.50).
11. HSA 16245 # (| 20,1.50, same dies as no. 10).
12. HSA 16228 (| 19,1.48).
13. VQR no. 5099 = Meynaerts, no. 33 = Heiss, no. 11*
(1.35).
14. -15. Reinhart Coll., nos. 38-39 (1.46, 1.44).
16. Spink, Aug. 1894, no. 16893.
17. Schulman, Nov. 1911, no. 2.
(b) . Obverse as (a). * ISPALIPIVS-
1. HSA 16217 # (| 20,1.53). Plate XIV, 6
(c) . *SVINTHIL ARE Reverse as (a).
1. Reinhart, Atnpvrias 1944, pi. I, 7*.
(d) . Obverse as (c). * ISPALIPIVS"
1. HSA 16219 # = La CapiOa, no. 31 (| 19,1.47). Plate XTV, 7
2. Madrid, no. 217*.1
3. Florez, p. 237* = (probably) Gusseme, VI, p. 255, no. 6
= Heiss, no. 11a.
(e) . *SVINTHILARE Reverse as (a).
1. VQR no. 5100*.
(f) . * SVIHTHILARE Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16229 #(| 19,1.43).
2. HSA 16262 # (I 19,1.50, same dies as no. 1). Plate XIV, 8
3. HSA 16231 # (I 20,1.36).
4. Piatt, 1951.
5. Inst, de Valencia, no. 51*.
(g) . Obverse as (f). * ISPALIPIVS-
1. HSA 16261 (| 20,1.32).a Plate XIV, 9
(h) . * SVINTIHLARE Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16220 # (| 19,1.34).
2. HSA 16221 # (
3. HSA 16254 # (
20,1.51, same dies as no. 1).
18,1.47). Plate XIV, 10
1 Dot at end of reverse legend omitted in transcription but evident in plate.
2 This coin is of base gold and is spotted with a green oxide. It is slightly
atypical. Perhaps it is a contemporary forgery; certainly it is not a modern one.
BAETICA
289
(i). Similar to (a)-(h), but exact lettering uncertain.
;-Pyrenees).
1. RN 1897, no. 14 (found at Mauleon,
2. Cumano, no. 1509.
3. -39( ?). La Capilla, no. 31 (approx. 37 specimens).1
40. Glendining, July 1936, no. 264.*
(j). *SVIHTIIILARE * 2VHIJ
1. HSA 16264 (ex Cervera) (/ 20.1.44).3 Plate XIV, 11
E. Toed.
Type A
229(a). Facing bust. Type 5 f or 5 e.
*SVINTILARE
1. HSA 16230 (/ 19,1.42).4
(b) . *SVINTHIL.*.RE
1. Grantley Sale, no. 2796.
(c) . Obverse as (b).
1. HSA 16256 # (| 20,1.30).
2. HSA 16257 (4,20,1.40).
(d) . *svinthil.-.re:
1. HSA 16292 (| 20,1.36).
(e) . *SVINTHILvRE:
1. HSA 16293 (/20,1.33).
(f) . *SVINTHIL:RE
1. Augustin, p. 320 = Velazquez, no. 74
p. 255, no. 10 = Masdeu, p. 346.
2. Florez, p. 239.5
As obverse.
* IVSTVSTVCI
Plate XIV, 12
Reverse as (a).
* IVSTVSTV-CI
Plate XIV, 13
Reverse as (c).
Plate XIV, 14
Reverse as (c).
Plate XV, 1
* IVSTVSTV:CI
Gusseme, VI,
1 There were, according to Beltran's list, 49 specimens in all in the hoard,
the original distribution being: Fernandez y Gonzalez (31), Chinchilla (11), a
mason of Carmona (3), Mariano Fernandez (2), Vidaurre (1), Juan Fernandez
(1). I have accounted for 12 specimens above, but see the remarks in footnote
to No. 224 (k).
* Transcribed REX, but the overwhelming evidence would indicate that this
is an incorrect reading.
3 Beltran's inventory lists one other specimen of Suinthila-Ispali in the Cer-
vera collection.
4 Beltrans' inventory gives four Cervera specimens from La Capilla.
5 Transcribed REX, but in all probability the X is lacking.
S Vislgoth
290 SUINTHILA
(g) . * SVINTHILRE * IVSTVSTV:.CI
1. VQR no. 5108 = (probably) Gaillard, RN 1864, no. 1*
= Campaner, 1866, no. 12 = Heiss, no. 17* = Madrid,
p. 321* (1.44).
(h) . *SVIHTHILRE * IVSTVSTVi.CI
1. HSA 16275 (1 20,1.46). Plate XT,!
2. HSA 16276 (J 20,1.37, same dies as no. 1).
3. Schulman, Nov. 1911, no. 3* (same dies as no. 1).
4. Marques de LI., no. 1501* (1.39, same dies as no. 1).
(i) . * SVINTIIARE: Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16232 # (/21.1.35). Plate XV, $
2. Grierson Coll.
(j). * SVINTII.ARE Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16290 # (/19.1.31). Plate XV. 4
(k). *SVINTII.ARi:. * IVSTVSTVCI
1. HSA 16429 # (| 20,1.26). Plate XV, 5
(1). *SVINTIIARI Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 167* - Campaner, 1866, no. II1 = Heiss,
no. 18* (1.29).
2. Berlin, no. 34 ("L. Hamburger, XI, 1926").
(m). * SVINTHIL-RI Reverse as (g).
1. HSA 16270 # (| 20,1.40). Plate XV, 6
(n). * SVINTHIL-AR: Reverse as (g).
1. Schulman, Oct. 1912, no. 1115* = Hess, June 1922, no.
113** = (Berlin, no. 32) = Backus, fig. 32* (wrongly
attributed to Heiss).
(o). * SVINTIIAR Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16233 (/ 20,1.34). Plate XV.:
(p). *SVINTII-AM Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 8096 (I 20,1.34). Plate XV, S
2. HSA 16296 (/ 20,1.43, same dies as no. 1).
(q). * SVINTM AI I- Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16430 # (/20.1.39), Plate XV,9
1 Error in transcription.
1 In spite of imperfections in plaster-casting, it is clear that these two illus*
trations represent the same specimen.
BAETICA
291
(r). Obverse as (j). Reverse as (c).
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 46*.
(s). Similar to (a)-(q), but exact lettering uncertain.
1. Specimen acquired by Berlin Museum, 1884-85 (Von
Sallet, p. 23).
2. RN 1897, no. 14 (found at Mauleon, Basses-Pyrenees).
3. Museo Episcopal de Vich (Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona,
p. 51, note 6).
4. Spink, Aug. 1894, no. 16894.
Type B
230(a). Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
*SVIIITIIARI fcPIVSTViCIt
1. HSA 16294 (| 20,1.27).
2. HSA 16295 # (| 21,1.28, same dies as no. 1). Plate XV, 10
3. Hess, Apr. 1928, no. 5048* = Rackus, fig. 33* (wrongly
attributed to Heiss).
(b) . Obverse as (a). * 11VSTV: CI
1. HSA 16258 (/20,1.21). Plate XV, 11
(c) . Obverse as (a). * 11 VSTV! CI
1. HSA 16291 ( / 20,1.14). Plate XV, 12
(d) . Obverse as (a). * PIVST-ViCI
1. Marques de LI., no. 1505* (1.02).
Type A or B
231. Similar to nos. 229-230, but exact legends uncertain.
l.-29( ?). La CapiUa, no. 41 (approx. 29 specimens).1
1 FernandezyL6pezhas*SVINTHIL*AR" and*IVSTVSTV-:CI,but obvious-
ly this is only one of the many varieties. According to Beltran's list there were
in all 36 specimens in the hoard, the original distribution being: (a) like Heiss,
no. 17 (No. 229 (g)), Fernandez y Gonzalez (4), Chinchilla (4), Vidaurre (1),
Barrago (1); (b) like Heiss, no. 18 (No. 229(1)), Fernandez y Gonzalez (21),
Chinchilla (5). I have accounted for 7 specimens, but as usual see the remarks
in footnote to No. 224 (k). Beltran's list distinguishes between the types of
busts (types 5 e and 5 f) by reference to Heiss, which so far as I can see does not
indicate a fundamental difference in type. The opportunity to study minutely
the large group in the HSA collection has revealed the existence of the PIVS
type, which understandably has not been detected by previous writers as there
appears to be only one published specimen, and it not identified (No. 230(a)3).
wy probably there were others in the hoard of La Capilla, and for this reason
1 have placed the La Capilla reference in this alternative category.
19
292
SUINTHILA
LUSITANIA
A. Coleia.
232(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*SVINTHILARE *COLEIAPIVS"
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hattazgos IV, pi. 11,4*) =
Campaner, 1866, no. 5 = Heiss, no. 6* = Campaner, Re-
view of Heiss, p. 264 = Madrid, p. 361* (1.40).
(b). *SVINTII1LARE *COLEIAPIVS
1. La Capilla, no. 23 (Fernandez y Gonzalez).
B. Egitania.
233. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*SVINTHILaRE* * E ITA|N|IAPIVS
1. HSA 162041 = La Capilla, no. 25, p. 85 = Campaner,
p. 563 = Elias Garcia, Egit&nia, p. 19 (| 21,1.21).
2. HSA 16210 = same references as no. 1 (\ 19,1.46, same
dies as no. 1). Plate XV. 13
3. La Capilla, no. 25*, p. 85 (different dies).1
4. Elias Garcia, Egit&nia, p. 19* (acquired in Castelo Branco
district) = idem, Lusitdnia, no. 119 (property Elias Gar-
cia) (1.45).
C. Elvora.
234(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* SVIN THILAREX * TVSELVORAI VS
1. Marques de LI., no. 1503* (1.50).
(b). Types not described.
*SVINTILAREX * EBORAVICTOR
1. Faria y Sousa, I, pt. Ill, cap. XVIII, p. 345.
1 There was at least one specimen in the Cervera collection.
2 Fernandez y L6pez stated that there was only one specimen in the hoard,
but according to Beltran's communication Pujol cited two for General Chin-
chilla, which would be the two now in the HSA collection, and one other in &n
unnamed collection; this other would be the one illustrated by Fernandez y W"
pez (no. 3, above), now, according to Elias Garcia, in the Instituto de Valencia
de Don Juan, but it does not appear in Mateu y Llopis' inventory of the
latter collection.
LUSITANIA
293
The authenticity of this unique coin (or the correctness of the
wading) must be considered extremely doubtful. See the discussion
F No. 91. Reinhart does not record Elvora as a mint under Suin-
rOa.
D. Emerita.
35(a). Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
SVINTHIl/RE*1 * EMERI|T|APIVS
19,1-40).*
19,1.45, same dies as no. 1). Plate XV, 14
19,1.47, same dies as no. 1). Plate XV, 15
1. HSA 16173 (
2. HSA 16211 (
3. HSA 16209 (
4. HSA 16175 (| 20,1.46)
5. HSA 16176 # (| 19,1.50).
6. HSA 16185 (| 19,1.49, same dies as no. 5).
7. HSA 16177 ( I 19,1.47).
8. HSA 16178 # (*" 18,1.42, same dies as no. 7)
9. HSA 16179 (
10. HSA 16180 (
20.1.51) .
18.1.52) .
11. HSA 16182 (4- 19,1.34).
12. HSA 16184 # ( 1 18,1.40). Plate XVI, 1
19,1.43).
19,1.48).
13. HSA 16186 #(
14. HSA 16187 #(,
15. HSA 16188 (| 19,1.42).
16. HSA 16189 # (| 19,1.49).
17. HSA 16190 (/20,1.49).
18. HSA 16192 # (I 18,1.44).
19. HSA 16453 # ( j 19,1.50, same dies as no. 18).
20. HSA 16193 (| 19,1.52). Plate XVI, 2
21. HSA 16208 # (19,1-45, same obv. die as no. 20). Plate XVI, 3
22. HSA 16196 # (19,1.51).
23. HSA 16197 ( X 19,1.47). Plate XVI, 4
24. HSA 16199 ( . . 19,1.45).
25. HSA 16205 ( j 19,1.50). Plate XVI, 5
26. BM no. 7 (acquired 1856) = Heiss, no. 9* ( j 18,1.43).
27. Madrid, no. 262* = Campaner, 1866, no. 6 (1.39).
28. Madrid, no. 264* = ( ?) Beltran, Ampwias 1941, p. 99,
fig. 1* (1.43).
29. Cabinet des Medailles.
30. Stuttgart, no. 1352.
31. Ashmolean (Seaby, 1950) (\ 1.47).
32. Zurich (1.46).
33. Lisbon, no. 15 (from a hoard found in Rio Maior) (1.50).
34. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Museo de Belem,
Lisbon).
1 The vertical position of A and X, and the size of these letters, varies in this
and other varieties. The borders are sometimes linear, sometimes beaded.
1 Only one specimen of Suinthila-Emerita figures in Beltran's list of the Cer-
vera collection.
294
SUIXTHILA
35. Grierson Coll., no. 1076 = Shore Coll., no. 1076* (1.43).
36. Reinhart Coll., no. 34 (1.54).
37. Freeman Coll.
38. VQR no. 5098 = Piot, no. 2* = Meynaerts, no. 30 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 6 (1.44).
39. Ram6n Martinez, p. 190 (found near Granadoro).
40. -41. Ferreira, nos. 33-34 (1.46,1.41).
42.-47. Elias Garcia, Lusitania, no. 41 (collections of Elias
Garcia, Paiva Pessoa, Raul Couvreur, a private collec-
tor in Chaves, two chez Tinchant, Bruzelles).
48. O'Crouley, p. 523.
49. Berlin, no. 31 (Boudeau, 1913).
50. Berlin, no. 35 ("L. Hamburger, XI, 1926").
51. Hoffmann 1886, no. 27.
52. Spink, Aug. 1894, no. 16892.
53. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 310 (1.50).
54. Schulman, Mar. 1925, no. 792.
55. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2149* (1.50).
56. Spink, Oct. 1938, no. 74495.
57. Spink, Mar. 1943, no. 18544.
58. -59. Inst, de Valencia, nos. 53*, 206*.
(b) . Obverse as (a). * EMERI |T|APIVS*
1. HSA 16181 (|19,1.50). Plate XVI, 6
(c) . Obverse as (a). * EMERI|T|APIVS"
1. HSA 16203 # (| 18,1.45, same rev. die as HSA 16183, see
(i), below). Plate XVT, 7
(d) . Obverse as (a). * EMERI |T|APIVSx
1. HSA 16207 (| 19,1.48, same rev. die as HSA 16174, see
(f), below). Plate XVT, 8
(e) . * aVINTHILARE* Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16195 # (| 19,1.53). Plate XVT, 9
2. Carles-Tolra, no. 1011* (1.50).
(f) . * ZVINTHILaREx Reverse as (d).
1. HSA 16174 # ( \ 19,1.50, same reverse die as HSA 16207,
see (d), above).
2. HSA 16191 (| 19,1.51, same dies as no. 1). Plate XVI, 10
3. HSA 16194 # ( | 19,1.41, same dies as no. 1).
4. Madrid, no. 263* (1.45).
(g) . Obverse as (e). Reverse as (c).
1. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 45 (Casa Almeida, Lisbon).
(h) . * SVINTHILARE- Reverse as (a).
1. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 42 (Museo Arqueol6gico de
Burgos).
LUSITANIA 295
-
(i). * SVINTHILARE Reverse as (c).
1. HSA 16183 = La Capilla, no. 27 ( ( | 18,1.49, same
rev. die as HSA 16203, see (c), above). Plate XVT, 11
2. Grierson Coll. (same rev. die as no. 1).
(j). *SVINTHILREX Reverse as (a).
1. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 44 (Coll. A. Manocos, Idan-
ha-a-Velha).
(k). * SVINTILAREX Reverse as (a).
1. Faria y Sousa, I, pt. III, cap. XVIII, p. 345.
2. Reinhart Coll., no. 33 (1.46).
(1). * 2VINTTIILAREX Reverse as (a).
1. Holder, Jan. 1950, no. 310.
(m). *SINDILAREX EMERIT|A|PIVS,
followed by an ornament.
1. La CapiUa, no. 28, p. 87.
(n). Similar to (a)-(m), but exact lettering uncertain.
l.-82( ?). La CapiUa, no. 27 (approx. 82 specimens).*
83. La Grassa.
E. Eminio.
236. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*SVINTHILARt. * EMIN|I|OPIVS
1. La Capilla, no. 29*, p. 91.3
F. Salmantica.
237(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*SVINTNILARC *SALAMANTC
1. HSA 16269 (ex Cervera) = La Capilla, no. 68, p. 125 =
Campaner, p. 563 (| 19,1.17). Plate XVI, 12
1 The pellet at the end of the reverse legend is omitted in this description,
but there is a strong likelihood that the specimen in question is HSA 16183.
2 La Capilla, no. 27, has SVINTHILARE, as noted above under (i), but it is
assumed that this transcription is a generalization for all the varieties except
no. 28, that is, (m). According to Beltran's list there were in all 98 specimens
in the hoard, the original distribution being: Fernandez y Gonzalez (67), Chin-
chilla (26), Vidaurre (2), Manuel Nieto (1), Campaner (1), Juan Fernandez (1).
I have accounted for 16 specimens: H SA and (m); but the remarks in the foot-
note to No. 224 (k) apply here as usual.
3 Fernandez y L6pez noted that there was only one specimen in the hoard,
and this is confirmed by Beltran's list. The owner was, and is, unknown.
29C
SUINTHILA
(b). Legends uncertain, possibly similar to (a).
1.-3. La Capilla, no. 68.
Previous notices of this issue, known only from the hoard of La
Capilla, are confusing. Fernandez y Lopez, giving the legends as
SVINTILAREX and SALMANTICAPIVS, but admitting that he was
uncertain of their exact form as he did not see an example of the
original or a rubbing, wrote that there were two specimens in the hoard,
both of which were taken to Madrid by Pujol y Camps. Campaner
recorded SALAMANTICA, without an adjective. Beltran's list gives
four specimens, the original distribution being: Chinchilla (1), Cer-
vera (1) (presumably the HSA specimen), Fernandez y Gonzalez (1),
and Caro of Seville (1). In his Rectificaciones (p. 414) he rightly
remarks that the transcription of the reverse by Fernandez y Lopez
must be wrong because it is too long to be contained in the space
available; that this observation is to the point is established by the
HSA specimen, which not only omits the adjective but also abbrevi-
ates the mint-name.
GALLAECIA
A. Aliobrio.
238. Types?
*SVI-N:ILR- *ALIoBR:oPI-
1.-2. La Capilla, no. 17, p. 79 = Campaner, p. 563.1
B. Asturie.
239. Facing bust. Type 5 q, very As obverse.
crude. Pellet right and left.
*SVIWTILARE- *ASTORICAPI
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos 1V, pi. H,3*)
- Campaner, 1866, no. 2 = Heiss, no. 3* = Campaner,
Review of Heiss, p. 264 = Beltran, Suevia, no. 34 =
Madrid, p. 380* (1.30).
1 Campaner gives PIVS, but Fernandez y L6pez' reading is probably more
exact. Beltran, reading "Alcobrio," writes that there were two specimens in the
hoard, one going to Fernandez y Gonzalez, the other to "Barrajo de Carmona."
GALLAECIA 297
C. Bracara.
240(a). Facing bust. Type 5 j, crude. As obverse.
*SVINTII-HARE * PIVSBRACARA
1. VQR no. 5095a* = Campaner, p. 214 = Engel, 1893, p. 90,
no. 3*.1
(b) . *SVINTHILARE * IV-SB ACARA
1. La Capilla, no. 20, p. 81.
(c) . * "3VINTL-RE * PI VBRAC RA
1. HSA 16235 (ex Cervera) = La Capilla, no. 21, p. 81
(| 20,1.33, cracked).* Plate XVT, 13
2. Madrid, no. 316* = Adquisiciones en 1932, no. HI,2*
(1.40).
(d) . *SVlNTHILARI * BRACAR-PIV-
1. La Capilla, no. 19, p. 81.
(e) . Probably similar to (a)-(d), but exact legends uncertain.
1.-2. La Capilla, nos. 19-21 (2 specimens).3
D. Calapa.
241. Types?
*SVINTHILAREX *CALPA+PIVS
1. La Capilla, no. 38, p. 103 = Campaner, p. 563 = Bel-
tran, Suevia, no. 30 = Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, p.
248, note 2.
Fernandez y Lopez read PI VSTAIAP, but Mateu y Llopis (loc. cit.)
has called attention to the correct reading. Beltran records that there
was only one specimen in the hoard, disposition unknown.
E. Cassavio.
242. Facing bust. Type 12 e. Facing bust. Type 5 y.
*SVIHTILAR * C SSAVIOPIS:
1 My transcriptions, taken from the coin itself, differ from those in VQR.
2 Fernandez y L6pez' transcription does not entirely conform, but in all
probability the description is of this type.
3 Beltran's list gives five specimens in all, the original distribution being:
Chinchilla (1) [probably the HSA specimen], Fernandez y Gonzalez (3), Caro
of Seville (1). I have accounted for three above. The four varieties of legends
in Beltran's list roughly correspond to the three given by Fernandez y L6pez
with the addition of BRACARA-IVS.
293
SUTNTHILA
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 55* = Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 13*
(obverse).1
F. Francello.
243. Types?
*SVINTILARE * FRAVCELLOP-I-
1. La Capilla, no. 30, p. 93 - Campaner, p. 563 = Beltran,
Suevia, no. 38.*
G. Georre8.
244. Facing bust. Type 8 e. As obverse.
*SVINTILARE: * 6 IORRESPIV2
1. Copenhagen, no. 10 = Heiss, no. 10* = Thomsen, no.
1101* = Beltran, Suevia, no. 31 = Madrid, p. 376*
(1.47). Plate XVI, 14
H. Leione.
245. Types?
*SVINTILAREX * LEIONEPIVS;
1.-2. La Capilla, no. 32, p. 95 = Campaner, p. 563 = Bel-
tran, Suevia, no. 35.3
I. Lucu.
246(a). Facing bust. Type 5 f. Facing bust. Type 12 a.
*SVINTHILARE * LVCOVICTOR
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, HallazgoaIV, pi. H,2*)
= Campaner, 1866, no. 7 = Heiss, no. 11b* = Campaner,
Review of Heiss, p. 264 = Beltran, Suevia, no. 29 -
Madrid, p. 378* (1.30).
1 The obverse of this coin is illustrated in Reinhart's plate by error in asso-
ciation with a reverse of Sisebut-Laure. I am indebted to Pio Beltran for this
information and for the details of description, later confirmed by Mateu y
Llopis' publication. This coin is the one referred to by Reinhart in his table
of mints, p. 101.
* I have adopted Fernandez y L6pez' readings, which are at variance with
Campaner's. Beltran records one specimen only in the hoard, property of Fer-
nandez y Gonzalez.
3 Fernandez y L6pez records two specimens in the hoard, although accord-
ing to Beltran, Pujol cited only one, the property of Fernandez y Gonzalez.
The readings above are taken from Beltran's list; in Suevia he has RE; La
Capilla has RE and PIVS.
GALLAECIA
299
(b). *2VINTHIL-ARE * LVCOVICTOR:
1. La Capilla, no. 33 = Campaner, p. 563.1
J. Nandolas.
247. Facing bust. Type 5 q. As obverse.
*SVINTIIAIE *NANf>OLASIV
1. HSA 16260 # (ex Cervera) = La Capilla, no. 64, p. 123
= Campaner, p. 563 ( | 20,1.39).* Plate XVI, 15
K. Pincia.
248. Facing bust. Type 5 f. Facing bust. Type 12 c.
* SVIHTILARE PIVS*PIHCIA3
1. Musee de la Ville de Pau = ( ?) Blanchet, 1888, p. 2 =
Campaner, p. 214 = RN 1897, p. 106 (found in a tomb at
Doguen.nearNavarrenx) = Bolt ran, Suevia, no. 32. Plate XVI, 16
L. Portocale.
249. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
Pellet right and left.
*SVINTILARE * PORTV|C|ALEPIV
1. Elias Garcia, Portocale, p. 9* (19,1.41).
M. Semure.4
250(a). Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
*SVIIITILARE * PIVSEHV-ER
1. Heiss, no. 13a* (Dos Santos) = Beltran, Suevia, no. 365
= Madrid, p. 383*.
1 Beltran's list records only one specimen in the hoard, property of Fernan-
dez y Gonzalez. The points at the end of the reverse legend are supplied from
Beltran's record.
1 The transcriptions of Fernandez y L6pez and of Campaner, which differ
from each other, are both incorrect, that of Fernandez y Lpez being closer to
the original. There was only one specimen in the hoard and this went to Chin-
chilla and eventually to the HSA collection.
3 It is obvious from the exceptional position of the cross that the legend is
supposed to begin at 6:30 o'clook, as with many of the earlier Visigothic coins.
4 The entry in Traiti (p. 52) for Sisenand/ SENV-ER is obviously confused
with this issue.
5 Beltran gives PIOSEMVER and refers to Heiss, no. 13 and "Col. Ferreira"
(see the next entry).
300 SUINTHILA
(b). * SVINTILARE * PIVSENVER
1. Ferreira, no. 32 = Belt ran, Suevia, no. 36 (1.39).
N. Senabria.
251. Facing bust. Type 5 q. As obverse.
* SVINTILARE * SENABR-AP:V I
1. La Capilla, no. 37*, p.101 - Campaner, p. 563 = Bel-
tran, Suevia, no. 33.1
0. Ventosa.
252. Faeing bust. Type 5 v. As obverse.
*SVINTILARx *VENTOSAP:-
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. I1, 1 *)
= Hebs, no. 19* = Campaner, Review of Heiss, p. 265 =
Beltran, Suevia, no. 37 = Madrid, p. 382* (1.35).
1 According to Beltran (in a personal communication), this, the single spe-
cimen in the hoard, was acquired by Manuel Fernandez of Seville.
SISENAND
A.D. 631-636
NARBONENSIS
Narbona.
253(a). Facing bust. Type 5f. As obverse.
*SE2ENAWSRE * IIARB:NAIIVS
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, HaUazgoa IV, pi. II,
no.10*) = Heiss, no.7* = Campaner, Review of Heiss,
p. 266 = Robert, no. 19* = Belfort, no. 3148* = Ma-
drid, p. 236* (1.30).
(b). Description lacking.
1. Specimen formerly in private cabinet of Queen of Spain
(Campaner, 1866, no. 4; cf. Campaner, Review of Heiss,
p. 266).
TARRACONENSIS
A. Cesaragusta.
254. Facing bust. Type 4 c.1 As obverse.
#SISEHAHdVSRE# GL-CE:AR:C-0: TAIV
1. Florez, p. 245* = Heiss, no. 1*.
B. Gerunda.
255. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*SISEHA:t>VSRE * <o:RVHAAIVSTV^
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 46 (ex Bosch, Barcelona) = Rein-
hart, pi. 12, no. 6* = Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, no. 4 (1.30). Plate XVII, 1
1 Eye-brows and nose resemble a cross.
302 SISENAND
2. Carles-Tolri, no. 1012* (1.40).
3. Campaner, p. 215, note 2 (Luis Bolos) = Botet y Sis6,
Gerona, p. 224* = Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, no. 5*.*
C. Tarracona.
256(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c.3 As obverse.
*SISENADVSRE * TARR:COIV+ O:
1. Madrid, no. 91* = Campaner, 1866, no.5 = Heiss, no. 8*
= Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, nos. 55*-56** (1.28).
(b) . *SISENA:bVSRE+ * COIV:TO:TARRD
1. Inst.deValencia, no.56* = Reinhart, 1937, pi.XXXVII,
no. 22*.
2. Stuttgart, no. 1356 = Berlin, no. 36 ("L.Hamburger, XI,
1926").
(c) . *SESENA:DVSRE+ * COIV-TOTARR.:
1. VQRno. 5112 = Campaner, 1866, no .6 = Heiss, no. 9*
= Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, nos. 53*-54* (1.36).5
(d) . *SESENANAVSR: * COIVTOTARR t
1. HSA 16441 ( \ 20,1.21). Plate XVII,-
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Acci.
257(a) Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
* SISINANDVSI: i * IVSTVSACI
1. HSA 16234 (ex Cervera) (/20.1.20). PlateXVII. 3
1 Nos. 1 and 2 resemble each other very closely.
2 The drawing in Botet y Sis6 (reproduced by Mateu y Llopis) shows N in the
name of the king, but the other details of the legends are so similar to nos. 1
and 2 that I suspect H is the form actually present on this piece.
3 Eye-brows and nose resemble a cross.
4 Mateu y Llopis unaccountably gives two entries to the same specimen,
with reproductions fromHeiss (drawing) andMadrid (photograph), although be
recognizes them as representing the same specimen. The transcriptions ai*
inaccurate.
6 Here again Mateu gives this coin two separate entries, one referring to
Heiss, the other to VQR. The transcriptions are inaccurate.
CARTHAGINENSIS
303
(1>). ^SISINANIVSMl i * IVSTVSACH
1. HSA 16300 (/20.1.12, damaged). Plate XVII, 4
<c). * SISINAPVSRI Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16364 (/20,1.23, damaged). Plate XVII, 5
(d) . * o|SNANI:VSRI * IVSTVSA'CI
1. HSA 16434 # (/20.1.12). Plate XVII, 6
(e) . * o|SNANt>VSRI; Reverse as (a).
1. La Capilla, no. 42*. p. 105.1
(f) . * >ISENAINVS Reverse as (a).
1. La CapiUa, no. 43*, p. 105.
(g) . As (a)-(f), but exact legends uncertain.
1.-6. La Capilla, nos. 42-43, p. 105 = Campaner, p. 564.*
7. Museo Episcopal de Vich (Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, p.
51, note 6).
B. Castclona.
Type A.
258(a). Facing bust. Type 5 f.3 As obverse.
*sisi-nanavsr; *casti: i.onaps
1. HSA 16338 ( / 20,1.30).* Plate XVII, 7
(b) . *SISHNAdVoR *CASTNNAPS
1. Reinhart, 1937, pi. XXXVII, 23* (apparently not Inst,
de Valencia de Don Juan as reported).
(c) . *SISI :NAdVSR *CASTILNAPS
1. Mata, fig. 2* (Gab. de Catalufia) = Madrid, p. 315, note
320 (1.25).
1 The plate is not clear, but the legends (which do not conform with Fer-
nandez y L6pez' transcriptions) appear to be as above.
2 Beltran's list gives 12 specimens in all, the original distribution being:
Fernandez y Gonzalez (9), Chinchilla (3). Although traces of "La Capilla soil"
remain on only one of the HSA specimens, I believe there can be little doubt
that they are all from the hoard. These four plus the two illustrated in La
Capilla would leave six unaccounted for. Campaner's transcriptions are ob-
viously generalized (SISINADVSRE and IVSTVSA-CI).
3 It will be noted that specimens with this bust have in common I or I follow-
ed by dots in the king's name, as contrasted with a clear and well-defined E in
type B.
4 There were five specimens (ex La Capilla) in Cervera's collection.
304
SISENAND
(d) . *SlSiNANdVSR
1. Mata, fig. 1* (Gab. de Cataluna)
320) (1.19).
(e) . *SISiSI!N"A"IVSR
1. HSA 16395 ( / 20,1.18).
(f) . *SISI:NA-|VSR
1. HSA 16305 (/20,1.03).
(g) . Obverse as (f).
1. HSA 16246 (| 20,1.17).
(h) . *SISINANDVSX
1. La Capilla, no. 47, p. 109
p. 18.
Type B
259(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e.
*SISENANVSRE
1. HSA 16425 ( | 20,1.17).
(b) . *SISEHAHVSRE-
1. HSA 16424 ( | 20,1.03).
(c) . *SISENAN-VSRE-
1. La Capilla, no. 46, p. 109
p. 18.
*SlSI:NANdVSR2
*CASTI:INAPVS
= Madrid, p. 315, note
*CASTT:I-NAP:
Plate XVII. S
*CASTI:.INAPS
Plate XVII, 9
* CASTII-ONAP
*CASTILNAI-VS
Campaner, p. 564 = Mata,
As obverse.
*CASTEIHAP:
Plate XVII, 10
* CASTEIHAPVS
Plate XVII, 11
*CASTEINAI:
Campaner, p. 564 = Mata,
(d) .
(e) .
*CASTILNAPV
1. La Capilla, no. 48*, p. 109 = Mata, p. 18.
*2I2ENANAV2R * CASTIUIAPS^
1. HSA 16340 (| 20,1.22). Plate XVII, 12
Type A or B.
260. Types and exact legends uncertain.
1.-4. La Capilla, nos. 46-48 (approx. 4 specimens).3
5. RN 1897, no. 14 (found at Mauleon).
1 The forms of the letters are uncertain.
! The second I would be an exception to the criterion stated in footnote 3,
above, but the transcription cannot be relied upon. The illustration is illegible.
3 Beltran records 14 specimens in all: Fernandez y Gonzalez (7), Chinchilla
(5), Vidaurre (1), Cervera (1). I assume all seven HSA specimens to have come
from the hoard; these and the specific descriptions in La Capilla account for
10 specimens.
CARTHAGINENSIS 305
C. Mentesa.
Type A.
261(a). Facing bust. Type 5f. As obverse.
*SISIiNAN4VSR *MVSMl;NTiiSA
1. HSA 16214 ( 4, 21,1.30). Plate XVII. 13
(b) . *SISI.-NAdVSR *PV:MENTESA
1. HSA 16404 # (ex Cervera) (j/20,1.24). Plate XVII, 14
(c) . Obverse as (b). * PIVMEHTES*
1. HSA 16439 # (ex Cervera) (/20.1.28, same obv. die as
HSA 16404, (b), above). Plate XVLII, 1
Type B.
262(a). Facing bust. Type 5 g. Facing bust. Type 5 f.
* SISENANDV R+ * PIVSMENTE -A
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 45 (1.10).
(b) . *SISENANd:SR * PIVSMI :NTI:S"
1. HSA 16378 # (| 21,1.14).! Plate XVIII, 2
(c) . *SISENAdVSR * PIVSMI!NTES:
1. HSA 16396 # ( | 20,1.00). Plate XVLL1, 3
(d) . *SISENANd:SI * PIVSMI:NTESA
1. HSA 16406 (| 20,0.84, broken in 2 pieces).
(e) . * SISENAbVSP * PIVSMENTES*
1. Heiss, no. 6* (Louis Jose Ferreira)* = (?) Femandez-
Guerra, pi. I3.
(f) . * SISENANd" S * PIVSMENT-S-
1. Schulman, Nov. 1911, no. 5*.4
1 This particular specimen has two dots, like eyes, above the cross in the face
of the obverse bust.
1 The busts as represented in Heiss differ in several particulars from those on
the HSA specimens, but the obverse has a cross in place of the face and I sus-
pect that the drawings are simply inaccurate with respect to the breasts. The
transcriptions in Heiss' text differ from the legends as they appear in the draw-
ings.
3 Supposed to be in the Madrid collection, but this specimen, like some
others, is not in Mateu y L16pis' catalogue. Fernandez-Guerra had access to
Ferreira's collection, and the drawings in Heiss and Fernandez-Guerra are not
dissimilar. Also the legends are identical.
4 See the note under No. 263 (b), below.
20 Visigoth
306
SISENAND
(g) *SISENANd:SR * PIVSIU:IIT:S:.
1. Marqes de LL, no., 1507* (1.04).
Type A or B.
263(a). Types uncertain.
*SISENAdVSP: *PIVSMENTPS:
1. Ferreira, no. 36 (1.00).
(b). Types and legends uncertain.1
l.-9.( ?). La CapMa, no. 55, p. 97 (approx. 9 specimens).*
D. Toleto.
264(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e.3 As obverse.
*SISENANDVSRE* * TOLETOPIVo
1. HSA 16442 (| 20,1.11).4 Plate XVIII, 4
2. Carles-Tolra, no. 1013* (1.30).
3. Velazquez, no. 84* (Infantas) = Gusseme.VI, p. 221,no.1.
4. -5. Campaner, 1866, no. 7 (Bibl. Nacional) (1.55,1.46).5
6. Merino, pi. 16, no. 4*.e
7. Inst, de Valencia, no. 57*.
(b) . * SISEHAHbVSRE* Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16445 (/ 19,1.50). Plate XVHI, 5
(c) . * SISENANWSRE Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16448 (| 19,1.41). Plate XVIH, 6
2. VQR no. 5113 = Heiss, no. 10* (1.40).
3. Florez, p. 243* = Beltran, p. 401*.
4. Schulman, Nov. 1911, no. 7.
(d) . * SESENANt>VSREX Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16446 ( \ 20,1.41, segment lacking).
1 Fernandez y L6pez has SISENANDVS and PIVSMENT:Sa, which legends,
incidentally, closely resemble those of Type B, (f), above. Did this particular
specimen finally turn up at Schulman's?
2 Beltran records 15 specimens in all, the original distribution being: Fer-
nandez y Gonzalez (11), Chinchilla (4). Assuming all the HSA specimens to be
from the hoard, there remain nine to be accounted for.
3 The bust is very irregular and often quite amorphous.
4 Beltran's list records one specimen in the Cervera collection.
5 The single specimen in the Madrid cabinet in 1936 does not conform with
this description.
6 The drawing of this specimen shows the legend of the obverse beginning at
7 o'clock. It is most unlikely that this is correct.
