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# chap-1 B.V.

## Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40

Chapter 1
Matrices and Determinants
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Matrix means an arrangement or array Matrices
(plural of matrix) were introducedbyCayleyin1860.
Amatrix A is rectangular array of m nnumbers (or
functions) arranged in m horizontal lines (known as
rows) and in n vertical lines (known as columns),
denoted by A
mn
. These m n numbers are known
as the elements or entries of the matrix A and are
enclosed in brackets [ ], or ( ) or || ||. The order of the
matrix is mn.
When m = n, the matrix is said to be rectangular.
Row matrix (or row vector) B
1n
is a matrix having
only one row (and several columns), column matrix
(or column vector) C
m1
is a matrix having only one
column (and several rows). A matrix is said to be a
n-square matrix or simply square matrix if m = n.
Thus the number of rows and number of columns in
a square matrix are equal.
The elements of the matrix A are denoted by a
ij
and are located by the double subscript notation ij
where the rst subscript i denotes the row (position)
and the second subscript j denotes the column posi-
tion. Thus capital letters are used to denote matrices,
while the corresponding small letters with double
subscript notation are used to denote the elements
(or entries). Thus A = [a
ij
].
Null or zero matrix denoted by 0 is a matrix with
all its elements zero.
Equality: Two matrices Aand B are said to be equal
if they are of the same order and a
ij
= b
ij
for every
i and j. Otherwise they are unequal, denoted by
A = B.
1.2 MATRIX ALGEBRA
Sum(or difference): C
mn
= A
mn
B
mn
then C
is said to be the sum (or difference) of A and B pro-
vided c
ij
= a
ij
b
ij
for i, j i.e. the elements of C
are obtained by adding (or subtracting) the corre-
sponding elements of A and B.
Note that addition or subtraction of matrices Aand
B is possible only when both Aand B are of the same
order.
Submatrix of A is a matrix obtained from A after
deleting some rows or columns or both.
Scalar multiplication: For any non zero scalar k,
we have C = kA when c
ij
= ka
ij
i.e every element
of A is multiplied by k. Thus B is considered as B
multiplied by 1.
Properties:
1. A +B = B +A commutative
2. A +(B C) = (A +B) C associative
3. k(A +B) = kA +kB distributive
4. A B = B A not commutative
Transpose of a matrix A of order mn is denoted
by A
T
or A

## is obtained from A by interchanging the

rows and columns. Thus B = A
T
is of n m order
and b
ji
= a
ij
for any i, j, i.e. the i, j
th
element of A
is placed in the j, i
th
location in A
T
.
Properties:
1. (A
T
)
T
= A
2. (kA)
T
= kA
T
3. (A +B)
T
= A
T
+B
T
1.1
chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40
1.2 MATHEMATICAL METHODS
Matrix multiplication: Two matrices A and B are
said to be conformable for multiplication if the num-
ber of columns in A is equal to the number of rows
in B. Then the product of two matrices A
mp
and
B
pn
is a matrix c
mn
where
c
ij
=
p

k=1
a
ik
b
kj
for i = 1 to m and
j = 1 to n
i.e., i, j
th
element in the product matrix C is obtained
by adding the p products obtained by multiplying
each entry of the i
th
row of A by the corresponding
entry of the j
th
column of B. Thus matrix multipli-
cation amounts to multiplication of rows (of the rst
matrix) into columns (of the second matrix) i.e., row
by column multiplication.
m A p B = m C
n
n
p
i.e. mn scalar products of the
m rows of A with n columns of B.
In the product C = AB, the matrix B is premul-
tiplied or multiplied from the left by A; while the
matrix A is post multiplied or multiplied from the
right by B.
Properties:
1. (kA)B = k(AB) = A(kB) = kAB
2. A(BC) = (AB)C
3. (A +B)C = AC +BC
4. A(B +C) = AB +AC
However
5. AB = BA in general (not commutative)
6. AB = 0 does not necessarily imply that A = 0 or
B = 0 or BA = 0.
Also
7. AB = AC does not necessarily imply that
B = C, even when A = 0.
8. (AB)
T
= B
T
A
T
i.e., transpose of a product is the product of the trans-
poses.
1.3 SPECIAL SQUARE MATRICES
The elements a
ii
of an n-square matrix are known
as diagonal elements. Trace of matrix A =
trace of A =
n

i=1
a
ii
= sum of the diagonal elements.
Result: trace (A +B) = trace A + trace B,
trace (kA) = k trace A.
A is singular matrix if |A| = 0. A is Non-singular
matrix if |A| = 0
Upper triangular matrix if a
ij
= 0 for i > j i.e.,
can have non zero entries only on and above the main
diagonal while any entry below the diagonal is zero.
Lower triangular matrix if a
ij
= 0 for i < j. A
matrix is said to be triangular if it is either upper or
lower triangular matrix.
Diagonal matrix if any entry above or below, the
main diagonal is zero. However zero entries may be
present in the diagonal. Thus
a
ij
= 0 for i = j
(however a
ii
= 0, not for all i).
Scalar matrix is a diagonal matrix in which all the
diagonal entries are equal to a constant k i.e., a
ii
= k
for every i and a
ij
= 0 for any i and j, (i = j).
Identity matrix denoted by I is a scalar matrix with
k = 1. Thus
I
3
= I
3 3
=
_
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
Positive integral power of a matrix A, denoted by
A
n
, is obtained by multiplying A by itself n times.
1.4 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
DETERMINANTS AND MATRICES
Determinant Matrix D A
1. It has a numerical value It has no value. It is a symbol
representing an array of many
numbers on which algebra can
be performed.
2. It can only a be square It can be rectangular
3. It is zero when elements It is zero when
of any row (or elements in
mn) are zero
4. It is multiplied by It is multiplied by .
if elements of any elements
row (or column)
are multiplied by
5. Its value remains unalt- It gets altered (giving
ered by the inter a new matrix)
of rows and columns
6. Its value is It gets changed to a new
cent rows
are are
only
one
k k
one
k
D
all
all
k
the
the matrix are zero
if the
of the matrix are
multiplied by
rise to
change when rows and
columns. are interchanged
when matrix
interchanged.
colu
columns) interchanged. columns)
chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40
MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 1.3
WORKED OUT EXAMPLES
Example 1: Classify the following matrices. Also
nd the order of the matrices.
(a)
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 2 3 4
2 3 4 5
3 4 0 6
7
3
2
8 10
5 6 7 9
_

