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CEMENT AND ITS TYPES

Since the spread of Portland cement, cement mortars have progressively


displaced lime mortars as sole binder. That has led not only to enhanced mechanical
performance (compressive strength, tensile strength, cohesion, etc.), but also to
increased stiffness of the elements in which they are used.

On the other hand, the cement industry has evolved greatly since Aspdins patent
in 1824. The cement industry supplied different varieties of cement until about 1950
when, in the U.S.A., a new composition was introduced in which rubber and organic
chemistry entered the formulation of cementitious adhesives. This opened up a new
phase, in which the physical and chemical properties of cement-based mortars and
concrete changed substantially.

Addressing cement mortars means focusing on their two constituents, cement
and aggregates.

Cement

Appropriate proportions of limestone and clay play a key role in cement
manufacture. After these raw materials have been crushed and sieved, they are fed into a
drum, rotating at 2 rpm, into which fuel is sprayed counter-current and temperatures
above 500 C are reached. The claylimestone mixture thus fuses, yielding so-called
clinker (blackish grey hazelnut-sized spheres).

After the clinker has cooled, it is ground in continuous mills. The Spanish
Instruction on Cement Reception (RC-97) establishes the following types of cement:

Common cements, CEM, basically consisting of Portland cement clinker,
together with a small quantity of gypsum (setting retardant). Once the
appropriate fineness has been reached, these materials are stored in silos
until they are marketed and sold.
White cements, BL, which are common cements with a particular
composition and whiteness index.
Cements for special uses, ESP. In these cements, Portland cement clinker is
of secondary importance compared with the slag, pozzolana, or fly ash
additions.
Calcium aluminate cement, CAC/R. These cements have high calcium
aluminate contents (aluminous cements).
Cements with additional characteristics. Though these cements are of the
foregoing types, they also display additional characteristics, such as
resistance to sulphates and/or seawater (SR and/or MR) or low hydration
heat (BC).

The above Instruction establishes the specifications to be met by the different
types of cement.

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Cement and its types
The use of these types of cement is related to their intended application. In
general, CEM common cements are used for mortars and, when required, BL white
cements are used. The other types of cements are used in concrete for specific
applications.

CEM common cements

Portland cement clinker, described above, constitutes the basis of common
cement compositions, to which other admixtures of differing nature are added
depending on the particular case involved. Table 1 presents a complete classification of
common cements and their designations according to RC-97.

TYPES OF COMMON CEMENTS AND COMPOSITIONS: QUANTITY IN MASS (
1
)
TYPE OF
CEMENT
NAME DESIGNATION CLINKER

K
BLAST
FURNACE
SLAG

S
SILICA
FUME

D
NATURAL
POZZOLANA

P
FLY ASH

V
LIME-
STONE


L
ADDITIONAL
MINOR
CONSTITUENTS
(
2
)
CEM I Portland cement CEM I
95100
- - - - -
05
Portland cement
with slag
CEM II/A-S
CEM II/B-S
8094
6579
620
2135
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
05
05
Portland cement
with silica fume
CEM II/A-D
9094
-
610
- - -
05
Portland cement
with pozzolana
CEM II/A-P
CEM II/B-P
8094
6579
-
-
-
-
620
2135
-
-
-
-
05
05
Portland cement
with fly ash
CEM II/A-V
CEM II/B-V
8094
6579
-
-
-
-
-
-
620
2135
-
-
05
05
Portland cement
with limestone
CEM II/A-L
8094
- - - -
620 05
CEM II
Mixed Portland
cement (
3
)
CEM II/A-M
CEM II/B-M
8094
6579
620 (
4
)
(5
)
2135 (
4
)(
5
)(
6
)
CEM III Blast furnace
cement
CEM III/A
CEM III/B
3564
2034
3665
6680
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
05
05
CEM IV Pozzolanic
cement
CEM IV/A
CEM IV/B
6589
4564
-
-
1135 (
4
)
3655 (
4
)
-
-
05
05
CEM V Composite
cement
CEM V/A
4064 1830
-
1830
-
05
(
1
) The values in the table refer to the cement core, involving the clinker and additions, excluding calcium sulphate (setting
regulator) and admixtures
(
2
) The minor additional constituents can include a filler, or one or more of the main constituents, unless they are already
included as such in the cement
(
3
) When some mixed Portland cement, because of its composition, can be included in any foregoing type II cement, it shall
state the name and designation corresponding to that type.
(
4
) The silica fume content is limited to 10%.
(
5
) The filler content is limited to 5%.
(
6
) The limestone content is limited to 20%.

