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2012 Political Law Bar Exam Questions and Answers

Set 2 Essay
I.
Mr. Violet was convicted by the RTC of Estafa. On appeal, he filed with the Court of Appeals a Motion to Fi !ail for
"rovisional #iberty "endin$ Appeal. The Court of Appeals $ranted the %otion and set a bail a%ount in the su% of Five &'(
Million "esos, sub)ect to the conditions that he secure *a certification+$uaranty fro% the Mayor of the place of his
residence that he is a resident of the area and that he will re%ain to be a resident therein until final )ud$%ent is rendered
or in case he transfers residence, it %ust be with prior notice to the court*. Further, he was ordered to surrender his
passport to the ,ivision Cler- of Court for safe-eepin$ until the court orders its return.
a. Mr. Violet challen$es the conditions i%posed by the Court of Appeals as violative of his liberty of abode and ri$ht
to travel. ,ecide with reasons. &'.(
b. Are *liberty of abode* and *the ri$ht to travel* absolute ri$hts/ Eplain. 0hat are the respective eception+s to
each ri$ht if any/ &'.(
SUGGESE! A"S#E$
a. %e ri&%t to c%an&e a'ode and t%e ri&%t to tra(el are not a'solute. %e li'erty o) c%an&in& a'ode may 'e
un*aired u*on order o) t%e court. %e order o) t%e +ourt o) A**eals is law)ul, 'ecause *ur*ose is to
ensure t%at t%e accused will 'e a(aila'le w%ene(er %is *resence is re-uired. .e is not 'ein& *re(ented
)rom c%an&in& its a'ode. .e is merely 'ein& re-uired to in)orm t%e +ourt o) A**eals i) %e does. /0a* (s.
+ourt o) A**eals, 123 S+$A 245.6
'. %e li'erty o) a'ode and t%e ri&%t to tra(el are not a'solute. %e li'erty o) a'ode and c%an&in& it can 'e
im*osed wit%in t%e limits *rescri'ed 'y law u*on law)ul order o) t%e court. %e ri&%t to tra(el may 'e
un*aired in t%e interest o) national security, *u'lic sa)ety, or *u'lic %ealt% as may 'e *ro(ided 'y law.
/Section 4, Article III o) t%e +onstitution.6 in addition, t%e court %as t%e in%erent *ower to restrict t%e ri&%t
o) an accused w%o %as *endin& criminal case to tra(el a'road to maintain its 7urisdiction o(er %im.
/Santia&o (s. 8as-ue9, 21: S+$A 411.6
II.
A verified i%peach%ent co%plaint was filed by two hundred &122( Me%bers of the 3ouse of Representatives a$ainst
Mada% Chief 4ustice !lue. The co%plaint was i%%ediately trans%itted to the 5enate for trial.
a. Mada% Chief 4ustice !lue challen$es such i%%ediate trans%ittal to the 5enate because the verified co%plaint 6(
not included in the order of business of the 3ouse, 1( was not referred to the 3ouse Co%%ittee on 4ustice for
hearin$ and consideration for sufficiency in for% and substance, and 7( was not sub%itted to the 3ouse "lenary
for consideration as enu%erated in "ara$raph &1(, 5ection 7, Article 89 of the 6:;< Constitution. ,ecide with
reasons. &'.(
b. 0hat is the purpose of 9%peach%ent/ ,oes conviction prevent further prosecution and punish%ent/ Eplain.
&7.(
c. Enu%erate the $rounds for i%peach%ent. 9s $raft and corruption a $round for i%peach%ent/ &1.(
SUGGESE! A"S#E$
a. Since %e (eri)ied com*laint was )iled 'y 200 ;em'ers o) t%e .ouse o) $e*resentati(es and t%ey
constituted at least one t%ird o) its ;em'ers, it need not under&o t%e *rocedure in Para&ra*% 2, Section 1,
Article <I o) t%e +onstitution. %e (eri)ied com*laint constitutes t%e Articles o) Im*eac%ment, and trial 'y
t%e Senate s%ould *roceed )or%twit%. /Section 1/56, Article <I o) t%e +onstitution.6
'. %e *ur*ose o) im*eac%ment is not to *unis% 'ut only to remo(e a *u'lic o))icer to secure t%e *eo*le
a&ainst &ross *olitical misdemeanors. /Bernas, %e 1=3: +onstitution o) t%e P%ili**ines, A +ommentary,
200= ed., *. 1120.6 +on(iction does not *re(ent )urt%er *rosecution and *unis%ment. %e *erson
1
con(icted is su'7ect to *rosecution and *unis%ment accordin& to law. /Section 1/:6, Article <I o) t%e
+onstitution.6
c. %e )ollowin& are t%e &rounds )or im*eac%ment>
16 +ul*a'le (iolation o) t%e +onstitution?