_
(b)
_
_
_
_
1
2
3
4
_

_
(c) [2 4 6 7 8]
(d)
_
_
_
_
2 3 1 0
0 5 3 7
0 0 0 10
0 0 0 6
_

_
(e)
_
_
5 0 0
7 2 0
9 8 12
_
_
(f)
_
_
5 0 0
0 6 0
0 0 0
_
_
(g)
_
_
_
_
k 0 0 0
0 k 0 0
0 0 k 0
0 0 0 k
_

_
(h)
_
_
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
_
(i) 
Solution:
(a) Rectangular matrix of order 5 4
(b) Column matrix of order 4 1
(c) Row matrix of order 1 5
(d) Upper triangular matrix, 4 4 (square)
(e) Lower triangular matrix, 3 3 (square)
(f) Diagonal matrix, 3 3 (square)
(g) Scalar matrix, 4 4 (square)
(h) Null or zero matrix, 3 3 (square)
(i) 1 1 matrix which identies the single entry
Example 2: Suppose matrix A has m rows and m
+ 6 columns and matrix B has n rows and 12 n
columns. If both AB and BA exists, determine the
orders of the matrices A and B.
Solution: Since A
mm+6
B
n 12 n
exists, the num-
ber of columns in A must be equal to the number of
rows in B i.e. m + 6 = n or mn = 6.
Similarly B
n 12 n
A
mm+6
exists,
12 n = m or m+n = 12
solving m = 3, n = 9. The order of A is 3 9 and
of B is 9 3.
Example 3: Determine AB and BA if A B =
_
2 3
1 2
_
and A +B =
_
5 7
4 1
_
. Is AB = BA.
_
2 3
1 2
_
= C
A +B =
_
6 7
5 2
_
= D we get
2A = C +D =
_
2 3
1 2
_
+
_
6 7
5 2
_
=
_
8 10
6 4
_
so
A =
_
4 5
3 2
_
. Then
B = D A =
_
6 7
5 2
_

_
4 5
3 2
_
=
_
2 2
2 0
_
So AB =
_
4 5
3 2
_ _
2 2
2 0
_
=
_
18 8
10 6
_
and
BA =
_
2 2
2 0
_ _
4 5
3 2
_
=
_
14 14
8 10
_
.
Note that AB = BA, in general.
Example 4: If A =
_
11 25
4 9
_
show that A
n
=
_
1 +10n 25n
4n 1 10n
_
using mathematical induction.
Solution: Consider A
2
= A A
=
_
11 25
4 9
_ _
11 25
4 9
_
A
2
=
_
21 50
8 19
_ _
1 +10 2 25 2
4 2 1 10 2
_
Now A
3
= A A
2
=
_
11 25
4 9
_ _
21 50
8 19
_
=
_
31 75
12 29
_
So
A
3
=
_
1 +10 3 25 3
4 3 1 10 3
_
.
Assume A
k
=
_
1 +10 k 25 k
4 k 1 10 k
_
. Then
chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40
1.4 MATHEMATICAL METHODS
A
k+1
= A A
k
=
_
11 25
4 9
_ _
1 +10k 25k
4k 1 10k
_
=
_
11 +10k 25 25k
4 +4k 9 10k
_
=
_
1 +10(k +1) 25(k +1)
4(k +1) 1 10(k +1)
_
By mathematical induction the result follows.
Example 5: If A =
_
8 4
2 2
_
prove that
A
2
10 A +24 I = 0.
Solution: A
2
= A A =
_
8 4
2 2
__
8 4
2 2
_
=
_
56 40
20 4
_
. Then A
2
10A +24I =
_
56 40
20 4
_
10
_
8 4
2 2
_
+24
_
1 0
0 1
_
=
_
56 80 +24 40 +40 +0
20 20 +0 4 20 +24
_
=
_
0 0
0 0
_
= 0
Example 6: Show that AB = AC does not neces-
sarily imply that B = C where A =
_
_
1 3 2
2 1 3
4 3 1
_
_
,
B =
_
_
1 4 1 0
2 1 1 1
1 2 1 2
_
_
, C =
_
_
2 1 1 2
3 2 1 1
2 5 1 0
_
_
Solution: A
3 3
B
3 4
= D
3 4
=
_
_
3 3 0 1
1 15 0 5
3 15 0 5
_
_
= A
33
C
34
however B = C.
Example 7: Verify that
(a) AB = BA = 0, (b) AC = A,
(c) CA = C, (d) ACB = CBA,
(e) (A B)
2
= A
2
+B
2
,
(f) (A B)(A +B) = A
2
B
2
where A =
_
_
2 3 5
1 4 5
1 3 4
_
_
,
B =
_
_
1 3 5
1 3 5
1 3 5
_
_
, C =
_
_
2 2 4
1 3 4
1 2 3
_
_
Solution:
(a) AB =
_
_
2 3 5
1 4 5
1 3 4
_
_
_
_
1 3 5
1 3 5
1 3 5
_
_
=
_
_
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
_
= 0
Similarly
BA =
_
_
1 3 5
1 3 5
1 3 5
_
_
_
_
2 3 5
1 4 5
1 3 4
_
_
=
_
_
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
_
= 0
Thus AB = BA = 0
(b) AC =
_
_
2 3 5
1 4 5
1 3 4
_
_
_
_
2 2 4
1 3 4
1 2 3
_
_
=
_
_
2 3 5
1 4 5
1 3 4
_
_
= A
(c) CA =
_
_
2 2 4
1 3 4
1 2 3
_
_
_
_
2 3 5
1 4 5
1 3 4
_
_
=
_
_
2 2 4
1 3 4
1 2 3
_
_
= C
(d) ACB = (AC)B = (A)B = AB = 0
CBA = C(BA) = C 0 = 0
(e) (A B)
2
= A
2
AB BA +B
2
= A
2
+B
2
since AB = BA = 0
(f) (A B)(A +B) = A
2
BA +AB B
2
=
A
2
B
2
since AB = BA = 0
Example 8: Prove that (a) trace (A +B) = trace A
+ trace B (b) trace (kA) = k trace A.
Solution: (a) Trace (A +B) =
n