Table 1

Table 2 details the physical characteristics of common cements, according to the
strength classes. The number that identifies the class corresponds to the compressive
strength of the cement at 28 days, expressed in newton by square millimetre (N/mm
2
) or
megapascals (MPa).
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Cement and its types

Note:

The pascal (Pa) is the SI (Systme International dUnits) unit of pressure.
1 Pascal Pa = 1 N/m
2
1 Megapascal (MPa) = 10
6
Pa

MPa 1 Pa 10 N/m 10
m 0.000001
N 1
N/mm 1
6 2 6
2
2
= = = =

N/mm
2
is another unit of pressure, like kg/cm
2
.
MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS OF COMMON CEMENTS
Compressive strength N/mm
2
Setting time
Initial strength Strength
class
Two days Seven
days
Standard strength
Twenty-eight days
Start
minutes
End
Hours
Expansion
mm
32.5 - - - > 16.5
32.5 R (
1
) > 13.5 - - -
> 32.5 < 52.5
42.5 > 13.5 - - -
42.5 R (
1
) > 20.0 - - -
> 42.5 < 62.5
> 60
52.5 > 20.0 - - -
52.5 R (
1
) > 30.0 - - -
> 52.5 - - - > 45
< 12 < 10
(
1
) R = High initial strength
Table 2

Table 3 details the chemical characteristics of common cements and of the
specifications they must meet.

CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS OF COMMON CEMENTS
Characteristics Test method Type of cement Strength
class
Percentage in
mass
Loss on ignition UNE-EN 196-2
CEM I
CEM III
All < 5.00
Insoluble residue
UNE-EN 196-2
Chap. 9
CEM I
CEM III
All < 5.00
32.5
32.5 R
(2)

42.5
< 3.50
CEM I
CEM II
(1)


CEM IV
CEM V
42.5 R
(2)

52.5
52.5 R
(2)

Sulphate content
(expressed in SO
3
)
UNE-EN 196-2
CEM III All
< 4.00
Chloride content (Cl
-
) UNE 80 217 All
(3)
All < 0.10
Pozzolanicity UNE-EN 196-5 CEM IV All pass the test
(1) This indication affects all CEM II/A and CEM II/B cements, including composite Portland cements that contain a single
major component, such as II/A-S or II/B-V
(2) R = High initial strength
(3) Type III cement can contain more than 0.10% in chlorides: however, in that case, the packaging and delivery notes shall
state the actual chloride content
Table 3
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Cement and its types
Comments

The definitions and general characteristics of common cements laid down in the
RC-97 Instruction and included in UNE 80301:96, which is cited in the Instruction,
practically match those set out in European standard EN 197-1.

Standard UNE 80301:96 presents the definitions and characteristics of common cement
constituents, and also specifies the mechanical, physical, and chemical requirements
applicable to the different types and classes.

BL white cements

Standard UNE 80305:96 defines white cements as cements belonging to types I,
II, and V, whose compositional contents in mass are specified in Table 4 and whose
whiteness index, determined by the method in standard UNE 80117:87, is 75% or
higher.

TYPES OF WHITE CEMENTS AND COMPOSITION
TYPES
QUANTITIES IN
% IN MASS (
1
)
Name Designation Clinker Additions
White Portland cements BL I 95100 05
White Portland cements with additions BL II 7594 625
White cements for floors BL V 4074 2660
(
1
) The values in the table refer to the cement core, involving the clinker and additions, excluding
calcium sulphate (setting regulator) and admixtures.
Table 4

Tables 5 and 6 present, respectively, the physical and chemical specifications of
white cements.

MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF WHITE CEMENTS
Compressive strength N/mm
2
Setting time
Strength
class Two days Twenty-eight days
Start
minutes
End
Hours
Expansion
millimetres
Whiteness
Percentage
22.5 - - -
42.5 > 13.5
> 32.5 < 52.5
42.5 R (
1
) > 20.0
52.5 > 20.0
> 42.5 < 62.5
> 60 < 12 < 10 > 75
(
1
) R = High initial strength
Table 5
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Cement and its types

CHEMICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF WHITE CEMENTS
Types
Characteristics BL I
Percentage
BL II
Percentage
BL V
Percentage
Loss on ignition < 5.0 - - - - - -
Insoluble residue < 5.0 - - - - - -
Sulphate content (expressed in SO
3
) < 4.5 < 4.0 < 3.5
Chloride content (Cl
-
) < 0.10
Table 6

ESP cements for special uses

These cements are intended for large, solid, mass concrete objects, road bases
and sub-bases, and floor stabilisation, as set out in standard UNE 80307:96. This type
of cement should never be used to fabricate reinforced or prestressed concrete for
structural use. The compositions of the types described in the standard are detailed in
Table 7.