26 reason?
16 Bri'ery?
56 Gra)t and +orru*tion?
26 @t%er %i&% crimes? and
46 Betrayal o) *u'lic trust
III.
Mr. !rown, a ci$arette vendor, was invited by "O6 0hite to a nearby police station. =pon arrivin$ at the police station,
!rown was as-ed to stand side>by>side with five &'( other ci$arette vendors in a police line>up. "O6 0hite infor%ed the%
that they were loo-in$ for a certain ci$arette vendor who snatched the purse of a passer>by and the line>up was to allow
the victi% to point at the vendor who snatched her purse. ?o @uestions were to be as-ed fro% the vendors.
a. !rown, afraid of a *set up* a$ainst hi%, de%anded that he be allowed to secure his lawyer and for hi% to be
present durin$ the police line>up. 9s !rown entitled to counsel/ Eplain &'.(
b. 0ould the answer in &a.( be the sa%e if !rown was specifically invited by 0hite because an eyewitness to the
cri%e identified hi% as the perpetrator/ Eplain. &7.(
c. !riefly enu%erate the so>called *Miranda Ri$hts*. &1.(
SUGGESE! A"S#E$
a. Brown is not entitled to counsel durin& t%e *olice lineAu*. .e was not yet 'ein& asBed toanswer )or a
criminal o))ense. /Gam'oa (s. +ru9, 142 S+$A 452.6
'. Brown would 'e entitled to t%e assistance o) a lawyer. .e was already considered as a sus*ect and was
t%ere)ore entitled to t%e ri&%ts under custodial in(esti&ation. /Peo*le (s. Le&as*i, 111 S+$A =2.6
c. %e ;iranda warnin& means t%at a *erson in custody w%o will 'e interro&ated must 'e in)ormed o) t%e
)ollowin&>
16 .e %as t%e ri&%t to remain silent?
26 Anyt%in& said can 'e used as e(idenced a&ainst %im?
16 .e %as t%e ri&%t to %a(e counsel durin& t%e in(esti&ation? and
56 .e must 'e in)ormed t%at i) %e is indi&ent, a lawyer will 'e a**ointed to re*resent %im. /;iranda
(s. Ari9ona, 135 U.S. 514.6
I8.
2
Mr. Aellow and Mr. Oran$e were the leadin$ candidates in the vice>presidential elections. After elections, Aellow e%er$ed
as the winner by a sli% %ar$in of 622,222 votes. =ndaunted, Oran$e filed a protest with the "residential Electoral
Tribunal &"ET(. After due consideration of the facts and the issues, the "ET ruled that Oran$e was the real winner of the
elections and ordered his i%%ediate procla%ation.
a. A$$rieved, Aellow filed with the 5upre%e Court a "etition for Certiorari challen$in$ the decision of the "ET
alle$in$ $rave abuse of discretion. ,oes the 5upre%e Court have )urisdiction/ Eplain. &7.(
b. 0ould the answer in &a.( be the sa%e if Aellow and Oran$e were contendin$ for a senatorial slot and it was the
5enate Electoral Tribunal &5ET( who issued the challen$ed rulin$/ &7.(
c. 0hat is the co%position of the "ET/ &1.(
d. 0hat is )udicial power/ Eplain !riefly. &1.(
SUGGESE! A"S#E$
a. %e Su*reme +ourt %as no 7urisdiction o(er t%e *etition. %e Presidential Electoral ri'unal is not sim*ly
an a&ency to w%ic% t%e ;em'ers o) t%e Senate +ourt were assi&ned. It is not se*arate )rom t%e Su*reme
+ourt. /;acalintal (s. Presidential Electoral ri'unal, 411 S+$A 21=.6
'. %e Su*reme +ourt would %a(e 7urisdiction i) it were t%e Senate Electoral ri'unal w%o issued t%e
c%allen&ed rulin&. %e Su*reme +ourt can re(iew its decision i) it acted wit% &ra(e a'use o) discretion.
