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ABOUT THE BOOK

The title of the book is Pakistan The Rising Star. It is


divided into three parts:

PART I: Pakistan the Nation

PART II: Present-Day Pakistan

PART III: Hope

Part I (Pakistan the Nation) of the book cover details about


brief history, geography, demographics, our culture and
society, the scenic beauty, flora and fauna, architecture,
dances, festivals, literature, famous cuisine, cinema and our
great legends.

Discussing the history, mention of civilizations, known


inhabitants, Pakistan Movement, Sir Syed Ahmad Khans
work for improving Muslims education and economic and
social conditions, Two Nation Theory, role of Quaid-E-
Azam in the movement in the early days, Pakistan
Resolution, Quaid-E-Azam leaving the Congress and the
forming of the Muslim League, marking of the map of
Pakistan and India, massacres and killings during migrations
annexations of territories like Junagarh and Kashmir issue
have been highlighted.

In geography, area, coastline, bordering countries, northern


highlands, Indus Plains, Balochistan Plateau, northern part of
Pakistan Kashmir, Hindu Kush and Himalayas, Nanga
Parbat, K2, Pamir Ranges, lifestyles of Balochistan Plateau
nomadic or semi-nomadic, deserts like Cholistan, rivers like
Indus, Chenab and Jhelum Rivers, seasons of Pakistan and
the placing of Pakistan between north and south longitudes
and latitudes have been discussed.

In the demographics section, the distribution of the


population, ethnic groups, variations of populations e.g.
Punjabi etc. cultural ties, languages spoken and about
Balochis and Pashtuns of being descendants of Iranians have
been discussed.

1
The culture and society of Pakistan describes the influences
of culture, national dresses, and influence of Western culture,
living style, educated modern cities like Karachi, Islamabad
and Pakistanis living abroad.

The beauty of Pakistan is defined by describing the beautiful


places like Kawaai Valley, Mekran Coast, Taxila, Shandur
Pass, Kailash Valley, Peshawar, Lahore, Deosai Plateau,
Hunza Valley, Majestic K2, Ziarat, Karachi, Islamabad and
Swat.

In Flora and Fauna, the discussed topics are the climate and
geography, wildlife, forests, mountains, grown fruits,
southern plains, Central Pakistan, national animal of
Pakistan, wildlife of Karakoram and deforestation in the
country.

The rich architecture of Pakistan has been mentioned in the


book by dividing it into four distinct time periodspre-
Islamic, Islamic, colonial and post-colonial. Rise of
Buddhism, Persian, and Greek influence, Buddhist
architecture, arrival of Islam in the region, architectural sites
of Lahore like Badshahi Masjid, fortress of Lahore, Alamgiri
Gate, Persian style Wazir Gate, modern structures like Faisal
Masjid in Islamabad, Minar-E-Pakistan in Lahore and
Mazar-E-Quaid in Karachi.

In dances, the cultural dances of all four provinces have been


mentioned. These include, region wise; Punjab: Bhangra,
Luddi, Sammi, Jhumar. Baluchistan: Lewa, Chap,
Jhumar. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Attan - Folk dance
of Pashtuns tribes of Pakistan including the unique styles
of Quetta and Waziristan, Khattak, Chitrali Dance. Sindh:
Dhammal - Performed at Sufi shrines/ dargahs in Punjab and
Sindh, Ho Jamalo - Sindhi dance, Jhumro.
Festivals of Ramadan, Chand Raat, Eid celebrations, Eid
Milaad-un-Nabi, Muharram (Ashra), Jashn-E-Baharan,
Christmas, Nowruz, Independence Day and Defense Day are
mentioned.
Literature of Pakistan begins with the significance of Sir
Allama Iqbal, literary heritage, and Persian influence and
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classified into Urdu Literature, Pashto Literature, Sindhi
Literature, Baluchi Literature, Folklores of Punjab, Folklores
of Pashtun, Folklores from Sindh, and Folklores from
Baluchistan.

The cuisine of Pakistan includes the blend of cooking


traditions from different regions of the subcontinent, style of
cooking, royal kitchens; Foods such as shahi tukra,Seekh
kebab and kulfi are mentioned as favorites.

The Pakistani cinema has been on the decline for a number


of years due to a variety of reasons. Achievements in this field
have been underscored in the cinema section. Centers
of film making, cinema in East Pakistan, cinema during the
time of General Ayub Khan and Revival of Cinema are also
included.

List of legends is indeed long. It covers the politicians, war


heroes, social activists, writers, actors, sportspersons,
television talents, Islamic personalities, singers, scientists
and doctors, legends and heroes in the education field and
fashion industry includes designers and models.

Part II(Present-Day Pakistan) tells us about the politics and


current situation of Pakistan. Problems like education,
corruption, relations with India, industrial development,
extremism and terrorism.

Politics of Pakistan mentions the administrative structure of


the government; parliament, national assembly, relations
with other countries and about being a nuclear power.

Problems like education, low level of literacy rate and


allocations of funds for education have been highlighted.
Corruption has been identified as the top most factor in
Pakistans low development.

The section on foreign affairs primarily focuses on India and


includes history, partition, wars, Pakistans issues with
India, terrorist attack on Indian Parliament and division of
resources at the time of partition.

3
Industrial development includes the economic growth and
industrial progress, regional inequalities, industrial and
economic policies and loss of Pakistans industries.

Extremism and Terrorism may be the biggest problem of


Pakistan after corruption. Discussed topics are 9/11 incident,
war on terror, attacks on Shias and Ahmedis, tainted
reputation of Pakistan due terrorism and impression of
Pakistan abroad of being a terrorist sanctuary. Importance of
extraordinary efforts to improve the image of Pakistan has
been discussed.

Part III(Hope) In this section, the discussed topics are


surviving disasters, potential of Pakistan in terms of rich
human and natural resources, the gift of incredible
geography, philanthropy in Pakistan and predictions about
Pakistans fabulous future made by Sufis and saints.
Predictions were made by great Sufis and saints of the region
and include Naimat Ullah Shah Wali, Mufti Mumtaz, Qudrat
Ullah Shabhab, Sufi Barkat Ali and Bari Imam.
The gift of geography mentions the strategic significance of
Pakistans geographical position because of many reasons
e.g. being the gateway to trade to Central Asia and China.
Philanthropy in Pakistan includes data aboutindividual
giving, religious faith, relief efforts and helping and loving
population.