i=1
(a
ii
+b
ii
)
=

a
ii
+

b
ii
= trace A + trace B
chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40
MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 1.5
(b) Trace (kA) =
n

i=1
(ka
ii
) = k
n

i=1
a
ii
= k trace A
Example 9: Express A =
_
_
5 2 1
7 1 5
3 7 4
_
_
as the
product of LU where L and U are lower and upper
triangular matrices (known as LU-decomposition or
Factorization).
Solution: Let the lower triangular matrix be
L =
_
_
l
11
0 0
l
21
l
22
0
l
31
l
32
l
33
_
_
while U =
_
_
u
11
u
12
u
13
0 u
22
u
23
0 0 u
33
_
_
be the upper triangular matrix. Then
A =
_
_
5 2 1
7 1 5
3 7 4
_
_
= LU
_
_
l
11
0 0
l
21
l
22
0
l
31
l
32
l
33
_
_
_
_
u
11
u
12
u
13
0 u
22
u
23
0 0 u
33
_
_
Equating the corresponding component on both
sides, we have l
11
u
11
= 5, l
11
u
12
= 2, l
11
u
13
= 1,
l
21
u
11
= 7, l
21
u
12
+l
22
u
22
= 1, l
21
u
13
+l
22
u
23
=
5, l
31
u
11
= 3, l
31
u
12
+l
32
u
22
= 7, l
31
u
13
+l
32
u
23
+l
33
u
33
= 4.
Since there are 12 unknowns and 9 equations only,
to get a unique solution, assume that
l
11
= l
22
= l
33
= 1
Now u
11
= 5, u
12
= 2, u
13
= 1. Then l
21
=
7
u
11
=
7
5
, u
22
= (1 l
21
u
12
)/l
22
_
1
7
5
(2)
__
1 =
19
5
, u
23
= (5 l
21
u
13
)/l
22
=
_
5
7
5
1
_
=
32
5
, l
31
=
3
u
11
=
3
5
.
Similarly l
32
=
41
19
, u
33
=
327
19
. Thus A = LU =
_
_
1 0 0
7
5
1 0
3
5
41
19
1
_
_
_
_
5 2 1
0
19
5
32
5
0 0
327
19
_
_
1.5 MATRICES
EXERCISE
1. If A =
_
_
2 2 3
5 0 2
3 1 4
_
_
, B =
_
_
3 4 2
4 2 5
2 0 3
_
_
,
C =
_
_
4 6 2
0 3 2
7 2 3
_
_
nd (a) A +B, (b) A B, (c) 3B, (d) verify
A +(B C) = (A +B) C, (e) Find D such
that C +D = B, (f) AB, (g) BA, (h) Is AB =
BA, (i) AC, (j) verify A(B +C) = AB +AC
(k) Is AB = AC, (l) Is AC = CA
Ans. (a) A +B =
_
_
5 2 1
9 2 7
5 1 7
_
_
(b) A B =
_
_
1 6 5
1 2 3
1 1 1
_
_
(c) 3B =
_
_
9 12 6
12 6 15
6 0 9
_
_
(e) Hint: B C =
_
_
1 10 0
+4 1 3
5 2 0
_
_
= D
(f) AB =
_
_
8 4 5
19 20 16
13 14 13
_
_
(g) BA =
_
_
8 4 9
33 3 12
13 1 9
_
_
(h) No. In general AB = BA
(i) AC =
_
_
13 24 1
34 26 16
40 12 16
_
_
(j) Hint: B +C =
_
_
7 2 4
4 5 7
9 2 6
_
_
(l) No (j) Hint: CA =
_
_
44 6 8
21 2 14
13 11 13
_
_
, No
AC = CA
2. Determine the orders of the matrices A having m
rows and m + 5 columns and B having n rows
and 11 n columns if both AB and BA exist.
chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40
1.6 MATHEMATICAL METHODS
Ans. A
38
; B
83
3. Compute the product AB, BA given that A +B
=
_
1 1
3 0
_
and A B =
_
3 1
1 4
_
. Is BA = AB
Ans. AB =
_
2 2
0 6
_
, BA =
_
4 2
2 4
_
, No
Hint: A =
_
2 0
2 2
_
, B =
_
1 1
1 2
_
4. State why in general (a) (A B)
2
= A
2