BAETICA 307
2. HSA 16447 ( \ 19,1.47, same obv. die as no. 1). Plate XVIII, 7
3. VQR no. 5114* = Piot, no. 3* = Meynaerts, no. 36.
(e). * SESENANP-VSRE+ Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16443 (X 19,1.44).
2. HSA 16444 ( j 20,1.42). Plate XVIH, 8
3. HSA 16450 # (| 20,1.53).
4. Marques de LI., no 1508* (1.52).
(I). * SESEHAHbVSRE+ Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 131* = Heiss, no. 10a (1.57).
(g). Similar to (a)-(f), but exact lettering uncertain.
l.-10( ?). La Capilla, no. 66 (approx. 10 specimens).1
11. Cumano, no. 1516.
12. La Grassa.
BAETICA
A. Asidona.
265(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*SISENANdVSRE * PIVSASMONA
1. HSA 16301 (/22.1.34).*
2. HSA 16408 # ( | 21,1.37, same obv. die as no. 1).
3. HSA 16421 # (/21.1.41, same dies as no. 2).
4. HSA 16407 (/ 21,1.25, same obv. die as no. 1).
5. HSA 16415 # (| 21,1.40). Plate XVIH, 9
6. La Capilla, no. 44*, pp. 31, 107 = Campaner, p. 564 =
Madrid, p. 338.
(b). Probably similar to (a), details lacking.
1. La Capilla, no. 44.*
2. Madrid, p. 338 (a specimen seen by "Sr. Clauss," from a
small hoard found in the province of Seville).
1 This number is probably to be reduced, for I suspect that more of the HSA
specimens came from the hoard and have therefore already been described
above. I have subtracted only two from the total of 12 given inBeltran's list:
one for the HSA piece with traces of "LaCapilla soil,"and one more to account
for Chinchilla's second specimen. The original distribution of the remainder
was: Fernandez y Gonzalez (9), Caro of Seville (1).
1 Beltran's list ascribes one specimen to the Cervera collection (ex La Capilla).
3 Beltran's inventory lists seven specimens: Fernandez y Gonzalez (4), Chin-
chilla (2), Cervera (1). I assume that all five HSA specimens are from the hoard;
with the one illustrated in La Capilla (different dies from the HSA specimens),
this leaves one specimen unaccounted for.
20*
30-4
SISEXAXD
B. Barbi.
266(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* SISENANDVSRE1
* PIVSBARBI
1. HSA 16380 # (| 21,1.32).*
2. HSA 16417 # ( / 21,1.37, same obv. die as no. 1).
3. HSA 16423 (/ 21,1.30, i
(b) . Obverse as (a).
1. HSA 16303 # (\ 20,1.20).
(c) . Obverse as (a).
i obv. die as no. 1). Plate XVTH, 10
* PIVSBARBI:
Plate XVHI, 11
* PI:VSBARBIV
1. HSA 16409 # ( / 20,1.19, same obv. die as (a),
above),
(d). *SISENANt>VSRE
Plate XVm, 12
Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16250 # ( / 19,1.08).
2. HSA 16422 # (/< 20,1.36, same rev. die as no. 1).
3. HSA 16304 (/20,1.40).
4. HSA 16385 (^20,1.36, same dies as no. 3).
5. HSA 16367 (/ 20,1.36, same rev. dies as (a) 1,
above).
Plate XVLLI, 13
(e). * SISEHANDVSRE Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16302 # (/19.1.40, same rev. die as (a)l,
above).
(I). Obverse as (a).
1. Schulman, Nov. 1911, no. 4*.
Plate XvTL1, 14
Pellet either side of bust.
* PIVSBARBI--*
Pellet either side of bust.
* PIVSBARBI:
(g). Pellet either side of bust.
Legend as (a).
1. HSA 16369 # (| 19,1.21).
2. HSA 16379 # (/ 20,1.25, same dies as no. 1).
3. HSA 16433 # (| 20,1.22, same dies as no. 1). Plate XIX, 1
4. HSA 16435 # ( [ 20,1.11, same obv. die as no. 1).
1 The horizontal bars of the E's are separated in varying degrees from the
vertical stroke, but on some specimens the letter is so nearly an intregral E
that I have transcribed them all as such even though some should strictly be
transcribed I:.
1 Beltran's list of the Cervera collection lists two specimens, both from La
Capilla.
BAETICA 309
(h). As (a)-(g), exact lettering uncertain.
1.-8. La Capilla, no. 45 = Campaner, p. 564.1
9. Campaner, 1866, no. 1 (former Bruna coll.) = Heiss, no.
la = Campaner, p. 215.
10. Inst, de Valencia de Don Juan (Madrid, p. 322, note 328).*
C. Cordoba.
267(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*SISENAN-VSRE'
*CORAOBAPIVS*
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. II,
8*) = Campaner, 1866, no. 2 = Heiss, no. 2* = Campa-
ner, Review of Heiss, p. 265 = Madrid, p. 325* = Mateu
y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. I,6* (1.40).
(b). *SISENAN-VSRE* * CoRAoBAPIVS*
1. HSA 16306 # ( /20.1.26). Plate XIX,'2
2. Madrid, no. 181* = Adquisiciones en 1932, no. Hl,3* =
Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. l,7* (1.20).
(c) . *SISENAN-VSRE
1. Ferreira, no. 40 (1.70).3
(d) . Obverse as (c).
*CORAOBAPIVS
*CORt>OBAPIV2*4
Plate XIX, 3
1. HSA 16311 # (/21.1.20).
2. HSA 16381 # (| 21,1.15).
3. GriersonColL.no. 1187 = Huth Coll., no. 233* (1.25)
(e). Obverse as (c).
1. HSA 16316 #(|21,1.01).
(I). *SISENANAV2I
1. HSA 16309 ( | 21,1.18).
(g). *SISEHAHVSRE
1. Stuttgart, no. 1355.
*CORAOBAPIV2*
Plate XIX, 4
*CoRABAPIV2*
Plate XIX/5
*CoRt>oBAPIV2
1 Beltran lists 23 specimens in all, original distribution as follows: Fernandez
y Gonzalez (9), Chinchilla (12), Vidaurre (1), Cervera (1). All 15 of the HSA
specimens (of which 11 show traces of "La Capilla soil") are undoubtedly from
the hoard. This leaves eight to be accounted for.
1 But not in Mateu y Llopis' recently published inventory.
3 Note the weight. A forgery?
4 Or #.
310 SISENAND
(h) . *2l2ENANt>VSR: * CRt><>BAPIVS
1. HSA 16307 # (| 20.1.38).1
2. HSA 16314 (| 21,1.24, same dies as no. 1). Plate XIX, 6
3. HSA 16432 # (| 21,1.40, same obv. die as no. 1).
4. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 312* = Rackus, fig. 34*
(wrongly attributed to Heiss) (1.30).
5. Glendining, May 1936, no. 288*.
6. Berlin, no. 38 (provenance ?).
(i) . Obverse as (h). * CRt*>BAPIVZ
1. HSA 16308 (/ 21,1.32, same obv. die as HSA 16307, (h)
1, above). Plate XIX, 7
(j). * 2I2EN NDV2REV Reverse as (f).
1. HSA 16312 # (\ 21,1.40, same rev. die as HSA 16309,
(f) 1, above). Plate XIX, 8
(k). *2I2ERNt>V2Rl *CRABAPIV2*
1. HSA 16310 #(| 21,1.32). Plate XIX, 9
(l). * 2I2ENNCV2RE Reverse as (k).
1. Copenhagen, no. 12 (Raymond Serrure, 1895/6) (1.40).
(m). *2I2ENANDVSR- *CORDOBAPIVS
1. Schulman, Dec. 1934, no. 113.
(n). *2I2ENAHAV2-| *CRt>BAPIV2*
1. HSA 16315 # ( I 21,1.09). Plate XIX, 10
2. HSA 16377 # ( J 21,1.35, same obv. die as no. 1).
(o). * 2I2ENANAV2 Reverse as (n).
1. HSA 16313 (| 21,1.26, same rev. die as HSA 16315, (n),
above). Plate XIX, 11
(p). * 2I2ENANA:R * CRABAPIV2
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. II,
9*).
(q) Obverse as (g) Reverse as (d).
I. Inst, de Valencia, no. 59*.
1 According to Bel trai1's list there were two specimens with 212- -. and PIV2
in the Cervera collection.
BAETICA
311
(r). Similar to (a)-(q), but exact lettering uncertain.1
1.-2. Dias, nos. 11-12.
3. Reinhart Coll., no. 41 (1.44).*
4. Reinhart Coll., no. 42 (1.23).3
5. Spink, Aug. 1894, no. 16895.
6. -33( ?). La Capilla, no. 49, p. 83 (approx. 28 specimens).*
D. Eliberri.
268(a). Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
*SISINANIVSR- *PIVSEIIBER
1. Stuttgart, no. 1354.
(b) . *SISINANIVSR *PIVSEIIBER-
1. HSA 16317 (| 20,1.21).s Plate XIX, 12
2. HSA 16321 (/ 21,1.35, same dies as no. 1).
3. Marques de LI., no 1506* (1.35).6
(c) . Obverse as (b). Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16318 ( / 20,1.32, same obv. die as HSA 16317, (b)l,
above). Plate XIX, 13
2. HSA 16410 (/ 20,1.30, same dies as no. 1).
3. HSA 16431 # ( / 20,1.32, same dies as no. 1).
4. HSA 16319 # K 20,1.30).
5. HSA 16320 ( / 21,1.17, same dies as no. 4).
6. HSA 16355 # ( / 20,1.16, same dies as no. 4).
7. HSA 16363 ( / 20,1.37, same obv. die as no. 4). Plate XIX, 14
8. HSA 16401 ( / 20,1.28, same dies as no. 7).
9. HSA 16419 # ( / 20,1.30).
(d) . * SISINANI-VSR Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16394 # (| 20,1.25). Plate XX, 1
(e) . * SIS IN AH I VSR Reverse as (b).
1. HSA 8098 ( / 20,1.30). Plate XX, 2
1 Some of these specimens were published with transcriptions, but for vari-
ous reasons I consider these transcriptions inaccurate.
SISENANDVSRE:
3 SISENANDVSR.
4 Beltran's list gives 42 specimens in all in the hoard, the original distri-
bution being: Fernandez y Gonzalez (23), Chinchilla (14), "Casro( ?) de Sevilla"
(2), Alberto Garcia Sola (1), Manuel Nieto (1), Juan Fernandez (1). Although
only 10 of the HSA specimens show "La Capilla soil," I have assigned all 14 to
the hoard because this is the exact number acquired by General Chinchilla,
whose share seems to have come more or less intact into the HSA collection.
* There were two specimens in the Cervera collection, both from La Capilla.
Reverse ends :.
312
SI SEN AND
(f) . *SISINANISR *PIVSEIIBIRI
1. HSA 16393 (/ 21,1.29). Plate XX, 3
(g) . Similar to (a)-(f), but exact lettering uncertain.
l.-13.(?) La Capilla, no. 51, p. I11 = Campaner, p. 564
(approx. 13 specimens).1
14. Museo Episcopal de Vich (Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona,
p. 51, note 6).
15. Molder, Apr. 1949, no. 226 = (probably) Molder, July
1949, no. 180.*
16. Inst, de Valencia, no. 61* (illustration partially obscure).
E. Ispali.
269(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e.
*SISENANt>VSRE
1. Ferreira, no. 39(1.41).
2. Florez, p. 243* (Velasco).
3. Schulman, Mar. 1925, no. 791*.
4. Piatt, 1951.
(b). Obverse as (a).
As obverse.
* ISPALIPIVS
* ISPALIPIV2
1. VQR no. 5111 = Heiss, no. 5* (1.40).
(c) . Obverse as (a).
1. HSA 16391 # ( | 20.1.46).3
2. HSA 16397 (/20.1.44).
(d) . *SISENANDVSRE
1. Ferreira, no. 38 (1.46).
(e) . Obverse as (a).
1. HSA 16420 (| 20,1.48).
(f) . *SI-SENANDVSRE
* ISPA-LIPIVS
Plate XX, 4
Plate XX, 5
* ISPAL-IPIVS
* ISPA-LI-PIVS-
Plate XX, 6
Reverse as (c).*
1. HSA 16350 # (| 19,1.47).
2. HSA 16362 # ( \ 20,1.51, same dies as no.
1).
1 There were, according to Beltran, 27 specimens in the hoard, originally
distributed as follows: Fernandez y Gonzalez (18), Chinchilla (6), Caro (1),
Campaner (1), a barber ofCarmona(l). I have assigned all 14 of the HSAspeci-
mens to the hoard, which when Mr. Huntington ceased collecting was the
only source of coins of this ruler and mint.
* Transcribed SISINANDVSR
3 According to Beltran's list, the Cervera collection contained two specimens
(both from the hoard of La Capilla). HSA 16391 has more nearly D than p.
* The pellet after the A does not always show; however, on the specimens
isted here where it is lacking it must have been present on the die, for these
specimens are from the same die as others on which it is present.
BAETICA 313
3. HSA 16354 (1 19,1.48, same obv. die as no. 1).
4. HSA 16365 (/20.1.50, same dies as no. 3).
5. HSA 16383 (/20.1.48, same dies as no. 3). Plate XX, 7
6. HSA 16436 # (/19.1.42, same dies as no. 3).
(g) . * SI-SENANfVSRE Reverse as (e).
1. HSA 16358 #( j 20,1.54). Plate XX, 8
2. HSA 16428 # ( \ 19,1.45).
3. HSA 16388 (/19,1.36, same rev. die as HSA 16420, (e)l,
above).
(h) . * SISENA-NWSRE Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 218* (1.42).
(i). Obverse as (h). Reverse as (b).
1. Freeman Coll.
(j). * S1SENANWSRE Reverse as (c).
1. HSA 16366 # (/20.1.49, same rev. die as HSA 16397,
(c)2, above).
2. HSA 16382 (/19.1.25, same dies as no. 1). Plate XX, 9
(k). * SISEN-ANDVSRE Reverse as (e).
1. HSA 16371 # ( j 19,1.39, same rev. die as HSA 16420,
(e)l, above). Plate XX, 10
(1). * SISENAHDVSRE Reverse as (a).
1. Berlin, no. 37 (provenance unknown).
(m). * SISENAMD.VSRE Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16351 # (. \ 20,1.40). Plate XX, 11
2. HSA 16360 (| 20,1.40, same dies as no. 1).
(n). Obverse as (m). * ISPA'LPPIVS
1. HSA 16374 (I 20,1.42, same obv. die as HSA 16351,
(m) 1, above). Plate XX, 12
2. HSA 16389 # (| 20,1.52, same dies as no. 1).
(o). Obverse as (m). Reverse as (e).
1. HSA 16357 # (| 18,1.50, same obv. die as HSA 16351,
(m)l, above). Plate XX, 13
(p). * SISEMAMDVSRE Reverse as (a).
1. Cabinet des Medailles.
(q). * SISE-HAHDVSRE Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16356 ( / 19,1.47).
2. HSA 16359 (I 20,1.46). Plate'XX, 14
3. HSA 16361 (I 19,1.42, same dies as no. 2).
4. HSA 16370 ( j 20,1.43).
5. HSA 16449 # (| 19,1.51, same dies as no. 4).
6. Inst, de Valencia, no. 60*.
314
SISENAND
(r). Obverse as (q). Reverse as (b).
1. HSA 16375( | 20,1.30, frg. lacking, same obv. die as HSA
16370, (q)4, above). Plate XX, 15
(8). * SISEHAHAVSRE Reverse as (c).
1. HSA 16399 # (| 19,1.50). Plate XXI, 1
(t). * SISEHAHAVSRE Reverse as (c).
1. HSA 16412 # (\ 19,1.44, same rev. die as HSA 16399,
(s)l, above). Plate XXI, 2
(u). * SISENANDVSRI Reverse as (b).
1. Copenhagen, no. 14 = Schlessinger 1933, no. 3793 (1.37).
(V). * SISENANDVSI Reverse as (a).
1. La Capilla, no. 53.
(w). Similar to (a)-(v), but exact lettering uncertain.
l.-22.( ?) La Capilla, no. 53 (approx. 22 specimens).1
23. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 313 (1.50).
24. Glendining, July 1936, no. 266.*
F. Malaca.
270(a). Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
* SISENANDVSR * MALACAPIVS3
1. Gab. Num. de Barcelona (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV,
p. 243 (pi. VI, 11*).
(b). * SISEHAHAVSI Pellet either side of head.
* MAI-AtAPIVS
1. HSA 16387 (/20.1.13).4 Plate XXI, 3
2. Formerly property of Rollin, the dealer = Madrid, p. 319
= Reinhart, p. 100.5
1 According to Beltran's list, there were 48 specimens in the hoard, origin-
ally distributed as follows: Fernandez y Gonzalez (32), Chinchilla (14), Vi-
daurre (1), Caro (1). I imagine all 28 HSA specimens are from the hoard, but I
have calculated only 25, those bearing traces of "La Capilla soil" together with
those from similar dies (whether mulings or pairs). With (v) this leaves 22 spe-
cimens unaccounted for. The single set of legends in La Capilla cannot of course
account for all the dies in the hoard.
2 RIX, which must be doubtful, and ISPAUPIVS, probably an error.
3 The legends are virtually illegible in the plate; reliance has therefore been
placed on the transcriptions.
4 There are traces of earth on this specimen, resembling that on the coins
which I have identified as coming from La Capilla, but none of the authorities
on the contents of the hoard cites the coin.
5 This may be the HSA specimen. Pio Beltran is the source of the informa-
tion given in Madrid as well as Reinhart's source. Mateu y Llopis (Madrid, toe.
BAETICA
315
G. Tucci.
271(a). Facing bust. Type 5e. As obverse.
.*SISENANdVSRE * IVSTVSTVCCI
1. HSA 16384 # ( 21.1.32).1
2. HSA 16440 # (I 21,1.11, same obv. die as no. 1).
Plate XXI, 4
(b) . Obverse as (a). * I VST VST VCI
1. HSA 16403 ( 4 21,1.25). Plate XXI, 5
(c) . Obverse as (a). * IVSTVSTV:CI
1. HSA 16411 # ( 4 22,1.19).'
2. HSA 16373 (| 21,1.08, same obv. die as no. 1). Plate XXI, 6
3. HSA 16386 ( j 21,1.60, same dies as no. 2).
4. HSA 16390 (4 20,1.29).
5. HSA 16392 # (| 21,1.25, same obv. die as HSA 16384,
(a)l, above).
6. La Capilla, no. 56*, p. 115 = Campaner, p. 564.1
7. Cabinet des Medailles.
(d) . * SISENANd :SRE * IVSTVSTViCI
1. HSA 16398 #(|20,1.27). Plate XXI, 7
(e) . * SISENANd :SR- Reverse as (c).
1. HSA 16402 # ( / 22,1.36). Plate XXI, 8
cit.) writes that Beltran saw a reproduction of the coin, or that it was in a sales
catalogue (Hallazgoa IV, p. 243). Beltran himself, to whom I am indebted for
the confirmation that the legends are probably the same as on the HSA speci-
men, writes that the coin belonged to Rollin and that its disposition is, to him,
unknown; it might be the HSA piece, or the Barcelona piece, or another. I have
not been able to locate the specimen in any Rollin & Feuardent catalogue, but
if that piece was disposed of before, say, 1906, there is, I suspect, a strong like-
lihood that it went to the Hispanic Society, and therefore that nos. 1 and 2 are
the same coin.
1 According to Beltran's inventory, there were five specimens in theCervera
collection, all from the hoard of La Oapilla.
* This specimen has a die flaw that makes the C look like S.
3 This specimen, formerly broken in two pieces, has been mended by solder-
ing; the solder would account for the exceptional weight.
* Beltran lists only eight specimens of Sisenand-Tucci in the hoard of La
Capilla, distributed as follows: Chinchilla (4), Fernandez y Gonzalez (3), Vi-
daurre (1). Obviously this total is incorrect; there are at least 11 HSA speci-
mens with traces of "La Capilla soil," and there can be small doubt that all 16
HSA pieces are from the hoard, there being no other known specimens of this
mint under Sisenand.
316
SISENAND
(f) . * SISENAN4VSR-, * IVSTVSTV CI
1. HSA 16405 # (/21.1.36). Plate XXI, 9
(g) . * SISENAN4 VSR: Reverse as (c).
1. HSA 16414 # (| 21,1.36).
(h) . * SIS WAN dVSR" Reverse as (f).
1. HSA 16413 # (/21.1.37, same rev. die as HSA 16405,
(f) 1, above). Plate XXI, 10
(i) . * SISENAd VSR Reverse as (b).
1. HSA 16400 ( | 20,1.01). Plate XXI, 11
(j). * SESENANdVSRE Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16368 # ( | 20,1.19, same rev. die as HSA 16440,
(a)2, above). Plate XXI, 12
(k). Obverse as (j). Reverse as (c).
1. HSA 16438 # ( | 20,1.04, same obv. die as HSA 16368,
(j)l, above). Plate XXI, 13
(l). Similar to (a)-(k), legends illegible in plate.
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 58*.
LUSITANIA
A. Egitania.
272(a). Facing bust. Type 8c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*SISENANDVSREx * E6ITA|N|IAPIVS
1. Madrid, no. 309* (1.62).
2. Ferreira, no. 41 (1.29).
3. Florez, p. 244* = Masdeu, p. 331 = Elias Garcia, Egi-
tdnia, p. 11*.
(b) . Obverse as (a). * E6ITAN|I|APIVS
1. HSA 16341 (ex Cervera) = La Capilla, no. 65, p. 65
( / 18,1.34).> Plate XXI, 14
2. VQR no. 5109 = Piot, no. 4* = Meynaerts, no. 37 =
Heiss, no. 3* = Elias Garcia, Egitdnia, pp. 15* and 17*
(1.06).
(c) . As (a) or (b).
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 43 (1.35).
1 Fernandez y Lopez has RE*, but I suspect that REX is present, and, as
this specimen was among those acquired by Chinchilla, that the piece is the
same one as that now in the HSA collection. According to Beltran's list there
were only two specimens in the hoard: Chinchilla's and one other which went
to Fernandez y Gonzalez.
LUSITANIA
317
(d) . *SISENANDVSRE * E6ITA|N|IAPIVS
1.-2. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 123 (Antonio Marrocos
and Elias Garcia collections).
(e) . *SISENANDVSRE * EtflTANIAPIVS*1
1. La Capilla, no. 50, p. 65.
B. Emerita.
273(a). Facing bust. Type 8c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*SISENANDVSREx * EMERI|T|APIVS
1. HSA 8121 (/ 18.1.50).* Plate XXn, 1
2. HSA 16322 # (/ 19,1.50, same dies as no. 1).
3. HSA 16324 # (/ 18,1.52, same dies as no. 1).
4. HSA 16325 (/ 19,1.47, same dies as no. 1).
5. HSA 16327 # (/ 18,1.45, same dies as no. 1).
6. HSA 16334 # (/ 19,1.45, same dies as no. I).3
7. HSA 16336 # (/ 18,1.48, same dies as no. 1)-
8. HSA 16198 # ( f 18,1.44, same obv. die as no. 1).
9. HSA 16326 # (". 18,1.47, same dies as no. 8).
10. HSA 16332 # ( f 18,1.48, same dies as no. 8). Plate XXII, 2
11. HSA 16339 # (/18,1.43, frg. lacking, same obv. die as
no. 1).
12. HSA 16347 (/18,1.42, same dies as no. 11). Plate XXII, 3
13. HSA 16200 # ( f 19).*
14. HSA 16201 # (I 18,1.29).
15. HSA 16346 # ( \ 19,1.41).
16. HSA 16352 # ( f 19.1.39).
17. Copenhagen, no. 13 = Thomson, no. 1103 (1.52).
18. The Hague.
19. Cabinet des Medailles.
20. Johns Hopkins (Wayte Raymond, 1921) (18,1.07).
21. Grierson Coll., no. 4568 (Rome, 1947) (1.41).
22. VQR no. 5110* = Piot, no. 2* = Meynaerts, no. 35 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 3 = Heiss, no. 4a.
23. Inst, de Valencia, no. 62* = Beltran, Ampuriae, 1941,
p. 99, fig. 3* = Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 49.
24. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 49 (Tinchant, Bruxelles).
25. Florez, p. 244* (Gabriel) = Masdeu, p. 20.
1 Position of I not indicated in transcription.
2 Beltran lists three specimens in the Cervera collection, all from La Capilla.
3 Spot of green oxide.
* This specimen was largely covered with a heavy green oxide, occasionally
present on other specimens presumably from the hoard of La Capilla. Adhering
to this oxide was a small fragment of a debased coin measuring 8x4 mm. This
fragment, almost entirely copper, was carefully detached and cleaned. Un-
fortunately nothing is legible but part of an X.
318
SISESTAND
(b) . Obverse as (a). Pellet at either side of head;
legend as (a).
1. HSA 8123 # (| 19,1.51, same obv. die as HSA 16352,
(a) 16, above).
2. HSA 16329 # (/ 19,1.50, same dies as no. 1).
3. HSA 16330 # (I 19,1.49, same dies as no. 1).
4. HSA 16337 # (| 18,1.45, same dies as no. 1).
5. HSA 16202 # ( \ 19,1.50, same obv. die as no. 1).
6. HSA 16323 ( \ 19,1.53, same dies as no. 5). Pirate XXXL4
7. HSA 16297 # (/19,1.52, same rev. die as no. 1).
8. HSA 16345 (/19.1.47, same rev. die as no. 5).
9. HSA 16344 # (/ 19,1.49). Plate XXII. >
10. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 46391 = Campaner, 1866, no.
3 = Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo, no. 28* (1.35).
11. Freeman Coll.
12. Hoffmann, 1886, no. 28.
(c) . Obverse as (a). V at either side of head;
legend as (a).
1. HSA 16298 ( 4 19,1.47).
2. HSA 16353 # (1 18,1.49, same dies as no. 1).
3. BM no. 10 (acquired 1863) = Heiss, no. 4* ( \ 18,1.42,
same dies as no. 1).
4. HSA 16328 ( j 19,1.40). PlateXXH,6
5. HSA 16331 ( I 18,1.42).
6. Madrid, no. 265* (1.42).
7. Museo de Belem, Lisbon (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V,
p. 71).
8. Teixeira, no. 346.*
9. -10. Elias Garcia, Lumtdnia, no. 47 (Maria Guilhermina de
Jesus Cat., Jan. 1902, no. 1146; Paiva Pessoa coll.).
11. O'Crouley, p. 383.
12. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2151* (1.16).
13. Niggeler Coll. (1.33).
(d) . * SISEN AND VSREX3 Pellet at either side of head.
* EMERI|T|APIVS*
1. HSA 16333 # (| 19,1.49).
2. HSA 16342 (| 19,1.49, same dies as no. 1).
3. HSA 16348 # ( 4 19,1.45, same dies as no. 1). Plate XXD, 7
4. HSA 16335 ( \ 19,1.57, same rev. die as no. 1).
5. HSA 16349 # (| 19,1.53, same dies as no. 4).
6. HSA 16452 # ( | 19,1.46, same dies as no. 4).
(e) . * SISENANDVSREx Reverse as (a).
1. Piot, no. 1* = Meynaerts, no. 34.
1 Pellets omitted from description.
2 PIVS omitted from transcription.
a X not full size, but larger than types (a)-(c).
LUSITANTA 319
(f) . * SISENANDVSRE- Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16451 # (\ 19,1.44, same rev. die as HSA 16346,
(a) 15, above). Plate XXII, 8
2. ANS (ex Wyman) (^20,1.48, same dies as no. 1).
3. Grierson Coll. (ex Reinhart Coll.) (1.40).
(g) . * SISENANDVSRE* Reverse as (c).
1. HSA 16343 (/ 19,1.45). Plate XXII, 9
(h) . * SISENANDVSRE * EMERITAPIVS (division
of legend not indicated)
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa V, no. 301 (Coll. Sole, Lerida).
(i) . Similar to (a)-(h), but details uncertain.
l.-55( ?). La Capilla, no. 52 (approx. 55 specimens).1
56. Dias, no. 13.
57. Ferreira, no. 37 (1.41).
58. Severim, p. 157.
59. Grantley Sale, no. 2797.
C. Lam ego.
274. Types unknown.
*SISINA:AVSRE * PIVSLAIIP.CO:
1. La Capilla, no. 54, p. 113 - Campaner, p. 564* = Elias
Garcia, Lamecum, p. 10.
GALLAECIA.
A. Bracara?
275. Facing bust. Type 5e. As obverse.
* S-S-NA-DV-RE * PI SB-T-R C R
1. La Capilla, no. 58*, p. 119 = Campaner, p. 564.3
I Fernandez y Lopez gives REX but omits all other details. Beltran records
88 specimens in the hoard, originally distributed as follows: Fernandez y Gon-
zalez (66), Chinchilla (15), Vidaurre (4), A. M. Fabie (1), Manuel Nieto (1), Jose
Siles (1). I have assigned 33 of the HSA specimens to the hoard, including those
with connecting dies as well as those with traces of "La Capilla soil."
II have adopted Fernandez y L6pez' transcription of the reverse in prefer-
ence to Campaner's undoubtedly normalized rendering. According to Beltran
there was only one specimen in the hoard, the property of Fernandez y Gon-
zalez.
3 The illustration is scarcely legible and the legends above are as given by
Fernandez y L6pez. The reading must be considered doubtful: Fernandez y L6-
320
SI SEN AND
B. Mave.1
276.
Facing bust. Type 12d. Facing bust. Type 5 e
(indeterminate).
*SISENANdVSR- *MAVEPIVS:
1. Botet y Sis6, Notes Numismdiiques, p. 26* (Coll. Joseph
Busquets y Duran, Barcelona).
C. Toriviana.
277.
Types unknown.
*SESENANDVSRE * TVRIVIANAPIVS
1. La Capilla, no. 57, p. 117 = Campaner, p. 565.*
pez suggested Bracara, Campaner the same or Betera (Betra). Pio Belt ran
states that there was only one specimen in the hoard and that of uncertain dis-
position. When La Capilla was published the coin belonged to Fernandez y
L6pez, for the plate so indicates.
1 Reinhart does not record Mave as a mint under Sisenand.
2 There was only one specimen in the hoard, and, according to Beltran, this
went to Fernandez y Gonzalez.
IUDILA
CA. a.D. 631-633
BAETICA
A. Eliberri.
278. Types?
* IV IILARI-X tfPIVSIILIBER1
1. La Capilla, no. 2, p. 43 = Campaner, p. 565 = Hiibner,
Revista Critica, p. 96 = idem, Deutsche Litteraturzeitung,
col. 500 = Reinhart, 1941, p. 191."
LUSITANIA
A. Emerita.
279. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
* IVDILAREX * EMERI|T|APIVS
1. HSA 16299 (ex Cervera) = La Capilla, no. 60, pp. 35,43
(property of Chinchilla) = Chabas, p. 260 = Campaner,
p. 565 = Hiibner, Revista Critica, p. 96 = idem, Deutsche
Litteraturzeitung, col. 500 = Engel, 1898, p. 128 = Ma-
drid, p. 343 = Beltran, Ampurias 1941, p. 99* (rough
drawing from Vives' rubbing) = Reinhart, 1941, p. 191
(/19,1.44). " PlateXXII, 10
1 I have adopted the readings in La Capilla in preference to those of Cam-
paner as probably being more accurate.
1 Campaner recorded this single specimen as belonging to Saturnino Fernan-
dez of Seville; Beltran lists it (with a query) as the property of Fernandez y
Lopez.
21 Visigoth
CHINTILA
a.D. 636-639
TARRACONENSIS
A. Cesaragusta.
280. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
XCHIHTIL>REX XCE:AR:C-0:TAI-
1. HSA 16461 (ex Cervera) (\ 20,1.37). Plate XXII, 11
Reinhart (p. 100) lists Cesaragusta as a mint under Chintila, which
would indicate either that he was acquainted with the Cervera piece
or that he had knowledge of another. The present specimen is the
only one known to me.
B. Gerunda.
281. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*CHIHTILARE * Q :RVHt>: IVST:
1. VQR no. 5116 = Pujol y Camps, p. 190, no. 1* = Cam-
paner, 1866, no. 5 = Heiss, no. 6* = Botet y Sis6, Gerona,
p. 224* = Madrid, p. 271* = Mateu y Llopis, Gerona,
no. 6 (1.25).
2. Pujol y Camps, p. 190, no. 1 (D. N. Vera, Seville) = Cam-
paner, 1866, no. 5.
The entry in TraiU for Chintila-Tarracona (TARAC: NA) must be
an error. To my knowledge no specimen has been published.
C. Valcntia.
282(a). Facing bust. Type 5 f. Facing bust. Type 5 o.
*CHINTILAREX *VALENTIAPVS
(begins at 11 o'clock)
1. Florez, p. 247* = Gusseme, II, p. 158, no. 5 = Masdeu,
p. 347 = Heiss, no. 14* = Martinez Aloy, p. 347 = Ma-
drid, p. 306* = Beltran, p. 441, fig. 19*.
CARTHAGINENSIS
323
(b). Obverse as (a). * VALENTIAPIVS*
1. VQR no. 5120* = Campaner, 1866, no. 9 = Martinez
Aloy, p. 347.
Beltran (pp. 441-442) accepts (a), and probably (b), as genuine,
lave seen (b) and consider it genuine. Beltran is in error in equating
^Jrt no. 5120 with Piot no. 4 (Meynaerts); the latter is one of the
-geries based on the illustration in Florez (see p. 473).1
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Acci.
3(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*CHNTIL"AR *IVSTVSACI
1. HSA 16455 (| 21,1.24). Plate XXII, 12
(b). Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
*:AIITMIH3 * IVSTVSACM
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 46402 = Campaner, 1866, no. 1
= Heiss, no. la = Beltran, Ampurias, 1941, p. 100 =
Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo, no. 29*3 (1.33). Plate XXII, 13
B. Castelona.
84. Facing bust. Type 5 j. As obverse.
*CHINTIIAI *CAST-LNAPI
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, HaUazgos IV, pi. II,
13*) = Campaner, 1866, no. 2 = Heiss, no. 1* = Cam-
paner, Review of Heiss, p. 265 = Madrid, p. 315 - Mata,
p. 18 (1.05).
C. Toleto.
85(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*CHINTILAREX * TOLETOPIVio
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 29 = Mahudel, pi. 13, no. 1* =
Velazquez, no. 85 = Gusseme, II, p. 158, no. 4 = Heiss,
no. 11 (1.38).
1 Meynaerts, no. 41 is listed as a "denier d'argent," and the illustration
hows that it is one of the copies.
s Transcription not accurate.
3 Wrongly numbered L. 4648.
324
CHINTLLA
2. Piot, no. 3* = Meynaerts, no. 40.
3. Schulman, Oct. 1921, no. 69*.
4. Stack's 1942, no. 10209G (1.50).
5. Lonja del Almidon, no. 696.
(b) . Obverse as (a). * TOLETOPIVS *
1. Ferreira, no. 42 (1.47).
(c) . * CHINTILARE+ Reverse as (a).
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 48 (1.37).
(d) . Obverse as (a). * TOLETOPIVcof
1. HSA 16459 ( 4- 18.1.50).1
2. HSA 16470 ( 4 18,1.54). Plate XXEU
3. Madrid, no. 132* = Fernandez-Guerra, pi. I* (1.51).
4. VQR no. 5119 = Heiss, no. 11* (1.49).
5. Grierson Coll. ( j- 1.48).
6. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 130v* = (1) Florez, p. 246* (S. Ded-
fonso) = Merino, pi. 16, no. 5*.*
BAETICA
A. Cordoba.
Type A
286(a). Facing bust. Type 9 b. As obverse.
*CHINTIIARE* * C ORDOBAP1VS
1. Madrid, no. 182* = Campaner, 1866, no. 3 = Heiss.no. 2M
= Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. 1,9* (1.33).
(b). *CHINTILAR *CORDOBAPIV.
1. Madrid, no. 183* = Campaner, 1866, no. 4 = Heiss, no.
2 = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. I, 10* (1.04).
Type B
287. Facing bust. Type 9 b. Facing bust. Type 10 a.
*CHINTILAREX *CORDOB*PIVS:
1. BMno. 11 (acquired 1863) = Heiss, no. 2* = Mateu y
Llopis, Cordoba, pi. I, no. 8* ( j 18,1.41). Plate XXII,
1 This, or the next coin, was Cervera's.
2 The sprig at the end of the reverse legend not shown.
3 The transcriptions are incorrect.
BAETICA
325
Type A or B
288. Facing bust. Type? Facing bust. Type?
*CHINTILARE * CORDOBAPIVS
1. Ferreira, no. 43 (1.49).
The evidence, so far as I have been able to assemble it, does not
support Mateu y Llopis's assertion1 that the mint at Cordoba struck
"abundantly" during Chintila's reign. The above four specimens
appear to be the only ones known.
B. Egabro.
289. (a) Facing bust. Type? Facing bust. Type?
*CHINTILARX * EGABRPIVS
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Museo de la Sociedad
Martins Sarmento, Guimaraes).
(b). *CHINTILAR * PIVSEOABR
1. Campaner, p. 215, note 4 (Ferreira).
C. Eliberri.
290. Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
*CHINTILAR * PIVSI-IIBI-Rl
1. HSA 16457 ( \ 20,1.22). Plate XXII, 16
2. Florez, p. 247 (Calvelo) = Campaner, p. 215.
I am convinced, after meticulous scrutiny, that the HSA specimen,
which may possibly be the identical piece cited by Florez, is genuine.