/Lerias (s. .ouse o) $e*resentati(es Electoral ri'unal, 202 S+$A 303.6
c. %e Presidential Electoral ri'unal is com*osed o) t%e +%ie) Custice and t%e Associate Custices o) t%e
Su*reme +ourt Sittin& en banc. /Section 5, Article 8II o) t%e +onstitution.6
d. Cudicial Power D Sec.1/16 Art. 3 is t%e aut%ority to settle 7usticia'le contro(ersies or dis*utes in(ol(in&
ri&%ts t%at are en)orcea'le and demanda'le 'e)ore t%e courts o) 7ustice or t%e redress o) wron&s )or
(iolation o) suc% ri&%ts. /Lo*e9 (s. $oxas, 1: S+$A :24.6 it includes t%e duty o) t%e courts to settle actual
contro(ersies in(ol(in& ri&%ts w%ic% are le&ally demanda'le and en)orcea'le, and to determine w%et%er
or not t%ere %as a &ra(e a'use o) discretion amountin& to lacB or excess o) 7urisdiction on t%e *art o) any
'ranc% or instrumentality o) t%e &o(ernment. /Section 1, Article 8III o) +onstitution.6
8.
4ud$e Red is the Eecutive 4ud$e of Breen City. Red is -nown to have corrupt tendencies and has a reputation widely
-nown a%on$ practicin$ lawyers for acceptin$ bribes. O%buds%an Brey, wishin$ to *clean up* the $overn%ent fro%
errant public officials, initiated an investi$ation on the alle$ed irre$ularities in the perfor%ance of duties of 4ud$e Red.
a. 4ud$e Red refused to reco$niCe the authority of the Office of the O%buds%an over hi% because accordin$ to
hi%, any ad%inistrative action a$ainst hi% or any court official or e%ployee falls under the eclusive )urisdiction of
the 5upre%e Court. ,ecide with reasons. &'.(
b. ,oes the O%buds%an have authority to conduct investi$ation over cri%es or offenses co%%itted by public
officials that are ?OT in connection or related at all to the officialDs dischar$e of his duties and functions/ Eplain.
&7.(
c. 0ho are re@uired by the Constitution to sub%it a declaration under oath of his assets, liabilities, and net worth/
&1.(
SUGGESE! A"S#E$
a. Since t%e com*laint re)ers to t%e *er)ormance o) t%e duties o) Cud&e $ed, @m'udsman Grey s%ould not
act on it and s%ould re)er it to t%e Su*reme +ourt. .is in(esti&ation will encroac% u*on t%e exclusi(e
3
*ower o) administrati(e su*er(ision o) t%e Su*reme +ourt o(er all courts. /;aceda (s. 8as-ue9, 221
S+$A 545.6
'. %e @m'udsman can in(esti&ate crimes or o))enses committed 'y *u'lic o))icers w%ic% are not
connected wit% t%e *er)ormance o) t%eir duties. Under Section 11/16, Article <I o) t%e +onstitution, t%e
@m'udsman can in(esti&ate any act or omission o) a *u'lic o))icial w%ic% is ille&al. /!eloso (s. !omin&o,
1=1 S+$A 252.6
c. All *u'lic o))icers and em*loyees are re-uired to su'mit a declaration under oat% o) t%eir assets,
lia'ilities and net wort%. /Section 1:, Article <I o) t%e +onstitution.6
8I.
"resident !lac- of the Republic of "asensya &R"( had a telephone conversation with "resident !lue of the "eopleDs
Republic of Con@uerors &"RC(. 9n that conversation, both leaders a$reed that they will both pull>out all their vessels,
civilian or otherwise, sea crafts and other ships fro% the hotly disputed Eal%ado 5hoal area within ei$ht &;( days in order
to de>escalate the situation. After ei$ht days, all R" ships and vessels have left the area. 3owever, several %ilitary and
civilian ships carryin$ the "RC fla$ re%ained in the area and be$an construction of a doc- that could provide fuel and
other supplies to vessels passin$ by.