It has been highlighted that all the ingredients which could


propel Pakistan into an era of economic revolution are
present in the country.

4
PREFACE

Pakistan The Land I Call my Home!


Pakistan is where I live, breathe, eat, sleep its the place I
call my own, my home.
The Flag of Pakistan-May Allah keep it flying high for ever!

5
Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah Father of the Nation

Quaid-E-Azam is the one whom I admire, follow and respect!


My Leader! Father of the Nation of a Great Country!

6
FOREWORD

I got motivated to write this book after I got the impression


that my country is being subjected to the media blitz and is
being demonized as a dysfunctional society and a failed state.
While much of what is being said on the media may be true
to some extent, especially the violence and the wave of
extremism, however, a large part of it can be characterized as
an organized media campaign to malign the only nuclear
power state of the Muslim world.There is no denying the fact
that despite all the failings of its society and the
shortcomings, the Pakistani nation is vibrant, culturally rich,
hospitable, friendly and contrary to common western beliefs
quite tolerant.

I have made an attempt to apprise my fellow countrymen and


women, especially the youth, about the tremendous
potential of Pakistan in terms of natural and human
resources. My message is therefore of HOPE to all
Pakistanis. If we shun corruption, parochialism and other ills
in our society, we can attain great heights among the comity
of nations.

It has been almost 70 years since the creation of Pakistan.


During this period, we as a nation have witnessed, for
majority of the period, trials and tribulations. Wars, natural
disasters, terrorism, corruption, poverty, religious extremism,
illiteracy, decaying social fabric and unemployment plague
us today. In terms of social indicators, we are behind even
those countries which gained independence after 1947. An
example is of China which gained Independence in 1949.
Today, China is far ahead of us in almost every walk of life.

However, despite all the gloom and repeated failures, there


has always been HOPE. Some people say that the Pakistanis
are the most resilient nation on the face of this earth. Even
though there are daily bomb blasts, frequent natural disasters
and above all corruption, the nation continues to survive as a
viable entity. Lack of resources, low employment, falling
productivity and power shortages have not dampened the
spirit of this nation. In fact, Pakistanis
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have done remarkably well in many fields. Pakistani
engineers, doctors, scientists, educationists, social activists
and sports persons have done wonders and have achieved
laurels for the motherland.

With a vast stretch of fertile land, young, intelligent and


hardworking human resource, in addition to the tremendous
amount of natural resources, the nation stands a fairly good
chance of achieving greatness and prosperity for its people.
A great majority of its people has firm faith in destiny and
divine intervention. They believe that the trials and
tribulations they are facing today are all temporary. There is
also the realization that they are a young nation and will
require some time to mature. Nations pass through trying
times and have to learn through their mistakes.

Pakistan has a lot to achieve in the future and my message to


all of you is to never lose Hope. We should always remember
Quaid-E-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. We should keep in
mind the dream he had for Pakistan. He dreamt that Pakistan
would become one of the Greatest Nation of the World and
to achieve his dream we have to work hard and only then we
will succeed.

I hope that this book, mainly aimed at foreigners, will help


create awareness about my country and its people. My
humble attempt to familiarize the outside world about this
great country is therefore a duty. It will hopefully dispel some
of the negative impressions about this great land and its
people.

PAKISTAN! ZINDABAD!

8
CONTENTS

Part I (Pakistan: The Land of the Pure)

Introduction 11

History 13

Geography 23

Demographics 29

Culture & Society 32

Beauty of Pakistan 34

Flora & Fauna 44

Architecture 47

Dances 50

Festivals 51

Literature 55

Cuisine 57

Cinema 60

Legends of Pakistan 63

Part II (Present-Day Pakistan)

Politics 134

Problems 137

i) Education 137

ii) Corruption 138

iii) Pakistan India Relations 139


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iv) Industrial Development 140

v) Extremism and Terrorism 142

Part III (HOPE)

Hope 146

Surviving Disasters 149

Our Incredible Pakistan 150

Rich Human Resource 152

Pakistans Natural Resources 153


The gift of Geography 156

Philanthropy in Pakistan 158

Pakistan A gift of Allah 159


Conclusion

10
INTRODUCTION

The word Pakistan means the land of the pure. It is an


acronym of various provinces and regions which formed the
country in 1947.

Founder of the Nation: Muhammad Ali Jinnah


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A country founded by the great leader of the Indian sub
continent- Quaid-e-Azam (meaning the great leader in Urdu
language) Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Pakistan displays some of
Asias most magnificent landscapes as it stretches from the
Arabian Sea, its southern border, to some of the worlds
most spectacular mountain ranges in the north. Pakistan is also
home to sites that date back to words earliest known
settlements. The ancient heritage of Pakistan rivals that of
Egypt and Mesopotamia.

Situated in South Asia, Pakistan is called the gateway to


Central Asia and shares an eastern border with arch rival
India and a north-eastern border with its all-weather friend
China. To the south west of Pakistan lies the brotherly
Muslim country of Iran, with whom Pakistan shares common
religious and cultural heritage. With Afghanistan,
Pakistan shares its longest borders on the west and northwest.
The Arabian Sea is Pakistans southern boundary
with a coastline of almost 1100 kilometers. The country has
a total area of 796,095 sq. kms. It is nearly four times the size
of the United Kingdom. From Gwadar Bay in its south-
eastern corner, the country extends more than 1,800 km to
the Khunjerab Pass on Chinas border. The famous silk
route lies in the northern part of Pakistan.

Pakistan is unique in many ways. Perhaps very few countries


in the world possess what Pakistan has in terms of geography.
Some of these features are:
All four seasons summer, autumn,
winter, spring;
Blessed with huge amount of precious minerals
and other natural resources;
Has all kinds of land forms, plains,
deserts, mountains, hills, forests, areas with
glaciers; as well as areas of extreme
hot temperature;
Has five major rivers, apart from numerous
smaller ones

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HISTORY

Indus Priest/King Statue

The land which constitutes Pakistan today has been the home
of worlds oldest civilization. Its first known
inhabitants are believed to have been the Soanians, who
settled in the Soan Valley and Riwat areas some 2 million
years ago. Over the next several thousand years, the region
was home to various civilizations like Mehrgarh and the
Indus Valley Civilization. The region saw many conquests
and remained both independent and under various colonial
empires throughout different time periods. Its ancient history
also includes some of the oldest known empires.