The forgery illustrated by Mateu y Llopis2 is almost certainly molded
from a coin struck with dies identical with those from which the HSA
piece was struck, perhaps from the HSA piece itself at some earlier
time in its history. The latter has the appearance of an authentic
coin; and the weight is acceptable. Florez' transcription3 is a reason-
able interpretation of the letters which I recognize on the HSA coin:
the loops of the B are very faint and are separated from the vertical
stroke (i. e., I: in Florez' reading), and the loop and oblique stroke
of the R are equally obscure (I: again in Florez' reading). For this
1 Cordoba, p. 54.
2 Madrid, pi. F, no. 20; of. p. 474, infra.
3 PIVSI:III:I:I:I
326
CHINTILA
reason I say that Calvelo's and the HSA piece may be the same.
Campaner's doubts (loc. cit.) about the issue were probably based
on the curious succession of letters represented by Florez, but these
letters and dots assume intelligible form when one realizes that I- =
E, that the horizontal stroke of L is omitted, and that I: = B. Florez
himself recognized these probabilities.
D. Ispali.
291(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*CHI-NTIL ARE * ISPALIPIVS
1. HSA 16458 (| 17,1.46). Plate XXII, 17
(b) . Obverse as (a). * ISPAL-IPI-VS
1. VQR no. 5117*.
2. Hess, June 1922, no. 114* (Berlin, no. 42) = Jesse, pi. I,
fig. 6 = Rackus, fig. 35*.
3. Marques de LI., no. 1509* (1.42).
(c) . * CHINTIL-A-REy Reverse as (a).
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 27 = Le Blanc, p. 32, no. 18* = Ma-
hudel, pi. 12, no. 28* = Velazquez, no. 87 = Florez, p.
247 = Gusseme, II, p. 158, no. 2 = Heiss, no. 7* (1.38).
(d) . Description incomplete.
1. Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1187.
E. Tucci.
292(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*CHINTILARE * IVSTVSTVCI
1. Stuttgart, no. 1357. Plate XXIH, 1
(b) . * CHINTIIAP * I VSTVSTVC=
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. II,
12*) = Campaner, 1866, no. 8 - Heiss.no. 12 *= Cam-
paner, Review of Heiss, p. 265 (1.05).
(c) . *CH:HTILAR * IVSTVSTVCI*1
1. Ashmolean, no. 20 = Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 314* =
Grantley Sale, no. 2798 ( | 20,1.20). Plate XXIH, 2
1 The reverse is double-struck and very obscure; the above legend has been
read with the aid of a photograph from the Ashmolean.
LUSITANIA
327
LUSITANIA.
A. Emerita.
293(a). Facing bust. Type 8 c. Pellet Facing bust. Type 7. Pellet
at each side of head. at each side of head.
*CINTHILAREX * EMERI|T|APIVS
1. VQR no. 5115* = Piot, no. 1* = Meynaerts, no. 38.
2. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hdllazgoa IV, pi. II,
14*).
3. Reinhart Coll., no. 47 (1.43).
4. Teixeira, no. 347.
5. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2152* (1.50).
6. Inst, de Valencia, no. 63*.
(b) . * CINTHILAREX" Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 267* (1.32).
2. Grierson Coll., no. 1077 = Shore Sale, no. 617* ( | 18,1.41).
Plate XXIII, 3
3. Florez, p. 248* (Velasco) = Masdeu, p. 21 = Heiss, no.
3* (1.32).1
4. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 52 (Tinchant, Bruxelles).
(c) . As (a) but star in place of As (a) but no pellets; same
pellet at each side of head. legend.
*CINTHIL-AREX
1. Madrid, no. 266* = Velazquez, no. 86 (Leyrens) = Flo-
rez, p. 248 (Gabriel) = Gusseme, II, p. 158, no. 1 (1.43).
2. Johns Hopkins (Wayte Raymond, 1921) (17,1.45).
Plate XXIII, 4
3. Piot, no. 2* = Meynaerts, no. 39.
(d) . Probably as (a)-(c), details lacking.
1. La Grassa.
B. Eminio.
294. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*CINTHILAREX * EMIN|l|OPIV2
1. BM no. 12 (acquired 1863) = Heiss, no. 5* (| 19,1.46). Plate XXIII, 5
1 The engraving in Heiss is incorrect, the pellets and points after X on the ob-
verse having been omitted, although they are present in Florez' drawing.
328
CKINTILA
C. Valentia.
295. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*CHINTILARE: * VALEN|T|IAPIVS
1. BM no. 14 = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1186 = Heiss, no.
13* = Campaner, p. 216 = Martinez Aloy, p. 347 = Ma-
drid, p. 306* = Beltran, p. 434, fig. 14* - Elias Garcia,
Lusitania, no. 114 (| 20,1.21). Plate XXIII, 6
Beltran1 considers this piece a fabrication. Although I have not
seen the piece itself, I find nothing suspect in the appearance of the
coin in the plaster-cast furnished me by the British Museum; and
despite Beltran's very authoritative view (with which I should like
to agree) I consider the coin authentic.2
GALLAECIA
A. Lncu.
296. Facing bust. Type 5 u. As obverse.
*CHINTILARE- * LVCVPIVS*
1. BM no. 13 (acquired 1849) = Heiss, no. 8* = Beltran,
Suevia, no. 39 (| 18,1.45). Plate XXIII, 7
B. Mave.
297. Facing bust. Type 5 n. Facing bust. Type 5 e.
*CHINTILARE *MAVEPIVS
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. II,
11*) = Campaner, 1866, no. 6 = Heiss, no. 8a*s = Cam-
paner, Review of Heiss, p. 265 = Beltran, Suevia, no. 41
= Madrid, p. 384* (1.20).
C. Petra.
298. Facing bust. Type 5 t. Facing bust. Type 5 v,
variant.
1 Pp. 434-435.
2 Cf. Heiss, p. 64, citing the opinion of de Salis, who believed that "Poriginal
etait d'une authenticity qui ne pouvait etre suspectee."
3 Wrongly labeled pi. X1Tl, no. 10; actually no. 11.
GALLAECIA
329
*CINTILAR.: *PETRAPIVS#
1. VQR no. 5118 = Boudard, p. 349* = Heiss, no. 10* =
Beltrdn, Suevia, no. 40 = Madrid, p. 381* (1.45). Plate XXIII, 8
D. Toriviana.
299. Reinhart (p. 101) tabulates Toriviana as a mint Tinder
Chintila, presumably on the basis of an unpublished specimen.
TULGA
A.D. 639-642
NARBONENSIS
Narbona.
300. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
fcTVLOAREX*1 *NARB-OHAPIV
1. Maison Florange, Paris, 1951 (1.38). Plate XXIII, 9
I have had this unique coin in my hands, Mme Kapamadji,
proprietor of the Maison Florange, having been kind enough to send
it to me for examination. I see no reason to suspect its authenticity.
The coin came from an old collection in Beziers (cf. the specimen of
Achila, No. 513(b)).
TARRACONENSIS
A. Cesaragusta.
301. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
XTVL6:AHRE XCE:AR:C-0:TA*
1. Boudard, p. 350* = Campaner, 1866, no. 2 = Heiss, no.
3* = Madrid, p. 277*.
B. Tarracona.
302. Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
*TVLC-ARE+ * OC:IV:TOTARR:
1. VQR no. 5125 = Campaner, 1866, no. 4 = Heiss.no. 9*
= Madrid, p. 268* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 57*
(1.37).
1 The X curiously bent at the top and the left.
C ARTHA GINEN SI S BAETICA 331
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Beatia.
$03. Facing bust. Type 5 1. Facing bust. Type 5 e.
*TVL6ANRE *PIVSBIATIA
1. Copenhagen, no. 15 = Heiss, no. 2* = Thomson, no. 1004
= Madrid, p. 314* (1.25). Plate XXIII, 10
B. Toleto.
$04.(a) Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* TVL6ANREX * TOLETOPIVco *
1. HSA 16469 ( | 18.1.51).1 Plate XXIII, 11
(b) . Obverse as (a). * TOLETOPIVco*
1. HSA 16468 ( j 17,1.45). Plate XXIII, 12
2. Madrid, no. 133* (1.25).*
3. Cabinet des Medailles.
4. Ferreira, no. 78 (1.50).
5. Florez, p. 250* = Masdeu, p. 21 = Heiss, no. 10*.
6. Berlin, no. 41 (provenance unknown).
7. Marques de LI., no. 1510* (1.44).
(c) . * TVI6ANRE+ Reverse as (a).
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 49 (1.50).
(d) . Similar to (a)(c), symbol uncertain.
1. Lonja del Almid6n, no. 697.
BAETICA
A. Barbi.
305(a). Facing bust, tilted toward right. As obverse.
Type 5 v.
*TVL6ANRE *PIVSBARBI
1. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2154*.
(b). * TVL-ij AN RE Reverse as (a).
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. II,
16*) = Campaner, 1866, no. 1 = Heiss, no. 1* = Cam-
paner, Review of Heiss, p. 265 (1.15).
1 Either this or HSA 16468 (below) is ex Cervera.
* This specimen, from the collection of Basilio Sebastian Castellanos, is, ac-
cording to Mateu y Llopis (p. 295), of gilded silver, but probably an official
issue, not a contemporary forgery.
332
TULGA
B. Cordoba.
306(a). Facing bust. Type 9 b. Facing bust. Type 10 a.
* TVL6ANREX * CRD<>BAPIVS
1. HSA 16465 ( \ 18,1.26). Plate XXHI, 13
2. VQR no. 5121 = Heiss, no. 4* (1.12).
(b) . * TVL6ANRE * CoRAoBAPIVS1
1. HSA 16462 (/17,1.13).
2. HSA 16464 ( | 17,1.33). Plate XXIH, 14
3. Madrid, no. 185* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. II, 2*
(1.35).
4. Madrid, no. 186* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. n, 3*
(0.761).
5. Madrid, no. 187* = (probably) Florez, p. 251* = Mateu
y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. H, 4* (1.10).
6. Stockholm - Lorichs, no. 4641 = Mateu y Llopis, Cor-
doba, p. 55 = idem, Estocolmo, no. 30*4 (1.27).
7. Johns Hopkins (Schulman, 1925, ex Moneiro) (17,1.24).
Plate XXHI, 15
8. Velazquez, no. 89* (Burriel).
9. -10. Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. H, 5*, 7*.5
(c) . TVLtfANREw *CORAOBAPIVS
1. Madrid, no. 184* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. II, 1*
(1.16).
2. Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. H, 6*.*
(d) . * TVL6ANR-E: Reverse as (b).
1. HSA 16463 (|17,1.01). Plate XXIH, 16
(e) . * TVUTANRE" * CoR0oBAPIV2
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 64*.
1 The A is usually somewhat rounded.
2 Weight given as 0.86 in Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba.
3 Florez has RE +, but there is none with this legend in the Madrid collection
("Biblioteca Real"), and Florez' remark that the specimen is of "silver" agrees
with a similar observation of Mateu y Llopis to the effect that Madrid, no. 187,
is silver but genuine.
4 Wrongly numbered L. 4640.
5 These two specimens and one other, (c)2, are stated to be from the Abusejo
hoard, but Tulga evidently was not represented in this hoard (cf. Madrid, p. 35,
and Adquisicionea en 1932, pp. 4-8). Mateu, in reply to my query, has agreed
that there must be some error, i. e., that these coins are not from the hoard. Are
they perhaps other reproductions of specimens in the Madrid collection ? It is
difficult to tell from the plate.
6 See the note immediately above.
LUSITANIA 333
C. Ispali.
07(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*TVL<SANRE * ISPALIPIVS
1. VQR no. 5124 = (probaby) Piot, no. 2* = Meynaerts,
no. 43 = Heiss, no. 8* (1.40).
2. Madrid, no. 219* = Florez, p. 251* (1.46).
3. Dos Santos, no. 2908*.
(b). Facing bust. Type? Facing bust. Type?
*TVL6ANREX * ISPALIPIVS
1. Brethes, no. 239 (found at Tangier) (1.45).
LUSITANIA
A. Egitania.
Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7. >K at
either side of bust.
*TVL6ANRE* * E<JITAN|I|APIVS
1. VQR no. 5122 = Heiss, no. 5 = Campaner, 1873, p. 52*
= Elias Garcia, Egitania, p. 16* (1.48).
B. Emerita.
Type. A
309. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
* TVL6ANREX * EMERI |T|APIVS
1. VQR no. 5123 = Heiss, no. 7* (1.48).
2. Cabinet des Meclailles.
3. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2153* (1.48).
4. Inst, de Valencia, no. 65*.
Type, B
310. Facing bust. Type 10 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
x at either side of bust.
*TVL6ANREX * EMERI|T|APIVS
334 TULGA
1. Florez, p. 252* (Gabriel).1
2. Heiss, no. 6* (Stroganoff).1
3. Piot, no. 1* = Meynaerts, no. 42.'
Type A or B
311. Types and legends uncertain.
I. La Grassa.
GALLAECIA
A. Laetera.
312. Facing bust. Type 5 n. As obverse.
* TVLCANRE * PIVSLAETERA
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. U,
15*)* = Campaner, 1866, no. 3 = Heiss, no. 8a*5 = Cam-
paner, Review of Heiss, p. 265 = Madrid, p. 372* (1.25).
B. Lucu.
313. No adequate description. Belfort had a rubbing, according
to Blanchet, with LVCVVIVS [PIVS?]; Campaner was
furnished with a description by Arturo Pedrals, but the
legends are not given.
1. Blanchet, 1888, p. 2.
2. Campaner, p. 216, note 2.
1 Where is this coin now ? It evidently was not in the Madrid collection at the
time of the compilation of Mateu y Llopis' catalogue.
2 The bust appears to differ from that on the Gabriel piece, but I suspect
that a poor drawing is at fault.
3 Not the VQR specimen; its disposition, therefore, unknown.
4 Wrongly transcribed LATE RA.
5 Wrongly labeled pi. XIII, no. 11, actually no. 12.
CHINDASVINTH
A.D. 642-653
NARBONENSIS
Narbona.
314(a). Facing bust. Type 4 c. As obverse.
i-CHINDiSVIDiRE1 * NARBONAP:S2
1. HSA 16477 (/ 19,1.38). Plate XXIV, 1
2. BM no. 26 (De Salis) = Carson, p. 145, no. 2* = Heiss,
no. 16* = Robert, no. 21* = Belfort, no. 3151* = Ma-
drid, p. 236* (| 18,1.42).
3. Stockholm (unknown provenance) = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 31*3 (1.46). Plate XXIV, 2
4. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. III,
2*).
5. Bibl. Universitaria de Valencia (Mateu y Llopis, Ampuri-
as, 1941, fig. 11*).
6. Florez, p. 256* (S. Ildefonso) = Merino, pi. 16, no. 7*
= Gusseme, II, p. 158, no. 5 = Masdeu, p. 24.
7. Boudard, p.346* (Musee de Bezier) = Belfort, no. 3150*4
(1.44).
8. Gariel, no. 355 = Robert, no. 21 bis = Belfort, no. 3151*.
9. Augustin, p. 240 = Velazquez, no. 93 = Gusseme, II, p.
158, no. 6 = Masdeu, p. 24.s
(b). * CHIND-SVI-D:RE Reverse as (a).
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 66* = Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 4* =
( ?) Reinhart, 1941, pi. 33, nos. 11-12*.
2. Amardel, Muse de Narbonne, no. 2* = Belfort, no. 3151*
(Musee de Narbonne) (1.43).
1 Pellets sometimes described as , instead of:, but probably always actually
the latter.
* The O is sometimes small.
3 Wrongly listed as a coin of Tulga's.
* This is probably the same specimen as that descrided by Amardel (Musee
de Narbonne, p. 145) as having CHIND:SVI:D"RE.
* This coin is described as having confronting busts and is therefore attributed
to the joint rule of Chindasvinth and Reccesvinth, but I suspect the description
and imagine it belongs here.
6 Described as having : after first D.
336
CHTNDASVINT1I
(c) . *CHIND:SVPD:RE Reverse as (a)?
1. Amardel, Muse de Narbonne, p. 145 (rubbing of a speci-
men, location unknown).
(d) . *CHIN:SVID:RE * NARBONAP-
1. Piot, 1850, no. 10 = Boudard, p. 346 = (?) Meynaerts,
no. 67.
(e) . * CHIND:SVINO.R Reverse as (a).
1. Soares, no. 1.737, p. 130* (1.13).
(f) . As (a)-(e), but exact lettering uncertain.
1.-3. Boudard, p. 346 ("dans les collections des environs de
Beziers").
TARRACONENSIS
A. Cesaragusta.
315. Reinhart (p. 100) tabulates Cesaragusta as a mint under
Chindasvinth, presumably on the basis of an unpublished
specimen.
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Beatia.
316. Facing bust. Type 5 e, variation. As obverse.
fcCINbASV-NTVSR1 * BEATIAPIVS*
1. Velazquez, no. 92 (Martin Ximena, p. 87) = Florez, p.
254* = Gusseme, II, p. 157, no. 1 - Masdeu, p. 23 =
Heiss, no. 3*.
2. VQR no. 5127.
B. Saldania.
317. Facing bust. Type 5 q. As obverse.
*CNcoVINDVSW *SALpANIAIVS (beginsat
1:30 o'clock)
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. II,
22*) = Campaner, 1866, no. 20 = Heiss, no. 18 = Cam-
paner, Review of Heiss, p. 265 (1.50).
1 Florez has a curiously combined TV, in place of the pellet, but I imagine
this piece and VQR's are similar and that the latter's transcription is more
accurate.
CARTHAGENENSIS
337
C. Toleto.
318(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* CblSVINGVSrH * TOLETOPI V</>i
1. HSA 16478 (| 19.1.54).* Plate XXTV, 3
2. HSA 16479 (1 18,1.55). Plate XXIV, 4
3. HSA 16480 (| 18,1.54).
4. HSA 8110 (1 18,1.42, chipped, same obv. die as no. 3).
5. HSA 16481 (1 19,1.47). Plate XXIV, 5
6. HSA 16482 (,, 18,1.51).
7. HSA 16483 ( J 18,1.52).
8. BM no. 27 (acquired 1863) ( \ 18,1.48).
9. Madrid, no. 134* = Velazquez, no. 90 (Leyrens) = Giisse-
me, n, p. 157, no. 3 (1.53).
10. Madrid, no. 135* (1.50).
11. Cabinet des Medailles = Heiss, no. 21 *.3
12. Stuttgart, no. 1360.
13. VQR no. 5134* = Piot, no. 7* = Meynarts, no. 50.
14. Augustin, p. 298' = Florez, p. 253*.
15. Merino, pi. 16, no. 9*.6
16. Hoffmann, 1886, no. 30.
17. Inst, de Valencia, no. 67*.
(b) . * NSVINeVSFH Reverse as (a).
1. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 316* = Hess, June 1922, no.
115* = Rackus, fig. 37*' = Berlin, nos. 46 and 48 =
Elias Garcia, Lamecwn, p. 16 (1.35).
(c) . * CfeJSVTeVSR Reverse as (a).
1. VQR no. 5135*.
2. Reinhart Coll., no. 52 (1.47).
(d) . x at either side of bust. x at either side of bust.
*CHINDASVINTHVSR * TOLETOPIVw
1 The loop of the P is usually quite far separated from the vertical stroke.
2 One of the HSA specimens is ex Cervera.
3 The weight (1.08) given by Heiss is that of the piece which I have classified
as a forgery.
* The transcription omits the V in the king's name, but this is doubtless an
error.
Name misinterpreted as Reccesvinth with REC lacking.
6 Inaccurate details.
7 Rackus, p. 190, in a nonsensical argument, uses this specimen (to the
exclusion of others) to show that the name of the king was not Chindasvinth,
but AuSvintas, and therefore, like all other Visigoths, a Lithuanian. Obviously
the C was omitted by mistake, or is to be read in the initial ligature. Cf. Elias
Garcia, loc. cit. This is an excellent example of the irresponsible misuse of
numismatic evidence.
22 Vtoigoth
338
CHINDASVINTH
1. BM no. 28 (De Sails) = Piot, no. 6* (wrong plate fig. in
text) = Meynaerts, no. 49 = Campaner, 1866, no. 21 =
Heiss, no. 19* (| 19.1.48).1
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 68*. Plate XXIV, 6
BAETICA
A. Cordoba.
Type A
319. Facing bust. Type 9 b. As obverse.2
=at either side of head.
* C-N//////A2V:NTVSRE * C/////RbBAPIVS
1. HSA 16472 ( | 19,1.37, sector lacking, mended). Plate XXIV, 7
Type B
320. Facing bust. Type 9 b. As obverse.
*CHtsDASVNTVSf4 * CRboBAPATRCIA
1. Dickie Coll. (ex Nussbaum) = Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2155*
( | 20,1.44).3 Plate XXIV, 8
Type C
321(a). Facing bust within beaded Facing bust within beaded
circle. Type 9 b. circle. Type 10 a. Pellet at
each side of bust.
* WCIINOSVINHVS(H *CORPOBAPATR-CIA
1. Johns Hopkins (Schulman, 1922) (19,1.32).
(b). As (a), but both obv. and rev. have *fr at beginning of legend.
1. Madrid, no. 188* = Campaner, 1866, no. 9 - Mateu y
Llopis, Cordoba, pi. II,9* (1.50).
2. Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. II, 8*.*
1 Heiss mistakenly assigns the specimen to VQR, which collection contains
no such piece. It is obvious that the coin went to the BM from Meynaerts via
De Salis.
a The small missing sector of the coin containing the D (obv.) and O (rev.)
also contained two of the three pellets to the right of the head on the reverse.
3 The plaster-cast from which the photograph in the Cahn catalogue was
made is very poor, but a careful comparison of the photograph with Mr. Dickie's
specimen leaves no doubt of the identity.
* This specimen is stated to be from the Abusejo hoard, but Chindasvinth
was not represented in the hoard. See p. 332, note 5. In all probability this is.
a rubbing of the Madrid coin, i. e., no. 1 = no. 2.
BAETICA 339
Type D
2(a). Facing bust within beaded Facing bust within beaded
circle. Type 9 b. circle. Type 10 b.
* WClNeSVlNHVSPt *CoRDoBAPATR-CIA
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 30* = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 19* =
Mahudel, pi. 13, no. 2* = Velazquez, no. 91 = Florez,
p. 254 = Gusseme, II, p. 157, no. 2 = Masdeu, p. 23
(1.49).
2. Mahudel, pi. 13, no. 3*.
3. O'Crouley, p. 523( t).
4. Marques de LI., no. 1511* (1.48; rev. more nearly like [b]).
(b) . As (a), but pellet at either side As (a), but pellet at either
of bust. side of bust.
fcDJCirvBSVIKHVS-RX1 * CoRboBAPATR CIA
1. VQR no. 6129 = Piot, no. 18* = Meynaerts, no. 62 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 9 = Heiss, no. 8* (1.29).
2. Freeman Coll. Plate XXIV, 9
3. Inst, de Valencia, no 69*.
(c) . Obverse as (b). Reverse as (b).
*NCIfsB2VINHVSRX * CORDOBAPATR-CIA
(cross at 1 o'clock)
1. Madrid, no. 189* = ( ?) Fernandez-Guerra, pi. II*1 =
Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. II, 10* (1.47)
(d) . Obverse as (b). Reverse as (b).
* MCllbSVIITIVSRX * CoRboBAPATRCIA
1. HSA 16476 (ex Cervera) ( j 20,1.56). Plate XXIV.10
Despite the errors in the obverse legend, betraying a misunder-
anding of the ligatures, I consider this piece to be genuine.
(e) . Exact type?
* INVNDSVINTIVSP43 * CORDOBAPATR-CIA
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 53 (1.54).
(f) . Probably similar to (a)-(e), exact legends uncertain.
1. Stack's 1942, no. 10209H (1.50).
1 There are discrepancies between the drawing in Heiss and that in Piot.
2 Very inaccurate drawing, if indeed this is the coin in question.
* Sic, in Reinhart's list, but there the ligatures are not indicated.
*
340
CHUTDASVINTH
B. Eliberri.
323. Facing bust. Type 10 a. Facing bust. Type 9 b.
*C:Nt>ASVNTVSR * PI iVSELH BER:
1. BM no. 19 (acquired 1863) = Heiss, no. 9* f* 19,1.30).
Plate XXIV, U
C. Ispali.
Type A
324(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
* CNDASVIN0VSR * ISPALIPIVS
1. BM no. 24 (De Salis) = Piot, no. 3 = Meynaerts, no. 46
(| 19,1.52). Plate XXIV, 12
(b) . * CH SVINGVSW Reverse as (a).
1. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2157* (1.58).
(c) . * CM-SVIN6TVSrH Reverse as (a).
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 50 (1.55).
(d) . * CNSVINCDVSR: Reverse as (a), large space
at end of legend.
1. Madrid, no. 220* = Campaner, 1866, no. 13 (1.50).
(e) . Bust variation. Reverse as (a).
*CINDASVINTSPX
1. BM no. 23 = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1186 (| 19,1.50).
Plate XXIV, 13
(I). * CINDASVINTSR Reverse as (a).
1. VQR no. 5132 = Piot, no. 2 = Meynaerts, no. 45l =
Campaner, 1866, no. 14 = Heiss, no. 12* (1.43).
2. Cabinet des Medailles.
(g). * CINDASVINTVSR Reverse as (a).
1. Piot, no. 1 = Meynaerts, no. 44 = Campaner, 1866, no.15.
Type B
325(a). Facing bust. Uncertain type. As obverse.
* DNCHNAS-VN0SR * ISPALIP1VS
1. Meynaerts, no. 47.
1 The transcriptions in Piot and Meynaerts do not exactly agree with eaci
other or with VQR, but the identity is probable.
BAETICA
341
(b). * DNCNSVN9SRX
1. Hoffmann, 1886, no. 29.
Reverse as (a).
The existence of this type must be considered very doubtful. The
authorities are relatively poor, and the lack of a Piot entry for the
Meynaerts specimen is suspicious. Possibly (a) and (b) are the same
coin and both readings are mistaken.
1. Madrid, no. 221* (ex Bssilio Sebastian Castellanos de
Losada) (1.50).
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 70* (obv. ends fH ).
(b). As (a), but pellet at each side of obverse bust.
1. BM no. 25 (De Salis) = Meynaerts, no. 481 = Heiss, no.
13* (\ 19,1.53). * Plate XXIV, 14
Type A, B or C
327. Description incomplete; ISPALIPIVS.
1. La Grassa.
Type C
326(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e.
*CIN>SVINHVSR
As obverse.
(Vi ISPALlPIVSt
Type D
328(a)
Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*CINDASVINTVSR * VRBISPALIPIVS
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. III,
3*) = Heiss, no. 13** (1.45).
(b.) Obverse as (a).
1. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2159* (1.46).
* VRBISPAL-PIVS
(c). Probably similar to (a)-(b), description incomplete.
1. La Grassa.
1 The description is not accurate, but this is doubtless the piece acquired by
De Salis and given to the British Museum.
342
CHINDASVLNTH
LUSITANIA
A. Egitania.
329. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*Cl-DA//////V2RX * E6ITAN|I|APIAS
1. Elias Garcia, Egitania, p. 20* (found in Castelo Branco
district) = idem, Lamecum, p. 12* = idem, Lusitdnia, no.
126 (author's collection).
B. Emerita.
Type A
330(a). Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*CNSVlN9VSrH1 * EMERI |T|APIVS
1. HSA 16475 (/ 19,1.52). Plate XXTV, 15
2. Madrid, no. 269* (1.27).
3. Copenhagen, no. 16 = Heiss, no. 10* = Thomson, no.
1105 (1.47).
4. BM no. 20 (De Salis) = ( ?) Piot, no. 13* = Meynaerts,
no. 52 (| 19,1.48). Plate XXIV, 16
5. Stuttgart, no. 1358.
6. Cabinet des Medailles.
7. Grierson Coll., no. 6417 (Bruxelles, 1949) ( \ 18,1.26).
8.-Reinhart Coll., no. 51.
9. -10. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 56 (Coll. Paiva Pessoa
and Elias Garcia).
11. Piot, no. 12* = Meynaerts, no. 51.
12. Piot, no. 14* = Meynaerts, no. 53.
13. Piot, no. 15*2 = Meynaerts, no. 54.
14. Florez, p. 255 (Trabuco) = Gusseme, II, p. 158, no. 7 =
Masdeu, p. 24.
15. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2156* (1.38).
16. Schulman, Dec. 1934, no. 114*.
17. Molder, Dec. 1950, no. 330 (1.36).3
(b). Obverse as (a). * EMERI|T|APIVIH
1. Madrid, no. 268* = Campaner, 1866, no. 10 (1.52).
1 The ligature is often obscure and in some cases doubtless varies in form and
completeness. In view of the difficulty of determinig its exact shape from plate
that are frequently poor, and from faulty descriptions, I have had to list all
under this form. is sometimes or O.
2 S of PIVS more nearly co.
3 S of PIVS on side.
LU SIT ANT A 343
(c) . * CNSVT6VSW Reverse as (a).
1. BM no. 21 (De Salis) = Piot, no. 16* = Meynaerts, no.
56 = Heiss, no. 10* (| 18,1.51). Plate XXV, 1
2. Cabinet des Meclailles.
3. VQR no. 5130 = Campaner, 1866, no. 11.
4. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 58 (Coll. Elias Garcia).
5. Hess, Apr. 1928, no. 5049*.
(d) . * CklSAT9ASRX Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16473 (/ 18,1.45, frg. lacking). Plate XXV, 2
2. Copenhagen, no. 17 (Devegge) (1.50).
3. VQR no. 5131*.1
4. Inst, de Valencia, no. 72*.
(e) . * CfeJSATGASIX Reverse as (a).
1. Johns Hopkins (Wayte Raymond, 1923) (17,1.64).
Plate XXV, 3
(f) . *CUSVIN(DVSrH* * EMERI|T|APIVS*
1. HSA 16474 (ex Cervera) ( f 18,1.52). Plate XXV, 4
(g) . Probably similar to (a)-(f), exact lettering uncertain.
1.-16. La Grassa.
Type B
31. (a) Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
* CHINDASVINTSRE* * EMERI |T|AVICTOR
1. BM no. 22 (De Salis) = Piot, no. 17* = Meynaerts, no.
55 = Campaner, 1866, no. 12 = Heiss, no. 11* = Madrid,
p. 346* (| 20,1.46). Plate XXV, 5
(b). Probably similar to (a), but exact lettering uncertain.
1-2. La Grassa.
C. Lamego.
132. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*CH:NDASV:NT2RI* * LAME|C|OPIV2
1. Elias Garcia, Lamecum, p. 11* = idem, Lusitdnia, no. 165
(Coll. Elias Garcia) (1.20, damaged).
1 Transcribed CfelSVetc. The plate is illegible, but I imagine the legend is t
given above.
344 CHUTDASVINTH
GALLAECIA
A. Asturie.
333(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. Pellet As obverse,
at each side of head.
* C6JSVIN9V RE * ASTVRIEPIVS
1. VQR no. 5126 = Piot, no. 19* = Meynaerts, no. 63 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 1 = Heiss, no. 1* = Traits, fig. 114*
= Beltran, Suevia, no. 47 = Madrid, p. 380* (1.67).
This coin, of reddish metal, is not above suspicion.
(b) . * CbJSVIN9VRE Reverse as (a).
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa IV, pi. II,
no. 21*) = Beltran, Suevia, no. 46.
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 73* = Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 15*.
Plate XIV
(c) . Description lacking, except (allegedly) ASTVRICEPIV5
1. La Grassa.
Quite possibly, (b)l and 2, and (c)l are the same coin.
B. Aurense.
334. Facing bust. Type 5 f. As obverse.
* ChErOASVINTVSR: * AVRENSEPIVS-
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, HaUazgos IV, pi. H,
no. 18*) = Campaner, 1866, no. 2 = Heiss, no. 2* =
Campaner, Review of Heiss, p. 265 = Beltran, Suevia, no.
43 = Madrid, p. 376* (1.60).
C. Bracara.
Type A
335(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse.
*CINDASVINTH * BRACARAPIV-
1. BM no. 16 (De Salis) = Piot, no. 8* = Meynaerts, no.
57 = Campaner, 1866, no. 3 = Heiss, no. 4* (J, 18,1.34).
Plate XXv
(b). * C-Nt>ASVIN-V:R: Reverse as (a).
1. BM no. 17 (De Salis) = Piot, no. 9* = Meynaerts, no. 58
Campaner, 1866, no- 4 = Heiss, no. 6* ( \ 18,1.54).
Plate
GALLAECIA
<c). * C.NDASVIN.V.R: * BRACARA-PIV
1. Piot, no. 11 = Meynaerts, no. 59 = Campaner, 1866, no.
5.1
Type B
(36(a). Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*CWSVM9VSRE+ * BRACA|R|APIVS
1. VQR no. 5128 = Campaner, 1866, no. 7 = Heiss, no. 5*
= Madrid, p. 373* (1.56).
(b) . *CWSVINGVSR- Reverse as (a).
1. Cabinet des Medailles.
(c) . * C WSVIN:VSRE Reverse as (a), but pellet at
either side of head.
* BRAC|A|RAPIVS
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4642 = Mateu y Llopis, Ea-
tocolmo, no. 32* (1.56).2
(d) . * CUSVINSVSRE Reverse as (c).
1. BM no. 18 (De Salis) = Piot, no. 10* = Meynaerts, no.
60 = Campaner, 1866, no. 6 (j 19,1.44)." Plate XXV, 9
(e) . Obverse as (a), but pellet at
either side of bust.
*CKTMt>A-VI-t>:R- * BRAC|A|R P.V
1. BM no. 15 (De Salis) = Piot, no. 11* = Meynaerts, no.
61 = Campaner, 1866, no. 8 = Heiss, no. 7* ( j 19,1.33).
Plate XXV, 10
Type A or B
337. Description lacking, except BRACARAPIVS
1. La Grassa.
D. Calapa.
338(a). Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*CIHPAc\>VIHT-R *CALA|P|A+P#
1 The transcription must be considered doubtful. Piot's and Campaner's
renderings do not agree and the piece is nowhere reproduced.
2 Wrongly listed as a coin of Tulga.
34t>
CHINDASVINTH
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. II,
23*) -- Heiss, no. 7*1 = Campaner, p.216, note 3 =
Beltran, Suevia, no. 44 = Madrid, p. 377* (1.15).
(b). *CIHDASVIHTVR *CALAPA|P|AXPIV
I. Inst, de Valencia, no. 71*.
E. Francello.
339. Facing bust. Type 8 c. Facing bust. Type 7.
*CINDASVINT: * FR-AV|C|EL:0
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. II,
24*) = Heiss, no. 11a* (pi. XIH, no. 14, not 13) = Bel-
tran, Suevia, no. 49 = Madrid, p. 382* (1.55).
F. Lucu.
340(a). Facing bust. Type 7, variation. Monogram: 1^4
*CfeJSVI|N|9VSrH *LVCVPIVS
1. VQR no. 5133 = Piot, no. 21* = Meynaerts, no. 65 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 16*. Plate XXV, 11
2. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. ILI,
1*) = Beltran, Suevia, no. 42.
(b) . As (a), but obverse legend ends with R\
1. Cabinet des Medailles = Heiss, no. 14* = Traite, fig.
124* = Madrid, p. 378* (1.48).
(c) . * CfcjSV|l|N9V:P Reverse as (a).
1. Stuttgart, no. 1359. Plate XXV, 12
(d) . * CNSVINOV:R Reverse as (a).
1. Campaner, 1866, no. 17* (Cerda).
(e) . Description lacking, except LVCVPIVS.
1.-2. La Grassa.
G. Mave.
341. Facing bust. Type 5 q. Pellet Facing bust. Type 5 q.
at left of bust.
* CNDASVINTVSRE * MAVEPIV2* +
1 The drawing in Heiss (pi. XHI, no. 13, not 12 as given in the text) is
inaccurate: the face of the reverse bust is not represented by a cross as shown
there.
GALLAECIA
347
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. II,
19*) = Campaner, 1866, no. 18 = Heiss, no. 15* = Cam-
paner, Review of Heiss, p. 265 = Beltran, Suevia, no. 50
= Madrid, p. 384* (1.40).
H. Petra.
12. Facing bust. Type 5 q. As obverse.
* CltvD2VMTV*R2 * PETRAPIVS.-.
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. II,
17*) = Campaner, 1866, no. 19 = Heiss, no. 17* = Cam-
paner, Review of Heiss, p. 265 = Beltran, Suevia, no. 48
= Madrid, p. 381* (1.30).
I. Toriviana.
43. Facing bust. Type 12 b. As obverse.
*CNDA</>VINTVSR: * TORIVIANAPIVoo
1. VQR no. 5136 = Piot, no. 20* = Meynaerts, no. 64 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 22* = Heiss, no. 22* (1.47). Plate XXV, 13
J. Tude.
144(a). Facing bust. Type 5 v (obscure). As obverse.
* CNSVIN9VSRE* * TVDEIVSTVS
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. II,
20*) = Campaner, 1866, no. 23 = Heiss, no. 23* = Cam-
paner, Review of Heiss, p. 266 = Beltran, Suevia, no. 45
(1.40).