a. Assu%in$ that "resident !lac- and "resident !lue both had full capacity to represent their states and ne$otiate
with each other under their respective syste%s of $overn%ent, and further assu%in$ that both leaders
ac-nowled$e the eistence of the conversation, is the verbal a$ree%ent via telephone bindin$ under international
law/ Eplain. &'.(
b. Assu%in$ the answer to &a.( is in affir%ative, does that a$ree%ent constitute a Treaty under the 6:F: Vienna
Convention on the #aw on Treaties/ &1.(
c. 0hat are the sources of 9nternational #aw/ &1.(
d. 0hat is opinio juris in 9nternational #aw/ &6.(
SUGGESE! A"S#E$
a. %e (er'al a&reement 'y tele*%one is 'indin& 'etween t%e *arties on t%e 'asis o) customary international
law. /In 1==2 t%e dis*ute 'etween !enmarB and Einland a'out t%e construction o) a 'rid&e was settled 'y
a tele*%one con(ersation 'etween t%e !anis% and Einnis% Prime ;inisters. In return )or *ayment 'y
!enmarB, Einland a&reed to discontinue t%e case )iled. /Aust, ;odern reaty Law and Practice, *.:.66
'. %e (er'al a&reement does not constitute a treaty under t%e 8ienna +on(ention on t%e Law o) treaties.
Article 1 re-uires t%at )or an international a&reement to 'e a treaty, it must 'e in written )orm.
c. %e )ollowin& are t%e sources o) international law>
16 International con(entions, w%et%er &eneral or *articular, esta'lis%in& rules ex*ressly reco&ni9ed
'y t%e contestin& states?
26 International custom, as e(idence o) a &eneral *ractice acce*ted as law?
16 %e &eneral *rinci*les o) law reco&ni9ed 'y ci(ili9ed nation?
d. o esta'lis% customary international law, two elements must concur> General state *ractice and opinio
juris sire necessitatis. State *ractice re)ers to t%e continuous re*etition o) t%e same or similar Bind o)acts
or norms 'ystates. Opinio juris re-uires t%at t%e state *ractice or norm 'e carried out in suc% a way as to
'e e(idence o) t%e 'elie) t%at it is o'li&atory 'y t%e existence o) a rule o) law re-uirin& it. /Bayan ;una (s.
$omulo, 451 S+$A 255.6
4
8II.
Mayor "in- is eyein$ re>election in the net %ayoralty race. 9t was co%%on -nowled$e in the town that Mayor "in- will run
for re>election in the co%in$ elections. The deadline for filin$ of Certificate of Candidacy &CoC( is on March 17 and the
ca%pai$n period co%%ences the followin$ day. One %onth before the deadline, "in- has yet to file her CoC, but she has
been $oin$ around town $ivin$ away sac-s of rice with the words *Mahal Tayo ni Mayor "in-* printed on the%, holdin$
public $atherin$s and spea-in$ about how $ood the town is doin$, $ivin$ away pin- t>shirts with *Eay Mayor "in- A-o*
printed on the%.
a. Mr. Breen is the political opponent of Mayor "in-. 9n April, noticin$ that Mayor "in- had $ained advanta$e over
hi% because of her activities before the ca%pai$n period, he filed a petition to dis@ualify Mayor "in- for en$a$in$
in an election ca%pai$n outside the desi$nated period.
a.6. 0hich is the correct body to rule on the %atter/ Co%elec en banc, or Co%elec division/ Answer with
reasons. &1.(
a.1. Rule on the petition. &'.(
b. ,istin$uish briefly between Guo 0arranto in elective office and Guo 0arranto in appointive office. &7.(
SUGGESE! A"S#E$
a.1. It is t%e +ommission on elections en 'anc w%ic% s%ould decide t%e *etition. Since it in(ol(es t%e exercise o)
t%e administrati(e *owers o) t%e +ommission on Elections, Section 1, Article I<A+ o) t%e +onstitution is not
a**lica'le. /Baytan (s. +ommission on Elections, 1=4 S+$A :01.6
a.2. %e *etition s%ould 'e denied. Under Section 30 o) t%e @mni'us Election +ode, to 'e lia'le )or *remature
cam*ai&nin& %e must 'e a candidate. Unless %e )iled %is certi)icate o) candidacy, %e is not a candidate. /Lanot (s.