Pakistan is the abode of many splendid Buddhist


establishments. Taxila, an ancient city situated 40 kilometers
north west of capital, Islamabad, was the main centre of
Gandhara, some 3,000 years ago. Taxila had attracted
Alexander the great from Macedonia in 326 BC. The
invading forces of Alexander, brought with them Greek
influence in the area. Taxila later came under the Mauryan
dynasty and reached an extraordinary level of development
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under the great Indian emperor Ashoka of the Mauryal
dynasty. During the year 2 B.C, Buddhism was adopted as
the state religion, which flourished and prevailed for over
1,000 years, until the year 10 A.D.

During this time, Taxila, Swat and Charsadda, became three


important centres of culture, trade and learning. Hundreds of
monasteries and stupas were built together with Greek towns
such as Sirkap and Sirsukh. Gandhara civilization was not
only the centre of spiritual influence but also the cradle of
culture, art and learning. It was from these centers that a
unique art of sculpture originated, which is known as
Gandhara Art all over the world.

Taxila: The birth place of Gandhara civilization

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Taxila: The birth place of Gandhara civilization

Mohenjodaro (The city of dead)

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Archeological site of Mohenjo-daro in Southern Pakistan ,
built around 2600 BC, was one of the largest settlements of
the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's
earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the
civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and Crete.
Mohenjo-daro was discovered in 1922.

Ruins of Harappa

Another fascinating and mysterious ruin discovered in


Eastern Pakistan near the city of Sahiwal, is called Harrapa.
Artifacts and clues discovered at Harrapa have allowed
archaeologists to reconstruct this civilization. The similarities
in plan and construction between Mohenjo-Daro and
Harappa indicate that they were part of a unified government
with extreme organization. Both cities were constructed of
the same type and shape of bricks. The two cities may have
existed simultaneously and their sizes suggest that they
served as capitals of their provinces.

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Location of Harrapa and Mohenjodaro

Artifacts recovered from the ruins of Harappa

17
Advent of Islam in the Indian Sub continent
Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent mainly took
place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier
Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern
Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the 8th century.
Beginning in the 12th century, several Islamic states were
established in the Indian subcontinent in the course of a
gradual Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent. This
process culminated in the Mughal Empire, which ruled most
of India during the mid-16th to mid-19th centuries.
Most of the foreign invaders of the sub continent came from
Afghanistan. During the last quarter of the 12th
century, Muhammad of Ghor invaded the Indo-Gangetic
plain, conquering in
succession Ghazni, Multan, Sindh, Lahore, and Delhi. Qutb-
ud-din Aybak, one of his generals proclaimed himself Sultan
of Delhi. In the 13th century, Shamsuddn
Iltutmish (12111236), a former slave-warrior, established a
Turkish kingdom in Delhi, which enabled future sultans to
push in every direction. During a period of 100 years, the
Delhi Sultanate extended its way east to Bengal and south to
the Deccan. However, the sultanate was in constant flux as
five dynasties rose and fell: the Slave dynasty (1206
90), Khalji dynasty (12901320), Tughlaq dynasty (1320
1413), Sayyid dynasty (141451), and Lodi dynasty (1451
1526). The Khilji dynasty, under 'Al'uddn (12961316),
succeeded in bringing most of South India under its control
for a time, although conquered areas broke away quickly.
Power in Delhi was often gained by violencenineteen of
the thirty-five sultans were assassinatedand was
legitimized by reward for tribal loyalty. Factional rivalries
and court intrigues were as numerous as they were
treacherous; territories controlled by the sultan expanded and
shrank depending on his personality and fortunes.
Prior to the conquest of India by the British East India
Company, the Muslim Moghul Empire was able to subjugate
most of India's Hindu kings. However, few parts in upper
reaches of the Himalayas and the extreme south remained
under the rule of Hindu kings.

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Pakistanis widely believe that the foundation of modern day
Pakistan was laid in 712 A.D. when Mohammad Bin Qasim
arrived in Sindh and defeated Raja Dahir. The Quaid-e-Azam
Mohammad Ali Jinnah, acclaimed the event- "the Pakistan
Movement started when the first Muslim put his foot on the
soil of Sindh, the Gateway of Islam in India."

The Pakistan movement and Islam are synonymous. The


emergence of Pakistan on the world map as an independent
country is a clear manifestation of the love the Muslims of
the religion have for their faith. The British occupation of the
region and the subsequent war of independence in 1857 was
an open manifestation of the Muslim spirit of revolt against
foreign domination. The failure of the movement did not
dampen the spirit of Muslims. During this time of distress and
disarray, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, emerged as a ray of hope for
the Muslim Nation of the sub-continent. Sir Syed declared
that the Muslims could improve their political, social and
economic condition only through the medium of modem and
scientific education. He cultivated the concept of a separate
Muslim Nation on the basis of religion, culture and history.
He was the first leader who inspired the Muslims of the sub-
continent to demand a separate homeland where they could
lead their lives freely
according to the dictates of Holy Quran and Sunnah. The
concept commonly known as the Two Nation Theory was
later propagated by Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal, the great
Muslim poet and Philosopher, who dreamt of a separate
homeland for the Muslims of the sub-continent.

Pakistan was carved out of the subcontinent on the 14th of


August 1947. The story of struggle for independence from
the British rule is full of heroics and of sacrifices. The Quaid
e Azam was helped by a large number of prominent
personalities which include Sardar Abdul Rab Nishtar from
the Frontier, Qazi Muhammad Isa and Nawab Muhammad
Ayaz Khan Jogezai from Baluchistan, Sir Abdullah Haroon
from Sindh,Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Mamdot and Mian
Mumtaz Daultana from the Punjab, Liaquat Ali Khan and the
Rajah of Mahmudabad from the United Provinces, Khawaja
Nizamuddin, Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy and
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Mirza AhmadIspahani from Bengal, Bahadur Yar Jung from
Hyderabad, Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal, Chaudhry Rehmat
Ali and many more. Apart from these known figures of
Pakistan movement there are millions of unknown soldiers of
Islam and Pakistan, who laid their lives or sacrificed their
family members and worldly assets for the creation of this
great country.