(b). *CNSVIN9VSFH * TVDEIVSTVS (cross at
1 o'clock)
1. Stockholm (unknown provenance) = Mateu y Llopis
Estocolmo, no. 33* (1.48).8 Plate XXV, 14
1 Mateu's reproduction is not entirely clear, nor is the drawing in Heiss, with
respect to the last two (or three ?) letters. Heiss transcribed S where Mateu
has a "palma o ramo," which it appears to be. Mateu has RE. Surely E is not
present, but it may be R" as Heiss gives it.
* Campaner says Meynaerts and VQR, but probably only the one specimen
is known, i. e., VQR's was Meynaerts'.
3 Wrongly numbered L(orichs). 4641, and listed under Tulga.
JOINT RULE OF CHINDASVINTH
AND RECCESVINTH
a.D. 649-653
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Toleto.
Type A
345(a). Bust, right. Type 1 c. Monogram:
* C6JSVI |N |0VSrH * RCCSVIN9VSR
1. VQR no. 5140 = Meynaerts, no. 70 = Campaner, 1866,
no. 3 = Heiss, no. 4* (1.49).
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 74*.
(b). Obverse as (a). Monogram: T^E
* Reccesv iNevspi
1. Copenhagen, no. 18 = Thomsen, no. 1106 (1.60). Plate XXV, 15
Type B
346(a). Bust, right. Type 2 h. Monogram: T^fi
* ctjsviNevsfH * ReccesviNevstH
1. Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 16* (Shore). Plate XXV, 16
2. Florez, p. 257* (Velasco) = Gusseme, II, p. 158, no. 8 and
VI, p. 26, no. 14 = Masdeu, p. 25 = Heiss, no. 5*.
Uncertain Type
347. CNSVINDVSRE Monogram.
RECCESVINDVSRE
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 and no. 302 (found
near San Pedro de Ovidos, now in Museo de Belem, Lisbon).
BAETICA
349
BAETICA
A. Ispali.
Type A
348(a). Bust, left. Type 1 e. Monogram:
* RECCE|S|IN"SRE * C6JSVIN0VSRE
1. HSA 16536 (\ 18,1.46). Plate XXV, 17
(b). * RECCE|S-1INTSRE * C&JSVIN9VSP*1
1. VQR no. 5139 = Piot, no. 12* = Meynaerts, no. 68 =
Heiss, no. 2* (1.46).
2. Florez, p. 258* = Gusseme, VI, p. 25, no. 10 = Masdeu,
p. 25.
Type B
349. Bust, right. Type 1 f. Monogram: S-j^A
* RECCE\2-|IhT2R- * CfelSVINCDVSRE
1. HSA 16510 ( f 19,1.51, broken and mended). Plate XXV, 18
LUSITANIA
A. Emerita.
350(a). Bust, right. Type 1 f. Monogram:
* RECCES|V|INOVSPt * NCSVIN9VSPt
1. VQR no. 5137 = Campaner, 1866, no. 1 = Heiss, no. 1*
(1.52).
(b). Type and monogram not described.
RECCESVINDVSRE CNSVINDVSRE
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hattazgos V, p. 71 (Museo de Belem,
Lisbon).
1 9 sometimes appears as O.
350
CHINDASVTNTH & RECCE SVESTTH
Uncertain Mint.
351. Bust, left. Type 2 dd. Monogram: fc^iS
CI4:VIHOV:R:X RCCE:VIHOVP+
1. VQR no. 5138 = Campaner, p. 217. note 2 = Heiss. no.
6* = Madrid, p. 281 = Beltran, pp. 415-6, 425-6, fig.
6* (1.50).
See also Nos. 380 and 490.
RECCESVINTH
A.D. 649-672
NARBONENSIS
Narbona.
Type A
353.(a) Bust, right. Type 2 e. Cross on 3 steps.
* RECCESVIN9VSREX * NARBONAP-VS
1. HSA 16511 (ex Cervera) (/18,1.40). Plate XXVI, 1
(b). Obv. as (a), bust variation. * NARBoNAPIAS
1. Marques de LI., no. 1512* (1,45, not above suspicion).
Type B
353. Bust, right. Type 2 w. Cross on 3 steps. * right
and left.
* RECCESVINO:RE *NARBONAP:S
1. VQR no. 5150 = Piot, 1850,no. 4* = Boudard, p. 346 =
Meynaerts, no. 77 = Campaner, 1866, no. 4 = Heiss, no.
10* = Robert, no. 23 = Belfort, no. 3153* (1.42).
Uncertain Type
354. Bust in profile. Legend? Cross on steps. Legend?
1. Mateu y Llopis, Ampurias, 1945-46, p. 474, and Ampu-
rias, 1948, p. 439.1
1 Published by Jose Coelho, "Ntulas Numismaticas" in Beira Alia, 1945,
pp. 35-47; found in "exploraciones mineras" near Viseu in 1944. Mateu y Llo-
pis has some doubts about the authenticity of this coin but does not decide
conclusively against it.
352
RECCESVINTH
TARRACONENSIS
A. Gerunda.
355. Bust, right. Obscure type.
* RCCSVIHO SR * QRVHO:d|VS
1. Botet y Sis6, Notes Numismatiques, p. 27* (Coll. Lluis de
Bol6s, Olot) = Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, no. 7* (1.55).1
B. Tarracona.
Type A
356(a). Bust, right. Type 1 g.2 Cross on 3 steps.
* RECCES|V|INOfH3 * TARRACOMV
1. HSA 16512 (f18,1.42). Plate XXVI, 2
2. VQR no. 5152* = Heiss, no. 11 = Mateu y Llopis, Tar-
ragona, nos. 63, 64 (two entries referring to same coin)
(1.40).*
3. Augustin, p. 272 = Velazquez, no. 106 = Florez, p. 265
= Espana Sagrada, vol. 24, p. 340 = Gusseme, VI, p. 25,
no. 11 = Masdeu, p. 344 = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
no. 65.s
(b) . * RECCESVIN9R- * TARRACOPIV-
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 55 (1.40).
(c) . Obverse as (a). * TARRACOMV*
1. HSA 16513 ( f 19,1.53).
2. HSA 16519 ( f 20,1.57). Plate XXVI, 3
3. Copenhagen, no. 22 (Raymond Serrure, 1898/9) (1.54).
4. Le Gentilhomme, no. 35.*
5. Hoffmann, 1898, no. 2525.
(d) . * RECCESVINO-rH * TARRACOPIV*
1. VQR no. 5151 = Piot, no. 3* = Meynaerts, no. 74 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 5 = Heiss, no. 11 * = Madrid, p. 268*
1 This specimen was found in a field in the region of San Jaime de Lierca,
Olot.
2 The vertical lines of the bust are sometimes single, sometimes double.
3 Pi is often faulty or incomplete.
4 Possibly a pellet after N in the king's name.
5 The coin is variously described, but doubtless of this type.
6 Obviously faulty description, probably of this type; from the Bordeaux
hoard but not sent to Paris, having been given by the commissioner of police
to the Bordeaux Museum in 1804.
TARRACONENSIS
353
= Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, nos. 58 and 60 (two entries
referring to same coin; also wrong Heiss fig. no.) (1.53).
2. Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 69* (Gab. Num. de Ca-
talufia, no. 18278) (1.51).
3. Inst, de Valencia, no. 84*.
(e). * RECCESVINOR
1. Ferreira, no. 45 (1.37).
* TARRACOPIV
Type B
7(a). Bust, right. Type 2 cc. Cross on 3 steps.
* RECCEISVINOFH1 * TARRACOMV
1. HSA 16515 ( V20,1.48). Plate XXVI, 4
(b). Obverse as (a). * TARRACOf IV:
1. Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 61* (Coll. Stefan, Gratz).
(c) . * RECCES|VINO:(H2
1. Soares, no. 1.730A, p. 130*.
(d) . * RECCESIVIMOR-
1. HSA 16514 ( j 20,1.42).
(e) . * RECCE|SVIM9R
1. Stuttgart, no. 1365.
(f) . * RECCEISVIMOR
* TARRACOMVS:
Pellet each side of cross,
beneath arm.
* TARRACOMV
Plate XXVI, 5
Reverse as (a), legend as (d).
Reverse as (d), legend as (a).
1. Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 62* (Coll. Stefan, Graz)
Type C
158(a). Bust, right. Type 2 d.
Cross on 3 steps; pellet at
each side, beneath arm.
* TARRACOMVS
* RECCESVIN0:P+
1. Soares, no. 1.738, p. 131* (1.42)
(b). * RECCESVINO:FH
1. Reinhart, 1937, no. 27* (Reinhart Coll.) = Reinhart, 1941,
pi. 33, nos. 13-14* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 66.
* TARRACpIV:
1 fH imperfect.
1 The bust is very elongated.
23 Visigoth
354
RECCE SVINTH
Mateu y Llopis (Hallazgos V, p. 71) lists two specimens supposedly
with the legends RECCESVINDRX, and TARRACONIV and TARRA-
CONVS, in the Museu Soares dos Reis. Coins with such legends are
not listed in Barros' little catalogue, and it is to be assumed that in
spite of the striking differences in the inscriptions the two pieces re-
ferrred to by Mateu y Llopis are the two Soares specimens recorded
above (No. 357(c) and No. 358(a)).
359.
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Toleto.
Type A
Facing bust. Type 5 e. As obverse, bust variation.
* RGCC6SVIN6VSR6
* TOLETOPIVS
1. Cabinet des Medailles = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 21* = Heiss,
no. 13* (1.55).
2. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi. III,
4*).
3. Grierson Coll. ( | 1.57, pierced, plugged). Plate XXVI, 6
Type B
360(a). Bust, right. Type 1 h.
* RECCESlVIIN9VSrH1
HSA 16523 ( \ 20,1.50).s
Cross on 3 steps.
* TOLETOPIVS
HSA 16534 (
HSA 16524 ( i, 19,1.49)
HSA 16525 (
19,1.41, same obv. die as no. 1).
Plate XXVI, 7
Plate XXVI, 8
19,1.56).
HSA 16527 ( \ 19,1.40, nicked).
6. HSA 16528 (- i 19,1.44).
7. HSA 16529 ( \ 19,1.39).
8. HSA 16352 (/20.1.52).
9. HSA 16533 (/20,1.48).
10. BM no. 33 = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1189 ( | 19,1.49).
Plate XXVI, 9
Plate XXVI, 10
1 6, O, Q, or O. One of the dots of the inner band of the "shoulder" fre-
quently stands free and appears as a pellet beneath the letter V.
3 Many of the HSA specimens show traces of earth, suggesting that they
come from a hoard; a likelihood supported by the large number of specimens
(18) of one mint and ruler in the collection. There were two specimens in the
Cervera collection, according to Beltran's inventory.
CARTHAGINENSIS
355
11. Madrid, no. 138* = Velazquez, no. 94 (Leyrens) = Giis-
serae, VI, p. 25, no. 12 (1.49).
12. Madrid, no. 140* (1.45).
13. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4648 = Mateu y Llopis, Esto-
colmo, no. 34*1 (1.40).
14. Stockholm (Herbst) = Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo, no.
no. 35* (1.41).
15. Copenhagen, no. 19 (Devegge) (19,1.33).
16. Stuttgart, no. 1366.
17. Le Gentilhomme, no. 36 = (probably) Bouteroue, p. 179**
(1.49).
18. Cabinet des Meclailles.
19. Acad.de la Hist. (Mateu y~L\oj>is,HaUazgo8IV,pi. 111,5*).
20. VQR no. 5153*.
21. Thomson, no. 1108.
22. Soares, no. 1.739, p. 131* (1.50).
23. -26. Ferreira, nos. 48-51 (1.43,1.52,1.44,1.44).
27. Carles-Tolra, no. 1016* (1.50).
28. Traiti, fig. 112*.
29. Augustin, p. 298.
30. Velazquez, no. 94 (Infantas).
31. Bourgey, no. 310*.
32. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 319* (1.50).
33. Lonja del Almidon, no. 698.
34. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2160* (1.42).3
35. Berlin, no. 44 ("L. Hamburger, Feb. 1927").
36. Berlin, no. 49 (provenance unknown).
37. Inst, de Valencia, no 207*.
38. -39. Marques de LI., nos. 1513*-14* (1.49, 1.63).
(b) . Obverse as (a). Reverse as (a), but pellet
beneath.
1. HSA 16516 (| 18,1.56).
2. HSA 16531 (\ 19,1.52). Plate XXVI, 11
3. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4647 = Mateu y Llopis, Esto-
colmo, no. 36*4 (1.58).
4. VQR no. 5154 = Heiss, no. 12* = Madrid, p. 289* (1.41).
(c) . Obverse as (a). Reverse as (a).
* TOLETOPIVS'
1. HSA 16526 ( j 20,1.50, cracked).
2. HSA 16535 (/20,1.52). Plate XXVI, 12
3. Madrid, no. 139* (1.47).5
4. Dumbarton Oaks.
1 Wrongly numbered L. 4644 and listed under Chindasvinth.
1 Errors in drawing and transcription.
3 Obverse and reverse flans appear different, but this may be the result of
sareless plaster-casting.
* Wrongly listed under Chindasvinth.
6 The pellets in the reverse legend not noted in the text.
356
RECCE SVTNTH
(d). Obverse as (a).
1. HSA 16521 (| 19,1.35)
2. HSA 16522 (| 19,1.51).
3. VQR no. 5156 = Piot, no. 1*
Bradley, p. 341*.
4. Augustin, p. 298."
5. Merino, pi. 16, no. 8*.3
6. Rackus, fig. 38* (source ?).
7. Inst, de Valencia, no. 85*.
Cross on 3 steps; vertical
line joining lower 2 steps.1
Legend as (c).
Plate XXVI, 13
Meynaerts,no. 71 = (?)
(e) . Obverse as (a). Reverse as (a), but star at
either side of cross. Legend
as (a).
1. VQR no. 5155* = Heiss, no. 12 (1.51).
2. Campanor, 1866, no. 6 (ex Jaime Puiguriguer) (1.50).*
(f) . Obverse as (a). Cross on 4 steps. Legend
as (a).
1. HSA 16518 (\20,1.52). Plate XXVI, 14
2. HSA 16530 (| 19,1.51).
3. Madrid, no. 141* (1.48).
4. Ferreira, no. 47 (1.57).
(g) . * ReCCeS|VIIN9VSrH Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16517 (| 19,1.56). Plate XXVI, 15
2. Hoffmann, 1898, no. 2526.
(h) . Details lacking.
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 54 (1.56).
1 Florez (p. 261) drew attention to the fact that HI, for "Hispania," had been
read on some specimens, presumably of this type; but he astutely remarked
that this supposed reading was probably simply a misinterpretation of the
steps read as a legend from the side.
a "PIVS-TOLETOHI." See the note immediately above.
3 The drawing contains many inaccuracies, showing among other things a
cross beneath two steps as well as the principal cross on the steps; but the speci-
men probably belongs to the type listed here.
* Same coin as no. 1?
BAETICA 357
BAETICA
A. Cordoba.
Type A
>~L. Facing bust within beaded Facing bust within beaded
circle. Type 10 d. circle. Type 10 b.
* RECCESVIN"VS(H * CORDOBAPATR CIA
1. HSA 16490 ( j 19,1-54). Plate XXVI, 16
2. Madrid, no. 190* = Catdlogo-Guia, pi. X, 5* - Mateu y
Llopis, Cordoba, pi. II, 12* (1.51).
3. Madrid, no. 191* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. II, 11*
(1.46).
4. Cabinet des MMailles1 = Heiss, no. 3 (1.50).
5. Dias, no. 14.
6. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 140" = Velazquez, no. 105 = Gus-
seme, VI, p. 25, no. 3.
7. Florez, p. 262* (Velasco).
8. Inst, de Valencia, no. 75*.
Type B
63(a). Facing bust within beaded Cross on 3 steps within
circle. Type 10 e. beaded circle.
* RECCESVINVSRe * CORDOBAPATR-C1A
1. HSA 16484 (| 20,1.49). Plate XXVI, 17
2. VQR no. 5141 = Heiss, no. 2* (1.49).
3. Florez, p. 262* (Velasco).
(b). Obverse as (a). * CORbOBAPATRCIA
1. HSA 16489 (I 20,1.53). Plate XXVII, 1
Type C
163. Facing bust. Type 10 f. Facing bust. Type 11 a.
* RECCESVIN9VSR * CORfOBAPATRCIA
1. VQR no. 5142* = Campaner, 1866, no. 1.
2. Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. Ill, 1* (G6mez-Moreno).
Type D
364(a). Bust, right. Type 1 h. Cross on 3 steps.
* RECCE2VINGV2rH * CORPOBAPATRC:A-8
1. Madrid, no. 192* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. Ill, 3*
(1.86).
1 My notes show the point between R and C on the reverse to be lacking.
2 "Busto... con diadema," this type?
3 Transcribed from the plate; the transcription in the text differs.
RECCESVTNTH
(b) . Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
either side.
* RECCES|V|IN9VSrH * CORDOBAPATRICIA
1. HSA 16487 ( f 20,1.49). Plate XXVII, 2
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 76* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi.
III, 2*.
3. VQR no. 5143*.
4. Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1187.
5. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2161*.
(c) . Obverse as (b). Reverse as (b), but
*CORDOBAPATRCIA
1. Velazquez, no. 103 (Infantas) = ( ?) Gusseme, VE, p. 25,
no. 2.
2. Velazquez, no. 104 (Villaeevallos).1
3. Inst. de. Valencia, no. 80*.
(d) . Obverse as (b). Reverse as (b), but
*CORDOBAPATRICA
1. Madrid, no. 195* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. III, 6*
(1.50).
(e) . * RECCES|V|IN9VSR Reverse as (b).
1. Madrid, no. 196* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. III, 7*
(1.57).
2. Stockholm = Loriohs, no. 4643 = Mateu y Llopis, Cor-
doba, p. 56 = idem, Estocolmo, no. 39*2 (1.48).
(f) . Obverse aa (e). Reverse as (b) but
*CORDOBAPATR-CIA
1. HSA 16486 (ex Cervera) (| 20,1.53). Plate XXVII, 3
2. Madrid, no. 193* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. III, 4*
(1.46).
3. Grierson Coll., no. 1078 = Shore Sale, no. 619* (1.40).
4. VQR no. 5143a*.
5. Hoffmann, 1886, no. 31.
(g) . * RECCE2|V|IN9V2rH Reverse aa (b).
*CORDOBAPATRCIA
1. HSA 16491 (/20.1.54). Plate XXVH, 4
2. Madrid, no. 194* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. III, 5*
(1.57).
Possible difference in lettering.
Wrongly listed under Chindasvinth.
BAETICA
359
(h). * RECCESVINGVSFH
1. Florez, p. 262* (Velasco)
p. 27.
(i). Obverse as (a).
Reverse as (b), but 6 at
right of cross, above.
*CORDOBAPATRICIA
Heiss, no. 4* = Masdeu,
Cross on 3 steps. * at either
side.
1. HSA 16520 (| 19,1.50, chipped).
2. O'Crouley, p. 383.1
(j).
Obverse as (e).
1. BM no. 29 (De Salis) (1 18,1.66).
(k). Uncertain type with CORDOBAPATRICIA
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 161r.
(1). Uncertain type with CORDOBAPATRCIA
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 56 (1.50).
* CORDOBAPATRICIA
Plate XXVII, 5
Reverse as (i).
Type E
365.
Bust, right. Type 1 h.
* RECCESIVIINQVSFH
1. HSA 16485 (/19.1.42).
Cross on 3 steps.
*CORDOBAPIVS
Plate XXVII, 6
B. Ispali.
Type A
366. Bust, right. Type 1 f.
* ISPALIPIVS
Plate XXVII, 7
* RECCEISNTSRE
1. Grierson doll. ( \ 1.45).
This unique and remarkable piece was perhaps issued during
Chindasvinth's lifetime. It is most closely related to No. 349 (HSA
16510), with the same type of bust, the same ligature (IT) and
monogram. It is the only instance that has come to my attention of a
reverse with mint monogram as well as mint-name written in full in
the marginal legend.
1 Obverse legend probably incorrectly rendered.
360 REOCESVTNTH
Type B
367(a). Bust, left. Type 1 e. Cross on 4 steps.
* RECCES|V|IN9VSR * ISPALIPIVS
1. HSA 16507 (ex Cervera) (/18,1.51). Plate XXVTI, 8
(b). * RECCES|V|NOVSR Reverse as (a).
1. BM no. 31 (acquired 1860) (| 20,1.53).
2. Le Gentilhomme, no. 34* = Mahudel, pi. 12, no. 24* =
Heiss, no. 9* (1.52).
Type C
368(a). Bust, right. Type 1 f. Cross on 3 steps (?).
* R CCISV-NT-S-R- * ISPALIPIVS
1. Florez, p. 262 (Junco Pimentel) = Masdeu, p. 27.
(b) . Cross on 3 steps.
* R CCIS|V| NT.SR- * ISPALIPIVS*
1. Madrid, no. 225* = Florez, p. 262 (Gabriel) (1.50).
2. Madrid, no. 226* (1.51).
3. Johns Hopkins (Wayte Raymond, 1923) (18,1.53).
Plate XXVH, 9
(c) . * R CCISV-NT SR Reverse as (b).
1. Madrid, no. 227* = Velazquez, no. 100 (Leyrens) =
Gusseme, VI, p. 25, no. 8 (1.50).
(d) . * R CCISI Vl hT-SR Reverse as (b).
1. VQRno. 5149*.
2. Heiss, no. 9a* (pi. XIII, 16, not 15) (Dos Santos) =
Trait, fig. 111*.
3. Inst, de Valencia, no. 78*.
(e) . * RCCISVNSP Reverse as (b).
1. Ferreira, no. 46 (1.51).
Type D
369(a). Bust, right. Type 1 h. Cross on 3 steps.
* RECCESIVIINTVSR1 * ISPALIPIVS
1. HSA 16040 ( f 19.1.54).* Plate XXVH, 10
2. HSA 16503 ( \ 20,1.48). Plate XXVH, 11
1 On some specimens a partially completed rH appears to be present.
2 There -were two specimens, in addition to HSA 16507 (No. 367(a), above),
in the Cervera collection.
BAETIOA
361
3. HSA 16605 (/21.1.47, nicked).
4. Madrid, no. 222* = (?) Fernandez-Guerra, pi. II*
(1.54).
5. Le Gentilhomme, no. 33* (1.46).
6. Cabinet des Medailles = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 22*.
7. Heiss, no. 8* (Noguez) (1.54).
8. Florez, p. 261* = Masdeu, p. 27.
9. Berlin, no. 50 (provenance unknown).
(to). * -RECCES|V|INTVSR- * 'ISPALIPIVS'
1. VQR no. 5147 = Piot, no. 5* = Meynaerts, no. 76.
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 77*.
(c) . * RECCESVH INOVSfH Cross on 4 steps.
Legend as (a).
1. BM no. 32 (acquired 1863) (| 19,1.43). Plate XXVII, 12
(d) . * RECCES|V|INOVSfH Reverse as (c).
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4646 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 40*1 (1.56).
(e) . * RECCES|V|INeVSFH Reverse as (a).
1. Stuttgart, no. 1362.
(f) . Obverse as (a). Reverse as (a), but pellet
beneath.
1. HSA 16501 ( f 19,1.56). Plate XXVH, 13
2. HSA 16508 (/ 20,1.52, same obv. die as no. 1).
3. HSA 16504 ( 1 19,1.29, chipped).
4. HSA 16506 (^20,1.50). Plate XXVLI, 14
5. Madrid, no. 223* = Adquisicionea en 1932, pi. I, 5*
(1.51').
6. Stuttgart, no. 1367.
7. VQR no. 5148 = Piot, no. 4* = Meynaerts, no. 75.
8. Carles-Tolra, no. 1015* (1.50).
9. Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 17* (Coll. Reinhart).
10. Inst, de Valencia, no. 79*.
(g) . Obverse as (a). Reverse as (a), but . . be-
neath.
1. HSA 16502 ( 4 19,1.57). Plate XXVII, 15
2. Madrid, no. 224* =Campaner, 1866, no. 3(1.48).
3. Huth Collection, no. 234*.
(h) . Obverse legend uncertain. Reverse as (a).
* ISPALI:0:VS
1. Heiss, no. 9b (Stroganoff).
1 Wrongly listed under Chindasvinth.
1 Weight given as 1.55 in the latter reference.
362
RECCE SVINTH
(i). * RECCESVINTVSfH
(division ?)
1. Hoffmann, 1898, no. 2524.
Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
either side.
370.
371.
Type E
Bust, right (?).
Type uncertain.1
* RECCESVINTVSR
1. Velazquez, no. 101 (Trabuco) =
no. 9.
Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
either side.
* ISPALIPIVS
Gusseme, VI, p. 25,
Uncertain Types
Specimens with inadequate, confusing or mistaken descrip-
tions.
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 161v = Velazquez, no. 102 =
Gusseme, VI, p. 25, no. 6 = Heiss, no. 9*.
2. Mahudel, pi. 13, no. 5* = Velazquez, no. 99 = Gusseme,
VI, p. 25, no. 7.3
3. O'Crouley, p. 383.
4. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Museo de la Soc.
Martins Sarmento, GuimarSes).
5. Reinhart Coll., no. 59 (1.45).
6. Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1188.
LUSITANIA
A. Egitania.
Type A
372(a). Bust, right. Type 1 h. Cross on 3 steps.
* RECCES|V|IN9VSrH * E6ITANIAPIVS
1. Teixeira, no. 350 = Heiss, no. 5* = Madrid, p. 359* =
Elias Garcia, Egitdnia, p. 17*.
2. VQR no. 5144.
1 Described as "left," but probably not with reference to the viewer. "Todo
en medio de una corona al parecer de laurel." So also the reverse. Is this coin
perhaps simply another specimen of No. 369(i)?
2 Supposedly HI SPA LI; certainly H is not present.
3 Bust "right"; RECCESVINTHVSR; 4( ?) steps.
LUSITANIA 363
(b). Obverse as (a). * ECETANIAPIVS
1. Florez, p. 264* (S. Ildefonso) = Masdeu, p. 331 =
Heiss, no. 5a = Elias Garcia, Egitdnia, p. 12*.
2. Velazquez, no. 96 (Infantas)1 = Gusseme, VI, p. 25,
no. 4.
Type B
173. Bust, right. Type 2 g. Cross on 3 steps.
* RECCES|V|INTVSREX * E6ITANIAPIVS
1. Elias Garcia, Egitdnia, p. 9* (Severim) = idem, Lusi-
tdnia, no. 127.
B. Emerita.
Type A
J74(a). Bust, right. Type 1 i. Cross on 4 steps.
* RECCES|V|IN0VSfH2 * EMERITAPIVS
1. HSA8119(| 19.1.48).3 Plate XXVIII, 1
2. HSA 16492 ( j 19,1.53). Plate XXVIII, 2
3. Madrid, no. 273* = ( ?) Florez, p. 263 (Gabriel) = (T)
Campaner, 1866, no. 2 (1.50).
4. Madrid, no. 274* (1.53).
5. Carles-Tolra, no. 1014 (1.50).
(b). Obverse as (a). Cross on 3 steps. Legend
as (a).
1. BM no. 30 = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1188 (| 19,1.43).
Plate XXVIII, 3
2. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4644 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 37*4 (1.45).
3. Johns Hopkins = Schulmann, July 1922, no. 141* =
Rackus, fig. 40* (with fictitious weight of 1.75) (19,1.49).
4. Inst, de Valencia, no. 82*.
Type B
375(a). Bust, right. Type 1 j.B Cross on 4 steps.
* RECCES|V|IN0VSPt * EMERITAPIVS
1 Transcribed TH in place of , but probably the latter.
2 V's of unusual form.
3 There was one specimen of this type in the Cervera collection, according to
Beltran's list.
4 Wrongly listed under Chindasvinth and as a coin not belonging to the
Lorichs collection.
6 Some variation in the number of horizontal lines in the lower part of the bust.
364
RECCE SVINTH
1. HSA 16496 (/19,1.54). Plate XXTOLs
2. Madrid, no. 270* = (7) Velazquez, no. 98 (Leyrens) =
Gusseme, VI, p. 25, no. 5 (1.51).
3. Madrid, no. 271* (1.53).
4. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4645 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 38" (1.50).
5. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, HaUazgos IV, pL
in, 6*).
6. Dias, no. 15 ( T).
7. Ferreira, no. 44 (1.38).*
8. Inst, de Valencia, no. 83* = Elias Garcia, Lusildnia, no. 64 =
Garcia de la Fuente, pi. Ill, 2* (illegible).
9. Hoffmann, 1886, no. 32.
10. Hoffmann, 1898, no. 2523.
(b). Obverse as (a). Cross on 3 steps. Legend
as (a).
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 32* = Mahudel, pi. 13, no. 6* =
Heiss, no. 7* (1.60).
2. Copenhagen, no. 21 (Raymond Serrure, 1898/9) (1.45).
3. Elias Garcia, Lusildnia, no. 63 (Severim, p. 159).
Type C
376(a). Bust, right. Type 1 h. Cross on 3 steps.
* RECCES|V|IN9VSrH * EMERITAPIVS
1. HSA 16493 (/20,1.56).' Plate XXVIIU
2. HSA 16494 (1 20,1.53).
3. HSA 16495 (| 20,1.52). Plate XXVIII, 5
4. HSA 16499 (j 20,1.48, same obv. die as no. 3).
5. HSA 16497 ( j 20,1.51). Plate XXATH,"
6. HSA 16500 ( i 19,1.53).* Plate XXVIE> s
7. ANS (ex Wyman Coll.) ( j 20,1.45).
8. Madrid, no. 272* (1.52).
9. Copenhagen, no. 20 = Thomson, no. 1107 (1.47).
10.-11. Le Gentilhomme, no. 31* = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 20*
= Florez, p. 263 (1.43).
12. VQR no. 5145 = ( ?) Meynaerts, no. 73 = Heiss, no. 6*
(1.47).
13. VQR no. 5146 = ( ?) Piot, no. 2* = Piot, 1850, no. 5 =
Meynaerts, no. 72.
14. -15. Reinhart Coll., nos. 57-58 (1.47, 1.50).
16. Weber, no. 3352 = Hess, Apr. 1928, no. 5050* = Rackus,
fig. 39* = Berlin, no. 47.
1 Wrongly listed under Chindasvinth.
3 Error in transcription.
3 Transcribed (by error ?) ... 6 N SP+.
4 There was one specimen of this type in the Cervera collection.
4 R incomplete.
GALLAECIA
365
17. Sohulman, Jan. 1929, no. 449*.
18. Schulman, May 1929, no. 238*.
19. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2162* (1.47).
20. -21. Elias Garcia, Lusit&nia, no. 62 (Guilhermina, no.
1148; Coll. Fernandas Lima).
22. Inst, de Valencia, no. 81*.
(b). Obverse as (a). Cross on 2( ?) steps.
*2VI<lATia3M3
1. Mahudel, pi. 13, no. 4*.
Uncertain Types
377. Specimens with inadequate descriptions.
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 154'.
2. Augustin, p. 328.
3. Cantos Benitez, p. 11.
4. -5. Teixeira, nos. 348-9.
6.-7. Sotheby, Nov. 1848, nos. 1189, 1190.
GALLAECIA
A. Bracara.
378(a). Bust, right. Type 2 a.
Bust interrupts legend.
* RECCESVIN|eVSF4
1. Ashmolean (New College) (|
(b). Bust, right, similar to (a)
except in treatment of
shoulder. Bust does not in-
terrupt legend.
* RECCESVINGVSR&
Cross on 4 steps. The cross
extends upward to the bor-
der and interrupts the legend
BRACARAPIVS]
18,1.50). Plate XXVIII, 9
Reverse as (a).
1. Heiss, no. 1* (Cab. de Vienne) = Berlin, no. 45.1
Plate XXVHI, 10
1 Provenance unknown, but almost certainly the coin from Vienna, illus-
trated by Heiss.
3C6
RECCESVINTH
(c). Uncertain bust. Legend as (a). Cross on steps. Legendasja!.
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 161" = ( T) Augustin, p. 326 =
Velazquez, no. 97 = Florez, p. 264 = Gusseme, VT, p.
It is possible that the above references represent two different
coins, but I suspect that in spite of certain discrepancies there is
actually only one specimen. Campaner in 1866, as well as Heiss and
Campaner again in his review of Heiss' work, attribute the coin to
the Academia de la Historia. In his article of 1873, however, Cam-
paner illustrates a coin in the VQR collection (which would be VQR
no. 5157) which is in almost every respect identical with that illus-
trated in Heiss. The only difference is PI: VS (as it is, in fact, on the
VQR coin), the lettering being P:IVS in Heiss. Careless drawing
could account for this difference. Heiss has 2.35 for the weight, which
is impossible, unless the coin is a forgery, but the fact that Campaner
in 1873 gives 1.35 suggests that Heiss erred in the first figure and that
we are dealing with the V QR coin. Finally, if there was a specimen in
the Academia, where is it now ? It does not appear in Mateu y Llopis
inventory in Hallazgos IV. Beltran does not give the location. I would
conclude, therefore, that Campaner's original reference to the
Academia is mistaken and that all descriptions concern the VQR
specimen, which I have seen and illustrate in plate XXVIII.
25, no. 1.
B. Tude.
379. Bust, right. Type 1 h. Cross on 3 steps, extendiri
into margin. At right:
Uncertain Mint.
380. Bust, left. Type?
R:VINOV:R-:X:
RCCE:VIHOVFH
1. Campaner, 1866, no. 7* (formerly Coll. Jaime Fustagueras
y Fuster).
See also Nos. 351 and 490.
1 Morales has BRACCARAPIVS.
WAMBA
A.D. 672-680
TARRACONENSIS
A. Tarracona.
Type A1
381(a). Facing bust. Type 5 e or 5 u. Cross on 3 steps.
* VVAMBAREX * TARRACOPIVS
1. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2163* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
no. 70* (Stefan, Graz) (1.53).
2. Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 71* (a Madrid collector).
(b) . * VVAMIIAREX2 Reverse as (a).
1. Botet y Sis6, Noticia, pi. VI, 35* (property of Salat) =
Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 72.
(c) . * l-D-N-N-M-VVAMBArH Reverse as (a).
1. VQR no. 5162* = Engel, 1893, p. 92, no. 7 = Mateu y
Llopis, Tarragona, no. 69.
Type B
383(a). Bust, right. Type 2 n. Cross on 3 steps.
* I-D N-N-N-VVAMBAfH * TARRACOPIV#
1. BM no. 37 (acquired 1863) = Heiss, no. 6* = Madrid,
p. 268* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 67* ( f 20,
1.49). Plate XXVIII, 12
(b). * I D-N-N-MVVAMBAfH * TARRACOPIVS
1. Campaner, 1866, no. 5 = Heiss, no. 6a (Juan Armengol)
= Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 68 (1.47).
1 Despite the fact that the profile bust has already appeared under Recces-
vinth, the facing bust is placed first because on (a) and (b) the IDN etc.
formula, which later becomes the rule, is lacking. Type (c) appears to be a
transitional piece.
2 R and E incomplete.
368
WAMBA
Uncertain Type
383. Description lacking.
1. Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, p. 51, note 6.
Mateu y Llopis (Tarragona, no. 73) lists a specimen "cited by
Florez," but Florez (p.268) wrote "podemos suponer" an issue of
Tarragona.
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Toleto.
Type A
384. Bust, right. Type 2 h.1
* l-D-N-M-N-VVAMBAFH2
Cross on 3 steps.
* TOLETOPIVS
1. H8A 16552 (/ 19.1.49).3
2. HSA 16556 (/21,1.42).
3. HSA 16557 (/20.1.52).
4. Madrid, no. 142* (1.52).
5. Le Gentilhomme, no. 38* = LeBlanc, p. 32, no. 23* =
Mahudel, pi. 13, no. 9* = Velazquez, no. 109 = Heiss,
no. 8* (1.60).
6. Lisbon, no. 16* = Ennes, no. 9*4 (1.51).
7. VQR no. 5163.
8. Velazquez, no. 108 (Burriel).5
9. Inst, de Valencia, no. 86*.
Plate XXVIII, 13
Plate XXVIH, 14
Type B
385. Bust, right. Type 2 b, variation.
* IDNMNVVAHBArH
1. Stuttgart, no. 1369.
Cross on 3 steps.
* TOLETOPIVS
Plate XXVIII, 15
1 Considerable variation in the headdress and treatment of the shoulder.
1 M frequently appears as N or H. These minor variations are not noted
below.
3 There was apparently one specimen in the Cervera collection.
4 Inaccurate reproduction.
5 Transcription probably faulty.
CARTHAGINENSIS
369
Type C
386(a). Bust, right, with cruciform Cross on 3 steps.
scepter in hand. Type 2ff.1
* I-D-N-M-N-VVAMBAW2 * TOLETOPIVS
1. HSA 16660 (/ 19,1.44). Plate XXIX, 1
2. Madrid, no. 149* = Velazquez, no. 107 (Leyrens) (1.58).
3. VQR no. 5164 = Piot, no. 1* = Meynaerts, no. 78 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 6 = Heiss, no. 9* (1.35).
4. Weber, no. 3353 = Hess, June 1922, no. 117* = Rackus,
fig. 41* = Berlin, nos. 52 and 55.
(b). Obverse as (a). Reverse as (a), but pellet
beneath.