+ommission on Elections, 20: S+$A 115.6
'. In -uo warranto in electi(e o))ice, t%e issue is t%e ineli&i'ility o) t%e elected candidate. /Section 1/e6, $ule 1,
$ules o) Procedure in Election +ases.6 I) %e is ineli&i'le, t%e candidate w%o &ot t%e second %i&%est num'er o)
(otes cannot 'e *roclaimed elected. /Sinsuat (s. +ommission on Elections, 5=2 S+$A 245.6 A (oter may )ile a
*etition )or -uo warranto a&ainst an elected candidate. %e *etition s%ould 'e )iled wit%in ten days a)ter t%e
*roclamation o) t%e elected candidate.
In -uo warranto in a**ointi(e o))ice, t%e issue is t%e le&ality o) t%e a**ointment. %e court will decide w%o
'etween t%e *arties %as t%e le&al title to t%e o))ice. /"ac%ura, @utline $e(iewer in Political Law, *.24:.6
It is t%e Solicitor General, a *u'lic *rosecutor, or a *erson claimin& to 'e entitled to t%e *u'lic o))ice can )ile a
*etition )or -uo warranto a&ainst an a**ointi(e o))icial. /Section 2 and 2, $ule 44 o) t%e $ules o) +ourt.6 %e
Petition s%ould 'e )iled wit%in one year a)ter t%e cause o) action accrued. /Section 11, $ule 44 o) t%e $ules o)
+ourt.6
8III.
a. 0hat is the doctrine of *overbreath*/ 9n what contet can it be correctly applied/ ?ot correctly applied/ Eplain
&'.(
b. 0hat is the doctrine of *void for va$ueness*/ 9n what contet can it be correctly applied/ ?ot correctly applied/
Eplain &'.(
5
SUGGESE! A"S#E$
a. A statute is o(er'road w%en a &o(ernmental *ur*ose to control or *re(ent acti(ities constitutionally
su'7ect to state re&ulations is sou&%t to 'e ac%ie(ed 'y means w%ic% swee* unnecessarily 'roadly and
in(ade t%e area o) *rotected )reedom. It a**lies 'ot% to )ree s*eec% cases and *enal statutes. .owe(er, a
)acial c%allen&e on t%e &round o) o(er'readt% can only 'e made in )ree s*eec% cases 'ecause o) its
c%illin& e))ect u*on *rotected s*eec%. A )acial c%allen& on t%e &round o) o(er'readt% is not a**lica'le to
*enal statutes, 'ecause in &eneral t%ey %a(e an in terrorem e))ect. /Sout%ern .emis*%ere En&a&ement
"etworB, Inc. (s. AntiAerrorism +ouncil, 412 S+$A 154.6 /"@E> %e word Fo(er'reat%G s%ould read
Fo(er'readt%G 'ecause 'reat% %as no limit es*ecially i) it is 'ad 'reat%.6
'. A statute is (a&ue w%en it lacBs com*re%ensi'le standards t%at men o) common intelli&ence t%at &uess at
its meanin& and di))er as to its a**lication. It a**lies to 'ot% )ree s*eec% cases and *enal statutes.
.owe(er, a )acial c%allen&e on t%e &round o) (a&ueness can 'e made only in )ree s*eec% cases. It does
not a**ly to *enal statutes. /Sout%ern .emis*%ere En&a&ement "etworB, Inc. (s. AntiAerrorism +ouncil,
412 S+$A 154.6
I<.
9n a protest rallyH alon$ "adre Faura 5treet, Manila, "edron$ "ula too- up the sta$e and be$an shoutin$ *-ayon$ %$a
-ura-ot -ayoI Ma$si>resi$n na -ayoI Eun$ hindi, %an$$u$ulo -a%i ditoI* &*you corrupt officials, you better resi$n now, or
else we will cause trouble hereI*( si%ultaneously, he brou$ht out a roc- the siCe of aJ fist and pretended to hurl it at the
fla$pole area of a $overn%ent buildin$. 3e did not actually throw the roc-.