Quaid -e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was initially a great


believer in Hindu-Muslim unity. He, at first backed the idea
of one separate India free from the British rule, Muslims and
Hindus living together and side by side. However, his views
changed when the Hindu Congress party dominated by
Hindus were not fair towards the Muslims and seeing this
Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah left the Congress
Party and joined the All-India Muslim League. He felt that
when India would gain independence from the British, the
British raj would be replaced by Ram raj, and Muslims would
have no voice left and would be defenseless.

The Quaid was convinced that the only way for Muslims and
Hindus to live peacefully was separately as two different
nations. Initially this was the idea of the great Muslim
philosopher and thinker, Dr. Allama Iqbal. As a result the
Pakistan plan emerged and this was declared at Lahore on
23rd March 1940. This declaration was called the Lahore
Resolution or better known as Pakistan Movement. Thus the
struggle for Pakistan began. When the time came for dividing
the land between Pakistan and India it was decided that the
Muslim majority areas would become Pakistan, and the
Hindu majority areas India. The plan for the territories had
been made and agreed upon by both parties, but Viceroy Lord
Louis Mountbatten teamed up with Jawarlal Nehru and
changed the map and gave India the areas which were
supposed to go to Pakistan causing millions of people to
migrate from Pakistan to India and also from India to
Pakistan. Also, Mountbatten and Nehru played foul by
making the Kashmiri ruler sign backdated and fake papers,
which allowed India to land its forces in Kashmir and take
control.

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Pakistan had been betrayed repeatedly, and if Quaid would
have objected to the defective partition plan, Pakistan
wouldn't have been able to materialize. The Hindus and the
British were determined to destroy Pakistan in its early
stages. They (the Hindus and the British) even withheld the
assets which Pakistan was supposed to get.

When the partition took place, hundreds of thousands of lives


were lost. As the Muslims migrated from India to Pakistan
(some Muslims decided to settle in India), gangs of Hindus
and Sikhs carried out their massacre. Hundreds of thousands
lost their lives when their trains were sacked and pillaged and
passengers killed. After the creation of Pakistan the plight of
the arriving refugees was the biggest
problem for the new government. The migration during the
independence is the historys largest migration to date.

Immediately after the creation of Pakistan, numerous


problems were created for the new country by India.
Pakistans share of military assets and the national
exchequer were not paid. In addition, annexation of the
territories of Kashmir, Hyderabad, Junagarh and Manvadar
was undertaken through the use of military force. The
Kashmir war which ensued in 1948 resulted in liberation of
some part of the Indian occupied Kashmir. India, after
realizing that it would lose all of the territory to the freedom
fighters, went to the United Nations, promising a free and fair
plebiscite in the disputed territory. To this date the people of
Kashmir are waiting for India and UN to fulfill their promise.

21
The Great Migration of 1947

In addition to the first Kashmir war, India has thrust


additional wars on Pakistan in 1965, 71 and 99. Apart from
the wars, India has also embarked upon various plans to
22
destroy Pakistan. These include building of dams on
Pakistani rivers, fanning the wave of terrorism in
Baluchistan, launching of proxy wars to destabilize Pakistan
economically apart from false flag attacks in its territory to
declare Pakistan a terrorist state. However, miraculously, by
the grace of Almighty, Pakistan has survived the onslaught of
its bigger and hegemonic neighbor.

23
GEOGRAPHY

Northern areas of Pakistan

Thar dessert
24
Lush fields in KPK

Coastal belt of Baluchistan

Hanna lake, Baluchistan


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Pakistan is blessed with enchanting natural beauty. It has got
all the natural wonders from hot deserts to freezing glaciers,
plains to mountain ranges, coastal areas to forests, beautiful
lakes to long rivers. Pakistan covers an area of 796,095 km2
(307,374 sq. mi), approximately equal to the combined land
areas of France and the United Kingdom. Pakistan is the 36th
largest nation by total area. Pakistan has a 1,046km (650 mi)
coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the
south and land borders of 6,774 km (4,209 mi) in total with
different neighbors. Pakistan shares its largest border with
Afghanistan (2,430 km).

Pakistan shares a maritime border with Oman, Iran and India.


It is separated from Tajikistan by the narrow Wakhan
Corridor. It is divided into 3 major geographic areas:

The northern highlands


The Indus River Plain; and
The Baluchistan Plateau

The northern part of Pakistan consists of the Karakoram,


Hindu Kush and Pamir mountain ranges, which contain some
of the worlds highest peaks. These include 5 of the
14 eight-thousands (mountain peaks which are over 8000
meters or 26,250 ft.). These mountains attract a large number
of adventurers and mountaineers from all over the world.
Godwin Austin, which is more commonly known as K2
(8,611 m or 28,251 ft.) and Nanga Parbat (8,126 m or 26,660
ft.) are the favorites among international adventurers.

The western region of Pakistan consists of the Baluchistan


plateau with an average altitude of 2,000 ft. (610 m). The
physical features of the plateau are varied, but mountains,
plateaus and basins dominate the scene. Owing to meager
rainfall there is continuous drought and very little vegetation.
Most of the people lead a nomadic life, raising sheep, goats
and camel.

Pakistans deserts are quite fascinating. The ones in Punjab


and Sindh are mostly monsoon deserts. Significant ones include
Thar, Thal and Cholistan deserts. The Thar Desert
26
lies mostly in the Sindh province. It is also called the friendly
desert because of its accessibility, color and climatic
conditions. In Baluchistan, the Kharan desert, which lies to
the northwest, is known particularly for its
constant mirages and sudden severe sandstorms. This desert
is also known as the sandy desert.

The Cholistan Desert is also locally known as Rohi. It mostly


sprawls in Southern Punjab. Water in the desert is scarce and
conditions are inhospitable. The people of Cholistan lead a
semi-nomadic life, moving from one place to another in
search of water and fodder for their animals.
The word Cholistan is derived from the Turkish word Chol,
which means Desert. Cholistan thus means Land of the
Desert. A jeep rally known as Cholistan Desert Jeep Rally
is held annually. It is the biggest motor sports event
in Pakistan.

Cholistan Desert

The river system of Pakistan is one of the largest in Asia.


Pakistans well-being is dependent on it, being an agrarian
economy. The river system consists of five major rivers
which are Indus, Chenab, Sutlej, Jhelum and Ravi. In
addition there are a significant number of other small rivers
as well.