2AB +B
2
(b) A
2
B
2
= (A B)(A +B)
(c) Verify the results (a) and (b) for A and B in
the above problem 3.
Ans. Since AB = BA in general.
5. If A =
_
_
1 2 2
0 2 1
1 2 2
_
_
, verify that A
3
5A
2
+
8A 4I = 0
6. If A =
_
cos sin
sin cos
_
show that A
n
=
_
cos n sin n
sin n cos n
_
by using mathematical
induction.
7. Is AB = BA given that
A =
_
_
1 3 0
1 2 1
0 0 2
_
_
, B =
_
_
2 3 4
1 2 3
1 1 2
_
_
8. Determine the values of x for which the matrix A
is nonsingular where A =
_
_
1 2x 3x
1 1 2
x 3 0
_
_
Ans. A is nonsingular for any x other than 3 and
2
3
Hint: |A| =3x
2
11x+6
= (x 3)
_
x
2
3
_
= 0
9. If A =
_
3 1
0 1
_
, B =
_
1 5
7 2
_
then nd (a) A
T
(b)
B
T
(c) (A +B)
T
(d) (A B)
T
(e) A
T
+B
T
(f) A
T
B
T
(g) Verify (A +B)
T
= A
T
+B
T
(h) Is (A B)
T
= A
T
B
T
(i) (AB)
T
(j) B
T
A
T
(k) Verify that (AB)
T
= B
T
A
T
Ans. (a) A
T
=
_
3 0
1 1
_
(b) B
T
=
_
1 7
5 2
_
(c) (A +B)
T
=
_
4 7
6 3
_
(d) (A B)
T
=
_
2 7
4 1
_
(e) A
T
+B
T
=
_
4 7
6 3
_
(g) True
(h) (A B)
T
= A
T
B
T
(i) (AB)
T
=
_
10 7
17 2
_
(j) B
T
A
T
=
_
10 7
17 2
_
(k) True
10. Express A =
_
_
3 5 2
0 8 2
6 2 8
_
_
as product LU where L
and U are lower and upper triangular matrices.
Ans. L =
_
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
2 1 1
_
_
, U =
_
_
3 5 2
0 8 2
0 0 6
_
_
1.6 DETERMINANTS
Although determinants are inefcient in practical
computations, they are useful in vector algebra,
differential equations and eigenvalue problems. A
determinant is a scalar (numerical value) associated
with only square matrix A = [a
ij
] and is denoted as
determinant of Aor det Aor |A|. Thus a determinant
is a scalar-valued function whose domain is a set of
square matrices. A determinant of an n n square
matrix A is a scalar given by
D = det A =

a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
2n
.
.
.
a
n1
a
n2
. . . a
nn

(1)
The determinant D is said to be of order n and con-
tains n
2
elements or quantities (which may be num-
bers or functions), arranged in n rows and n columns.
chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40
MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 1.7
The principal diagonal of the determinant is the slop-
ing line of elements from left top corner a
11
to a
nn
.
Note that in the matrix representation the elements
a
ij
are enclosed between brackets [ ] or ( ) or || ||,
whereas in the determinant the elements are enclosed
between vertical lines or bars | |. For n = 2, the second
order determinant is dened by
D = detA =

a
11
a
12
a
21
a
2

= a
11
a
22
a
21
a
12
. (2)
i.e. second order determinant = difference between
the product of elements of principal diagonal and the
product of the elements of the other diagonal.
For n = 1,
D = det[a
11
] = [a
11
] = a
11
Note: Here vertical bars does not denote absolute
value. Thus det  = | 5| = 5
Minor of an element a
ij
of a matrix A, denoted by
M
ij
, is an (n 1) order determinant of the submatrix
of Aobtained by omitting the ith rowand jth column
in A.
Cofactor of an element a
ij
of a matrix A, denoted
by C
ij
, is a signed minor of a
ij
i.e. C
ij
= (1)
i+j
M
ij
Laplace Expansion
Laplace Expansion is the expansion of determinant
in terms of the cofactors. For n 2
D =
n

j=1
a
ij
C
ij
= a
i1
C
i1
+a
i2
C
i2
+ +a
in
C
in
(row wise for any i = 1, 2, . . . or n) (3)
or
D =
n

i=1
a
ij
C
ij
=a
1j
C
1j
+a
2j
C
2j
+ +a
nj
C
nj
(4)
(column wise for any j = 1, 2, . . . or n).
Thus the value of a determinant is the sum of the
products of elements of any row (or column) and
their respective cofactors. However sum of products
formed by multiplying the elements of a row (or col-
umn) of Aby the corresponding cofactors of another
row (or column) of A is zero i.e.
n