1. HSA 16553 (-v20,1.53). Plate XXIX, 2
2. HSA 16554 ( f 20,1.49).
3. HSA 16555 ( \20,1.54). Plate XXIX, 3
4. Madrid, no. 145* = (?) Fernandez-Guerra, pi. II*3
(1.45).
5. -7. Madrid, nos. 146*. 147*. 148* (1.43, 1.40, 1.25).
8. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4649 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 41* (1.50).
9. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4650 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 42* (1.48).
10. Copenhagen, no. 24 = Thomson, no. 1110 (1.58).
11. Grierson Coll. (ex Reinhart Coll., no. 63) (1.58).
12. Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 22* (Reinhart Coll.).
13. Reinhart Coll., no. 64 (N-N-N) (1.44).
14. VQR no. 5165.
15. Heiss, no. 7* (Stroganoff) = Beltran, Ampurias 1941,
p. 102, fig. 4*.
16. Dias, no. 17.
17. Ferreira, no. 55 (1.36).
18. Carles-Tolra, no. 1017* (1.50).4
19. Florez, p. 266* (Pimentel; others cited, accounted for) =
Masdeu, p. 29.
20. Hess, June 1922, no. 116* = Jesse, pi. I, 7* = Berlin,
no. 51.
21. Huth Collection, no. 236* (1.50).
22. Marques de LI., no. 1516* (1.35).
23. Inst, de Valencia, no. 87*.
1 The pellet above the scepter is sometimes omitted in drawn reproductions.
* See footnote to No. 384 with regard to the form of M.
3 Very inaccurate drawing, if indeed this is the coin in question.
4 Transcription of obverse differs, but probably the usual legend. The plate
cannot be read.
24 Visigoth
370 WAMBA
(c). As (a) or (b).
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 162v = ( ?) Augustin, p. 299.
2. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa III, no. XCI (Monasterio de
la Vid).
Uncertain Type
387. Inadequate descriptions.
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Soc. Martins Sar-
mento, Guimaraes).
2. Reinhart Coll., no. 65 (IDNINNVVAMBAfH) (1.46).
BAETICA
A. Cordoba.
Type A
388. Bust, right. Type 2 n. Cross on 3 steps.
* IND-IN-MVVAMBAfH * CORDOBAPATRICIA
1. Le Gentilhomme, no. 37* (pi. IV, 26, not 2) = LeBlanc,
p. 32, no. 24* (idealized drawing) = Mabudel, pi. 13,
no. 7* (1.48).
2. VQR no. 5158 = Campaner, 1866, no. 1 = Heiss, no. 1*
(1.37).
3. Mahudel, pi. 13, no. 8*.1
4. Bourgey, no. 311* (Berlin, no. 53).
Type B
389. Bust, right. Type 2 p.
* l-D-IN-MVVAMBAfH
1. Schulman, May 1925, no. 290*.
Type C
390(a). Bust, right. Type 2 t. Cross on 3 steps. beneath.
* INDIN*NIVVAMBArH * CORDOBAPATRICIA
Cross on 3 steps. Pellet be-
neath.
* CORDOBAPATRICIA
1 Bungled obverse legend.
BAETICA
371
1. HSA 16537 (ex Cervera) ( f 20,1.48). Plate XXIX, 4
2. Madrid, no. 197* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. III, 8*
(1.48).
3. Madrid, no. 198* (Abusejo) = Adquisidonea en 1932,
pi. I, 6* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. III, 9* (1.55).
4. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4651 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 43* (1.42).
5. Inst, de Valencia, no. 88* = (?) Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba,
pi. in, 10* (Abusejo).
6. Velazquez.no. IIl (Burriel) = Florez.p. 267* = Masdeu,
p. 328 = Beltran, p. 438, fig. 16*.
(b). Bust, right. Type 2 t, variant. Cross on 3 steps.
* TD-IN-MVVANBArH * CORDOBAPATRICIA
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 89*.
Uncertain Type
391. Inadequate description.
1. Augustin, p. 317.
B. Ispali.
392(a). Bust, right. Type 2 b. Cross on 3 steps.
* rA-INMVVAMBArH1 * ^ISPALIPIVS
1. HSA 16545 (/20.1.51).
2. HSA 16549 (/19,1.52). Plate XXIX, 5
3. Madrid, no. 228* = Florez, p. 267* (Gabriel) (1.50).
4. -5. Inst, de Valencia, nos. 91*92*.
(b) . Obverse as (a). * *ISPALIPl VS*
1. HSA 16546 (/20.1.53). Plate XXIX, 6
2. Madrid, no. 229* (Abusejo) = Adquisicionea en 1932,
pi. I, 7* (1.55).
3. Lonja del Almid6n, no. 699*.
4. Schulman, Dec. 1934, no. 115* = Glendining, May 1936,
no. 289*.
5. Inst, de Valencia, no. 90*.
(c) . * TAMNMVVAMBArHa Reverse as (b).
1. HSA 16548 (-20,1.54). Plate XXIX, 7
(d) . * TA-IN-MVVAMBAfH Reverse as (b).
1. VQR no. 5161 =Campaner,1866, no. 4 = Heiss, no. 5* (1.50).
1 See footnote to No. 384 with regard to the form of M.
4 . over M sometimes not noted.
372
WAMBA
(e). Obverse as (a).
Cross on 3 steps. Pellet be-
neath.
ISPALIPIVS1
Plate XXIX, 8
1. HSA 16547 ( f 20,1.50).
2. HSA 16551 (/19,1.46).
3. BM no. 36 = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1190 ( f 19,1.42)
4. VQR no. 5161.
5. Hoffmann, 1886, no. 34.
6. Marques de LI., no. 1515* (1.47).
(f) . Obverse as (a).
1. Huth Collection, no. 237*.
(g) . * I A-IMMVVAHBArH
1. HSA 8113 ( | 20,1.45).
(h) . * I A IMMVVAMBArH
Reverse as (e), but
* .ISPALIPIVS
Reverse as (e), but
**l</>PALIPIVS
Plate XXIX, 9
Reverse as (g).
1. HSA 16550 (/20,1.53, same rev. die as HSA 8113, (g) 1,
above). Plate XXIX, 10
(i). Probably similar to (b), (c), or (d).
1. Augustin, p. 320 = Velazquez, no. 110.
(j). Full details lacking.
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 62 (l-HNMVVMBAPX) (1.45).
LUSITANIA
A. Emerita.
Type A
393(a). Bust, right. Type 2 n.2 Cross on 3 steps.
* IND lN M-EVVAMBArH3 * EMERITAPIVS*
1. HSA 16543 (</21,1.53).4 Plate XXIX, 11
2. VQR no. 5159 = Heiss, no. 2* = Madrid, p. 347* (1.40).
3. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 68 (Coll. Paiva Pessoa).
1 Number of points of star varies.
2 The bust varies considerably in barbarity.
3 The forms of N and M are frequently irregular. Also there is some variation
in the points, either in fact or in the publishers' transcriptions.
4 There was one of this type in the Cervera collection, according to Beltran'e
LUSITANIA 373
(b) . * IND-IN-M-EVVAMBAR Reverse as (a).
1. BM no. 34 = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1189 ( | 19,1.38).
(c) . Obverse as (a). Reverse as (a), but
* EMERITAPIVSV
1. HSA 16538 (| 20,1.51). Plate XXIX, 12
2. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 69 (Casa Almeida, Lisbon).
(d) . * IND IN M-EVVAMBAPi Reverse as (c).
1. Madrid, no. 277* (1.44).
2. Madrid, no. 278* (1.40).1
3. VQR no. 5160 = Campaner, 1866, no. 2.
4. The Hague.
(e) . Obverse as (d). Cross on 4 steps. Legend
as (c).
1. Madrid, no. 276* (1.27).
2. BMno. 35 (De Salia) = Piot, no. 2* = Meynaerts, no. 79
( f 19,1.47). Plate XXIX, 13
3. Berlin, no. 54 (provenance unknown).
(f) . * IN5 IN M-EVV MBAfH Cross on 4 steps.
* EMERITPIVSt
1. HSA 16540 (| 21,1.44). Plate XXIX, 14
(g) . * iND-M-l-M-EVVAMBArH Reverse as (c).
1. Copenhagen, no. 23 = Thomson, no. 1109 (1.43).
2. Heiss, no. 3* (Stroganoff).
3. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 71 (Coll. Ant6nio Marrocos,
Idanha-a-Velha).
(h) . * IPlNM-EVVANBArH Cross on 3 steps.
* EMERITAPIVS
1. Ferreira, no. 53 (1.36).
(i). * IPIN-MEVVANBAFH Reverse as (h).
1. Ferreira, no. 54 (1.30).
(j). * l-D-IN-M EVVAMBAIH Reverse as (c).
1. HSA 16539 ( | 20,1.46). Plate XXX, 1
2. Velazquez, no. 113 (Villacaballo).
3. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 74 (Coll. Elias Garcia).
1 "Plata," probably base gold.
374
WAMBA
(k). * IDINMEVVAHBArH Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
either side. Legend as (c).
1. Johns Hopkins (Wayte Raymond, 1930) = Huth Collec-
tion, no. 235* (19,1.40).
2. Cabinet des Medailles.
3. Piot, 1850, no. 6*1 = Meynaerts, no. 80 = Campaner,
1866, no. 3.
(l). Full details lacking.
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 60 (INDINMEVVAMBAP) (1.46).
2. Reinhart Coll., no. 61 (ININMLIVVAMBAR) (1.45).
Type B
394(a). Bust, right. Type 2 p. Cross on 3 steps.
* I-MN-M-EVVAN6AIH2 * EMERITAPIVS
1. HSA 16544 (/20.1.51).3 Plate XXX, 2
2. HSA 16659 ( f 20,1.46, chipped).
3. HSA 16541 ( /20.1.17, segment lacking).
4. HSA 16542 ( | 20,1.54).
5. HSA 16655 (x1"20,1.41, chipped). Plate XXX, 3
6. Madrid, no. 275* = ( ?) Velazquez, no. 112 (Leyrens) -
Catdlogo-Guia, pi. X, 6* (1.45).
7. Ashmolean (ex Grierson Coll.) = Grantley Sale, no.
2801 (1.46).
8. Grierson Coll., no. 7890 (Baranowsky, Rome) ( | 1.50).
9. Dias, no. 16 ( ?).
10. Florez, p. 268*.
11. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 74 (Casa Almeida, Lisbon),
(b). * I-MN-M-EVVAMBAfH Reverse as (a).
1. Grierson Coll. (ex Reinhart Coll.) (1.38). Plate XXX, 4
Uncertain Types
395. Inadequate or equivocal descriptions.
1. Faria y Susa, I, pt. IH, Cap. XX, p. 362.
2. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 162v* = Masdeu, p. 333.
3. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Lisbon dealer).
4. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos VI, no. 408 (property of Jaime
Butina of Banolas).
5. Hoffmann, 1886, no. 33.
6. Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1188. 7. Glendining, July 1936, no. 267.
1 Described as "argent," probably base gold.
2 The form of the D varies.
3 There was one of this type in the Cervera collection, according to Beltran's
list.
* Morales has the bust holding a scepter, and l-D-N-NWAN BAREX.
ERVIG
A.D. 680-687
NARBONENSIS
Narbona.
396(a). Bust, right, with cruciform
scepter in hand. Type 2 ee.
* l-D'N-M N ERVICT-VSIH
Cross on 3 steps.
*NARBONAPIVS
1. HSA 16572 = Heiss, no. 8*
fort, no. 3163* = Beltran,
chipped).
2. HSA 16571 ( \ 21,1.55).
l, p.
Robert, no. 24* = Bel-
398, fig. 3* ( \ 21,1.41,
Plate XXX, 5
Plate XXX, 6
3. ANS (ex Newell, ex Baldwin, found in Bio Tinto mine)
(->20,1.50).
4. Madrid, no. 81* = Mateu y Llopis, Hispania Tar-
raconense, pi. I, 7* (1.51).
5. BM (De Salis) (j 21,1.55, same dies as no. 1).
6. Inst, de Valencia, no. 93* = Madrid, p. 251 (Abusejo
hoard) = Beltran, p. 398.1
7. Amardel, Musee de Narbonne, no. 3 (1.40).
8. Inst, de Valencia, no. 94* ? (illegible in plate).
The first coin listed above (HSA 16572) poses a curious problem.
There can be no doubt whatever that the coin illustrated by Heiss
(copied by the others referred to above) is the identical specimen now
in the HSA collection; it is most unlikely that two coins from the
same dies could have flans chipped in the identical manner. Heiss
gives the weight as 1.38 and I find 1.41, but this slight difference can
be due to faulty scales. According to Heiss the specimen belonged to
Vidal Quadras y Ramon, and it would therefore presumably be VQR
no. 5174. But the VQR collection is intact. I can only propose in
explanation that Heiss confused the VQR specimen with another and
that this other was acquired by Mr. Huntington. In support of this
hypothesis is Campaner's statement (1866, no. 9) that the VQR
1 This is reported to be of "silver," and Beltran proposes to classify it as a
contemporary counterfeit. I imagine it is simply of base gold.
376
ERVIG
specimen is "enteramente igual a [that in the Biblioteca Nacional,
i.e., Madrid], pero con el nombre del monarca complete-," which, in
fact, properly describes the VQR piece. The second I is missing in
type (a). I have therefore placed VQR no. 5174 below.
(b) . * l-D N-M-N-ERVIJIVSrH Reverse as (a).
1. VQR no. 5174 = Campaner, 1866, no. 9.1
2. BouterouS, p. 179.
(c) . * I-D-N-M-NERVI6VSR Reverse as (a).
1. Piot, no. 1* = Meynaerts, no. 81.*
2. Belfort, no. 3162* (Musee de Narbonne)3 = Boudard,
p. 347 (1.15).
3. Belfort, no. 3162 (P. d'Amecourt) (1.40).4
4. Gariel, no. 356.
(d) . * -IDN N NERVI^-VSrH Cross on 3 steps. Pellet be-
neath and at each side.
* NARBONAPIVS.
1. Heiss, no. 9* (Cabinet de Madrid) = Campaner, 1866,
no. 8 = Robert, no. 25* = Belfort, no. 3164* (1.53).'
(e) . Uncertain, probably similar to (a)-(d).
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 186r - Masdeu, p. 31 = (?)
Augustin, p. 240.
2. Florez, pp. 273-4 (Alvar Gomez).
3. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Soc. Martins
Sarmento, Guimaraes).
1 See the discussion relating to (a) 1, above.
1 This specimen should be found either in the VQR collection or in the
British Museum. But it lacks the second I of Ervig's name, and therefore is not
the V QR specimen; and if the drawing is to be trusted it is not the coin which
De Salis gave to the British Museum.
3 Is this the same specimen as that described by Amardel ((a) 7, above)?
If so, description and weight are inaccurate in one case or the other.
4 The transcriptions of the obverse legend in Belfort and Boudard do not
agree, and there are minor differences between them and that given above.
5 Here is another embarrassment: this specimen does not appear in Mateu y
Llopis' catalogue, where one would expect to find it if Heiss' notation was
correct. Also Campaner's description differs from Heiss', but does not fit
Madrid, no. 81.
T ARRACONEN SIS 377
TARRACONENSIS
A. Cesaragusta.
397(a). Facing bust. Type 5 p. Cross on 3 steps.
* |-D-NNERVI6IVSrH *CESARA6VSTAPIS
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4652 = Campaner, 1866, no.
I1 = Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo, no. 48*2 (1.53). Plate XXX, 7
2. Inet. de Valencia, no. 96*.
(b) . * |-D-NN-ERVI6IVSFH * CESARA6VSTAP-V
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4653 = Campaner, 1866, no. 2
= Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo, no. 49* (1.47).
(c) . *|-D-NN-ERVI6IVSRE+ Cross on 3 steps. Pellet be-
neath.
*CESARA6VSTAPIS
1. HSA 16558 (| 21,1.40). Plate XXX, 8
(d) . * |-D-N-NERVI6IVSRE+ Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
either side.
* CESARA6VSTAPIVS*
1. Cabinet des Mdailles = Heiss, no. 1* = Madrid, p. 277*
(1.60).
(e) . Details lacking, except * I D-N N ERVI6IVSrH and
*CESARA6VSTAP-
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 69 (1.43).
B. Tarracona.
398(a). Facing bust. Type 5 q. Cross on 3 steps.
* l-D-N-N-N-ERVICIVSM * TARRACPIVS:
1. BM no. 41 = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1191 = Heiss,
no. 11* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 74 ( f 20,1.46).
Plate XXX, 9
2. VQR no. 51753 = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 78.
3. Florez, p. 273* = Eapana Sagrada, vol. 24, p. 341 =
Gsseme, III, p. 160, nos. 1 and 9 = Masdeu, p. 31 =
Botet y Sis6, Noticia, pi. V, 30* = Mateu y Llopis,
Tarragona, no. 77.
1 The published transoriptions of this and the following specimens are
inaccurate.
* Wrongly listed under Wamba.
3 Second N transcribed M.
378 ERVIG
(b). Obverse as (a), but " at * TARRACOPIVS
end of legend.
1. Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 76* (Dr. Stefan, Graz).
(c) . * I-D N-N-ERVICTIVSrH Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
either side. Legend as (b).
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 95* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
no. 75* (Abusejo hoard).
(d) . * I-D-N-N-ERVI6IVSFH: Reverse as (a).
* TARRACOMVS:
1. Soares, no. 1.740, p. 131* = Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V,
p. 711 (1.48).
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Toleto.
399(a). Bust, right, bearded. Type 2 j.2 Cross on 3 steps.
* I-D N M-N ERVI6IVSFH3 * TOLETOPIVS
1. HSA 7894 ( \ 20,1.44).* Plate XXX, 10
2. HSA 16574 ( j- 21,1.54).
3. HSA 16577 ( j 20,1.53, same rev. die as no. 2). Plate XXX, 11
4. -6. Madrid, nos. 150*. 151*, 152* (1.51, 1.50, 1.38,
chipped).5
7. Madrid, no. 153* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, V\. II, 1*(1.558).
8. Madrid, no. 154* = ( ?) Florez, p. 269*7 (1.23).
9. BM no. 42 (acquired in 1851) ( f 19,1.34).
10. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4660 =Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 46*8 (1.52).
11. Cabinet des Medailles.
12. Stuttgart, no. 1371.
1 Differently transcribed.
2 This bust varies considerably in detail, particularly with respect to the
shape of the shoulder, which is sometimes square, sometimes triangular, and
to its ornamentation.
3 N and M frequently bungled, and points not always clear.
4 One evidently in the Cervera collection.
5 The exact lettering of the obverses of these Madrid specimens is not
entirely clear in the plate.
6 Weight given as 1.60 in Madrid.
7 IND represented as a ligature.
8 Wrongly listed under Wamba.
CARTHAGINENSIS
379
13. Johns Hopkins (Schulman, 1921) (20,1.60).
14. Grierson Coll., no. 1079 = Shore Sale, no. 620* {/ 1.42).1
15. Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 19* (L. Keil, Lisbon).
16. Soares, no. 1.741, p. 131* (1.42).
17. Augustin, p. 300 = Masdeu, p. 346.
18. Velazquez, no. 115 (Burriel) = Gusseme, IJJ, p. 160,
no. 3.
19. Weber, no. 3354s = Berlin, no. 59.
20. Molder, Apr. 1948, no. 221.
21. Berlin, no. 57 (provenance unknown).
22. Inst, de Valencia, no. 97*.
(b) . * I D-N-M-ERVI6IVSR Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16615 ( f 20,1.40). Plate XXX, 12
2. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 5658 = Mateu y Llopis,
Eatocolmo, no. 44* (1.50).
3. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4659 = Mateu y Llopis,
op.cit., no. 45*3 (1.55).
4. Copenhagen, no. 27 = Thomson, no. 1113 (1.30).
5. Stuttgart, no. 1376. Plate XXX, 13
6. VQR no. 5176 = Heiss, no. 12* (1.43).
7. Heiss, no. 12 (Noguez) (1.53).
8. Traitl, fig. 113* (symbol beneath rev. ?).
9. Gusseme, III, p. 160, no. 4.
10. Inst, de Valencia, no. 99* ? (illegible in plate).
(c) . * l-DN HERVICIVSrH Reverse as (a).
1. Ferreira, no. 61 (1.36).
(d) . * |-D-N-HM:ERVICIVS(H Reverse as (a).
1. Ferreira, no. 62 (1.52).
(e) . * N>N-M-E-ERVI<J IVSfH* Reverse as (a).
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi.
HI, 7*).
(f) . Obverse as (a). Reverse as (a), but (.)
beneath.
1. HSA 16573 H-21,1.58)." Plate XXX, 14
2. HSA 16576 (/20,1.34, cracked).
3. Inst, de Valencia, nos. 98* and 102*5 = Beltran, Ampurias
1941, p. 102, fig. 5*.
1 I adjudge the apparent pellet beneath the reverse to be a flaw.
* The Berlin photographs associate their no. 57 (No. 21 here) with this
specimen, but they are not the same.
3 This and the above wrongly listed under Wamba.
* Approximate: the reproduction is not very clear.
5 It is obvious that Mateu y Llopis has confused the obverse with that
of a coin of Ispali (no. 102). The obverse illustrated at no. 98 is imposible for
Toleto.
380
ERVIG
4. VQRno. 5177.
5. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2165* (1.52).
6. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2166* = Schulmann, Dec. 1934,
no. 116* (1.50).
(g). Probably similar to (a)-(f), description inadequate or lacking.
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 180'.
2. Reinhart Coll., no. 68 (1.47).
3. Schulman, March 1925, no. 792.
BAETICA
A. Cordoba.
Type A
400(a). Bust, right. Type 2r. Cross on 3 steps. Pellet be-
neath.
* |-D IN M-ERVl(JIVSrH * CORDOBAPATRICIA
1. BM no. 38 (De Salis) (/ 20,1.37). Pi^te XXXI, 1
2. VQR no. 5166 = Meynaerts, no. 83 = Heiss, no. 2*
(1.51).
(b) . * I-D-IN-M-ERVUnVSR Reverse as (a).
1. HSA 16559 (ex Cervera) (/20,1.47). Plate XXXI, 2
(c) . Obverse as (b). ////ORDOBAPATRICA
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4654 =Campaner, 1866, no. 5
= Heiss, no. 4a1 =Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo, no. 47**
(1.37).
(d) . * l>.-N-M-E-RVI6IVSF4 Reverse as (a).
1. Florez, p. 271* (S. Ildefonso).
Type B
401. Facing bust. Type 5 o. Cross on 3 steps.
* rflN-HERVKTIVSfH * CORDOBAPATRICIA
1. VQR no. 5169*.
1 Published transcriptions not accurate.
2 Wrongly listed under Wamba.
BAETICA 381
Type C
02 (a). Facing bust. Type lib. Cross on 3 steps. Pellet be-
neath.
* IMN-H-NERVItflVSR * CORDOBAPATRICIA
1. VQR no. 5168 = Campaner, 1866, no. 4 = Heiss, no. 4*
(1.49).
(b) . * IDIN NMERVI6IVSP+ Reverse as (a).
1. Mateu y Llopis, Cordo&a, pi. IV, 1* (Abusejo hoard)
= (?) Inst, de Valencia, no. 100*.
(c) . * ID'IN'M'ERVItflASR1 Reverse as (a), but be-
neath. Legend as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 199* = ( ?) Fernandez-Guerra, pi. II* =
Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. IV, 2* (1.20).
Type D
r03. Facing bust. Type lid. Cross on 3 steps. beneath.
* IDIN-MERVI6IVSFH * CORDOBAPATRICIA
1. VQR no. 5167 = Campaner, 1866, no. 3 = Heiss, no. 3*
(1.46).
Uncertain Type
104. Types ?Legends apparently as in types A-D.
1. Augustin, p. 318 = Velazquez, no. 118 = Gusseme, III,
p. 161, no. 7.
2. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Coll. Nieport,
Oporto).
3. Merino, pi. 16, no. 11*.
B. Eliberri.
Type A
405. Bust, right. Type 2 r. Pellet Cross on 3 steps. beneath
at left.
* I-D-H-H-ERVI6IVSR3 * ELIBERR1PIVS
1. Madrid, no. 175* = Campaner, 1866, no. 6 = Heiss, p. 4^
(1.48).
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 105* (obv. legend illegible in plate).
1 Third letter from end transcribed V, but appears to be A.
1 Obviously inaccurate drawing; exact type indeterminate.
3 I have transcribed what appears to be legible in the plate, although this
does not conform with Mateu y Llopis' text.
382
ERVIG
Type B
406. Facing bust. Type 11 h. Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
either side.
* IDMNMERVI6IVSfH * ELIVERIPIVS*
1. BM no. 39 (Sir J. W. Barry, 1915) (| 20,1.51). Plate XXXI, 3
C. Ispali.
Type A
407. Bust, right. Type 2 b.1
* |-A-IHMERVI6IVSfH
1. HSA 16567 (/20.1.46).1
2. HSA 16568 (/20,1.51).
Type B
408. Bust, right, with cruciform
scepter in hand. Type 2 jj.
* PAINMERVKJIVSrH
1. Madrid, no. 320* (1.33).
Cross on 3 steps. : at either
side.
** ISPALIPIVw
Plate XXXI, i
Cross on 3 steps. beneath,
. at either side.
* ISPALIPIVS
Type C
409(a). Facing bust. Type 11 r. Cross on 3 steps.
* I-A INMERVI-6IVSH * * ISPALIPIVS3
l.HSA 16569(\20,1.48, cracked).* Plate XXXI, 5
* I A INMERVI6IVSrH Reverse as (a).
(b).
1. Copenhagen, no. 26 = Heiss, no. 7 * = Thomsen, no. 1112.
2. Grierson Coll., no. 1186 (London, 1945) ( f 1.46). Plate XXXI, 6
3. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 321*.
(c). * I-A-NMERVI6IVSfH
1. HSA 16575 ( \ 20,1.51).
2. Inst, de Valencia, nos. 98* and 102* (see the note
to no. 399(f)3, above).
Reverse as (a).
Plate XXXI, 7
1 Utterly barbaric, hardly recognizable.
2 There was one of this type in the Cervera collection.
3 Star sometimes 7-pointed.
4 There was one of this type in the Cervera collection.
BAETICA 383
(d) . * I-A-INM-ERVICIVSPi Reverse as (a).
1. Ferreira, no. 56 (1.51).
(e) . * IAINMERVI6IVSR Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 231* = Velazquez, no. 117 (Leyrens) =
Giisseme, III, p. 161, no. 6 (1.40).
Type D
0(a). Facing bust. Type 11 n.1 Cross on 3 steps. .. beneath.
* lAINMERVItflVSFH * *ISPALIPIVS
1. BM no. 40 = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1190 = Heiss,
no. 6* (^20,1.40).
2. Johns Hopkins (Schulman, 1927) = Huth Collection,
no. 239* (20,1.50).
3. Grierson Coll., no. 1898 = Grantley Sale, no. 2799
(/ 1.41). Plate XXXI, 8
4. Grierson Coll., no. 2556 = Grantley Sale, no. 2800
(/ 1.46).
5. VQRno. 5173.
6. Gaillard, RN 1864, no. 2*.
7. Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1191.
8. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 322 (1.45).
9. Hess, June 1922, no. 119* = Rackus, fig. 43* = Berlin,
no. 58 (same dies as no. 4 T).
(b). Similar to (a), but bust variation and no points
beneath steps.
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 101*.
(e). Similar to (a), but full details lacking.
1.-2. Reinhart Coll., nos. 66-67 (1.50, 1.47).
Uncertain Type
11. Inadequate description.
1. Augustin, p. 319.
D. Tucci.
12(a). Bust, right, bearded. Type 2 q. Cross on 3 steps.
* I D IN M-ERVI6IVSRX * TVCCIVPIVS*
1. Campaner, 1866, no. 10[= Heiss, no. 12a (F61ix Garcia,
Jaen).s
1 The number of concentric folds composing the shoulder and breast of this
'Ust varies.
1 It is quite possible that this coin is the one now in the HSA collection, No.
12(b). Campaner wrote that the legends were copied from a drawing the
384
ERVIG
(b). * IDNMERVI6IVSR Cross on 3 steps, pellet at
either side.
* TVCCIVPIVS&
1. HSA 16578 (/19,1.38). Plate XXXI, 9
LUSITANIA
A. Egitania.
413(a). Bust, right. Type 2 p. Cross on 3 steps.
* I-D-IN-M-NERVI6IVSIH * EJITANIAPIVS
1. HSA 16566 ( f 21,1.48). Pirate XXXI, 10
(b). * l-D-M-N-ERVI^IVSIH1 Reverse as (a).
1. Elias Garcia, Egitdnia, p. 21 = idem, Monecipio, p. 19*
(Museu Regional de Castelo Branco) = idem, Lusitdnia,
no. 131 (same collection, ex Shore).
B. Elvora.
414. Facing bust. Type 11b. Cross on 3 steps.
* I D N ERVI6IVSFH *ELBORAPIVS
1. VQR no. 5170 = Campaner, p. 218, note 1 = Engel,
1893, p. 91, no. 5.
C. Emerita.
415(a). Facing bust. Type 11 b.2 Cross on 3 steps.
* l-DMN-M-N-ERVItflVSfH3 * EMERITAPIVS
1. HSA 16560 (/19,1.48).* Plate XXXI 11,
2. HSA 16561 (/20.1.44).
3. HSA 16562 (
4. HSA 16563 (
20,1.40). Plate XXXI, 12
19,1.46, same rev. die as no. 1).
5. HSA 16564 ( | 20,1.43). e^JHSA 16565 ( f 20,1.46). Plate XXXI, 13
accuracy of which he could not vouch for. The differences could be the result of
careless drawing. But I am unable to say whether it was possible for the Garcia
piece to have been acquired by Mr. Huntington.
1 Not wholly legible in the plate, but thus transcribed in the text.
a Considerable variation in the form of the caricature. The ears (or cross)
are sometimes represented by half circles, sometimes by simple wedges.
3 Points sometimes obscure or partly lacking; N and M never wholly clear
and variously transcribed; I-D sometimes read l\D, the point appearing like a
slanting stroke.
4 There were two specimens in the Cervera collection.
LUSITANTA
385
7. Madrid, no. 279*1 = ( ?) Velazquez, no. 116 (Leyrens) =
Gusseme, HI, p. 160, no. 5 (1.54).
8. Madrid, no. 280* - Adquisiciones en 1932, pi. I, 9*
(1.46*).
9. -10. Madrid, nos. 281*-2* = loc.cit., pi. I, 10*. 8* (1.46,
1.46).
11.-14. Madrid, nos. 283*. 284*, 285*. 286* (1.35, 1.50, 1.40,
1.40).
15. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4656 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 52*3 (1.50).
16. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4657 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 51 *(1.20).4
17. Copenhagen, no. 25 = Thomson, no. 1111 (1.51).
18. VQR no. 5171 = ( ?) Campaner, 1866, no. 7.
19. Teixeira, no. 351.
20. -21. Ferreira, nos. 53-4 [58-9].
22. Heiss, no. 5* ("MC")5 = Madrid, p. 348* (1.50).
23. Reinhart Coll., no. 70 = Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 18* (1.44).
24. -27. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, nos. 78-80 (Inst.de Valencia,
no. 103*, Coll. Jose Ferreira da Trindade, Coll. Aurelio
Ricardo Belo, Severim, p. 162).8
28. Florez, p. 271*.
29. Hoffmann, 1898, no. 2527.
30. Hess, June 1922, no. 118* = Rackus, fig. 42* = Berlin,
no. 56.7
31. Ratto, no. 2437*.
32. Schulman, Jan. 1929, no. 450*.
33. Glendining, July 1936, no. 268.
34. Molder, Apr. 1949, no. 227 = ( ?) Molder, July 1949,
no. 181.
35. Inst, de Valencia, no. 104*
(b). Obverse as (a). Cross on 4 steps. Legend
as (a).
1. Carles-Tolra, no. 1018*.
1 The Madrid plates are not sufficiently clear to enable one to verify the
reading of the obverse legend. In the text the only transcription is IN-DI"
NMEERVIGIVSREX, which in no case is present. Some of these specimens
should perhaps be under (c).
* The weights as given in the Madrid catalogue and in Adquisiciones differ in
every case. I have adopted those in the catalogue.
3 Wrongly numbered L. 4655.
* Legend bungled, possibly a contemporary forgery.
5 There is no "MC" in Heiss' key to abbreviations; "MC" may be an error
for "CM" (Cabinet de Madrid), in which case this piece would be one of those
listed above.
* Elias Garcia distinguishes among varieties with various points and with N
in place of M, etc., but in my opinion most published transcriptions are not
sufficiently reliable, nor many of the reproductions sufficiently legible, to
permit of such detailed classification.
7 I-D- is followed by a series of joined N's.
25 Visigoth
386
ERVIG
(c) . * |-D-N-M-ERVICIV9H Reverse as (a).
1. Ferreira, no. 57 (1.39).
(d) . * I D I N M N ERVICIVSW Reverse as (a).
1. Ferreira, no. 58 (1.50).
(e) . * I-DTN N M ERVICIVSfH Reverse as (a).
1. Ferreira, no. 59 (1.60).
(f) . * I-D N-IN ERVICIVSfH Reverse as (a).
1. Ferreira, no. 60 (1.58).
(g) . * I D N-N ERVI6IVSJH Reverse as (a).
1. Stockholm = Lorichs. no. 4655 = Mateu y Llopis,
Eetocolmo, no. 50*1 (1.40). Plate XXXI, 14
2. -3. Cumano, nos. 1511-12.
4. Augustin, p. 328.
5. Mateu y Llopis, Hailazgoa V, p. 71 (dealer, Lisbon) =
ibid., no. 303.*
(h) . * I-D-IN-H-N-ERVI<SIVSR- Reverse as (a).
1. Stuttgart, no. 1373. Plate XXXI, 15
(i) . * IDINHNERVNVSrH Reverse as (a).
1. Marques de LI., no. 1517* (1.51).
D. Salmantica.
416(a). Bust, right, facing cross. Symbol of sun ? Type 12 f.
Type 2 ll.
* I-D-N-H-H-ERVI6I/////////// *SALMANTIC////////I6I0
1. Florez, p. 272* = Gusseme, III, p. 161, no. 8 = Masdeu,
p. 341 = Heiss, no. 10* = Madrid, p. 363* = Beltran,
p. 440, fig. 18*.3
(b). * I-D-N-M-N-ERVI6IVSFH * SALMANTICAPIVS
1. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 174 (Guilhermina, Jan. 1902,
no. 1153).4
1 Wrongly numbered L. 4657.
2 Allegedly with two E's in the obverse legend.
* The types and legends of this coin, known only by the dubious drawings in
Florez, must be considered very questionable. Beltran, loc.cit., points out that
the drawing in Florez is the origin of the numerous forgeries (see p. 487), and
that the coin itself was probably a restrike. Beltran's text relating to this coin
is confusing in that reference is primarily to Egica's issue of Salmantica, but
the present coin is illustrated and discussed in the caption of fig. 18.
* If the transcriptions are correct, one may assume this to be a genuine coin,
not one of the common forgeries.
EGICA
A.D. 687-702
NARBONENSIS
Narbona.
Type A
17. Bust, right, with cruciform Cross on 3 steps. Pellet be-
scepter in hand. Type 2 ff. neath and at each side.
* |-D'N-M-N-E6ICAiH * NARBONAP1V
1. VQR no. 5187*.
Type B
18. Bust, right. Type 2 f. Cross on 3 steps.
* I-D-N-N-N-E61CAR- * NARBONAPIVS
1. VQR no. 5185 = Heiss, no. 13* = Robert, no. 26* =
Belfort, no. 3165* = Madrid, p. 237* (1.45).
Type C
119(a). Bust, right. Type 2 k. Cross on 3 steps.
* |-D-N-H-N-E<SICArH * NARBONAPIVS
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4665 Mateu y Llopis, Esto-
colmo, no. 56* (1.45). Plate XXXII, 1
2. VQR no. 5186 = Campaner, 1866, no. 9.
(b). Obverse as (a). Cross on 3 steps. Y at either
side. Legend as (a).
1. HSA 16601 = Heiss, no. 14* = Robert, no. 27* = Ga-
riel, no. 357 = Belfort, no. 3166* ( f 20,1.18, chipped).1 Plate XXXII, 2
1 Heiss' drawing clearly shows that this specimen, now in the HSA collec-
tion, is the one sold by Hoffmann in Paris; the configuration of the damaged
flan is the proof. Robert restored the shape of the coin (!), an example of the
unreliability of many of the earlier engravings. Either HSA 16601 or 16602
was in the Cervera collection.
16*
388
EGICA
2. HSA 16602 (/20,1.53). Plate XXXII, 3
3. Boudard, p. 347 (Musee de Narbonne) = Amardel, Mu-
sde de Narbonne, no. 4 = Belfort, no. 3166* (1.47).
4. Belfort, no. 3167* (info, of Rollin & Feuardent)1 (1.50).
5. Augustin, p. 240 = Florez, p. 280* = Masdeu, p. 33.
6. Marques de LL, no. 1518* (1.41).
(c) . Obverse as (a). Reverse as (b).
* NARBONAPIVS"
1. HSA 16617 (/20.1.44). Elate XXXH, i
(d) . Obverse as (a), bust variant. Reverse as (a) but pellet
at either side.
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 107*.
(e) . Probably similar to (a)-(d).