The Indus River has the most scenic white water runs
anywhere in the Himalayas. It begins in Tibet and after
running across the country flows into the Arabian Sea. The
1,609 km (1000 mi) long river is famous for the Indus
27
Dolphin. They have very small eyes thus they can only
differentiate between light and dark. Its flow is also
determined by the seasons; low in winter, and over flowing
in monsoon season. The river offers challenging rafting
opportunities to fun seekers.

The River Chenab is generally considered to be the second


healthiest river of country after Indus. The famous love
stories of Heer Ranjha and Sohni Mahiwal circles around this
iconic river.

The Jhelum River originates in the Indian-Occupied Jammu


and Kashmir state. It also runs across half of the Pakistan and
joins the Indus. Over the years the Jhelum River has
developed as a major tourism attraction.

There are 4 distinct seasons in Pakistan. A cool, dry winter


from December through February; a hot, dry spring from
March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest
monsoon period, from June through September; and the
retreating monsoon period of October and November.
Rainfall varies from year to year, resulting at times in floods.
Periods of no rain are also common which results in droughts.

Since Pakistan is situated north of the tropic of Cancer


(between latitudes 24 and 37 N), it has a continental type
of climate characterized by extreme variations of
temperature, both seasonally and daily. Temperatures on the
Balochistan Plateau are higher, whereas in the coastal strip of
Sindh and Baluchistan, the climate is modified by sea
breezes. In the northern part, due to higher altitudes, the
summers are quire mildwhereas the winters are harsh. In the
rest of the country, temperatures reach great heights in the
summer; the mean temperature during June is 38 C (100 F)
in the plains, the highest temperatures can exceed 47 C (117
F). In the summer, hot windsacross the plains during the day.
The dry, hot weather is broken occasionally by dust storms
and thunderstorms that temporarily lower the temperature.
Winters are cold, with
28
minimum mean temperatures in Punjab of about 4 C (39 F)
in January, and sub-zero temperatures in the far north and
Balochistan.
DEMOGRAPHICS
Pakistan is the 2nd most populous Muslim majority country.
About 97% of Pakistanis are Muslims. The white in the
Pakistani flag represents its minorities. Pakistans minorities
include Hindus, Christians, each with a population of almost
3 million.The Bah' Faith, which has a following of 30,000
is the third largest minority group followed by Sikhs,
Buddhists and Parsis, each having approximately 20,000.
Jains also constitute a very negligible percentage.

Pakistan, with 177.1 million people, is the 6th most populated


country in the world. At the time of partition in
1947, Pakistans population was 32.5 million. Pakistan is
considered a young country with a median age of about 20
and 104 million people were under the age of 30 in 2010.

Pakistan in essence is a multi-ethnic and multilingual nation


that is the home to people of diverse regional ethnicities and
nationalities, reflecting rich and complex demographics and
history.
Being located both in South Asian, the Greater Middle East
and Central Asia, the Pakistan people are a mixture of various
ethnic groups.

29
Furthermore, various ethnic groups, invading armies and the
migrations to the region by people passing through on their
way to and from South Asia have left their imprints on the
population.

As of 2009, Punjabi population in the country tops the ethnic


groups with strength of 78.7 million (44.15%), followed by
27.2 million (15.42%) Pashtuns, 24.8 million (14.1%)
Sindhis, 14.8 million (3.57%) Balochis and 1.1 million
(4.66%) minorities. The beautiful people of this country bring
charm and shine into the lives of this nation.
The Punjabis reside in the northeast and have been primary
inhabitants of the historical Punjab region which derives its
name from the Persian PANJ meaning five and AB meaning
water(s); hence the land of five rivers.

The Pashtuns, who are mainly an indigenous Eastern Iranic


group, have settled along the western banks of the Indus and
are believed to have originated from the Sulaiman Mountains
of Pakistan. The Balochis are a western Iranic ethnic group
who inhabit the southwest of the country and
30
are believed to be settlers from far off Aleppo (in modern day
Syria). They arrived in the region and assimilated into the
local people and gave their name to the province of
Baluchistan. The Sindhis on the other hand have settled in the
southeast of the country and gave their name to the mighty
Indus River. Some smaller regional groups such as the
Siraikis have inhabited the regions between Punjab and
Sindh.

Groups mostly in the west of Pakistan share cultural ties with


neighboring Afghanistan, Iran and Central Asia regions. The
Kashmiris are an important ethnic group of the Kashmir
region in the north. Their other important indigenous people
like the Balti, Hunzakots and Gilgitis of the northern
territories of Gilgit through whose territory ran the ancient
Silk Route connect Asia and Europe. The Chitralis are
another indigenous group of people who live
high up in the mountains in the northwest. Along with these
main groups, there are smaller communities of Sheedis
who are descendants of African sailors and warriors who are
believed to have arrived from Africa as well as Urdu-
speaking migrants who came as refugees from India at the
time of partition.

Pakistan is a place where more than 60 languages are being


spoken including a number of provincial languages. Urdu is
the national language of Pakistan while English is the official
language. It is also known to be the 9th largest English
speaking country in the world. The provincial language of
Punjab is Punjabi and has a plurality of native speakers.
Siraiki is spoken mainly in the southern area of the Punjab
province, Pashto is the provincial language of Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa, Sindhi of Sindh province and Balochis of
Baluchistan.
The Sindhis and Punjabis are considered the descendants of
the Aryans, whereas the Balochis and Pashtuns are the
descendants of the Iranians. Other less significant ones
include the Greeks, Scythians, Persians, White
Huns, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, Buddhists, and
other Eurasian groups, up to and including the British, who
left in the late 1940s.
31
CULTURE AND SOCIETY

Pakistan has a vibrant and fascinating society. The greatest


influence on the Pakistani culture has been due to the
influences of the surrounding countries and numerous
invaders such as the Afghans, Turks, Persians and Arabs. The
close proximity and trading links with parts of South Asia
and Central Asia also has impacted the development of
Pakistani culture, which dates back to the Indus Valley
Civilization days (28001800 B.C).

Pakistani culture is unique that has preserved established


traditions throughout history. Many cultural practices, foods,
monuments, and shrines were inherited from the rule of
Muslim Mughal and Afghan emperors. The national dress of
Shalwar Qamiz is originally of Central Asian origin

32
derived from Turko-Iranian nomadic invaders and is today
worn in all parts of Pakistan. In cities, western dress is more
popular among the younger generation, elites and the
business sector.