k=1
a
ik
C
jk
=
ij
|A|
or
n

k=1
a
kj
C
ki
=
ij
|A|. Here
ij
is the Kronecker
delta. So it is convenient to choose the rowor column
in the determinant with zeros in it, since these terms
in the expansion will vanish. The expansion of D by
(3) or (4) involves n! determinants since D is dened
in terms of n determinants of order (n 1), each of
which is in turn dened in terms of (n 1) determi-
nants of order (n 2) and then (n 2) determinants
of order (n 3) and so on. As the number of calcula-
tions of an nth order determinant is N(n) en!, even
for n = 25, computing time is 4 10
19
sec s 10
12
years. However with the use of several properties of
determinants which are listed below, the determinant
can be triangularized. In this case, the number of cal-
culations N(n)
2n
3
3
. For n = 25, computation time
is 0.01 second (against 10
12
years which is incredi-
ble!)
Properties of Determinants
1. If all the elements of any one row (or column) are
zero, then det A = 0.
2. If any two rows (or columns) are proportional to
each other, then det A = 0.
3. If any row (or column) is a linear combination of
other rows (or columns), then det A = 0.
4. If all the elements of any row or column are mul-
tiplied by k, giving rise to a new matrix B, then
det B = k det A.
5. If B = kA then det B = det (kA) = k
n
det A.
6. det (A
T
) = det (A).
7. In general, det (A +B) = det (A) +
det (B) i.e. determinant ( ) is not linear.
8. If any two rows (or columns) of A are inter-
changed, yielding a new matrix B then
det B = det A.
9. If k times the elements of any row (or column) in
A are added to the corresponding elements of any
row (or column) in A, giving rise to a new matrix
B, then det B = det A. This operation is written
symbolically as
chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40
1.8 MATHEMATICAL METHODS
r
i
r
i
+k r
j
i.e., elements of jth rowmultiplied by k are added
to the corresponding elements of the ith row. Here
the ith row gets modied. Similarly
c
i
c
i
+k c
j
10. If A is a (upper or lower) triangular matrix or
diagonal matrix then
det A = a
11
a
22
a
nn
i.e. value of the determinant is the product of the
diagonal elements.
11. If each element of a row (or column) consists of
m terms (two: binomials, three: trinomial etc),
then the determinant is expressed as the sum of
m determinants. Suppose any row (or column)
of A is a binomial say a = b +c then
det A|
a
= det A|
b
+det A|
c
.
Here A|
a
is the original matrix, A|
b
is the matrix
obtained from the original matrix A|
a
by replacing
a by b and similarly A|
c
by replacing a by c.
Extending this, if the elements of say three rows
(or columns) consists of m, n, p terms respectively
then the original determinants can be expressed as
the sum of m n p determinants as stated above.
Product of Determinants
12. For any n n matrices A and B
det (AB) = det (BA) = det A det B
Note: If A is singular, then AB is also singular so
det A = 0, det AB = 0. Thus 0 = 0
13. If C = det A det B, then the i, jth element of C
is obtained by multiplying the ith row(or column)
of A with jth column (or row) of B. Note that in
matrix multiplication i, jth element is obtained
by multiplying the ith row of A with jth column
of B. Whereas in determinant multiplication, ijth
element is obtained either by multiplying (ith row
of A with jth column of B) or (ith row of A with
jth rowof B) or (ith column of Awith jth column
of B) or (ithcolumnof Awithjthrowof B). Thus,
in determinant multiplication we can multiply row
by row, row by column, column by row or column
by column.
14. Derivative of a Determinant
If the elements a
ij
of a matrix A are differentiable
functions of a parameter t , then the derivative of
the determinant A equals to sum of n determinants
obtained by replacing in all possible ways the ele-
ments of one row (or column) of |A| by their deriva-
tives wrt t , i.e.
d
dt
(det A) =

da
11
dt

da
1n
dt
a
21
a
2n
.
.
.
a
n1
a
nn

a
11
a
1n
da
21
dt

da
2n
dt
.
.
.
a
n1
a
nn

+
+ +

a
11
a
1n
.
.
.
a
n1, 1
a
n+1, n
da
n1
dt

da
nn
dt

## 15. Factor Theorem

Consider an nth order functional determinant A in
which the elements a
ij
are functions of x. Suppose
for x = x

## , any two rows (or columns) of A become

equal, then det A = 0. Then det A must contain
a factor (x x

). Suppose for x = x

, k rows (or
columns) become identical then det A = 0. So con-
sequently det A must contain a factor (x x

)
k1
.
16. Singular
Amatrix Ais said to be singular if |A| = 0, otherwise
A is said to be nonsingular i.e., determinant of A is
non zero (|A| = 0).
WORKED OUT EXAMPLES
Example 1: Find all the cofactors and evaluate
A =

2 3
4 5

Solution: C
11
= cofactor of 2 = 5,
C
12
= cofactor of 3 = 4,
C
21
= cofactor of 4 = 3,
chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40
MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 1.9
C
22
= cofactor of 5 = 2
By Laplace expansion about the rst row,
|A| = 2 C
11
+3 C
12
= 2(5) +3(4)
= 10 +12 = 2
By Laplace expansion about the second row
|A| = 4 C
21
+5 C
22
= 4 (3) +5 (2)
= 12 10 = 2
|A| = (2)(5) 4(3) = 10 +12 = 2
About 2nd column, |A| = 3(+4) +5(2) = 2
Example 2: Find the minors M
21
, M
13
, cofactors
C
22
, C
32
and evaluate the determinant
|A| =

12 27 12
28 18 24
70 15 40

Solution: M
21
= minor of 28 =

27 12
15 40

## = 1080 180 = 900

M
13
= Minor of 12 =

28 18
70 15

= 840
C
22
= cofactor of 18 = (1)
2+2
M
22
=

12 12
70 40

= 360
C
32
= cofactor of 15 = (1)
3+2
M
32
=

12 12
28 24

## = (48) = 48. Expanding the determinant by ele-

ment of rst row, we have
|A| = 12(18 40 15 24) 27(28 40 70 24)
+12(28 15 70 18)
= 12(360) 27(560) +12(840) = 4320 +
15120 11080
= 9360
Example 3: Evaluate |A| by triangularization
where
|A| =