a. "olice officers who were %onitorin$ the situation i%%ediately approached "edron$ "ula and arrested hi%. 3e
was prosecuted for seditious speech and was convicted. On appeal, "edron$ "ula ar$ued he was %erely
eercisin$ his freedo% of speech and freedo% of epression $uaranteed by the !ill of Ri$hts. ,ecide with
reasons. &'.(
b. 0hat is *co%%ercial speech*/ 9s it entitled to constitutional protection/ 0hat %ust be shown in order for
$overn%ent to curtail *co%%ercial speech*/ Eplain. &7.(
c. 0hat are the two &1( basic prohibitions of the freedo% of speech and of the press clause/ Eplain. &1.(
SUGGESE! A"S#E$
a. Pedron& Pula s%ould 'e ac-uitted. .is )reedom o) s*eec% s%ould not 'e limited in t%e a'sence o) a clear
and *resent dan&er o) a su'stanti(e e(il t%at t%e state %ad t%e ri&%t to *re(ent. .e *retended to %url a
rocB 'ut did not actually t%row it. .e did not commit any act o) lawless (iolence. /!a(id (s. ;aca*a&alA
Arroyo, 53= S+$A 1406
'. +ommercial s*eec% is communication w%ic% in(ol(es only t%e commercial interest o) t%e s*eaBer and t%e
audience, suc% as ad(ertisements. /BlacBHs Law dictionary, =
t%
ed., *.122=.6
+ommercial s*eec% is entitled to constitutional *rotection. /Ayer Productions Pty. Ltd. (s. +a*ulon&, 140
S+$A 341.6
+ommercial s*eec% may 'e re-uired to 'e su'mitted to a &o(ernment a&ency )or re(iew to*rotect *u'lic
interests 'y *re(entin& )alse or dece*ti(e claims. /P%armaceutical and .ealt% +are Association o) t%e
P%ili**ines (s. !u-ue, 212 S+$A 242.6
c. %e two 'asic *ro%i'itions on )reedom o) s*eec% and )reedom o) t%e *ress are *rior restraint and
su'se-uent *unis%ment /+%a(e9 (s. Gon9ales, 252 S+$A 551.6
<.
a. 0hat do you understand by the ter% *hierarchy of civil liberties*/ Eplain. &'.(
6
b. ,istin$uish fully between the *free eercise of reli$ion clause* and the *non>establish%ent of reli$ion clause*. &7.(
c. 0hen can evidence *in plain view* be seiCed without need of a search warrant/ Eplain. &1.(
SUGGESE! A"S#E$
a. %e %ierarc%y o) ci(il li'erties means t%at )reedom o) ex*ression and t%e ri&%ts o) *eace)ul assem'ly are
su*erior to *ro*erty ri&%ts. /P%ili**ine Bloomin& ;ills Em*loyees @r&ani9ation (s. P%ili**ine Bloomin&
;ills +om*any, Inc., 21 S+$A 13=.6
'. %e )reedom o) exercise o) reli&ion entails t%e ri&%t to 'elie(e, w%ic% is a'solute, and t%e ri&%t to act on
oneHs 'elie), w%ic% is su'7ect to re&ulation. As a rule, t%e )reedom o) exercise o) reli&ion can 'e restricted
only i) t%ere is a clear and *resent dan&er o) a su'stanti(e e(eil w%ic% t%e state %as t%e ri&%t to *re(ent.
/I&lesia "i +risto (s. +ourt o) A**eals, 22= S+$A 22=.6
%e nonAesta'lis%ment clause im*lements t%e *rinci*le o) se*aration o) c%urc% and state. %e state
cannot set u* a c%urc%, *ass laws t%at aid one reli&ion, and all reli&ions, *re)er one reli&ion o(er anot%er,
)orce or in)luence a *erson to &o to or remain away )rom c%urc% a&ainst %is will, or )orce %im to *ro)ess a
'elie) or dis'elie) in any reli&ion. /E(erson (s. Board o) Education, 110 U.S. 1.6
c. E(idence in *lain (iew can 'e sei9ed wit%out need o) searc% warrant i) t%e )ollowin& elements are *resent>
16 %ere was a *rior (alid intrusion 'ased on t%e (alid warrantless arrest in w%ic% t%e *olice were
le&ally *resent *ursuant o) t%eir duties?
26 %e e(idence was inad(ertently disco(ered 'y t%e *olice w%o %ad t%e ri&%t to 'e w%ere t%ey were?
16 %e e(idence must 'e immediately a**arent? and
56 Plain (iew 7usti)ied sei9ure o) t%ye e(idence wit%out )urt%er searc%. /!el $osario (s. Peo*le, 123
S+$A 1:2.6
7