Pakistani society has high regard for traditional family values


and most of the families live in a joint family system.
Increasing globalization has however increased the influence
of "Western culture" and the rise of the educated middle class
in cities like Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad,
Faisalabad, and Peshawar are challenging the age old norms
of the society. People in the northern areas, Khyber Pakhtun
Khwa and Baluchistan however remain conservative and
dominated by centuries-old regional tribal customs. Karachi
is the largest metropolis of the country and provides
livelihood to anyone coming to this city. Pakistanis are very
hard working people and are not afraid to migrate to other
countries for earning their livelihood. Approximately four
million people of Pakistani descent live abroad in USA, UK,
Saudi Arabia and South Africa.

33
THE BEAUTY OF PAKISTAN

Kawaii Valley, Northern Pakistan


Alhamdulillah Pakistans scenic beauty can be compared
with that of any country in the world and is at its best in the
northern part. Pakistan offers a variety of opportunities to any
visitor ranging from the sandy beaches of Karachi and
Ormara to the Swat valley and beyond.

MEKRAN COAST

Gwadar

This sparsely inhabited coast has some of the most beautiful


virgin beaches in the world. The main coastal town Gwadar
is being developed as a major port, and soon, the area will

34
be secure and developed enough to become a true
surfing/scuba diving heaven.

TAXILA

Taxila

Taxila was one of the most important cities of the region in


ancient times. Through various periods in history, it was
under Persian, Greek and Buddhist influence and the
preserved archeological sites around the modern day town
are testament to the citys glorious past. Taxila is just 45
minutes drive from the capital Islamabad. It is a treat for
both historians and fun seekers.

Taxila museum
35
SHANDUR PASS

Shandur Pass
The worlds highest polo ground is located in Shandur. The
Shandur Pass connects Chitral with Gilgit. Each summer this
desolate wilderness holds a huge mountain party called the
Shandur polo festival. The Shandur pass is mostly
uninhabited and crossing its snow covered slopes in winters
is an extremely hazardous task.

KAILASH VALLEY

The Kailash Valley girls

The scenic Kailash valleys are situated in the northern


districts of Pakistan. People of the region are called Kalash
and Kam. These are the prehistoric pagan tribes residing in
three valleys of Bumburaite, Birir and Ramboor and are
widely known as Kafirs of Kailash. Cultures in danger of
36
extinction, their origins have long been the object of
anthropological curiosity. The language or the dialect they
speak is the fusion of Dardic and Sanskrit.

PESHAWAR

Peshawar

The famous Khyber Pass

Peshawar is the heart of the Pakistani wild-west. The famous


invasion route Khyber Pass is also located nearby but the city
itself is an absorbing experience in Pashtun culture,
hospitality and history.

37
LAHORE

The Moghul era Badshahi Mosque in Lahore

Lahore is the cultural capital of Pakistan. The city has historic


importance and it also remained the capital of the Mughal
Empire. Places to visit include the Shalimar garden, Lahore
Fort and Badshahi Mosque. People of Lahore love to eat. One
can find a large variety of mouth-watering varieties of food
here.

DEOSAI PLATEAU

Deosai Plateau

Deosai refers to the Land of Giants. Deosai Plains are


situated in Astore District of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The
38
National Park of Deosai is located on the Deosai Plains of the
northern geographic region. Deosai National Park is at an
average altitude of 4,114 meters (13,497 feet) above the sea
level. It is the second highest plateau in the world after Tibet.
The tundra like landscape bursts into life in summers with a
large variety of blossoming flowers. The place offers great
trout fishing, camping and rare Himalayan Brown Bear
spotting opportunities.

HUNZA VALLEY

Hunza valley

The scenic valley of Hunza is famous for its apricots, legends


of longevity, Hunza water and the gigantic Rakaposhi
mountain. Hunza is among the five places on Earth where the
people routinely live to over 120 years of age in good health
with virtually no cancer or dental caries. People of Hunza
remain robust and strong and are also able to bear children
even in old age.

Dr. Henri Coanda, the Romanian father of fluid dynamics and


a Nobel Prize winner at 78 yrs old, spent six decades studying
the Hunza water trying to determine what it was in this water
that caused such beneficial effects for the body. He
discovered that there were indeed anomalous properties to the
Hunza water. It had a different freezing and boiling point than
ordinary water, a different viscosity and a
39
different surface tension. It is now widely believed that the
Hunza water has lost much of its magic properties as now
there are highways going there and man has brought in
insecticides and other chemicals.

THE MAJESTIC K2

Worlds second highest peak; the K2

K2, the second-highest mountain on Earth is located in the


Karakoram segment of the Himalayan range, on the border
between the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan and the
County of Xinjiang, China. Chinese authorities officially
refer to K2 as Qogir. Other names include Mount Godwin-
Austen, Lamba Pahar. The peak has remained elusive for
climbers until July 1954, when it was finally conquered by an
Italian expedition. Ashraf Aman has the distinction of being
the first Pakistani to have climbed this mountain.

The K2 is also known as the savage mountain due in part to


its terrible weather and comparatively greater height above
surrounding terrain. The mountain is believed by many to be
the worlds most difficult and dangerous climb. For
every four people who have reached the summit, one has died
trying. K2 has never been climbed in winters.

40
ZIARAT

Ziarat residency: The Quaid e Azam spent last days of his


life here

Ziarat is the location of the Ziarat residency where Quaid e


Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah spent the last days of his life.
Ziarat is a famous tourist site. There is a small dam and the
valley is full of fruits in summer and winter cherry in summer
and apple in winter. The weather is really pleasant during
summer time. Ziarat is also very famous for its honey and
juniper forests, which are the second largest in the world.

KARACHI

KPT water fountain (Oyster Rocks-Karachi)


41
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and financial center
of Pakistan. The city has an estimated population of 24
million people as of April 2012. Karachi is the most populous
city of Pakistan and one of the world's largest cities in terms
of population. It is Pakistan's premier center of banking,
industry, economic activity and trade. It is also the center of
entertainment, arts, fashion, software development and
medical research.