1 2 3 4
2 1 4 3
3 4 2 1
4 3 1 2

Solution: R
2
R
2
2 R
1
, R
3
R
3
3 R
1
,
R
4
R
4
4 R
1
|A|

1 2 3 4
0 3 2 5
0 2 7 11
0 5 11 14

the three rows,
|A| = (1)

3 2 5
2 7 11
5 11 14

R
2
R
2
R
1
= (1)

3 2 5
1 5 6
5 11 14

R
1
R
1
+3R
2
R
3
R
3
+5R
2
= (1)

0 17 23
1 5 6
0 36 44

## Expanding by rst column

|A| = (1) (1)(1)[17 44 23 36]
|A| = [748 828] = 80
Example 4: Evaluate
A =

0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 2 1
0 0 0 3 2 1
0 0 4 3 2 1
0 5 4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1

## Solution: Interchanging all the rows and columns

we get
|A| =|B| =

1 0 0 0 0 0
1 2 0 0 0 0
1 2 3 0 0 0
1 2 3 4 0 0
1 2 3 4 5 0
1 2 3 4 5 6

=(1234 56)
= 720
since B is an lower triangular matrix.
Example 5: Find the value of

1 15 14 4
12 6 7 9
8 10 11 5
13 3 2 16

## chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40

1.10 MATHEMATICAL METHODS
Solution: R
3
R
3
R
2
, R
4
R
4
R
1
=

1 15 14 4
12 6 7 9
4 4 4 4
12 12 12 12

## Taking 4 from 3rd row and 12 from 4th row,

= 4 12

1 15 14 4
12 6 7 9
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

;
R
4
R
4
+R
1
= 48

1 15 14 4
12 6 7 9
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0

= 48 0 = 0
since all the entries of the 4th row are zero.
Example 6: Evaluate

## a +2b a +4b a +6b

a +3b a +5b a +7b
a +4b a +6b a +8b

Solution: Performing R
3
R
3
R
2
, R
1

R
1
R
2
,

b b b
2b 2b 2b

## = 0 since the last two row

are proportional.
Example 7: Evaluate the nth order determinant
=

a b b b
b a b b

b b a b
b b b a

## Solution: Adding all the (n 1) columns to the rst

column,
=

a +(n 1)b b b
a +(n 1)b a b
a +(n 1)b b b

a +(n 1)b b a

= a +(n 1)b

1 b b b
1 a b b
1 b a b

1 b b a

when a = b, R
1
= R
2
= R
3
= = R
n
i.e. all the n
rows are identical and so determinant vanish. Thus
by factor theorem, (a b)
n1
is factor of . Thus
= (a b)
n1
[a +(n 1)b].
Example 8: Show that

a +b b +c c +a
b +c c +a a +b
c +a a +b b +c

= 2

a b c
b c a
c a b

## Solution: Here the 3 rows contains binomials. So

the given determinant can be expressed as the sum
of 2 2 2 = 8 determinants as follows.

a +b b +c c +a
b +c c +a a +b
c +a a +b b +c

a b +c c +a
b c +a a +b
c a +b b +c

+
+

b b +c c +a
c c +a a +b
a a +b b +c

a b c +a
b c a +b
c a b +c

a c c +a
b a a +b
c b b +c

b b c +a
c c a +b
a a b +c

+
+

b c c +a
c a a +b
a b b +c

## In this the 3rd determinant is zero because the 1st

and 2nd columns are identical. Then
=

a b c
b c a
c a b

a b a
b c b
c a c

a c c
b a a
c b b

+
+

a c a
b a b
c b c

b c c
c a a
a b b

b c a
c a b
a b c

a b c
b c a
c a b

b c a
c a b
a b c

## chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 1.11
Since in these 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th determinants are zero
because of identical columns.
=

a b c
b c a
c a b

+(1)(1)

a b c
b c a
c a b

= 2

a b c
b c a
c a b

## Example 9: Prove that for the nth order determi-

nant where
=

1 +a
1
a
2
a
3
a
n
a
1
1 +a
2
a
3
a
n
a
1
a
2
1 +a
3
a
n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
1
a
2
a
3
1 +a
n

= 1 +a
1
+a
2
+ +a
n
.
Solution: Performing R
2
R
2
R
1
, R
3

R
3
R
1
, . . . , R
n
R
n
R
1
(i.e. subtracting the
rst row from the remaining (n 1) rows) we get
=

1 +a
1
a
2
a
3
a
4
. . . a
n
1 1 0 0 . . . 0
1 0 1 0 . . . 0
1 0 0 1 . . . 0
. . . . . . . . .
1 0 0 0 . . . 0 1

2
, C
3
, . . . , C
n
columns to the rst column
C
1
i.e. C
1
C
1
+C
2
+C
3
+ +C
n
, we have
=

1 +a
1
+a
2
+ +a
n
a
2
a
3
a
4
. . . a
n
0 1 0 0 . . . 0
0 0 1 0 . . . 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 . . . 1

## Since this is an upper triangular matrix, = product

of the diagonal elements.
= (1 +a
1
+a
2
+ +a
n
) 1 1 . . . 1
Example 10: Solve the following equation
= |A| =

a x c b
c b x a
b a c x

= 0
or for what value of x, is zero (i.e., matrix A is
singular).
2
, C
3
columns to the rst col-
umn C
1
, i.e, C
1
C
1
+C
2
+C
3
we have
=

a x +c +b c b
c +b x +a b x a
b +a +c x a c x

= (a +b +c x)

1 c b
1 b x a
1 a c x

performing R
2
R
2
R
1
, R
3
R
3
R
1
we get
= (a +b +c x)