1. Von Sallet, p. 23 (Miinzkabinett, Berlin).
TARRACONENSIS
A. Barcinona.
420.(a). Facing bust. Type 5 p. Cross on 3 steps.
* H M H-E6ICArH * BARCIHOHPIVS
1. HSA 16581 (/19.1.47). Plate XXXH, 5
2. Campaner, 1880, pi. 1, no. 5* (E. Sanchez, Seville) =
Campaner, p. 218, note 2 = Carreras y Candi, p. 146* =
Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, nos. 22* and 23".
(b). * ID N-N-H-E6ICAR3 * BARCIHOHPIVS
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 106* = (?) Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos III,
no. XCII* (Abusejo hoard).
1 Described as "cuivre"; probably debased gold.
2 Possibly the same coin as no. 1. The drawing in Campaner, 1880 does not
appear accurate, and the transcriptions there and in Indicador do not agree.
Also there are differences between this coin as described and illustrated and the
HSA specimen, but I suspect they are identical, and although positive evidence
is lacking it is more than likely that the HSA piece is the very coin first pub-
lished by Campaner. Mate uy Llopis, by giving two separate entries, with the
variant transcriptions, impliesthat the descriptions in Campaner, 1880 and In-
dicador concern two different coins, which of course they do not.
3 Transcribed from the plates, but accuracynot guaranteed because the half-
tones are not entirely clear. The transcription in the text of Hallazgos III does
not conform.
TARRACONENSIS
389
B. Cesaragusta.
Type A
421(a). Facing bust. Type 5 s. Cross on 3 steps.
* l-D-N-M-N-EcnCAfH * CESARA6VSTAPIS
1. HSA 16583 (/20.1.42). Plate XXXII, 6
2. HSA 16636 (\20,1.50, chipped, same rev. die as no. 1).
3. -4. Inst, de Valencia, nos. 108*-109*.
(b) . Facing bust. Type 5 s, variant. * CESARA6VSTAP:
Legend as (a).
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4661 = Campaner, 1866, no. 1
= Mateu y Llopis, Eatocolmo, no. 59* (1.41).
(c) . Facing bust. Type 5 s, variant. Cross on 3 steps. Pellet be-
neath and at each side.
* IDH-M-H-E6ICArH *CESAR-ACVSTAPIS
1. HSA 16584 (/20.1.45, chipped). Plate XXXII, 7
Type B
422. Bust, right. Type 2 f, variant. Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
left, * at right.
* I-DN-M-N-E6ICAFH1 * CESARA6:STAPS
1. Madrid, no. 99* = Campaner, 1866, no. 2 = Heiss, no. lc
(1.36).
Uncertain Type
423. Inadequate descriptions.
1. Cumano, no. 1513.
2. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa V, p. 70 (Soc. Martins Sar-
mento, Guimaraes).
C. Gerunda.
424(a). Bust, right. Type 2 b. Cross on 3 steps.
*fsP-N-M-N-E6lCArH2 * QRVNa>APIVS
1. VQR no. 5181 = (probably) Pujol y Camps, p. 190, no. 3
= Heiss, no. 7* = Madrid, p. 271* = Mateu y Llopis,
Gerona, no. 9* (1.30).
1 Not clear in plate whether rH or RX.
* M frequently appears as H.
390 EGICA
2. Carles-Tolra, no. 1020* (1.50).
3. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hattazgos IV, pi. 111,
8*) = Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, no. 11*.
(b) . * -Hs-N-M-N-EcnCAIH Rev. as (a).
1. Pujol y Camps, p. 190, no. 2 (Joaquin Pujol y Santo) =
Heiss, no. 7 = Botet y Sis6, Gerona, p. 224* = Mateu y
Llopis, Gerona, no. 10 (1.45).
2. Stuttgart, no. 1378. Plate XXXH, 8
(c) . * -N5-N-H-N-E6ICAIH Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
left.
*gRVNOAPIVS
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 73 (1.37).
2. Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, no. 8* (plaster cast from Gomez-
Moreno).
(d) . Bust, right. Crude variation Reverse as (a).
of type 2 b.
* .r4>-N-N-M-E6ICAfH
1. Stuttgart, no. 1379. Plate XXXTJ, 9
(c). Probably similar to (a)-(d).
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Museo de Belem,
Lisbon) = idib., no. 304.1
D. Rodas.
425(a). Bust, right, holding Cross on 3 steps,
cross. Type 2 gg.
* ID-HHHEtflCAfH * RODASIVSTVS
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 111*,
(b). Description lacking.
1. Campaner, p. 566 (Coll. Braulio Garcia y Sanchez, near
Toledo).
E. Tarracona.
Type A
426(a). Facing bust. Type 5 p. Cross on 3 steps.
* I-D-N-N-E6ICArH * TARRACOPIVS
1. Cabinet des Medailles = Heiss, no. 17a = Mateu y Llo-
pis, Tarragona, no. 80 (1.55).
1 Legends given as IND-NMEGICARX and GERVNDAPIVS, but one must
question the accuracy of these transcriptions.
TARRACONENSIS 391
(b) . * I-D-N-N-N-E6ICAfH Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
left, * at right. Legend as (a).
1. HSA 16603 (ex Cervera) (\ 21,1.51). Plate XXXII, 10
(c) . Obverse as (b). Cross on 3 steps. * at left,
pellet at right. Legend as (a).
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4668 = Mateu y Llopis, Esto-
colmo, no. 57* (1.50).
(d) . Obverse as (b). Cross on 3 steps. at each
side. Legend as (a).
1. Copenhagen, no. 28 = Heiss, no. 17* = Thomson, no.
1115 = Madrid, p. 268* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
no. 79* (1.49). Plate XXXII, 11
Type B
427(a). Bust, right. Type 1 h. Cross on 3 steps.
* I ^ N N E|<5|ICAfH * TARRACOIVST:
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4667 = Mateu y Llopis, Esto-
colmo, no. 58* (1.48). * Plate XXXII, 12
(b) . Obverse as (a). * TARRACOIV-TS:
1. Ferreira, no. 67 (1.46).
(c) . * |-A-N-N-|E|<SICArH Reverse as (b).
1. VQR no. 5188 = Campaner, 1866, no. 101 = Mateu y
Llopis, Tarragona, no. 83.
2. Heiss, no. 16* (Noguez) = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
no. 82*.
Type C
428. Bust, right, with cruciform Cross on 3 steps.
scepter in hand. Type 2 kk.
* V\> N-N EcTICAPt2 * TARRACOhST-
1. HSA 16607 ( f 21,1.48, chipped). Plate XXXII, 13
F. Talentia.
429(a). Bust, right. Type 2 z. Cross on 3 steps. Possible
\ at right. symbol at right.
1I have accepted the transcription in V QR of the obverse legend, with which
Gampaner's does not agree.
1 A fragment with part of rH is missing.
392
EGICA
* I DC H H HC^ CAFH * VALXHTIAP.VS
1. HSA 16272 (ex Cervera) (/20.1.48). Plate XXXII, 14
(b). Obverse as (a), variant. Cross on 3 steps. * at either
side.
* IK)E H-M NE6CA+ * VALEHTIAP.VS
1. VQR no. 5192 = Campaner, 1866, no. 131 = Heiss, no.
21* = Martinez Aloy, p. 347 = Madrid, p. 309* (1.49).
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Acci.
430(a). Bust, right. Type 2 s. Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
either side.
*-IDH-M-N-E6ICAR * ACCItVICTOR
1. HSA 16605 (ex Cervera) (/21.1.52). Plate XXXII, 15
(b). * ID-INI-HEtflCArH Reverse as (a).
1. VQR no. 5178 = (?) Heiss, no. 1** = Madrid, p. 312*
(1.35).
B. Mentesa.
Type A
431(a). Facing bust. Type 11d, Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
head only. either side.
* IDNME6ICAFH3 * MENTE2APIV2-
1. HSA 16595 (ex Cervera) (/21.1.45). Plate XXXIH, 1
(b). * IP N-M-E6ICAREX Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
left; : at right.
* MEHTESAPIVS
1. VQR no. 5184 = Campaner, 1866, no. 8 = Heiss, no. 12* (1.37).
1 Incorrectly described as facing busts, probably confused with the VQR
specimen of Egica & Wittiza at Valentia.
s Heiss' attribution, "Musee de Madrid" must be in error; at least there was
no specimen in the Madrid collection at the time of Mateu y Llopis' preparation
of the catalogue. I have assumed that Heiss saw the VQR specimen and that
despite differences in t ranscription in the texts of Heiss and VQR, the specimen
illustrated by the former was VQR'S.
3 rH is curiously and imperfectly formed.
CARTHAGINENSIS
393
(c). Bust variant (featureless,
surmounted by cross).
* IPNME6ICAREX
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 110*.
Cross on 3 steps. Pellet
beneath. Legend as (b).
Type B
432. *. Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
j left-
* IONMEGICARE+ * MENTESATIVS
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4664 = Mateu y Llopis, Esto-
colmo, no. 60* (1.36). Plate XXXIII, 2
C. Toleto.1
Type A
433(a). Bust, right, bearded. Type 2 j, Cross on 3 steps. beneath,
variation, at right.
* INMNMNE6ICAR * TOLETOPIVS
1. HSA 16639 (/21.1.64)." Plate XXXIII,
(b) . Obverse as (a), but ends R". Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 155*3 = (probably) Florez, p. 276 (Gabriel)
= Beltran, Ampurias 1941, p. 103, fig. 6* (1.43).
(c) . * NNt>[?]INN-N-EtflCArH* Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 156* (1.46).
(d) . Pellet above Y. Reverse as (a).
* ID////////E6 ICArH
1. Reinhart, 1941, pi. 33, nos. 15-16*.
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 116* (first part of obv. legend obscure in
plate).
1 The quality of the gold varies considerably.
2 There were four specimens of Egica-Toleto in the Cervera collection, one of
them being either HSA 16610 or 16616 (see Type D).
3 The transcription of the obverse legend in the text appears to be greatly
at variance with the legend as it appears in the plate.
4 As read from the plate, which is not entirely clear. The text has simply
"semejante a la anterior," which it is not.
5 The obverse legend is doubtless fully legible on the coin, but as I have had
access to the plate only in a photostatic reproduction I have been unable to
make out all the letters. The figures (pi. 33, nos. 15-16) are wrongly captioned
"Erwig." .
394
EGICA
(e). Legend obscure, but ends rH. Reverse as (a) but beneath.
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 115*.
(I). Probably similar to (a)-(e).
1. Augustin, p. 300 - Velazquez, no. 120 = Gusseme, HI,
p. 110, no. 1.
2. Florez, p. 275 (Velasco).
Type B
434. Bust, right. Type 2 m. Cross on 3 steps. ^ at either
side.
* TD-N-M-NECICAfH * TOLETOPIVS
1. HSA 16614 (^20,1.55). PlateXXXm, 4
Type C
435. Bust, right. Type 2 c. Cross on 3 steps. beneath.
* INDINME6ICArH * TOLETOPIVS
1. HSA 16633 (<-21,1.49). Plate XXXIII, 5
Type D
436(a). Bust, right, with cruciform Cross on 3 steps.
scepter in hand. Type 2 gg.1
* IND-INM-E6ICAfHa * TOLETOPIVS
1. HSA 16608 ( /20.1.36, chipped). Plate XXXHI, 6
2. HSA 16613 (| 19,1.52, mended).
3. Stockholm - Lorichs, no. 4670 = Mateu y Llopis, Eato-
colmo, no. 53* (1.47).
4. Heiss, no. 18* (Noguez) = Beltran, Ampurias 1941, p.
103, fig. 7*.
5. Schulman, Dec. 1934, no. 117*.3
6. Inst, de Valencia, no. 117*.
(b). * IND-I-MNE6ICArH4 Cross on 3 steps. (.) beneath.
Legend as (a).
1. Soares, no. 1.742, p. 132* (1.38, "prata dourada").
2. Inst, de Valencia, nos 113* and 119* (obv. of a coin of Emerita
confused in plate with a Toleto rev.).
1 There are numerous variations in the style of this bust, particularly with
respect to the shape and ornamentation of the shoulder and breast.
2 N and M throughout types D and E are frequently malformed; points
often obscure or lacking or differently placed.
3 First part of obverse legend obscure.
4 Not wholly legible in the reproduction. The present transcription is a
compromise between Barros' transcription and what I can see in the repro-
ductionj
CARTHAGINENSIS
395
(c) . * IND7//////////E6ICAW Reverse aa (b).
1. Madrid, no. 158* (Abusejo hoard) - Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. II,4* (1.70).1
2. Inst. deValencia.no. 118*.
(d) . Obverse as (a), but pellet at Reverse aa (b).
top of scepter.
* IND-IN-WE6ICAR
1. Madrid,no. 159* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en 1932,
pi. II,3* (1.40).
2. VQR no. 5191.
(e) . Obverse as (d). Cross on 3 steps. ^ at either
side. Legend as (a).
* IND-INME6ICAfH
1. Stuttgart, no. 1382".
2. Berlin, no. 60 ("L.Hamburger, Feb. 1924").
(f) . Bust as (a), but with leaves Reverse aa (b).
on staff of scepter. Type 2 hh.
* INDINWE6ICAR
1. HSA 16616 (/20.1.27). Plate XXXIH, 7
2. Velazquez, no. 121* (Leyrens)3 = Gusseme, III, p. 110,
no. 2.
(g) . Bust as (f). Reverse aa (b).
* ID INM ECICArH
1. HSA 16610 (/20.1.36, cracked). Plate XXXHI, 8
2. Gaillard, RN 1864, no. 3*.
(h) . Bust as (f). Cross on 3 steps. beneath.
Legend aa (a).
* ID*NNE6ICAfH
1. Cabinet des Medailles = Heiss, no. 20* (1.46).*
1 The transcription of the obverse legend in the text of the Madrid
catalogue cannot bo correct: there are certainly not two E's, nor REX. I have
copied what I can read in the reproduction. The reverse is described as having
a 8 in addition to (.) beneath the steps. Whatever this symbol is, it is not evi-
dent in the plate. The metal is described as debased in the catalogue, and as
"plata dorada" in Adquisiciones; so also Madrid, no. 159 (below).
J Possibly the same specimen as no. 2 t
* Apparently N in place of the ME ligature. The specimen appears not to
have been in the Madrid collection when the catalogue was written.
* Heiss' drawing shows (.) beneath the cross, but my notes show ; in all
probability the specimen described by Heiss is the one I saw.
396 EGICA
(i). Bust as (a). V above scepter. Reverse as (a).
* N*PN M E6ICAfH
1. Stuttgart, no. 1381.1 Plate XXXm, 9
2. Grierson Coll. (\21,1.48).
3. Inst, de Valencia, no. 112* (obv. legend uncertain).
(j). Full details lacking.
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 72 (1.38).
Type E
437(a). Bust, right, with cruciform Cross on 3 steps.
scepter in hand. Type 2 gg.
* ND-P-HOHN-EJICArHV-CR * TOLETOPIVS
1. VQR no. 5189.
(b) . * N*PNOM-N-E(jICAfHVCR Reverse as (a), but pellet
beneath.
1. HSA 16612 ( | 20,1.42). Plate XXXILT, 10
(c) . * IN*DINMECCArHVCP Reverse as (a).
1. Ferreira, no. 66 (1.13).
(cc). *H*PIN/////E6ICArHVR Cross on3steps.(.) beneath.
Legend as (a).
(d) . As (a), but ^ above scepter. Reverse as (a).
* IN*PiNM"E6ICAIHVTR
1. HSA 16012 (-<-20,1.51). PLATEXXXin.il
2. Heiss, no. 19* ("Cab. de Madrid")2 (1.46).
(e) . Obverse as (d). Reverse as (a).
* IN*D INN-ECICA VTR-
1. Ferreira, no. 64 (1.52).
(f) . Obverse as (d). Reverse as (a).
* N*PINM-E6ICArHVTR
1. HSA 16611 (| 19,1.39, cracked). Plate XXXI11, 12
(g) . Obverse as (d). Reverse as (a).
* N*PIN///////6ICAfHVTR-
1. HSA 16618 (\ 20,1.43). Plate XXXIL1, 13
1 Apparently no point between N and M on obverse.
a Not in Madrid.
CARTHAGINENSIS 397
(h). Obverse as (d). Reverse as (a).
* IN*PIN-M-E6-|CAIHVR
1. HSA 16011 (/20.1.55). Plate XXXIII, 14
2. Florez, p. 274* (Velasco)1 = Masdeu, p. 33.
(i). Obverse as (d). Reverse as (a).
* N*PIN-M-E(J1CA(HVR
1. HSA 16609 ( 1 19,1.53). Plate XXXIV, 1
2. Stockholm (unknown provenance) = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 55* (1.55).
3. Madrid,no. 157*(Abusejo hoard)2 = Adquisicionesen 1932,
pi. 11,5* (1.40).
4. VQR no. 5190.
(j). Obverse as (d). Reverse as (a).
* N*PINM-E6ICArHVR-
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4669 = Campaner, 1866, no.
11 = Heiss, no. 20a = Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo, no. 54*
(1.41).
2. Velazquez, no. 122* (Leyrens)8 = Gusseme, III, p. 110,
no. 3.
(k). Obverse as (d). Cross on 3 steps. beneath.
* H*PINMEGICAfHVR Legend as (a).
1. HSA 16628 (S 21,1.57). Plate XXXTV, 2
(1). Similar to (d), details lacking.
1. Ferreira, no. 65 (1.54).
(m). Similar to (a)-(l), details lacking or unreliable.
1. Florez, p. 276.4
2. O'Crouley, p. 384.
3. Mateu y Llopis, Ampurias 1948, p. 439 (specimen publish-
ed by Elias Garcia).
4. Molder, May 1950, no. 408.4
TypeF
438. Facing bust. Type Ilk. Cross on 3 steps.
* IDNMHEtflCAfH * TOLETOPIVS
1. HSA 16634 ( f 20,1.57). Plate XXXTV, 3
1 Minor differences in obverse legend, but probably as here.
* Obverse transcription not accurate; apparently as given here.
8 Obverse legend misunderstood; probably as here. Apparently not in the
Madrid collection when the catalogue was prepared.
* With (.) beneath reverse.
398 EGICA
BAETICA
A. Cordoba.
Type A
439(a). Bust, right, bearded; cross
on helmet. Type 2 o.
* IND-IN-ME-E6ICArH
1. HSA 16592 ( / 21,1.45).
(b). Obverse similar to (a), but
unbearded and lacking cross
on helmet. Type 2 p.
* IND:IN:M:EEcrlCA(H
Cross on 3 steps. Pellet be-
neath and at either side.
*CORDOBAPATRICIA
Plate XXXIV, 4
Reverse as (a), but : at
either side.
1. Florez, p. 277* (Nava) = Giisseme, III, p. 110, no. 5 =
Heiss, no. 3*.
2. Ferreira, no. 68 = ( ?) Fernandez-Guerra, pi. II* (1.36).1
Type B
440(a). Bust, right, bearded, holding
cruciform scepter in hand.
Type 2ii.
* IND E N ME ECICAfH
1. HSA 16585 ( \ 21,1.50).
(b) . * INDINMEEClCArH
1. HSA 16586^ (21,1.42).
(c) . * IND-INMEEtflCAFH
1. BM no. 43 (acquired 1863)
Cross on 3 steps. at either
side.
* CORDOBAPATRICIA
Plate XXXIV, 5
Reverse as (a).
Plate XXXIV, 6
Reverse as (a).
Heiss, no. 2* ( \ 21,1.42).
B. Eliberri.
441(a). Facing bust. Type 11e.
* I-D-N-N-E6ICAR
Cross on 3 steps. at either
side.
* ELIPERRIPIVS
1. VQR no. 5179 = Meynaerts, no. 85 = Campaner, 1866,
no. 3 = Heiss, no. 4* (1.45).
2. Inst.deValencia.no. 120* (obv. legend not clear in plate).
1 See the note under No. 262 (e). The illustration in Fernandez-Guerra suits
the Ferreira specimen, and there was no similar coin in the Madrid collection
when the catalogue was compiled.
BAETICA
399
(1>). * I D II II-EtflCAW * ELIBERRIPIVS
1. Madrid, no. 176*1 = Campaner, 1866, no. 3.
(c). Probably similar to (a)-(b), description inadequate.
1. O'Crouley, p. 384.
2. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Coll. Nieport, Oporto).
C. Ispali.
Type A
2(a). Bust, right. Type 2 b. Cross on 3 steps.
* l A INMEJICAIH2 * *ISPALIP1VS3
1. HSA 16606 (/20,1.63).* Plate XXXIV, 7
2. Madrid, no. 232* = Adquisicionea en 1932, pi. 11,2*
(1.55s).
3. VQR no. 5183 = Heiss, no. 9* (1.34).
4. Florez, p. 277*.*
5. Inst, de Valencia, nos. 119* and 122* (obv. of a coin of
Toleto confused in plate with an Ispali reverse.)
(b) . Obverse as (a). Cross on 3 steps. Pellet be-
neath and O at either side.
Legend as (a).
1. HSA 16599 ( f 21,1.57). Plate XXXTV, 8
2. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4633 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 61*7 (1.46).
3. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4666 = Campaner, 1866, no.
7 = Heiss, no. lla8 - Mateu y Llopis, Estocolmo, no.
no. 62 (1.49).
4. Velazquez, no. 124* (Infantas) = Gusseme, III, p. 110,
no. 6 = Heiss, no. 10*.
(c) . Obverse as (a). Cross on 3 steps. Pellet be-
neath. S at left, 2 at right.
* * ISPALIPIAS
1 Although they may be present, the oblique bars of N and M are not visible
n the plate.
2 Some differences in the placing and number of points.
3 The number of points in the star varies from 5 to 7.
* C) and C transposed.
s Weight given as 1.3 in Adguiaiciones.
I'A'IN-M-E, etc.
'Wrongly numbered L. 4662.
8 Not II SPA LI as publishedi
400 EGICA
I
1. HSA 15999 (and 16594) ( N 20,1.40, broken, segment
lacking).1
2. Madrid, no. 233* = Campaner, 1866, no. 5 (1.30).
(d). * L AINNE6 ICAPt Cross on 3 steps, f ateitte
side.
* ISPALIPIVS
1. VQR no. 5182 = Campaner, 1866, no. 6 = Heiss, no. 8*
(1.43).
2. Mateu y Llopis, HaUazgos V, p. 71 (Soc. Martins Sarmen-
to, Guimaraes).
Type B
443. Bust, right, with cruciform Cross on 3steps...bieaU
scepter in hand. Type 2 jj
(obscure).
* I A INME6ICAfH * * ISPALIPIVS
1. Madrid, no. 234* = Velazquez, no. 125* (Burriel) =
Gusseme, III, p. 110, no. 8 - Heiss, no. 11* = Beltran,
pp. 437-83 (1.50).
Type C
444(a). Facing bust. Type lip. Cross on 3 steps, f at eitte
side.
* I-A INMECICA'H * * ISPALIPIAS (fegeti
begins at 6 o'clock)
1. HSA 16635 (ex Cervera) (/21,1.46). Plate XXXff,'
(b). Obverse as (a). Reverse as (a).
Legend: *ISPALIPIVS
1. Johns Hopkins (Schulman, 1922) (21,1.45). Plate XXXIV. i
I was at first inclined to consider the HSA coin a forgery because s
(a) its exceptional type, (b) the curious symbols on the reverse andtl-
1 This coin, broken into one large and one small fragment, was inventori^
in the HSA under separate numbers. The star and IS at the beginning oft*
reverse legend on the small fragment were sufficient to identify it as belong
to the larger piece.
2 First part of the legend very obscure.
3 Beltran is correct in observing that the drawing in Velazquez and cof*
by Heiss is a "dibujo incorrecto de una moneda legitima" and that it **'
copied by later forgers. The true appearance of the coin is evident in the Ma&*
photograph.
LUSITANIA
401
position at which the reverse legend begins, and (c) apparent traces of
filing. The acquisition of a photograph of the very similar Johns
Hopkins specimen, however, with different obverse and reverse dies,
placed the matter in a different light. Had the Johns Hopkins dies
been the same as those of the HSA specimen, my suspicions
.would have been confirmed and I would have had little hesitation in
pronouncing them both forgeries. But there is almost no instance of
counterfeiters of Visigothic coins making more than one set of dies for
nearly identical issues. In fact the existence of two sets of dies is a
fairly reliable indication of authenticity, and in the circumstances the
objections mentioned above can be reconsidered: (a) types at all mints
under Egica are various and unpredictable, and in view of other
strange creations of this period there is nothing per se impossible in
the bust here; (b) the symbols are indeed strange and appear as if
upside down, but if one reverses the position of the coin the symbols
take on a more conventional appearance and the legend begins at the
usual place (but this, of course, puts the cross and steps upside down,
so an aberration remains); (c) apparent filing is present on many
genuine specimens of this period.
LUSITANIA
A. Egitania.
445(a). Bust, right, with cruciform Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
scepter in hand. Type 2 jj either side, beneath arms.
(obscure).
* l-D-N-MN-Eo-lCAW * E6ITANIAPIVS
1. Lisbon, no. 17* (1.51).
(b). Bust, right. Type 2 p. Cross on 3 steps.
* IND-IN-M NEECICArH * EtflTANIAPIVS
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 124* (Abusejo) = Elias Garcia,
Lusitdnia, no. 133.
B. Elvora.
446. Bust, right, with cruciform
scepter in hand. Type?
* ENMNEGICAREX
* PIVSELBORA
Cross on 3 steps.
28 Visigoth
402 EGICA
1.-2. Severim, pp. 162-3* = Florez, p. 178 = Campaner,
p. 219, note 1 = Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 109.
The transcriptions cannot be considered reliable, but I see no in-
herent reason for suspecting the coins as Florez did; probably the
drawings were simply inaccurate. Among other things Florez objected
to the B in the mint-name, and he revised the letter to V. But see the
issue of Reccared at ERBORA (No. 91), and the monograms under
Egica & Wittiza.
C. Emerita.
Type, A
447. Bust, right. Type 2 n. Cross on 4 steps, middle two
joined by vertical bars.
* I-D-H-M-N-EtflCAfH * EMERITAPIVS
1. HSA 16593 (ex Cervera) ( f 20,1.40). Plate XXXIV, 11
2. Inst.deValencia.no. 123*.
Type B
448(a). Bust, right. Type 2 p. Cross on 3 steps.
* IND-IN H-NEE(jlCAfH * EMERITAPIVS
1. Grierson Coll., no. 7891 (ex Bute Coll., Sotheby, 7 May
1951, no. 119)1 ( | 1.38).
(b). * I-D-MH-H-E6ICAW Reverse as (a).
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 121*.
Type C
449(a). Bust, right. Type 2 i. Cross on 3 steps.
* I-D-N-M-N-E6ICAfH * EMERITAPIVS
1. HSA 16597 (/20,1.45). Plate XXXIV, 12
2. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4662 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmc, no. 63*2 (1.44).
3. Reinhart Coll., no. 71 (1.34).
4. VQR no. 5180 = ( ?) Piot, 1850, no. 17* = Meynaerts,
no. 84 = Campaner, 1866, no. 4.3
1 Wrongly attributed to Chindasvinth.
2 Wrongly numbered L. 4663.
3 The Meynaerts-Campaner references may be to a different coin in view of
the strange description of the reverse ("croix posee sur un X; dessous une
barre"), but I suspect a misunderstanding. Perhaps the two upper steps are
joined by a vertical bar, forming an "X".
LUSITANIA
403
5. Ferreira, no. 63 (1.31).
6. Carles-Tolra, no. 1019* (1.50).
7. Florez, p. 278* [misprinted 178] (R. Bib. de Madrid) =
Gusseme, III, p. 110. no. 7 = Heiss, no. 6*.1
(b). Obverse as (a). Reverse as (a), but pellet
beneath steps.
1. Madrid, no. 287* (1.48).
2. Madrid, no. 288*(1.33).'
Type A, B, or C
450. Descriptions inadequate.
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, p. 71 (Museo de Belem,
Lisbon).
2. Reinhart Coll., no. 71 bis (1.43).
3. Lonja del Almidn, no. 700.
4. Hoffmann, 1886, no. 35 (4 steps).
5. Molder, Sept. 1848, no. 175 = (J) ibid., Oct. 1948, no.
234.
6. -8. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 83 (Guilhermina, no.1238,
Coll. Antnio Marrocos, Coll. Elias Garcia).
Type D
451. Facing bust. Type 11 j. Cross on 3 steps.
* IND-INM////N//////E6ICAIH * EMERITAPIVS
1. Heiss, no. 5* (Stroganoff) = Madrid, p. 348*.
2. Inst, de Valencia, nos. 113* and 122* (obv. of a coin of
Ispali confused in the plate with an Emerita reverse)
= Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 84.
D. Salmantica.
452. Facing bust (or cross ?). Cross on 3 steps.
Type 11 f.
*|-D-H-N-N-EOICA(H * SALH-ATICA-IS-II-
1. Florez, p. 279* (Caballero y Gongora) = Gusseme, HI,
p. 110, no. 9 = Masdeu, p. 341 = Heiss, no. 15* = Bel- tran, pp. 439-40.3
1 Not in the Madrid collection in 1936?
1 Two lower steps joined by a vertical bar.
3 Beltran's discussion confuses the Salmantica coin of Ervig and the for-
geries copied from it with the similar original and copies here. At all events, as
in the other case, the coin described by Florez is the only genuine one, and the
legends as well as the obverse type must remain uncertain until another genuine
specimen is found. Reinhart does not list Salmantica as a mint under Egica,
perhaps because he considers the piece described by Florez to be a forgery, or,
possibly, because of an error in tabulation.
404 EGICA
GALLAECIA
A. Bracara.
453. Bust ("Cara que parece hidria Cross on steps.
antigua").
* I-DINM-EGICA1HVCTR * BRACARAPIVS
1. Augustin, p. 326 = Velazquez, no. 126 = Florez, p. 279
= Gusseme, III, p. 110, no. 10 = Heiss, no. la.
B. Tude.
453(X).Bust, right, holding cruciform Cross on 3 s"teps. Pellet
scepter. Type 2 gg. at either side.
* N-///P///HE6ICArHVCT(?)1 * TVDEPIVw
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 125*.
1 The legend is undoubtedly clear on the coin itself, but I cannot read it
all in the half-tone plate.
SUNIEFRED
Ca. a.d. 692-693
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Toleto.
54. Bust, right, with cruciform Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
scepter in hand. Type 2 gg. either side and.... beneath.
Pellet above scepter.
* D NESVNIEFREDVS * TOLETOPIVS
1. Engel, 1898, p. 125*1 Cirot, p. 168 = Mowat, p. 102* =
Madrid, p. 290* = Menendez Pidal, p. 122 = Beltran,
Ampurias 1941, p. 103* (1.25). Plate XXXIV, 13
1 Translated into Spanish in La Andahteia Moderna, Sevilla, Dec. 18, 1898
(cf. Beltran, loc. cit., p. 102, note 1; Mowat, loc. tit.
JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WITTIZA
Ca. a.D. 698-702
NARBONENSIS
A. Narbona.
Type A
455(a). Scepter between confronting
busts. Type 13 a.
* IDNME6ICArHRES:1
1. HSA 16647 (| 21,1.43).* Plate XXXV, 1
2. BM no. 47 (De Salis) = (probably) Piot, 1850, no.19*
= Meynaerts, no. 88 = Heiss, no. 14a = Robert, no. 30
( t20,1.18).3
(b) . * IDNMEtflCAWRES* * VVITTIZArHREC: I
1. HSA 16590 ( \ 20,1.41). Plate XXXV, 2
(c) . * IDNME6ICArHRE^S * l-DNVVITTIZAft-R:
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4672' - Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 64* (1.44).
(d) . * IDN M-ECICArHRE6- * VVITTIZArH RE6
1. Madrid, no. 82* = Campaner, 1866, no. 15 (1.47).
2. Madrid, no. 83* (Abusejo hoard) = Adgwisicionea en 1932,
pi. III, 10* = Mateu y Llopis, Hispania Tarraconense,
pi. I, 1* (1.45).
(e) . * IDNM-E6 ICAfHRE Reverse as (d).
1. HSA 16626 (| 20,1.48). Plate XXXV, 3
1 M frequently malformed in this and the following issues.
! There was one specimen of this type in the Cervera collection.
3 The transcriptions in Meynaerts and Piot (and the drawing in the latter)
do not exactly conform, but there can be little doubt that these references are
to the piece later acquired by the BM. The S at the end of the reverse legend
is very obscure. Beltran (p. 414) is in error in stating that the BM specimen is
not of Narbona but of Elvora.
4 incomplete.
5 Incorrectly transcribed.
Monogram:
* VVITTIZArHREjS
NARBONENSIS 407
(I). * IDN-M-E6ICArHRE- Reverse as (d).
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 46731 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 65* (1.31).
(g) . * -IDN-H-E<JICA(HR-E" Reverse as (d).
1. Cabinet des Medailles = Heiss, no. 14* = Robert, no.
29* = Belfort, no. 3170* = Amardel, RN 1901, no. 1
bis * (1.56).*
(h) . * IDNM E JICArHRE Reverse as (d).
1. Belfort.no. 3168* (D'Amecourt) = Amardel, RN 1901,
no.l *s = Blanchet, p. 188, fig. 164* (1.40).
(i) . As (d)-(h), exact lettering?
1. Inst, de Valencia, 127*.
Type B
A
456(a). Scepter between confronting Monogram: NO]
busts. Type 13 b.
* I DN-N-MECICAW * VVITTIZArH R6
1. VQR no. 5205 = Heiss, no. 12M
2. VQR, no. 5206 = Boudard, p. 348 = Campaner, 1866,
no. 16 = Heiss, no. 13* = Robert, no. 28* = Belfort,
no. 3169* (1.54).
3. Inst, de Valencia, no. 126*.
(b). * I-D-N-N MECICA1HR5 * VVITTIZAfHRC
1. Ferreira, no. 70 (1.15).
Type A or B
457(a). |-D-I:MN-EGICAPE8 VVITTIZAN:R
1. Augustin, p. 241 = Velazquez, no. 129 = (?) Florez,
p. 287" = Gusseme, HI, p. I11, no. 14, VI, p. 618, no. 5.
1 Incorrectly transcribed.
2 My recording of the legends differs in some respects from Heiss, etc.; the
transcriptions above are mine.
3 Amardel assigns another piece to VQR, -which would be VQR no. 5207,
but the latter is actually a coin of Toleto.
* Wrongly assigned to Ispali.
5 Transcriptions probably not wholly reliable.
6 This is possibly the piece referred to by Beltran, p. 414, as being a mis-
attributed specimen of Elvora. Beltran refers to Florez, p. 153, but this reference
is obviously mistaken.
408
JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WITTIZA
(b). Description lacking.
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hailazgos VI, no. 415 (Coll. Facultad de
Filosofia y Letras de la Univ. de Santiago).
For coins of Elvora improperly attributed to Narbona, see p. 426.
TARRACONENSIS
A. Barcinona.
Type A
458(a). Scepter between confronting Monogram:
busts. Type 13 c.
* D-N-M-HEGICApt R GS1 * VVITTIZAFH-REGS
1. Carreras y Candi, p. 147*1 - Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona,
no. 24* (Botet, Rev. d'Hist. et a"Arch, de RoussUlon, 1900,
pp. 129-33).
rj
(b) . * -lt5-H-N-N-E6ICArH Monogram: X o
* VVITTIZAWR-6S
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 132* = Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona,
no. 25*.
(c) . * -NP-N-NE-E6ICAfHC;s Monogram as (b).*
* VVITTIZAPHR:<;
1. Soares, no. 1.744, p. 132* = Mateu y Llopis, Hailazgos V,
p. 70 (1.06).s
Type B
D
459. Scepter between confronting Monogram:
busts. Type 13 c. N
* VVITTIZArHRE6:S * N5NMNEJ :CAfHR<TS
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 155* = Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, no. 26*.
1 Because of the illegibility of the plate in Barcelona, I have had to rely
largely on the transcriptions.
2 Monogram incorrectly represented on p. 150.
3 The legends of both obv. and rev. are not entirely clear in the plate, and
these transcriptions may not be accurate.
4 Possibly A instead of R at right.
5 This specimen mistakenly attributed to Narbona by Barros ("prata
dourada").
TARRACONENSIS 409
B. Cesaragusta.
460(a). Scepter between confronting Monogram:
busts. Type 13 d.1
* I-D-N-H-EfflCArH:1 * VVITTISAFHRE:
1. HSA 16644 ( f 21,1.54). Plate XXXV, 4
(b) . * I-D-N-M-E6ICArH: * VVITTIZAfH R:3
1. Madrid, no. 103* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. II, 1* (1.40).
2. Cabinet des Medailles = Heiss, no. 2*4 (1.36).
3. Velazquez, no. 130* (Infantas) = Gusseme, III, p. IIl,
no. 15, VI, p. 618, no. 3.
(c) . * I-D-N-M-EtflCAfH Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 102* (Abusejo hoard) - Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. n, 10* (1.30).
(d) . * IPNME6 ICAFH5 * VVITTIZ-A-fH*
1. Madrid, no. 101* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. II, 9* (1.30).
(e) . * IDIIIIEGICArH * VVITTISAfH*
1. HSA 16643 ^ (19,1.33). Plate XXXV, 5
(f) . * I-D-N-M-E6ICAFH R Monogram as (a), but pellet
in each quarter.