ISLAMABAD

Faisal Mosque

Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan. It is a lively and bustling


metropolis full of vibrancy. Close to Islamabad lies Murree,
this is a hill resort and popular tourist destination.

QUETTA

42
Quetta is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan
province of Pakistan. The city is also known as the Fruit
Garden of Pakistan, due to its numerous fruit orchards. The
city was almost completely destroyed in a major earth quake
in 1930s.
SWAT

Swat Valley
The stunning beauty, attraction and grace of the valley of
Swat is well known throughout the world. The areas
enchanting sights, moderate climate, pleasant environment,
and snow covered high peaks and the wild Swat River
presents a grand specter for all the visitors. Miandam,
Bahrain and Madian are popular destinations.
LAKE SAIF UL MALOOK

Lake Saif ul Malook

43
Lake Saif ul Malook is a famous tourist resort, well known
for the associated story of a Persian prince Saif ul Malook. It
is located about 8 kilometers north from the town of Naran in
northern end of Kaghan Valley, in District Mansehra, Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa.
The lake with its majestic and mesmerizing natural beauty,
pleasant atmosphere and associated tale and history, attracts
thousands of tourists each year from all around the country
during the summer.
FLORA AND FAUNA
Pakistan is a diverse country in terms of climate and
geography. The gorgeous landscapes and climates in the
country allows for a wide variety of trees, plants and other
wildlife and nature to flourish.
In the extreme northern mountains, Pakistan has some of its
finest forests. These forests range from coniferous alpine and
subalpine trees such as spruce, pine and deodar cedar. In
Baluchistan, Sindh and Southern Punjab, palms such as
coconuts and date are abundantly found. Juniper, Tamarisk,
coarse grasses and scrub plants are found in the western hills.
Mangrove forests form much of the coastal wetlands along
the coast in the south of Pakistan, adjacent to the Arabian Sea.
In most of Punjab and Sindh province, the Indus plains
support tropical and subtropical dry and moist broadleaf
forestry as well as tropical and shrub lands.
Pakistans fauna reflects its varied climate. Around 668
bird species are found. These include crows, sparrows,
mynas, hawks, falcons, and eagles. Many birds sighted in
Pakistan are migratory which are mostly coming from
Europe, Central Asia and India.
The southern plains are homes to mongooses, civets, hares,
the Asiatic jackal, the Indian pangolin, the jungle cat and
desert cat. There are mugger crocodiles in the Indus, and wild
boar, deer, porcupines and small rodents are common in the
surroundings.

44
Ibex in Baluchistan, Pakistan (Wildlife)
The sandy scrublands of Central Pakistan are home to Asiatic
jackals, striped hyenas, wildcats and leopards. The lack of
vegetation, severe climate and the impact of grazing on the
deserts have left all the wild animals in a precarious position.
The chinkara is the only animal that can still be found in
significant numbers in Cholistan. A small number of nilgai
are found along the Pakistan-India border and in some parts
of Cholistan. A wide variety of animals live in the
mountainous north, including the Marco Polo Sheep, the urial
(a subspecies of wild sheep), Markhor (The National Animal
of Pakistan) and Ibex goats, the Asian black bear and the
Himalayan brown bear.
Among the rare animals found in the area are the snow
leopards, the Asiatic cheetahs and the blind Indus River
dolphin, of which there are believed to be about 1100 still
remaining, protected at the Indus River Dolphin Reserve in
Sindh.

45
Wildlife of Karakoram
In total, 174 mammals, 177 reptiles, 22 amphibians, 198
freshwater fish species and 5000 species of invertebrates
(including insects) have been recorded in Pakistan. Pakistan
has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world.
This, along with hunting and pollution, is causing adverse
effects on the ecosystem. The government has established a
large number of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and
game reserves to deal with these issues.
ARCHITECTURE

46
Sheesh Mahel, Lahore

Shakarparian, Islamabad

47
Mausoleum of Quaid e Azam

Mausolem of sufi saint in Multan

48
Mughul era fort in Lahore

Faisal Mosque Islamabad (Named after king Faisal of Saudi


Arabia)
Pakistan has a rich architecture. It can be traced back to four
distinct time periodspre-Islamic, Islamic, colonial and
post-colonial. With the beginning of the Indus civilization
around the middle of the 3rd millennium B.C., an advanced
urban culture developed for the first time in the region; with
large structural facilities. Mohenjo Daro, Harappa and Kot
Diji belong to the pre-Islamic era settlements and are worth
visiting. During this period, the rise of Buddhism and the
Persian and Greek influence led to the development of the
Greco-Buddhist style of architecture. A good example of
Buddhist architecture is the
49
ruins of the Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi in the Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa province.
With the arrival of Islam in the region, which now constitutes
Pakistan, a smooth transition to predominantly picture-less
Islamic architecture occurred. Some of the important
buildings of Persian style found today include
the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Multan. During
the Mughal era, design elements of Islamic-Persian
architecture were fused with Hindu art, resulting in a colorful
form of architecture. The Mughals were fond of constructing
buildings and have left behind a rich heritage,
which survives to date. Prominent among them
the Badshahi mosque, the fortress of Lahore with the
famous Alamgiri Gate, the colorful, Persian style Wazir
Khan Mosque, Shalimar Gardens, and Shahjahan
Mosque of Thatta are most prominent.
In the British colonial period, predominantly functional
buildings of the Indo-European representative style
developed from a mixture of European and Indian-Islamic
components. In the post-colonial era, national identity is
expressed in modern structures like the Faisal Mosque in
Islamabad, the Minar-e-Pakistan in Lahore and the Mazar-e-
Quaid in Karachi.

DANCES
Dancing is not permitted in Islam, but culturally it has existed
for many hundreds of years. Folk dances are still popular in
Pakistan and vary according to region such as:
Punjab

Bhangra
Luddi
Sammi
Jhumar

50
Baluchistan

Lewa
Chap

Jhumar
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Attan - Folk dance of Pashtuns tribes of Pakistan


including the unique styles
of Quetta and Waziristan
Khattak
Chitrali Dance

Sindh

Dhammal - Performed at Sufi


shrines/ dargahs in Punjab and Sindh
Ho Jamalo - Sindhi dance
Jhumro

FESTIVALS
There are many festivals in Pakistan, some religious and
some national and we respect all of them. Some religious
festivals are:
Ramadan
Ramadan is the holiest month of the Islamic year, which is a
month of fasting from sunrise to sunset and self-discipline. It
is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and is widely
observed in Pakistan. The Muslims of Pakistan fast, attend
mosques with increased frequency, and recite the holy
Qur'an.People distribute food stuff and money to the needy.
This money is commonly known as Zakat. It is the Muslim
tax levied at the rate of 2.5% of the total savings in a Muslim
year.