1 c b
0 b x c a b
0 a c c x b

= (a +b +c x) 1 [(b x c)(c x b)
(a c)(a b)].
= (a +b +c x) (x
2
a
2
b
2
c
2
+
+ ab +bc +ca).
Thus = 0 when x = a +b +c or
x =
_
a
2
+b
2
+c
2
ab bc ca
Example 11: Compute the product directly (a)
Row by column (b) Row by row (c) Column by col-
umn (d) Column by row (e) By individually, calcu-
lating the determinants where
A =

1 1 1
2 1 3
1 0 1

, B =

2 1 1
3 1 0
1 2 4

## Solution: Product of the determinants

(a) Row by column
AB =

1 1 1
2 1 3
1 0 1

2 1 1
3 1 0
1 2 4

2 0 3
4 9 14
3 3 5

= 39
(b) Row by row
AB=

1 1 1
2 1 3
1 0 1

2 1 1
3 1 0
1 2 4

2 4 3
0 7 12
1 3 3

= 39
(c) Column by column
AB =

1 1 1
2 1 3
1 0 1

2 1 1
3 1 0
1 2 4

3 5 5
1 2 1
10 4 3

= 39
chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40
1.12 MATHEMATICAL METHODS
(d) Column by row
AB =

1 1 1
2 1 3
1 0 1

2 1 1
3 1 0
1 2 4

1 5 7
1 4 1
6 0 11

= 39
(e) A = 3, B = 13, so AB = (3)(13) = 39
Example 12: Find the derivative of the determinant
wrt x (a) using formula (b) by differentiating the
value of the (expanded) determinant wrt x.
d
dx

x 1 2
x
2
2x +1 x
3
0 3x 2 x
2
+1

## Solution: (a) By formula, the derivative = sum of

3 determinants where the 1st, 2nd, 3rd rows are dif-
ferentiated respectively wrt x. Thus
d
dx

x 1 2
x
2
2x +1 x
3
0 3x 2 x
2
+1

1 0 0
x
2
2x +1 x
3
0 3x 2 x
2
+1

+
+

x 1 2
2x 2 3x
2
0 3x 2 x
2
+1

x 1 2
x
2
2x +1 x
3
0 3 2x

= [(2x +1)(x
2
+1) x
3
(3x 2)] + [x
2
(x
2
+1)
3x
2
(3x 2) 1(2x(x
2
+1) 0)+
+2(2x(3x 2))] + [x((2x +1)2x 3x
3
)
x
2
(2x 6)] = 1 6x +21x
2
+12x
3
15x
4
.
(b) Expanding the given determinant
x[(2x +1)(x
2
+1) x
3
(3x 2)]
1[x
2
(x
2
+1) 0] +2[x
2
(3x 2) 0]
= 3x
5
+3x
4
+7x
3
3x
2
+x.
So
d
dx
of determinant =
d
dx
(3x
5
+3x
4
+7x
3

3x
2
+x) = 15x
4
+12x
3
+21x
2
6x +1.
Example 13: Determine the values of x for which
matrix A is non singular given
A =
_
_
3 x 2 2
2 4 x 1
2 4 1 x
_
_
Solution:
|A| = det A =

3 x 2 2
2 4 x 1
2 4 1 x

## Expanding the determinant

|A| = (3 x)[(4 x)(1 x) +4]
2[2(1 x) +2) +2[8 +2(4 x)]
= x(x
2
6x 9) = x(x 3)
2
Then |A| = 0 when x = 0 or 3. Thus matrix A is non
singular i.e. |A| = 0 for any x other than zero and 3.
EXERCISE
1. Evaluate the following determinants
(a)

4 8
1 2

(b)

cos sin
sin cos

(c)

1 3 4
3 4 1
4 1 3

(d)

1 p p
2
1 q q
2
1 r r
2

(e)

0 1 2 3
1 0 1 2
2 1 0 3
3 2 3 0

(f)

1 1 1 1
1 2 3 4
1 3 6 10
1 4 10 20

## Ans. (a) 16 (b) 1 (c) 126

(d) qr(r q) +rp(p r) +pq(q p) (e) 4
(f) 1
2. Evaluate the determinants using triangulariza-
tion.
(a)

1 2 3 2 2
2 1 1 3 2
1 1 2 1 1
1 4 3 2 5
3 2 2 2 2

(b)

1 2 3 4
2 1 4 3
2 3 4 5
3 4 5 6

(c)

21 17 7 10
24 22 6 10
6 8 2 3
6 7 1 2

(d)

3 2 2 2
2 3 2 2
2 2 3 2
2 2 2 3

## Ans. (a) 118 (b) 304 (c) 0 (d) 9

3. Determine the values of x for which the deter-
minant is zero
(a)

x +2 2x +3 3x +4
2x +3 3x +4 4x +5
3x +5 5x +8 10x +17

## chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 1.13
(b)

1 +x 2 3 4
1 2 +x 3 4
1 2 3 +x 4
1 2 3 4 +x

(c)

x +1 2x +1 3x +1
2x 4x +3 6x +3
4x +1 6x +4 8x +4

## Ans. (a) x = 1, 1, 2 (b) x = 0, 10

(c) x = 0,
1
2
4. Find the value of the determinant
(a)

1 a b +c
1 b c +a
1 c a +b

(b)

a b c d
a b c d
a b c d
a b c d

(c)

1 a a
2
1 b b
2
1 c c
2

(d)

1 a a
2
a
3
1 b b
2
b
3
1 c c
2
c
3
1 d d
2
d
3

(e)

1 a a
2
a
3
1 b b
2
b
3
1 c c
2
c
3
1 d d
2
d
3

(f)