* VVITTIZAPfR-.-
1. Madrid, no. 100*" = Oampaner, 1866, no. 1 (1.36).
(g) . Similar to (a)-(f), but legends uncertain.
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoe V, p. 70 (Dr. Brandao) = ibid.,
no. 306.
2. -3. Inst, de Valencia, nos. 130*-131* (legends not entirely clear in
plate).
(h) . * IDNMEtf ICAfH Monogram:
* VVITTIZ-A-IH
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 74 (1.25).
1 Considerable variety in this exceedingly crude type.
1 N and M(H) here and below frequently imperfect.
3 The oblique stroke of the Z varies in direction.
* By error assigned to "C. M." (Cabinet de Madrid) instead of "C. F." (Ca-
binet de France).
* Legends scarcely legible in the plates. I have adopted Mateu's transcriptions
with some corrections.
'The transcription in Madrid differs from what the plate appears to show.
410 JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WITTIZA
C. Gerunda.
Type A
461(a). Scepter between confronting Monogram: o( iZ/J
busts. Type 13 c. N
* -N)-N-M-N-EClCA(H R-JS * VVITTIZAFHR-6S
1. BM no. 45* (De Salis) = Heiss, no. 6*1 = Botet y Sis6,
Gerona, p. 224* = Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, no. 12* ( f 21,1.15).
Plate XXXV, 6
(b) . * -HP NMNE6 ICAtHR-6: * VVITTIZAfH RE6S
1. VQR no. 5198 = Pujol y Camps, p. 191, no. 6 = Cam-
paner, 1866, no. 8 = Heiss, no. 7* = Mateu y Llopis,
Gerona, no. 13 (1.34).
(c) . fcNvN-M-N-EtflCArH-C:2 * VVITTIZAfHR6:
1. VQR no. 5200 = Pujol y Camps, p. 191, no. 4 = Heiss,
no. 8* = Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, nos. 14 and 16 (two
entries for same specimen) (1.35).
2. Berlin, no. 62 ("L. Hamburger, XI, 1926").
(d) . Obverse as (c). * VVITTIZArHR"6 S
1. Stuttgart, no. 1384. Plate XXXV, 7
(e) . *N>-N-M-N-E6ICAiH-cT: * VVITTIZAfH-^:
1. Florez, p. 286*.3
(f) . *-N>-N-H-N-E6[CAPIC: * VVITTIZAfH R-S"
1. Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, no. 18* (Abusejo hoard).
(g) . * R>-N-H-N-EJICAfH-6: Reverse as (e).
1. VQR no. 5199 = Pujol y Camps, p. 191, no. 5 = Cam-
paner, 1866, no. 10 = Heiss, no. 9* = Mateu y LlopLs,
Gerona, no. 15 (1.10).
(h) . As (a), but * beneath each Monogram faulty?
bust.
* Hs-H-H-H-E6 ICAfH: Reverse as (d).
1. Trait, fig. 126*.
1 Heiss has "M. R." for the location of this specimen; that this is an error
for "M.B." = "Musee Britannique" is evident by comparison of the Heiss
drawing and the BM plaster-cast in my possession.
! My transcriptions from the VQR coin, differing from previous versions.
3 Incorrectly attributed to Cesaragusta, as noted by Beltran, p. 404.
TAKRACONENSIS
411
(i). *-Hs-N-M-N-EcTICA[HR S- * VVITTIZAFHR6S
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 128* = ( ?) Mateu y Llopis, Hia-
pania Tarraconense pi. II, 23* = idem, Qerona, no. 17*
(Abusejo hoard).
Type B
2(a). Scepter between confronting
busts. Type 13 g.
* H>NHHE<JlCA(HrHC
1. HSA 16648 (], 19, fragmentary).
(b). *NbN-M-NE(JICArH:
1. Cabinet des Medailles.
Type C
S3 (a). Facing bust. Type lib. Monogram as Type A.
* -Nb-N-N-N-EtflCAIH RCT: * VVITTIZAP+ REGIS
1. BM no. 46 (acquired 1856) = Heiss, no. 10* = Botet y
Sis6, Qerona, p. 224* = Mateu y Llopis, Qerona, no. 20
(f 20,1.35). Plate XXXV, 9
2. VQR no. 5201 = Meynaerts, RNB 1852, pi. IX, l*1 =
Campaner, 1866, no. 9 = Heiss, p. 158.
3. Mateu y Llopis, HaUazgos VI, no. 411 (found near Vendas
Novas, Portugal) (1.32).2
(b). Obverse as (a); legend? * VVITTIZA11*R <JIS
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 129* = Mateu y Llopis, Qerona,
no. 19* (Abusejo hoard).
Uncertain Type
464. Description, or full details, lacking.
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 79 (1.27).3
2. -3. Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, p. 51, note 6 (2 specimens
in Museo Episcopal de Vich).
1 Mint wrongly identified as Lerida.
2 Legends transcribed: -ND'N-NMEJICA and VVITTIZArHR.
3 Full description lacking, but compared to Heiss, no. 10.
Monogram as Type A.
* VVITTIZArHRCTS
Plate XXXV. 8
* VVITTIZAFHR-tf-S
412
JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WITTIZA
D. Tarracona.
r
465(a). Scepter between confronting Monogram: 30>
busts. Type 13 c.
* INP N N-E-E6ICAf4R C * VVITTISAfH R-6-
1. Florez, p. 285* = Espana Sagrada, vol. 24, p. 341 =
Gusseme, III, p. HI, nos. 12 & 19, VI, p. 619, no. 10 =
Masdeu, p. 35, = Heiss, no. 15* = Botet y Sis6, Noticia,
pi. V, 31* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, nos. 84, 86 and
87 (three entries for same specimen).
(b). * /////////-H-H-EtflCArHR-tf- Reverse as (a).
1. Cahn, Apr. 1933, no. 2167* (1.24, frg. lacking).
(e). Scepter between confronting Reverse as (a),
busts. Type 13 a.1
*NPN-M-E6ICArHR-6-S * VVITTISAW R6S
1. Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 85* (Gab. Num. de Ca-
taluna, no. 9989) (1.43).*
(d). Probably similar to (a)-(c). Description lacking.
1. Botet y Sis6,I, p. LXXXI (Bosch Alsina) = (?) Mateu
y Llopis, Barcelona, p. 51, note 6 (Museo Episcopal de
Vich) = Hallazgoa V, no. 305.
E. Yalentia.
466. Scepter between confronting Monogram: apparently Ft*
busts. Type 13 f, variation.
* IDEIHHNEtflCAN * VVITTISAPtREdS
1. VQR no. 5209* = Oampaner, p. 220, note 5 = Engel,
1893, p. 92, no. 8* = Martinez Aloy, p. 347 = Mateu y
Llopis, Hallazgoa V, p. 70. Plate XXXV, 10
The identification of the mint-monogram has been disputed. The
reproduction above is drawn from the coin itself, and while the L is
a little doubtful, the other three letters are clear, and I believe there
can be little doubt that "Valentia" is intended. The versions of the
monogram in VQR and Engel do not conform with what I see on the
1 Apparently without cross-hatching in the rectangular lower bust.
2 The above transcriptions are only partly based on the plate, which is
scarcely legible; for part of both legends, the published transcriptions are
adopted, I have guessed at the form of the initial ligature on the obverse.
CARTHAGINENSIS
413
coin, and Campaner gave a makeshift and erroneous form. Engel
suggested "Navia," for the Flavia Navia of Pliny and Ptolemy.
Mateu y Llopis argues convincingly for Valentia as the correct
reading. In Reinhart's table the mint does not figure under Egica &
Wittiza.
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Mentesa.
H
467(a). Scepter between confronting Monogram: ft IB
busts. Type 13l.
I N-M-N-M-EGICA/R * [INMNE] i VVTTZA+ -
1. Madrid, no. 164* = Campaner, 1866, no. 14 = Heiss, no.
12 (0.87).1
M
(b) . As (a), but/r at left, at right. Monogram: IH*
*IIIDIIIIIIIIEtflCAlH fclHDIHEVVlTTSAR
1. HSA 16654 (ex Cervera) ( | 21,1.15). Plate XXXV, 11
(c) . Scepter between confronting Monogram: c4*e
busts. Type 13 h. 'rlr
*IPINMEJCAPXRE<JS *VVITTI ZAPXRE(~
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 84 = Reinhart, 1937, pi. XXXVII,
29* (1.31).
(d) . Scepter between confronting Monogram: $-f-p
busts. Type 13 d, variation. N
*IMNME6CAHXrH *VVITTIZAREXREQS
1. Heiss, no. 12d* (Dos Santos).
(e) . Scepter between confronting Monogram: m |
busts. Type 13 k, variation.
*IPIHMEI6CArHRE2 *VVITTISArHREc; ES
1. Berlin, no. 65 ("L. Hamburger, XI, 1926"). Plate XXXV, 12
1 The legends are given as transcribed by Mateu; they are not legible in the
plate. The earlier transcriptions do not conform in several respects, but
doubtless both Campaner and Heiss refer to this specimen.
414 JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WITTIZA
(f) . As (a)-(e), exact type unknown. Monogram: probably as (d).
*IDINME6CAA+R? *VVITTIZARE+REq-S
1. Ferreira, no. 69 (1.35).
(g) . Obverse type 13 j. Legend? Monogram as (a), but letter
at left inverted. Legend
as (f)?
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 154*.
B. Toleto.
Type A
468(a). Scepter between confronting Monogram:
busts. Type 13 f.1
*INDNMNE6ICArH2 *VVITTISArHRE<JS
1. HSA 16588 ( f 20,1.45). Plate XXXV, 13
2. HSA 16622 (\20,1.27).
3. VQR no. 5208 = Heiss, no-. 16* (1.31).3
(b) . *INDINM NE6ICAfH Reverse as (a).
1. VQR, no. 5207.*
(c) . Obverse as (a). *VVITTISArHRES
1. Madrid, no. 160* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. IV, 1* (1.55)s.
(d) . * INDINNE6ICArH * VVITTIZArHRE6ia
1. Grierson Coll., no. 1080 = Shore Sale, no. 621* (/20.1.46).
Plate XXXV, 14
(dd). As (a)-(d), legends uncertain.
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 145*.
(e) . * INDINMEJICApt Monogram:
* VVITTlAZrH6
1. Madrid, no. 162* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisidones en 1932, pi. IV, 3* (1.307).
1 The heads are sometimes bald, sometimes provided with hair. In common
the busts have three parallel "legs" at the bottom.
2 N and M frequently imperfect.
3 Point after M?
4 Wrongly assigned to Narbona.
5 Weight given as 1.4 in Adquisiciones.
* Evidently; plate not wholly legible.
7 Weight given as 1.5 in Adquisiciones.
CARTHAGINENSIS 415
(I). Obverse as (a), but (H Reverse as (e).
incomplete. Legend: * VVITTISAPi RcJS
1. Canessa, no. 153*.
(g) . * INDINME6ICArH1 Monogram:
* VVITTISAfH +
1. Madrid, no. 163* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. IV, 4* (1.50).
(gg). Apparently as (g), but reverse legend as (a).
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 147*.
(h) . Scepter between confronting Monogram:
busts. Type 13 k. * beneath
each figure. \^ in upper left quarter.
* INDINNEtflCAFH... ?2 * VVITTISAfH...?
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 146* = Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 21*.
(i) . Obverse as (h), but without Reverse aa (h), but with
stars. (?) hi upper left quarter,
. in lower right.
* INDIMI EG IA (H (so trans- * VVITTIZAfH (evidently)
cribed)
1. Madrid, no. 161* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. IV, 2* (1.403).
(j). Obverse as (i). Monogram: evidently
* in upper right quarter.
* INDINNE6ICAR- * VVITIZArHREJIS(?)
1. Stuttgart, no. 1386. Plate XXXVI, I
(k). Scepter between confronting Monogram: !*+*
busts. Type 13 k, variation. . , _ *
. in lower left and lower
right quarters.
* INDNMNEI6CAFH * VVITTISArH
1. Teixeira, no. 352 = ( ?) Heiss, no. 17* (King of Portugal).4
1 Thus apparently in the plate; the transcriptions differ in the text.
* The legends are not entirely clear in the plate, and there are no transcrip-
tions.
3 Weight given as 1.3 in Adquisiciones.
4 Teixeira's probably inaccurate description differs from Heiss' drawing in
several respects, but the references are almost certainly to the same coin.
416 JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WITTIZA
Type B
469. Scepter between confronting Monogram surrounded by
busts. Type 13 f, variation.
beaded circle: ~
* INDINNE6ICAfH * VVITISAFHREC21
1. Florez, p. 281*1 = Masdeu, p. 34 = Heiss, no. 18*.
Uncertain Type
470. Busts not illustrated, legends inadequately or inaccurately
described, with the following monograms :3
1. Augustin, p. 301 = Velazquez, no. 128 = Giisseme, iII,
p. I11, no. 13, VI, p. 618, no. 7.
2. Florez, p. 283.
3. -4. Ferreira, nos. 72-73 (1.50, 1.55).
5. Reinhart Coll., no. 82 (1.30).*
6. Inst, de Valencia, no. 148* (plate not clear).
BAETICA
A. Cordoba.
Type A
471(a). Scepter between confronting Monogram:
busts. Type 13 f.... beneath.
. in upper right quarter.
* IDINMNEGICAfH * IDINMEVVITTISAfH
1. VQR no. 5194 = Campaner, 1866, no. 3 = Heiss, no. 3* (1.58).
1 rH anomalous in form.
s Florez describes the coin as silver; probably, like most of the period, very-
base gold.
3 These renditions must be accepted with reserve. Among other considera-
tions, it is possible that some of the monograms have been read with the coin
held in a position so that the reverse begins at 3, 6 or 9 o'clock instead of the
usual 12 o'clock.
* IN DINMEGICAR and VVITTIZAD + REC+.
BAETICA 417
(b). * INDINMNEE6ICAFH Monogram:
* IDINMEVVITTISAfH
(or R)
1. Madrid, no. 201* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. II, 7* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. IV, 5*
(1.30).
2. Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. IV, 4* (unknown prove-
nance).
3. Inst, de Valencia, no. 137* = Cordoba pi. IV, 6* (Abusejo
hoard).
4. VQR, no. 5195.
(c) . * INDINMNEE6ICAR Monogram as (b).
* IDINMEVVITTISAR
1. Madrid, no. 200* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisieiones en
1932, pi. II, 6* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. IV, 3*
(1.45).
2. Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. IV, 7* (Abusejo hoard).
Pf
(d) . Obverse similar to (a), but Monogram: <J-
beneath. fc^C
in lower right quarter.
*INDINMEE<SICArH *INDINMEVVITTISAR
1. HSA 16625 (ex Cervera) (4-21,1.50). Plate XXXVI, 2
2. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4671 = Campaner, 1866, no. 2
= Campaner, p. 219, note 2 = Heiss, no. 4a = Mateu y
Llopis, Cordoba, p. 60 = idem, Estocolmo, no. 66* (1.51).
(e) . Similar to above, but full details lacking.
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 76 (1.25).
Type B
472. Scepter between confronting Cross, within circular legend:
busts.Type 13f..above each * C O RD O B A P
bust. Surrounded by beaded All surrounded by beaded
circle. circle.
* INDINMNEEtflCAPt * INDINMEVVITTISAP+
1. Copenhagen, no. 29 = Heiss, no. 4* = Thomsen, no.
1116 = TraiU, fig. 127*1 (1.44). Plate XXXVI, 3
2. Florez, p. 284*.a
3. Inst, de Valencia, no. 136* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. IV, 11*
(Abusejo hoard).
1 Differences in engraving.
* Described as "silver."
-7 Visigoth
418 JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WITTIZA
TypeC1
473(a). Scepter between facing busts.
Type 13 n.
beneath.
*INDINMNE6ICArH * IDINMNEVVITTlSArH
1. HSA 16629 (/21,1.37). Plate XXXVI, 4
2. Stuttgart.no. 1385.*
3. Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 20* (location ?).
4. Berlin, no. 64 ("L. Hamburger, XI, 1926").
(b). Entirely as (a), but obv. legend: * INDINMNEEJICAFH
1. Madrid, no. 202* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. II, 8* (1.50).
2. -3. Inst, de Valentia, nos. 133*-134* = Mateu y Llopis,
Cordoba, pi. IV, 8*. 9* (Abusejo hoard).
Type D
474(a). Scepter between facing busts. Monogram:
Type 13 n. Pellet beneath each
bust. Surrounded by beaded
circle.
* INDINMNEE6ICAPH * DINMNEVVITTISAR
(begins at 11 o'clock)
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 135* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba,
pi. IV, 10* (Abusejo hoard).
(b). Obverse as (a). Reverse as (a), but legend
Legend: begins at 6 o'clock:
* INDINMNEE6ICAR IDINMNEVVITTIZAFH
1. Soares, no. 1.743, p. 132* (1.46, "prata dourada").
B. Egabro.
Type A
475. Scepter between confronting within circular legend:
busts. Type 13 f. Surrounded * E6ABROPS, surround-
by beaded circle. ed by beaded circle.
1 Mateu y Llopis supposes this type with facing busts to be the earlier,
because PARC (i.e., "Patricia") is present. I do not follow the argument. In
any case, some of those with confronting busts have PA RC. Also, in Madrid,
(p. 330) Mateu has the order of the issues reversed.
* Same specimen as no. 4?
BAETICA
419
* INDINHNE6ICAEH * INDINMEVVITTISAR
1. VQR no. 5196*1 = Campaner, p. 219, note 3 = Engel,
1893, p. 93, no. 9*.
Type B
476. Obverse type not described. Monogram: (to judge by
description) g g
INDMNEEGICARX ID-NNEVVITTIZARX
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Museu de Belem, Lisbon).
C. Eliberri.
Type A
477(a). Scepter between confronting Monogram: E-i-R
busts. Type 13 f. L
Pellet in each quarter.
* I-D-N-NE6ICAR-2 * INNPNNEVVITTIZAR
1. Madrid, no. 177* = Campaner, 1866, no. 4 = Heiss, no.
4C (1.43).
(b). Obverse as (a). Monogram: t
Legend: * l-D-INM-E6ICArH Pellet in upper right and
upper left quarters.
*INNDINMEVVITTIZAR
1. VQR no. 5197*.
Type B
478(a). Confronting busts of type Monogram: E-H2
13 f, no scepter.
IPHHE6ICAIH IINMVVITISAR
1. Madrid, no. 178* = Campaner, 1866, no. 5 = Heiss, no.
4d (1.08).
1 Mint mistakenly identified as Tarrasa ( = Egara).
* The transcriptions in both Madrid and Heiss do not conform with what I
see in the plate.
17*
420 JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WITTIZA
(b) . Obverse as (a). Reverse as (a). ^ in upper
left quarter.
IPWHVVITISAfH
1. Heiss, no. 4e* (pi. XIII, 18, not 17) (Dos Santos).
(c) . Legend? Monogram as (a), but pellet
left and right, above. Leg-
end as (b)?
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 144*.
Uncertain Type
479. Type? Uncertain monogram.
*INDINETHEGICAP * VVITIZAPIRECIS
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 81 (1.37).
D. Ispali.
Type A
480(a). Scepter between confronting Monogram: S-n(
busts. Type 13 f. 1*
* lAMNMEGICArH * INHPINNEVVITTIZAfH1
1. Madrid, no. 235* = Campaner, 1866, no. 11 (1.39).
(b) . As (a), but reverse legend: * INIDINMEVVITTIZAR
1. Velazquez, no. 132* = Gusseme, III, p. I11, no. 17, VI,
p. 618, no. 6.
(c) . Obverse as (a). Monogram:
INNPINMEVVITTIZArH
1. BM no. 44 (acquired 1863) = Reinhart, Germanen-Erbe,
p. 72, no. 10* (| 20,1.44). Plate XXXVI, 5
(d). Obverse as (a). Monogram:
INIPINNEVVITTIZArH
1. HSA 16641 (| 19,1.43). Plate XXXVI, 6
2. VQR no. 5203.
3. Inst, de Valencia, no. 138*.
1 In the reverse legends N and M(H) are sometimes malformed throughout
this series.
BAETICA
421
(e). Obverse as (a).
Monogram as (d).
INPINNEVVITTIZAPt
Plate XXXVI, 7
1. HSA 16631 (/20,1.44).
2. VQR no. 5202.
3. Inst, de Valencia, no. 142*.
(I). * INPINMECICAPt
Monogram:
* INPIIIIIEVVlTTIZArH
p. 284 (Gabriel) (1.22,
1. Madrid, no. 236* = Florez,
chipped).
(g). Obverse as (a).
Monogram as (a). Above: .*.
INIPIMNEVVITISAPt
1. Madrid, no. 238* (1.32).
(h). Obverse as (a).
Monogram
apparently
Legend as (e).
1. Stuttgart, no. 1383.
(i). As (g), but reverse legend: INPINNEVVITISAPt
1. Madrid, no. 239* = Campaner, 1866, no. 13 = Cat&logo-
Gwia.pl. X, 7* (1.41).
(j). As (g), but reverse legend: * INDINMEVVITTIX-R
1. Holder, Jan. 1950, no. 311 (1.25).1
(k). Obverse as (a). Monogram as (a). Above: .\
(1). As (k), but reverse legend: INPINMEVVITTISAP4
1. Madrid, no. 241* = Florez, p. 283 (R. Biblioteca) (1.36).
2. VQR no. 5204 = Piot, 1850, no. 18 = Meynaerts, no. 87
= Heiss.no. 12* (1.36).
3. Florez, p. 283.*
1 Legends not given, but compared to Heiss, no. 12a, which is erroneously
assigned to Ispali but is actually Narbona. This, however, must be Ispali,
because Molder took his reference from Heiss.
2 In Adquisiciones the weight is given as 1.2.
Beneath: *
Legend as (i).
1. Madrid, no. 240* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. Ill, 7* [1.70].2
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 139*.
422 JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WTTTIZA
(m). * I A INHE6ICAR Reverse as (k).
* INPINHEVVITTISP
1. HSA 16642 ( \ 21,1.34). Plate XXXVI, 8
(n). Obverse as (a). Monogram as (a). Four
pellets, one in each quar-
ter. Legend as (1).
1. HSA 16623 (| 21.1.37).1 Plate XXXVI, 9
2. Madrid, no. 242 (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. m, 6* (1.40*).
(0). * INPINNE:CICAFH Reverse as (n).
* INPINNEVITISAPt
1. HSA 16632 (| 20,1.33). Plate XXXVI, 10
(p). Obverse as (a). Monogram as (a), o in lower
left and lower right quar-
ters. Legend as (l).
1. HSA 16627 ( f 21,1.39). Plate XXXVI, 11
2. Heiss, no. 12b (Acad, de la Hist.).*
(q). Obverse as (a). Monogram as (a), o in upper
left and upper right quar-
ters.
INPIMNEVVITTISAP+
1. Madrid, no. 237* = Campaner, 1866, no. 12 (1.27).
(r). Obverse as (a). Monogram as (a). \^ in up-
per left and upper right quar-
ters. Legend as (l).
1. HSA 8137 (/19.1.30). Plate XXXVI, 12
2. Copenhagen, no. 30 = Heiss, no. 11* - Thomsen, no.
1117 (1.39).
3. Fernandez-Guerra, pi. II*.*
4. Florez, p. 283* (left5) = Masdeu, p. 335.
1 According to Beltran's list, one similar to this or to HSA 16632 (below),
and one other of uncertain characteristics, were in the Cervera collection.
2 Weight given as 1.45 in Adquisiciones.
* Legends not given. To judge by Hallazgos IV, this coin is no longer in the
Academia collection.
* Not in the Madrid collection when Mateu y Llopis' catalogue was compiled.
* Described as "silver."
BAETICA
423
(s). Obverse as (a).
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 141*.
Monogram as (a), but
right and left, above.
INPINHEVVITIZAR
481(a).
Type B
Scepter between confronting
busts. Type 13 f.
(b)
(c)
Monogram within beaded
circle: $^fi
INPINMEVVITTISAfH
INPINHEVVITTISrH
* I-A-INNE6ICAR
1. Clark Collection ( f 21,1.40).
* lAINMEJlCArH
1. Madrid, no. 243* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. HI, 8* (1.301).
2. -3. Inst, de Valencia, nos. 140*, 143*.
* I-A-INHE6ICAN- INPINMEVVITTIS-fH
1. HSA 16620 (20,1.27). Plate XXXVI, 13
2. Carles-Tolra, no. 1022* (1.50).
Uncertain Type
482. Inadequate description.
1. Beinhart Coll., no. 80 (1.30).
2. Cumano, no. 1515.
E. Tucci.
483(a). Scepter between confronting
busts. Type 13 e.
*;iDINMNEE6ICArH
1. HSA 16630 ( f 21,1.10).
(b). Scepter between confronting
busts. Type 13 f.
* IDINMHEE6ICArH
Monogram:
Monogram:
Pellet in lower left and
lower right quarters.
* IDINMEVVITTISAR
Plate XXXVI, 14
Monogram as (a). ^ in lower
left and lower right quarters.
* IDINMEVVITTISAW
1. HSA 16589 (ex Cervera)
( V 19,1.22).
Campaner, p. 219, note 4
Plate XXXVII, 1
1 Weight given as 1.55 in Adquisiciones.
424
JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WITTIZA
(c) . As (b), but legends:
* INDINMNE6ICAIH
1. Carles-Tolra, no. 1023* (1.50).
2. Reinhart Coll., no. 85 (1.24).1
(d) . Scepter between confronting
busts. Type 13 f, variant.
Legend as (c)?
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 158*.
* IDINM3VVITTIZAW
Monogram as (a) but *
upper right quarter.
* IDHHVVITTISAR
LUSITANIA
A. Egitania.
484(a). Scepter between confronting Monogram:
busts. Type 13 f.
* IDINME6ICAR R6S * VVITTISAfH REG IS
1. Elias Garcia, Egitdnia, p. 22* (found at Egitania) =
idem, LusUdnia, no. 139 (Coll. Elias Garcia) (1.40).
(b). * INDNNE6ICAP Monogram:
* VVITTIZARX
1. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 134 (Museu Regional de
Castelo Branco).
(e). * INDN-NE6ICARX Reverse as (b).
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 160* (not legible in plate) = Elias
Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 135 (Abusejo hoard).
(d) . * INDNME6ICARX Monogram as (b).
* VVITTIZARE+
1. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 136 ("Coll. Reinhart").
(e) . * INDNME6ICAR Monogram as (b).
* VVITTIZAR
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 77 (1.45).
1 Are nos. 1 and 2 perhaps the same coin?
LUSITANIA
425
(I). * IND-N-ME6ICARX Monogram as (b). Ornament
resembling arrow (?) in
upper left and upper right
quarters.
+ I-NDENMEVVITTIZARX
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 161* = Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no.
137 (Abusejo hoard).
(g). Similar to (a), legends uncertain.
1. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 138 (Inst, de Valencia de
Don Juan) = ( ?) Inst, de Valencia, no. 162*.
B. Elvora.
485(a). Scepter between confronting
busts. Type 13 f.
* INDM-N-E6ICA(H
1. HSA 16587 (/20,1.50).
(b). * INDINMNE6ICAR2
Monogram:
-fVVITTISArH RENTES1
Plate XXXVII, 2
Monogram: ^
* VVITTIZAfHRESES
1. Carles-Tolra, no. 1021* (1.50).
2. Mateu y Llopis, Academia de Barcelona, no. XVII, 173*.
3. Inst, de Valencia, no. 153* (legends ?).
(c) . * INDINMEtflCAfH
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 78 (1.49).
(d) . * INDINMEE6ICArH3
1. Madrid, no. 307* (1.20).4
Monogram: > ^ K
* VVITIZANDE6ICA
Monogram: jr^"A
* VVITTIZAFHRE6IS
1 The horizontal strokes of the second E are obscure but appear to be
present.
* Neither obverse nor reverse legend is entirely clear in the plates. Carles-
Tolra attributed the coin to "Beatia."
* Legends and monogram reproduced as transcribed in Madrid; they cannot
be read in the plate.
4 Beltran (p. 414) is mistaken in referring to this as one of the misattributed
specimens from the Abusejo hoard.
426 JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WITTIZA
(e) . Legends transcribed as (d). Monogram: 9
1. Madrid, no. 308* (Abusejo hoard) = AdquisicUmes en
1932, pi. in, 9*(1.45).
(f) . Obverse type? Monogram:
* INDINMNE6ICAIH * VVITTIZANDEtfICA
1. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 112 (Casa Bancaria).
(g) . Legends incomplete. Monogram: ^^"^ .
1. Velazquez, no. 133* (Burriel) = Gusseme, ITJ, p. Ill,
no. 18, VI, p. 618, no. 2.s
(h) . Legends unknown. Monogram:
1. Heiss, no. 4b (Comte d'Ezpeleta).
(i) . INDI-NME-EGICARX Monogram contains letters
ELBOA
VVITTIZAREXREGIS
1. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgoa V, p. 71 (Coll. Nieport,
Oporto).
(j). As above, legend and monogram uncertain.
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 156*.
Reinhart (unintentionally ?) omits Elvora as a mint under Egica &
Wittiza in his table.3
C. Emerita.
486(a). Scepter between confronting Monogram:
busts. Types 13 l, j, m and
variations.
* INDN-M-E6ICArH * INDEN-M-EVVI-TTISAFH
1. HSA 16619 (/ 20,1.37, chipped). Plate XXXVII, 3
1 In the latter publication Mateu wrongly attributed this coin to Narbona;
in Madrid, he corrected this error. Cf. Beltran, p. 414. This and Adquisidones,
pi. III, 10, are probably the two pieces supposedly of Narbona in the Abusejo
hoard, referred to in Madrid, p. 251.
2 This mint was originally identified as "Britonia." Beltran, p. 414, points
out that it is undoubtedly a specimen of Elvora. The form of the monogram is
doubtful.
3 Reinhart, p. 100.
LI7SITANIA
427
(b) . Obverse as (a). Monogram as (a).
* INDENMEVVITTISArH1
1. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4674 = Mateu y Llopis,
Eatocolmo, no. 67* (1.28).
2. Ferreira, no. 71 (probably) (1.30).
3. -4. Elias Garcia, Luaitdnia, no. 85 (Coll. Antonio Mar-
rocos; Coll. A. Marques Teixeira).
5. Inst, de Valencia, no. 149*.
6. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 326 (1.50).
(c) . Obverse as (a). Monogram as (a).
* IND-NNEVVITTISAfH2
1. HSA 16621 K21.1.46). Plate XXXVII, 4
2. Madrid, no. 290* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. HI, 2* (1.50).3
3. Madrid, no. 291* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. HI, 4* (1.35).
(d) . Obverse as (a). Monogram as (a).
* ID NrsEVVITTISArH
1. Cabinet des MMailles = Heiss, no. 5* (1.45).
2. -3. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 86 (Guilhermina, no. 1158;
Mus. Arqueol. de Merida).
4. Inst, de Valencia, no. 151*.
(e) . Obverse as (a). Monogram as (a).
* ID-NI-EVVITTIZArH
1. Madrid, no. 293* = Campaner, 1866, no. 6 (1.45).
(f) . Obverse as (a). Monogram as (a).
* IN-NNEVVITTIZfH
1. Ferreira, no. 74 (1.40).
(g) . * IND-N-ME6ICAfH Monogram as (a).
* VVITTISAFH
1. HSA 16638 (| 20,1.33, chipped). Plate XXXVII. 5
2. Campaner, 1866, no. 7 (1.43).4
3. Inst, de Valencia, no. 150* (pellet left and right beneath
monogram) = Garcia de la Fuente, pi. HI, 4*.
1 N and M sometimes confused in fact or in transcription in these and other
specimens described below.
Or NE-
t 3 The transcriptions of the legends of these and other Madrid coins below
are not certain as they are read from the plates which are not always fully
legible, and the transcriptions in the text are not exact.
4 Assigned to VQR, but not in the VQR catalogue.
428 JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WITTIZA
(gg). As (g), but reverse legend ends REX.
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 152*.
(h) . * IND-N-NECICAfH Monogram as (a).
* ir^NEVVITTISArH
1. Grierson Coll., no. 7895 (ex Reinhart Coll., no. 75)
( | 1.20).
(i) . Similar to (a)-(h), but exact legends doubtful, illegible,
inaccurately transcribed or unknown.
1. Madrid, no. 292 (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisicwnes en
1932, pi. III, 3 (1.35).
2. O'Crouley, p. 384.
3. Faria y Sousa, I, pt. III, Cap. XXI, p. 368 = Florez,
p. 284 = Masdeu, p. 36.
4. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Museo de Belem,
Lisbon).
(j). * IN-D-NM-E6ICAIH Monogram as (a). \f in
lower right and lower left
quarters.
* VVITTISArH
1. Velazquez, no. 131 (Estrada) = ( ?) Florez, p. 285 =
Giisseme, III, p. IIl, no. 16, VI, p. 618, no. 4.
(k). Obverse as (a). Reverse as (j), but legend:
* VVITTISArHS
1. Grierson Coll., no. 1081 = Shore Sale, no. 623* ( f 21,
1.37, chipped).
(1). Obverse as (g). Reverse as (j), but legend:
* VVITTISArH...(?)1
1. Madrid, no. 294* (1.41).
(m). Obverse as (a). Monogram as (a). f in
upper left and upper right
quarters.
* IfsOENMEVVITTIZArH
1. HSA 16624 (ex Cervera) ( | 21,1.41). Plate XXXVII, 6
1 Obscure in the plate.
GALLAECIA 429
(n). Obverse as (a). Monogram as (a). * in
upper left quarter; f in
upper right quarter.
* IN)NEENVVITTIZA(H
1. HSA 16637 (--20,1.32). Plate XXXVII, 7
2. Freeman Coll.
3. Grantley Sale, no. 2802.1
D. Salmantica.
487(a). Type?
* IN-N MIV ECICAPX
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 83 (1.47).
(b). Scepter between confronting
busts. Type 13 i.
////// ID MM IHE6ICA/////
1. HSA 16650 (| 20,1.00, large frg. lacking). Plate XXXVII, 8
I owe to Pio Beltran the suggested identification of the mint
monogram on the HSA specimen. The letter N is doubtless to be
read as M and N, and the letter at the right as L, if not also as A.
Monogram: fcj^
* l-DM-NE-AA-TT
Monogram: H-^ /
* VVITT////////RE6S
GALLAECIA
A. Bracara.
488. Scepter between confronting Monogram:
busts. Type 13 f, variant.
* IPINMECICAfH * VVITTIZAREX
1. VQR no. 5193 = Heiss, no. 1* (Campaner) = Campaner,
1873, p. 53* (1.22).*
1 The legends are obviously inaccurately described, and I have assumed the
lettering to be as here because of the presence of "star and palm," although to
be sure the legends might vary while the reverse type remains the same. It is
quite possible that nos. 2 and 3 are the identical specimen.
2 I have little doubt that Heiss refers to the VQR specimen; Campaner
probably communicated a rubbing of the latter specimen to him.
430
JOINT RULE OF EGICA AND WITTIZA
B. Lucu.
489.
Scepter between confronting Monogram: i
busts ? Legend ends EC ICArH; Legend uncertain.
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 157* = Madrid, pp. 37 and 362
(Abusejo hoard).1
C. Tude.
489(X). Facing busts. Legend illeg- Monogram. Legend illegible
ible in plate in plate.
I. Inst, de Valencia, no. 159*.
1. Madrid, no. 110* = Campaner, 1873, p. 54* = Campaner,
p. 219, note 5 (1.37).
See also Nos. 351 and 380.
In Gusseme, III, p. I11, no. 11 (also VI, p. 618, no. 1), a coin is
listed with bearded bust on the obverse, bust and cross on the reverse,
and the legends I-D-NN-EGICAREX and VVITTIZAREX (no mint-
name). Almost certainly this specimen is improperly described.
Morales (Bk. 12, fols. 186v, 195* and 197^) mentions coins of Egica &
Wittiza, without indication of mint ("a sort of cross," i. e. mono-
grams).
1 Mateu y Llopis proposed the reading "Salaca" (for Salmantica) for the
monogram, but Beltran (p. 415) has suggested Lucu and in a personal com-
munication has written that there can be no doubt whatever that this is the
correct reading.
B. Uncertain Mint.
490. Scepter between confronting
busts. Type 13 f.
* INDNMNE<JICAPH
* VVITTIZADIRE6S
WITTIZA
Ca. a.D. 698-710
NARBONENSIS
Narbona.
491(a). Bust, right. Type 2 v.1 Cross on 3 steps. ^ at
either side.
* I-DN-NEVVITTSfH * NARBONAPIVS
1. Heiss, no. 6* ("A.H." for Aloiss Heiss ?, or Acad, de la
Hist, ?) = Belfort, no. 3171* = Amardel, RN 1916, p.
130 (1.20).
2. Robert, no. 31* (Cab. de France) = Belfort, no. 3171* =
Amardel, RN 1901, no. 2* (1.20).
3. Gariel, no. 358.*
4. Inst, de Valencia, no. 164*.
(to). As (a) but RX.
1. VQR no. 5214.
(c) . * I-D-N-MrvEVVITTISrH * NARBONAPIV2
1. HSA 16649 (ex Cervera) ( f 20,1.30). Plate XXXVII, 9
(d) . Probably similar to (a)-(c), description inadequate or details
lacking.