The compressive strengths (22.5/32.5/42.5 MPa) of these cements are
determined at 90 days.

TYPES OF CEMENTS FOR SPECIAL USES AND COMPOSITIONS: QUANTITY IN MASS
(1)

Type of
cement
Designation Clinker Blast
furnace
slag
Natural
pozzolana
(
2
)
Fly ash Additional minor
constituents (
3
)
ESP VI-1 VI-1 2555 4575 05
ESP VI-2 VI-2 2540 3045 3045 05
(
1
) The values in the table refer to the cement core, involving the clinker and additions, excluding calcium sulphate (setting
regulator) and admixtures
(
2
) The natural pozzolana content shall not exceed 40% for ESP VI-1 type cement.
(
3
) The minor additional constituents can include a filler, or one or more of the main constituents, unless they are already
included as such in the cement.
Table 7

CAC/R calcium aluminate cements

They solely consist of calcium aluminate clinker, based on aluminous and
calcareous raw materials. They are very fast hardening. They cannot be used in
prestressed concrete. An informative Annex to standard UNE 80310:96 describes the
principles for use.

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Cement and its types
Cements with additional characteristics

These are cements resistant to sulphates and/or seawater (SR and/or MR),
defined in standard UNE 80303:96, and cements with low hydration heat (BC), defined
in UNE 80306:96.


Masonry cements

These do not entail a further contribution to the classification, because they are
essentially CEM I common cements. A group of industrially fabricated cements are
involved, intended for use in masonry mortars. Owing to their importance, they are
subject to specific regulations in Spain and the European Union (EN 413-1 and
EN 413-2). Table 8 describes masonry cement types, designations, and strength classes.

MASONRY CEMENTS
Type Strength class (*) Aerating agent
MC 5 5 Required
MC 12.5 12.5 Required
MC 12.5X 12.5 Not authorised
MC 22.5X 22.5 Not authorised
(*) Compressive strength in N/mm
2
or MPa
Table 8

Setting time for these cements shall be between 60 minutes (setting start) and 15
hours (setting end), and they shall have a water retention capability between 80 and
95% in mass (according to chapter 5 of standard EN 413-2).

The designations of the cements are also standardised, including type and
strength class and, where appropriate, additional characteristics, followed by the
corresponding UNE reference standard.


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Cement and its types
Traditional mortars 7
Cement and its types
Examples:

CEM I 42.5 R UNE 80301:96 Portland cement of strength class 42.5 N/mm
2

with high initial strength
CEM IV/A 32.5 UNE 80301:96 Pozzolanic cement, type IV/A, of strength class
32.5N/mm
2

BL V 22.5 UNE 80305:96 White cement, type V, of strength class
22.5 N/mm
2

ESP VI-1 32.5 UNE 80307:96 Cement for special uses with a maximum clinker
content of 55%, of strength class 32.5 N/mm
2

IV/A 32.5 SR UNE 80303:96 Pozzolanic cement, type IV/A, of strength class
32.5 N/mm
2
, and sulphate resistance

Note. The common cements that have an additional characteristic do not bear the letters CEM in
their designation. They do, however, state the abbreviations for the additional characteristic
after the strength class (separated by a slash): BC (low hydration heat), MR (resistant to
seawater), or SR (resistant to sulphates).

BL V 22.5/BC UNE 80305/6:96 White cement, type V, of strength class
22.5 N/mm
2
, and low hydration heat

Note. The additional characteristics have their own standard. In order to avoid excessively long
names, the reference to the cement standard and to that of the standard of the additional
characteristic are recast, the former being designated in its entirety together with the last
digit of latter, separated by a slash. If there are several additional characteristics, the same
approach is adopted, the last digit of each standard being included, separated by slashes.

ESP VI-1 32.5/BC UNE 80307/6:96 ESP VI-1 cement for special uses, of strength
class 32.5 N/mm
2
, and low hydration heat.

The cements are supplied in bulk, using special transport and storage equipment,
or in 25 or 50 kg bags. The bags shall carry the following information:

Cement designation, as described above
Quality mark, where appropriate
Mass in kilograms
Brand or trademark, factory of origin and, where appropriate, distribution
centre

This packaging information is completed by identification in the delivery notes,
regarding which the RC-97 Instruction on Cement Reception is quite strict.