1 x
1
x
2
1
. . . x
n1
1
1 x
2
x
2
2
. . . x
n1
2
.
.
.
1 x
n1
x
2
n1
. . . x
n1
n1
1 x
n
x
2
n
. . . x
n1
n

## Ans. (a) 0 Hint: C

3
C
3
+C
2
, take (a +b +c)
common)
(b) 8 abcd
(Hint: R
2
+R
1
, R
3
+R
1
, R
4
+R
1
, diagonal,
product of diagonal elements)
(c) (a b)(b c)(c a)
(Hint: a = b, a = c, b = c, = 0. Assume
=L(ab)(bc)(ca), determine constant
L = 1 by comparing the diagonal element)
(e) (a b)(a c)(a d)(b c)(b d)
(c d)(a +b +c +d)
Hint: By Factor Theorem = L(a
b)(a c)(a d)(b c)(b d)(c d) since at
a = b, a = c, a = d, b = c, b = d, c = d, the
determinant is zero. Since principal diagonal is
bc
2
d
4
is of 7th degree, introduce a linear factor
(a +b +c +d), then determine L = 1.
(f) (1)
n(n1)
2
where = product of factors
(x
i
x
j
) with i < j( n).
Hint: At x
1
= x
2
, x
3
, . . . , x
n
, the = 0 so
(x
1
x
2
)(x
1
x
3
) (x
1
x
n
) are factors of
. Similarly at x
2
= x
3
, x
4
, x
n
, the = 0
so (x
2
x
3
)(x
2
x
4
) (x
2
x
n
) are factors
of and so on. At x
n1
= x
n
, the = 0, so
(x
n1
x
n
) is a factor of . Compare the prin-
cipal diagonal term to get the value of the con-
stant coefcient.
5. Prove that

1 +a 1 1 1
1 1 +b 1 1
1 1 1 +c 1
1 1 1 1 +d

=
abcd
_
1 +
1
a
+
1
b
+
1
c
+
1
d
_
Hint: Take a, b, c, d common from
R
1
, R
2
, R
3
, R
4
2
, R
3
, R
4
to R
1
,
take common 1 +
1
a
+
1
b
+
1
c
+
1
d
, subtract C
1
from C
2
, C
3
, C
4
.
6. Evaluate

a
2
ab b
2
+x bc bd
ac bc c
2
+x cd
2
+x

Ans. x
3
(a
2
+b
2
+c
2
+d
2
+x)
Hint: Divide by abcd, multiply C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
by a, b, c, d. Take a, b, c, d common from
R
1
, R
2
, R
3
, R
4
2
, C
3
, C
4
to C
1
, subtract
R
1
from R
2
, R
3
, R
4
7. Find

(b +c)
2
a
2
a
2
b
2
(c +a)
2
b
2
c
2
c
2
(a +b)
2

## Ans. 2abc(a +b +c)

3
Hint: a, b, c, are factors (i.e. = 0 when a =
0) (a +b +c)
2
is factor since 3 columns are
equal, when a +b +c = 0. Principal diagonal
6th degree so (a +b +c) is also a factor.
8. Show that

a +b c c
a b +c a
b b c +a

= 4abc
Hint: Expand into 8 determinants
chap-1 B.V.Ramana August 30, 2006 9:40
1.14 MATHEMATICAL METHODS
9. Show that

a b a b
b a b a
c d c d
d c d c

= 4(a
2
+b
2
)(c
2
+d
2
)
1
to C
3
, C
2
to C
4
. Take 2 2 = 4
common. Then subtract C
3
from C
1
, C
4
from
C
2
expand
10. Show that

2b
1
+c
1
c
1
+3a
1
2a
1
+3b
1
2b
2
+c
2
c
2
+3a
2
2a
2
+3b
2
2b
3
+c
3
c
3
+3a
3
2a
3
+3b
3

= 31

a
1
b
1
c
1
a
2
b
2
c
2
a
3
b
3
c
3

## Hint: Expand into 8 determinants, 27D +4D,

remaining six determinants are zeros
11. Find the product of the determinants

2 1 1
3 1 0
1 2 4

and

1 3 4
2 1 0
0 1 3

## Ans. (13)(13) = 169

12. If A=

2 1 1
1 2 1
0 1 0

, B =

1
2
0 1
1 0 1
1 2 3

. Then com-
pute 15A
2
2AB B
2
without calculating A
and B independently
Ans. 15 1 2 1 1 = 12
Hint: A
2
=

2 1 1
1 2 1
0 1 0

2 1 1
1 2 1
0 1 0

6 5 1
5 6 2
1 2 1

= 1
Similarly AB =

0 1 7
1
2
0 8
0 0 2

= 1,
B
2
=
1
4

5 3 5
3 2 2
5 2 14

= 1
13. Find the derivatives of

x
2
x
3
2x 3x +1

Ans. 2x +9x
2
8x
3
14. Find the derivative of

x
2
x +1 3
1 2x 1 x
3
0 x 2

## Ans. 5 +4x 12x

2
6x
5
15. Evaluate

b
2
+ac bc c
2
ab 2ac bc
a
2
ab b
2
+ac

Ans. 4a
2
b
2
c
2
Hint: |A| =

b c 0
a 0 c
0 a b

2
16. Obtain all solutions of the following equations.
(a)

1 3 x
2x 3 1 x 3x +1
2 x 2

= 9x 28
(b)

1 x x +2 x 2 100
0 x x 2 x +2 100
0 0 x +2 x 2 100
0 0 0 x 2 x +2
0 0 0 0 100

= 0
Ans. (a) x = 1, 3i (b) x = 0, 2