1. Campaner, 1866, no. 9 (Cabinet of the Queen).
2. Glendining, July 1936, no. 269.
TARRACONENSIS
A. Cesaragusta.
Type A
492(a). Facing bust. Type 5 p. Cross on 3 steps.
* IDN NVVITTIZAV * CESA-RA: VSTA
1. VQR no. 5210 = Campaner, 1866, no. 2 = Heiss, no. 1* (113).
1 Sometimes only 3 "legs".
* Transcription of the obverse legend does not exactly conform, but this is
probably because of typographical limitations and the convention of intro-
ducing periods indicating abbreviations in transcribing legends.
432 WITTIZA
(b) . *-D HHVVITTISA:1 * CES:RAJVST"
1. Madrid, no. 105* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. IV, 6* (1.10).
(c) . * PH-MVVITTIZ:2 *CESA-RA6VST:
1. Madrid, no. 106* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en
1932,pl. IV, 5* (1.14).
(d) . * DHMVVITTIZAv As (a), but pellet beneath.
*CESARA6VSTA:-
1. Madrid, no. 104* = Campaner, 1866, no. 1 = Heiss, no.
13 = Fernandez-Guerra, pi. II*4 (1.31).
(e) . Type? Cross on 3 steps?
*-DN-M-VVITTIZAR- * CESARAAGV-TA
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 86 (1.15).
(I). Similar to (a)-(d), legends illegible in plate.
1.-2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 165*. 166*.
Type B
493(a). Facing bust. Type 11 q. Cross on 3 steps beneath.
* IIN NEW ITT ISAM * CESARA6 VSTAPIVS
1. HSA 16651 (ex Cervera) (/18,1.27). Plate XXXVH, 10
(b). Type? Cross on 3 steps?
* INDINIEVVITTIZArH *CESARACVSTAPIVS
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 87 (1.32).
B. Gerunda.
494(a). Facing bust. Type 11c. Cross on 3 steps.
*-N>-N-EVVITTIZArH * QRVNOAPIVS
1. VQR no. 5213 = Campaner, 1866, no. 6 = Heiss.no. 4*
= Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, no. 24 (1.34).
1 The obverse legend is not transcribed, but it appears to read thus in this
Somewhat obscure plate.
* Both legends have been read from the plate.
3 Heiss indicates "C.B.", i.e., BM, for the location, but as there is no
specimen in the BM, and the transcription of the legends is virtually as above,
and the weight is the same, there is little doubt that this notation is an error
for "CM.", i.e., Cabinet de Madrid.
4 Very inaccurate drawing, if this is the same coin.
TARRACONENSIS
433
2. Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, no. 22* (Dr. Stefan)1 = Madrid,
p. 272, note 275.
(b) . * -r^-N-N-VVITTItZlAfH * QGRVNOA[P] IVS
1. Madrid, no. 92* = Garcia de la Torre, no. 5730** =
Pujol y Camps, p. 192, no. 7 = Campaner, 1866, no. 6 =
Mateu y Llopis, Gerona, nos. 25* and 26*3.
(c) . * Tsp-VVITTIZArH * Q6RVNOAPIVS*
1. HSA 16662 (ex Cervera) (/20,1.13). Plate XXXVII, 11
2. Stuttgart, no. 1389.
3. VQR no. 5212 = Campaner, 1866, no. 7 = Heiss, no. 3*
= Botet y Sis6, Gerona, p. 224* = Mateu y Llopis,
Gerona, no. 23* (1.09).5
4. Pujol y Camps, p. 192, no. II6 = Heiss, no. 4a = Mateu
y Llopis, Gerona, no. 28.
5. Inst, de Valencia, no. 163* = Mateu y Llopis, Gerona,
no. 21* (Abusejo hoard).
(d) . * ND-VVITTIZAPT * SERVN9APVS8
1. Pujol y Camps, p. 192, no. 8 (0.99).
(e) . Obverse as (d). *SERV9APIVS
1. Pujol y Camps, p. 192, no. 9.
(f) . Probably as (a)-(e), descriptions inadequate.
1. Pujol y Camps, p. 192, no. 10 (Ram6n Boy) = Mateu y
Llopis, Gerona, no. 27.
2. Schulman, March 1925, no. 792.
1 Probably this type; the illustration is obscure.
2 The identity is certain, despite the engraving which shows barred A's and
other differences. There is only one specimen of Wittiza-Gerunda in the
Madrid collection, only one specimen of Wittiza in the Garcia de la Torre
collection, and Mateu records (Madrid, p. 24) that Garcia's coin of Wittiza was
acquired by the national museum. Gaillard notes that the piece is broken;
Madrid no. 92 is broken, as the plate shows. The engraving in Gaillard's
catalogue is a good example of the liberties taken by artists in the days before
coin photography: not only are epigraphical features inaccurate, but the coin
is shown as intact, even though the description indicates that it is in two
fragments.
3 Two entries for the same coin.
4 Or O in place of CD.
5 VQR no. 5212 described as a variant of Heiss, no. 3; but they are the
same coin!
Transcription admittedly faulty. Found in Pauls, near Cherta, Ebro, in
1861; cited by Blanch Ylla as property of Hernandez of Tarragona.
7 Probably N>.
8 Probably Q and as above.
28 Visigoth
434
WITTIZA
C. Tarracona.
495(a). Facing bust. Type 5 p. Cross on 3 steps.
* IPHDVVITTIZAfH *TARRACOPIVS
1. VQR no. 5216 = Campaner, 1866, no. 10* = Heiss, no.
7* = Traiti, fig. 122* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
nos. 90* and 911 (l.!*).
(b) . * N)MNVVITTIZA- * TARRACOPIV"
I. Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona, no. 88* (Abusejo hoard).
(c) . Facing bust. Type 5 s.
* IDN-N-M-VVITTIZAfH * TARRACOPIVS
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 177* = Mateu y Llopis, Tarragona,
no. 89*.
(d) . Type? Cross on 3 steps?
* INNHVVITTIZA- * TARRACOPIVS
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 88 (0.95).
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Mentesa.
Type A
496(a). Bust, right. Type? Cross on 3 steps.
*VVITTIZARX *MENTESAPIV
1. Campaner, 1866, no. 8 = Heiss, no. 5b (1.15).2
(b). Bust, right. Indeterminate Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
type, somewhat resembling either side.
2k.
*VVITTISAW *MENTESAPIVS
1. Madrid, no. 165* (1.16).
1 Two entries for the same specimen.
a Both authorities assign the coin to VQR, but it does not appear in the
catalogue nor is it in the collection now.
CARTHAGINENSIS
435
Type B
496(X). Facing bust. Type 11 b,
distinctive variation.
*VVITTIZAPt
1. Inst, de Valentia, no. 168*.
Type C
496(Y). Facing bust of uncertain
type. Legend?
1. Inst, de Valentia, no. 169*.
Cross on 3 steps. Pellet
at either side.
*MEHTESAPIVS
Cross on 3 steps. Pellet
at either side.
* MENTESAPIVS
B. Reccopolis.
497. Bust, right. Type 2 g. Cross on 3 steps. ( at left,
) at right.
//////////D"H-H- V VITT ISfH ///////C OP VL- PIVS1
1. VQR no. 5215* = Campaner, p. 220, note 1 = Engel,
1893, p. 93, no. 10*.1 Plate XXXVII, 12
C. Toleto.
Type A2
498. Bust, right. Indeterminate Cross on 3 steps.
type resembling 2 j, but not
bearded( ?).
* INDNNEVVITZrH * TOLETOPIVS
1. VQR no. 5219 = Gaillard, RN 1864, no. 4*4 = Cam-
paner, 1866, no. 12 = Heiss, no. 10* (1.22).
1 A sector of the coin is missing. The transcriptions are mine, from the coin
itself, and differ somewhat from those in VQR.
1 Reinhart, p. 100, queries this issue.
3 My reason for placing this type first, in spite of the fact that Egica's issues
end with a facing type, is that the familiar cross-on-steps appears here and it
would be unlikely that the mint would have returned to this after introducing
the cross within a wreath.
4 There is no documentary evidence that VQR acquired the coin described
by Gaillard, but Pio Beltran writes me that there is reason to believe these
coins were bought by Meynaerts, whose collection we know went in large part
to V QR. The illustrations in Gaillard and Heiss seem to be of the same coin.
2e*
430
WITTIZA
Type B
499(a). Facing bust. Type 11m.
* IN)INEVVITTISA(H
Cross within ornamental
vinelike border.
* TOLETOPIVS
1. HSA 16658 (| 19,1.57). Plate XXXm 1
2. BM no. 48 = Sotheby, Nov. 1848, no. 1191 = Heiss,
no. 8* = Amardel, RN 1916, fig. 3* ( f 18,1.50, same
obv. die as no. 1 ?).
3. Florez, p. 288*.
(b) . * INDNINEVVITTIZR
1. VQRno. 5217.
(c) . Same type as (a)?
* IKDIN1-EVVITTIZArH
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 90 (1.34).1
Type C
600(a). Facing bust, with long, curly
hair. Type 11 o.
* irvOINfsEVVITTIZfH
1. Carles-Tolra, no. 1024* (1.50).
(b) . * INOINHEVVITT-SfH
1. HSA 16653 (/19.1.54).
2. Traiti, fig. 125*.1
(c) . Bust as (a), variant.
\^ at either side.
* IhOINEVVITTISAPt
Plate XXXVIII, 2
Reverse as (a).
Reverse as (a)?
Cross within ornamental,
vinelike border.
* TOLETOPIVS
* TOLETOPIVS-
Plate XXXVIH, 3
Reverse as (a).
1. VQRno. 5218 = Campaner, 1866, no. 11 = Heiss, no. 9*
(1.50).
2. Ferreira, no. 75 (1.50).
(d). As (c), but * TOLETOPIVS* ^ *
1. Ferreira, no. 76 (1.48).
1 In Dr. Reinhart's list, which he furnished me, this coin is compared to
Heiss, no. 8 (above (a) 2); but is it perhaps the same coin as Type C, below!
2 The drawing is probably not wholly accurate; the bust differs in some
respects from that of the HSA specimen. No point is indicated before S in the
obverse legend.
CARTHAGINENSIS
437
Type D
501(a). Facing bust. Type 11l. Cross. * above, beneath,
and at each side.
* INDH-EVVITTIZfH * TOLETOPIVS
1. Cabinet dee Medailles (1.47).
2. Inst, de Valencia, no. 167*.
(b) . * IhDII-EVVITTIZPt * TOL,ETOPIVS*
1. Schulman, Apr. 1912, no. 328* = Hess, June 1922, no.
121* = Rackus.fig. 45* = Berlin.no.67 (1.60). PlateXXXVIII,4
(c) . * IHDIHEVVITTZIH Reserve as (b).
1. Marques de LL, no. 1519* (167)
Although one cannot say with absolute certainty because of
inequalities in plaster-casting, it would appear that the illustration
in Schulman and Hess are of the same coin; certainly the dies are the
same. The weight of 1.6 grams, which Schulman gives, is high, but
not impossible. Rackus gives a weight of 1.8, which may be fictitious
(several of his weights appear to be); but on the other hand he may
have acquired the coin itself and this may be bis weighing. I had
originally been inclined to reject (b) as a forgery (considering (a) the
possibility that the Schulman and Hess pieces were two specimens
from the same dies, (b) the weight, especially that given by Rackus,
and (c) the unusual type). But having seen the specimen in the
Cabinet des Medailles, the reverse of which at least is from another
die, and the weight of which is satisfactory, I am now prepared to
accept both as genuine.1
Type E
501 (X). Facing bust. Type 11r. Cross on 3 steps.
/////EVVITTIZAPt * TOLETOPIVS
I. Inst, de Valencia, no. 176* (rev. inverted in plate).
Uncertain Type
502. Description lacking.
1. Von Sallet, p. 23 (specimen acquired by Berlin Museum in 1884/5).
1 Since the above lines were written, two other specimens, (a) 2 and (c)
have appeared. Note again the heavy weight of (o). In my present opinion
all four specimens are genuine.
438
WITTIZA
BAETICA
A. Cordoba.
Type A
503(a). Bust, right. Type 2 u. Cross on 3 steps.
IDINMNEVVITTIZAfH * CORDOBAPATRICIA
1. HSA 16652 (ex Cervera) ( f 18,1.36). Plate XXXVIII, 5
2. Reinhart 1937, no. 28*1 = Keinhart, pi. 12, no. 23*
(Coll. Reinhart). Plate XXXVIJI, 6
(b). IDINMEVVITTIZAFH Reverse as (a).
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 170*= Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba,
pi. V, 2* (Abusejo hoard).
Type B
504. Bust, right. Type 2 bb. Cross on 3 steps. . beneath.
IDINMNEVVITTISAfH * CORDOBAPATRICIA
1. Madrid, no. 203*' = Campaner, 1866, no. 3 = Heiss,
no. lb = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi. V, 3* (0.86).
2. Stockholm = Lorichs, no. 4675 = Mateu y Llopis,
Estocolmo, no. 68*s (0.90).* Pirate XXXVIII, 7
Type C
505. Facing bust. Type 11b, . Cross on 3 steps,
variation.
////// NIIMEVVITTIZAfH * CORDOBAPATRICIA
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 174* = Mateu y Llopis, Cordoba, pi.
V, 1* (Abusejo hoard).
Uncertain Type
506. Description lacking.
1. Mateu y Llopis, Barcelona, p. 51, note 6 (Museo Episcopal
de Vich).
1 Wrongly listed as Wamba on p. 198.
2 Wrongly transcribed withIat the beginning of the obverse legend.
3 Described as "silver."
4 Z in place of S.
BAETICA 439
B. Ispali.
Type A
607(a). Bust, right. Type 2 aa. Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
either side.
* I-P-NHEVVITTIZArH * l-SPALIPIVS*
1. HSA 16661 ( f 21,1.01, chipped, virtually silver).
Plate XXXVIII, 8
(b) . * IDNNEVVITTIZAP(orrH ?) * ISPALIPIVS*
1. Cabinet dee Medailles = Heiss, no. 5* (1.15).
(c) . IbNHEVVITTIZArH ** ISPALIPIVS
1. Cabinet des Mdailles = Heiss, no. 5a (1.15).
(d) . ////IDNNEVVITTIZAP (legend Reverse as (b).
begins at 9 o'clock)
1. Acad, de la Hist. (Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos IV, pi.
III, 9*).
(e) . * D H H EVVIIIIIIIII * I -S PV///////
(restruck * hSPALI//////) (restruck l-NHEVVIT/////),
followed by punched( ?) #.
1. VQRno. 5214*.1
TypeB
B07(X). Facing bust of indeterminate Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
type. Legend? either side.
* ISPALIPIVS*
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 175*.
LUSITANIA
A. Emerita.
Type A
508(a). Bust, right. Type 2l. Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
either side.
* Ito-NNEVVITTIZAfH *EMERITAPIVS
1. Madrid, no. 296* = Campaner, 1866, no. 4 - Heiss,
no. 2& (1.20).
1 The above transcriptions, taken from the coin itself (and differing from
those in the VQR catalogue) are doubtful, the specimen being very obscure and
difficult to read.
440 WITTIZA
(b) . * IWHI-EVVITTIZfH1 Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 295* (Abusejo hoard) = Adquisiciones en 1932,
pi. IV, 8* (1.45).*
(c) . * NDINEVVITTIZfH3 Reverse as (a).
1. Madrid, no. 297* (Abusejo hoard) - Adquisiciones en
1932, pi. IV, 7* (1.10).
(d) . * IND-NNEVVITTIZfH Cross on 3 steps. \^ at
either side. Legend as (a).
1. VQR no. 5211 = Campaner, 1866, no. 5 = Heiss, no. 2*
(0.92).*
2. O'Crouley, p. 384.5
(e) . As (a)-(d), but ornaments on reverse not described.
1. August in, p. 329 = Velazquez, no. 134 = Florez, p. 289
= Masdeu, p. 37 = Gusseme, VI, p. 618, no. 8.
2. Severim, p. 164 (Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 94).
3. Cumano, no. 1514( ?).
Type B
509. Facing bust. Type? Cross on 3 steps. ." at either
side.
* INDNNEVVITTIZArH * EMERITAPIVS
1. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 92 (Coll. Elias Garcia).
TypeC
509(X). Facing bust. Type 11 o. Equilateral cross. Star in
each quarter.
*////VVITTIZArH * EMERITAPIVS
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 172* = Garcia de laFuente, pi. III,
3* (obv. only, rev. of another coin) = Elias Garcia, Lusi-
tdnia, after no. 94 (Abusejo hoard).
1 Transcribed from the plate; Mateu's transcription differs.
2 It is not noted in Madrid that this specimen is from the Abusejo hoard, but
a comparison of the illustrations_establishes the identity. In Adquisiciones the
weight is given as 1.55.
3 End of legend not clear in the plate.
4 Some differences in the transcriptions; also the weight, given as 0.88 in
Heiss.
5 Transcribed with one T only.
LUSITANIA
441
Type D
510(a). Bust, right. Type 2 l.
* IhOINSVVlTTIZArH
1. Reinhart Coll., no. 89 (1.35).
(b). *////VVITTIZR
1. Inst, de Valencia, no. 173*.
*EMERITAPIVSII
Cross on 3 steps. Pellet at
either side.
*EMERITAPIVS
RODERIC
Co. a.D. 710-711
CARTHAGINENSIS
A. Toleto.
511. Bust, right. Type 2 x. Cross on 4 steps, upper three
y in front. connected by vertical bar.
t right and left.
* INDNERWERICVSR- *TOLETQPIVS
1. VQR no. 5221 = Piot, no. 20* = Meynaerts, no. 92* =
Campaner, 1866, no. 1 = Heiss, no. 2* (1.46). Plate XXXVIII, 9
LUSITANIA
A. Egitania.
512(a). Facing bust. Type Hi. Cross on 3 steps.
* IN5rvRVt>ERICVSrH * E6ITANIAPIVS
1. Reinhart, pi. 12, no. 24* (Archaeological Museum,
Coimbra). Plate XXX Vm, 10
(b). As (a), but pellet at either side of cross on reverse.
1. Madrid, no. 310* = Velazquez, no. 136* (Leyrens) =
Florez, p. 289* (Gabriel)1 = Masdeu, p. 37 = Gusseme,
VI, p. 50, no. 1 = Fernandez-Guerra, pi. II* = Elias
Garcia, Egitdnia, pp. 11*-12 (two references to same
coin) = Ballesteros, p. 867* (1.43).
2. Teixeira, no. 353 = Heiss, no. 1* (King of Portugal) =
Fernandez-Guerra, Caida, p. 56 = Madrid, p. 359* =
Elias Garcia, Egitdnia, p. 17*.
3. Dias, no. IS.2
Very faulty drawing.
Ligatures not indicated in transcription.
LTXSITANIA
443
(c). As (a)-(b), details lacking.1
1. Morales, Bk. 12, fol. 200r = Masdeu, p. 37 = Eliaa
Garcia, Egitdnia, p. 8.
2. Ferreira, no. 77 (1.47).
3. -4. Mateu y Llopis, Hallazgos V, p. 71 (Museu de Belem,
Lisbon; Coll. Nieport, Oporto).
5. EHas Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 140 (Conimbriga Museum,
from excavations).*
6. -7. Elias Garcia, Lusitdnia, no. 144 (Severim, p. 164;
Guilhermina, Suppl., May 1901, no. 773).
1 Usually rH and probably with NO and fs ligatures, although frequently not
indicated. In all probability several of these specimens are forgeries.
* "Busto ornamentado."
ACHILA II
Ca. a.D. 710-Co. 714
NARBONENSIS
Narbona.
Type A1
513(a). Bust, right. Type 2 y.2 Cross on 3 steps. : at either
side.
* l:d-rsEA:CHILArH * HARBONAPIV2-.
1. Amardel, Roi Inconnu, no. 3 (Musee de Narbonne) =
Belfort, no. 3160* = Amardel, Roi Achila, no. 3* =
idem, EN 1901, no. 5* (1.40).
(b). *I:d-|sA:CHI-LArH3 *HARBONAPIVS:
1. Amardel, Nouveau Triens, p. 140 = Belfort, no. 3161*
= Amardel, Roi Achila, no. 4 = idem, RN 1901, no. 6*
= (almost certainly) Maison Florange, 1951 (/ 1.41). Plate XXXVIII, 11
1I have done my best to untangle the very complicated and almost hopeless
bibliography of the specimens described below, but I am not confident that I
have succeeded in straightening out all the references. The only way in which
the actual number of specimens and their proper transcriptions could be
accurately determined would be to start at the beginning again with the coins
themselves. Some of the confusion was dealt with by Amardel in Nouveau
Triens, p. 143.
1 This extremely crude type varies considerably in detail. In place of hair
there are sometimes several dots, or two "horns." In view of the obscurity of
the type and the doubtful character of many of the reproductions, only one
variety (Reinhart, 1937) is presented in the table of busts.
3 The transcriptions are from the coin which Mme Kapamadji sent me from
the Maison Florange for examination late in 1951. Amardel's transcriptions
and drawing of the legends differ a little, but I am convinced by a comparison
of the Florange specimen and Amardel's drawings that the two specimens are
at least from the same dies, the differences in Amardel's drawings and trans-
criptions being understandable misinterpretations; and in all probability the
specimen at Florange is in fact the identical piece described by Amardel. When
I reported this conclusion to Mme Kapamadji she informed me that the
specimen did come "en effet d'une tres vieille collection de Beziers." In the
literature we are informed that the specimen was found at Las Illas in Pyre-
nees-Orientales, and that it was later acquired by Louis Comes and/or Frederic
Donnadieu of Beziers. Amardel gave the weight as 1.40; my weighing gave 1.41.
NARBONENSIS
445
(c) . *I:C*A:CHILIHA1 *NARBONAPIV2---
1. Boudard, p. 342, pi. IX, 2* (Musee de Narbonne) =
Campaner, 1866, p. 153, no. 2 = Heiss, no. 2*' = (?)
Amardel, Muse de Narbonne, no. 53 = Robert, no. 33*4
= Amardel, Roi Inconnu, no. 2 = Fernandez y Gon-
zalez, p. 94 = Belfort, no. 3156* = Amardel, Roi Achila,
no. 2 and no. 2 bis ( ?) = idem, RN 1901, no. 3* =
Madrid, p. 237* = Reinhart, 1937, pi. XXXVII, 31* =
idem, Germanen-Erbe, p. 72, no. 12* = Reinhart, 1941,
pi. 33, nos. 17-18* (1.48). Plate XXXVIII, 21
(d) . * |-<] lEACNILArH Cross on 3 steps. : at either
side. Pellet beneath.
*HARBOHAPIVS
1. Boudard, p. 342, pi. IX, 1* (Soo. Arch, de Beziers) =
Campaner, 1866, p. 153, no. 1* = Heiss, no. 1* = Robert,
no. 32* = Amardel, Roi Inconnu, no. 1 = Fernandez y
Gonzalez, p. 94 = Belfort, nos. 3155* and 3159*( ?) =
Amardel, Roi Achila, no. 1 = idem, RN 1901, no. 4* =
Mateu y Llopis, Hispania Tarraconense, pi. I, 8* (1.50).
2. Boudard, p. 342 (Mazel of Pez^nas) = Fernandez y
Gonzalez, p. 94 = Belfort, no. 3157*.*
(e) . ACNILNRBOHAP (legend Beneath steps a crista S
begins at 6 o'clock) *HAPE*I(]IEIVS
1. Robert, no. 34* = Amardel, Roi Inconnu, p. 23 =
Belfort, no. 3158* = Amardel, Roi Achila, no. 1 bis.8
This specimen appears to be an overstrike on an earlier coin, the
emblem in the lower right being explained as a part of the head of
Victory. N? would seem to represent ANAR.
1 Wrongly assigned to Society Archeologique de Beziers.
3 Transcription differs.
4 Wrongly assigned to VQR.
* Wrongly assigned to VQR and equated with Belfort, no. 3157. In this
article Amardel does not know which collection the specimen is in.
* There are several differences in the various transcriptions; I have tran-
scribed from the plate in Reinhart, who informs me that this piece is from the
"Society Archeologique, Narbonne."
7 Wrongly assigned to VQR. The illustration is from Robert.
* Robert assigns this piece to the Soci^ty Archeologique de Beziers, but
Amardel (Nouveau Triens, p. 143, and Roi Achila) says it is not.
446
ACHILA II
Type B
614. Facing bust. Type 11 g.
*NDINEACHILAFH
Cross on 3 steps.
*NARBONAPIVS
1. Amardel, RN 1916, p. 128, fig. 1* (Musee de Narbonne)
(1.30).1
TARRACONENSIS
A. Gerunda.
515. Description lacking, except GERVNDAPIVS
1. Mateu y Llopis, Uallazgos V, no. 307.1
1. VQRno.5222 = Campaner, 1866,no.3* (p. 153) = Heiss,
no. 3* = Fernandez y Gonzalez, p. 94 = Amardel, Roi
Achila, p. 442 = Madrid, p. 268* - - Mateu y Llopis,
B. Tarracona.
516. Facing bust. Type 11s.
*l/p-HH-ACHILArH
Cross on 3 steps.
* TARRACOPIVS
Tarragona, no. 92* (1.45).
Plate XXXVIII, 13
1 Found near Castel-Roussillon, Pyrenees-Orientales, acquired by P. Thiers
and given by him to the museum.
Found by P. de Palol Salellas in the castle of Rosas, 1948.
APPENDIX
FABRICATIONS AND FORGERIES
In the following appendix an effort has been made to list and
describe all the known varieties of Visigothic fabrications and
forgeries. As obversed in the Foreword, the number of these is pro-
portionately very large, andchiefly because of the almost barbarous
simplicity of most Visigothic coins and the ease with which they can
be imitated by able counterfeitersthe detection of many of them is
quite difficult. In consequence many private collections contain more
forgeries than genuine coins, and no public collection is entirely free
of them. The collection of the Hispanic Society of America, for
example, contains 76 specimens, among them a number of duplicates.
More than one reputable dealer has sold certain of these forgeries in
good faith, believing them to be genuine; and experts in other
numismatic fieldsboth dealers and collectorsfrequently refuse to
have anything to do with Visigothic coins because of the dangers
involved. One of the purposes, therefore, of this appendix is to
provide collectors and curators with a convenient guide to what is
believed to be the majority of these false coins. It is perhaps not too
much to hope that the present compilation will materially contribute
to the ultimate elimination of the curse of Visigothic forgeries from
the market.
The subject of the modern counterfeiting of Visigothic coins is not
without interest, for its history extends back at least into the 17th
century. In fact we know of a 16th century fabrication, the spurious
"coin" of Elvora ("Ebora"), supposedly struck by Sisebut, described
by Morales. The publication of Florez' illustrated work in the late
18th century stimulated interest in Visigothic coins and provided a
series of models after which forgers produced numerous crude
imitations. In the early 19th century the remarkable counterfeiter
Carl Wilhelm Becker executed a number of skillful dies which for
some years added to the perplexities of collectors. In the late eighteen-
hundreds Heiss' great work not only lent a great impetus to the study
of Visigothic numismatics but also provided unscrupulous artisans
448
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
with a large body of faithful reproductions from which more or less
accurate copies were produced. The latest, and most expert, forgeries,
copied by various techniques directly from genuine pieces, date from
the early 20th century, evidently between 1900 and 1910, and are said
to have been made in Valencia and Seville.
Fortunately a general discussion can be dispensed with here in
view of the recent excellent literature on the subject. Mateu y Llopis
devotes a section of his catalogue of the Madrid collection (pp.
395-410 and plates A-I) to the forgeries in that cabinet. In Pio
Beltran's Rectificaciones y falsificaciones era las monedas visigodas
(see the bibliography) the whole subject is dealt with in exhaustive
fashion. His treatment includes a detailed history of Visigothic
fabrications and counterfeits and of Visigothic coin collections in
general, together with a discussion of most of the known forgeries, as
well as consideration of misattributions and the restitution to good
standing of some coins previously condemned as false. What Beltran's
most valuable study lacks is adequate photographic illustration, and
this is supplied, at least so far as the more recent forgeries are
concerned, by Wilhelm Reinhart's plates in his two very useful
articles Neuerliche Falschungen westgotischer Milnzen and Ueber einige
weitere Falschungen westgotischer Milnzen (see the bibliography). In
addition to the invaluable reproductions, Reinhart's articles present
a succint statement of the principal characteristics of Visigothic
counterfeits.
As in judging forgeries in other numismatic fields there is no
single rule of thumb by which one can determine spuriousness.
Needless to say, the prime requisite is the opportunity to examine a
large number of genuine coins; but thereafter one must in each case
test the coin in question by the application of several of a number of
criteria.fabric, feel, technique, execution, design, style, special mint
characteristics, metal, weight, etc., etc. The quality of the gold,
expecially with reference to the particular period under consideration,
is important. Some modern forgers have made the mistake of using
good gold for imitations of the later Visigothic coins when the
quality of the gold was universally bad. Excessive weight (in general
anything over 1.60 grams) is always suspicious. Except when dealing
with a hoard, the existence of two or more specimens from the same
pair of dies is good cause for examining such coins most critically for
other tell-tale traits. Reinhart went so far as to say, "es ist eine groBe
Seltenheit, zwei stempelgleiche echte Stiicke zu finden." That
genuine specimens from the same pairs of dies, and many mulings, do
exist becomes evident from the publication of numerous coins from
FABRICATIONS AND FORGERIES
449
-the hoard of La Capilla in the present volume, but Reinhart has not
had the opportunity of studying such a series of coins from a single
find.
How much I owe to the contributions of Mateu y Llopis, Beltran
and Reinhart is evident in the ensuing pages.1 For the sake of com-
pleteness I have included Becker's counterfeits in the compilation,
in spite of the fact that they are already well known. For them the
primary reference is, of course, Sir George Hill's Becker the Counter-
feiter; I have omitted references to Heiss' reproductions of Becker's
dies as superfluous. It will be noted that several previously un-
recorded mulings of Becker dies have come to my attention. After
the description of each forgery (including Becker's) I have listed
published specimens as well as other examples that I have seen. In
this connection one should bear in mind that there is in many
instances a considerable likelihood of reduplication of references: for
example, when Reinhart lists six specimens of a given forgery
(without indicating their location), it may well be that certain of
these are the same specimens which I have seen or which have
appeared in publications to which I make reference. Also in some cases
two or more auction or sales catalogue references may refer to the
same specimen or may concern an example now in a private collection
which I have examined.
There are undoubtedly mistakes in judgment in the following
compilation, not only in what has been included but also in what has
been excluded, but I hope they are not too numerous. I should
imagine that there are more forgeries improperly admitted to the
corpus of genuine coins in the main body of the work than there are
authentic pieces unfairly condemned in the listing below.
1 I am further indebted to Dr. Reinhart for permission to reproduce many
of his illustrations of forgeries.
29 Visigoth
FABRICATIONS AND FORGERIES
ATAULF
a.D. 412-415
Barcinona.
1. Bust, bearded, right. Spear tip Bust, right, with sword in
at right. hand (?), within beaded bor-
der.1
MATAVLl FOREX *BARCINONAIVS
1. Madrid, pi. B, no. 20* (#1.55).
The obverse bust is quite evidently related to the reverse of another
pure fabrication, that of Amalaric (see No. 3, below).
ALARIC II
A.D. 484-507
Limoges.
2. Youthful bust, facing. Victory seated, right, hold-
ing wreath in left hand.
ALARICVooREX LEMOVCVMPIVS
1. Ardant, no. 9* (p. 253) = Barthelemy, p. 379 = Heiss,
p. 150, no. 5 (AT).
This "coin" was said to have been found at Auch, but the editor
had not seen it and had only a wax impression of the obverse and a
"trait au crayon peu termini" of the reverse. Barthelemy recognized
the supposed coin as a pure fabrication, as did E. Carrier (RN 1851,
p. 380).
The type is not described and the plate is not clear.
FABRICATIONS AND FORGERIES
451
AMALARIC
A.D. 511-631
Ispali.
3. Facing bust. Type 4 d. Bust, right, spear tip in
front; within circle.
*-AMALARICOP+: * HISPALIS: PIVo
1. Heiss, p. 146, no. 1* (Acad, de la Hist.).
Aside from the obvious anachronisms, note the Spanish form of the
lame, the spelling of the mint, the Tarraconese type of obverse bust.
BEeiss also observed that epigraphy and fabric are anomalous. For the
everse type, cf. No. 1, above.
THEUDIS
a.d. 531-548
Ispali.
4. Facing bust, resembling type Head, facing. Line beneath.
7 or 5 m.
/rsTEVDI|SREX tHISPALIMVS
Plate A, 1
1. HSA 8136 (billon, f 18,3.07).
2. Madrid, pi. B, 21* (M, 1.05, same dies as no. 1).
AGILA
A.D. 549-554
Dertosa.
5. Bust, right, resembling type 1 a, Facing bust. Type 9 b.
but with circle in place of cross.
ACTILIAREX //////PERTOSAIVS: AI
1. Esparto Sagrada, vol. 42, p. 47 (Acad, de la Hist.) =
Heiss, p. 146, no. 2* = Botet y Sis6, Noticia, pi. V, 27*.
452
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
ATHANAGILD
A.D. 554-567
Reccopolis.
6. Facing head within circle.
Curved line beneath.
*ATANAhlLbPt
1. Madrid, pi. B, 24* (JV, 1.00).
As obverse.
*RECOPOLI:FEC
LEOVIGILD1
A. No Mint.
7. Imitation of Type H.
1.-6. Madrid, pi. B, nos. 16*. 17*, 18*. 19*; Reinhart, pi.
11, no. 22* (BM)S (cast coins all from same mold, N and
base metal, weights ranging from 1.70-3.70).
*DNLEOVI6ILDVSREX * NARPONAropjVw-.
1. Heiss, no. 19* (BM) = Robert, no. 8* = Belfort, no. 3142*
= Carson, p. 145, no. 1* (JV, 1.34).
2. -6. Madrid, no. 80*. pi. E, 3*. pi. G, 1* 2*. 3* (JV, & and
alloy,3 weights ranging from 1.30-7.00).
All the above are from the same dies and/or molds. It will be noted
that I have accepted one of the specimens, after which the illustration
in Florez, p. 187, was drawn, as genuine, despite the fact that Beltran
(pp. 432-433) condemns the whole lot. I entirely agree that the BM
1 Forgeries of the earlier, anonymous types of Leovigild and his predecessor
are not included here.
* At the time of writing, Reinhart (pp. 86-87) did not recognize tbiJ
"solidus" as a forgery. He mentions the existence of other similar pieces inti*
collection of the Jesuit Order in Barcelona (now dispersed). Beltran, p. *00.
correctly identified the coin as a forgery of the above type, and subsequently,
in a personal communication to me, Dr. Reinhart has confirmed Beltran s
view.
"Metal compuesto," for which I have translated "alloy"; probably billon-
B. Narbona.
8. Facing bust. Type 5 c.
Facing bust. Type 5 a.
FABRICATIONS AND FORGERIES
453
and Madrid specimens are forgeries, copied from Florez or the original,
and of course the silver specimens mentioned by Florez are similarly
false. My argument rests upon my acceptance of HSA 15989 (No.
11(a) in the Corpus) as authentic. On this specimen the letter f* is
present (but not ,). It is not, however, beneath the bust, and there-
fore Florez' suggestion that it serves as a base for the bust is un-
acceptable; nor can it be read as 6), for on the HSA specimen the
letter occurs at an asy metric point in the legend, where an inverse
reading of the legend is highly improbable. If this letter is not (a), then
there remains no justification for reading the sign as alpha,
which it really does not resemble; it is simply an ornamental space
filler, which incidentally was not needed in the HSA specimen.
Beltran argues that the G and the D (for B) in the Florez specimen
illustrated are bad; I agree, but I suspect that they are simply the
result of bad copying by the engraver. In short, I see no reason to sus-
pect the HSA piece, and consequently I consider it at least possible
that one of the gold specimens which served as Florez' model, and
which resembles the HSA piece but is not identical (the spacing of
the letters being different and lacking may be genuine also.
C. Egessa.
9. Bust, right. Type 1 c. Cross on 4 steps. In exergue: ONO
LIVVICILDVS REXEQESSA
(begins at 8 o'clock) (begins at 8 o'clock)
1. Cabinet des Medailles = Heiss, no. 11* = Madrid, p.
281* = Beltran, p. 426 (JR).
Heiss (p. 85) declared this piece to be a cast silver copy of an
authentic coin; Beltran, however, convincingly argues that it is a
"a copy" of a non-existent coin, Egessa not having been the seat of an
administrative division. The drawing in Heiss is not exact. Egessa
should be struck from Campaner's and Reinhart's mint-tables.
D. Toleto.
10(a). Facing bust. Type 5 a. As obverse.
* LEOVI6ILPVSRE+ * TOLETO I VSTV</>
1.-2. Madrid, pi. E, 4*. 5* (same dies, N, 2.40, 1.50).
This forgery was copied from Heiss' illustration.
454
VISIGOTHS OF SPAIN
(b). Facing bust. Type 4 c.
//////LIVIQILDVSR/////
Cross within wreathlike
border.
* TOLETOPIVS
1. Heiss, p. 147, no. 3* = Beltran, p. 448 (At).
This is a fabrication in which a Tarraconese obverse is combined
with a reverse type of Wittiza's.
See the note under Corpus No. 28(a) for a supposed coin