51
Chand Raat
It is not a festival but a night of shopping, eating and fun.
Chand Raat occurs after the Islamic month of Ramadan and
is the night before Eid day celebrations. It also marks the end
of the month of Ramadan. During the night, people celebrate
in different ways. Girls put Hena on their hands, wear
bangles, buying of gifts and sweets. People visit each other
houses and go out for shopping and a night of fun.Shopping
areas, malls and even streets are tastefully decorated. There
are large crowds in the city center to celebrate the beginning
of Eid, and it is usually a boom time for business.

Eid celebrations
Muslims in Pakistan celebrate two Eids (Muslim festivals).
Eid ul-Fitr is to celebrate the end of month of Ramadan,
whereas the Eid ul Azha is celebrated to commemorate the
historic event in which Prophet Ibrahim (A.S) bowed his head
in submission to Allah to sacrifice his son Ismael (A.S) and
the willingness of the son to obey the command of Allah.Both
the occasions are national holidays and many festive events
taking place. During Eid ul Azha, animals mostly, goats,
sheep, cows and camels are sacrificed. During this event,
people also distribute the sacrificial meat to the poor,
relatives and neighbors. A lot of parties are also held in which
a large variety of dishes with meat including kebabs etc. are
served.

52
Eid shopping

Eid Milaad un Nabi


Eid Milaad un Nabi is a known religious festival which is
celebrated in many parts of Pakistan. The Milaad is the
celebration for the birthday of the last prophet, Hazrat
Mohammad (S.A.W.W). Throughout the third month of the
Islamic calendar various events are held in mosques, at
schools and even at homes to celebrate the occasion.
Muharram (Ashura)
Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is also
one of the holiest months. In Pakistan, the first ten days of
Muharram are observed officially. The 10th day of
Muharram is marked in the memory of Imam Hussain, the
grandson of Muhammad (S.A.W.W), who was a martyr,
along with 72 family members, friends and followers during
the Battle of Karbala in Iraq. Large processions of mourners
are taken out in various cities and people usually attired in
black dresses attend majalis (religious gatherings).
Jashn-e-Baharan
In Urdu language the word Jashn means celebrations and
Baharan means the month of spring. Jashn-e-Baharan is
sometimes also referred to as Basant, which is a pre-Islamic
Punjabi festival that marks the coming of spring.
Celebrations in Pakistan are centered mostly in Punjab and
53
to be more specific in Lahore.This is an occasion of great fun
and people from all over the country and abroad come to the
city for the annual festivities. Kite flying competitions take
place all over the city's rooftops during Basant. Although the
celebrating of the event is now prohibited because of the large
number of fatalities, however, people still celebrate it openly.
Christmas
Christmas is celebrated in Pakistan by the Pakistani Christian
community. Other Pakistanis also commemorate this event to
promote inter-communal harmony.
Nowruz
This festival is similar to the one celebrated in the
neighboring Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia. Nowruz is
celebrated as a socio-religious festival in Chitral, Gilgit and
Baltistan areas as well as some parts of Baluchistan. The day
coincides with the Spring Equinox on March 21, but the
celebration continues for weeks. In Baltistan, the main
features of Nowruz are the giving of colored eggs to friends
and families. Polo matches are also held. In Baluchistan, the
festival is marked with outdoor feasts, and the traditional
jumping over a fire to wash away sins. The origins of this
festival are pre-Islamic.
Independence Day
On August 14, the people celebrate the day when Pakistan
gained its independence from British India. The event which
is a national holiday is celebrated in every conceivable
manner. Special TV programmes, concerts, rallies, parades
and sport rallies are held throughout the country.In the
morning special prayers are held in mosques which are
followed by hoisting of national flag by the President in
Islamabad and governors of all the four provinces in
respective provincial capitals. People decorate their houses
with buntings and fly the national flag. In Karachi, a large
number of people visit the tomb of the founder of the nation.
At night, fireworks displays provide fascinating
entertainment.

54
Defense of Pakistan Day

It is celebrated on 6th of September every year as a national


holiday. The day is celebrated to commemorate the Indo-
Pakistani War of 1965. The day is marked with TV
programmes, parades and prayers.

LITERATURE

The literary heritage of Pakistan can be traced back to the


Muslim period, originating with the arrival of the first
Muslims in the region as early as in the 8th century A.D.

55
Allama Muhammad Iqbal (Poet and philosopher)

The literary heritage of Pakistan has been enriched by three


classical languages: Arabic, Persian and Urdu. During the
early Muslim period, Persian became the lingua franca of the
subcontinent, used by most of the educated and the
government. Urdu, Pakistan's national language and lingua
france, draws heavy influences from the Persian language.
Several figures in South Asia, and later Pakistan, became
major Persian poets, the most notable being Allama Iqbal.
For a time, Persian remained the court language of the
Mughals, soon to be replaced by Urdu. Persian held its status,
despite the spread of Urdu, well into the early years of the
British rule in the Indian subcontinent. In 1837, however, the
British, in an effort to expand their influence, made a
government ruling to discontinue the use of Persian and
commence the use of English instead. This started the decline
of Persian as the subcontinent's major language. Languages
spoken in Pakistan however still show signs of heavy Persian
influence.
Pakistani literature can be classified into Urdu, Pashto,
Sindhi, Baluchi, folklores of Punjab, KP, Sindh and
Baluchistan. Contemporary Pakistani literature is distinct in
that it gradually came to be defined after Pakistan gained
independence in 1947, emerging out of literary traditions of
56
the Indian subcontinent. The shared tradition of Urdu
literature and English literature of British India was inherited
by the new state. Over a period a body of literature unique to
Pakistan has emerged in nearly all major Pakistani languages.

CUISINE

Seekh Kebab (Famous Pakistani Bar-BQ dish)

Pakistani cuisine is a blend of cooking traditions from


different regions of the subcontinent. While some regard the
widespread style of cooking to the royal kitchens of sixteenth
century Mughal emperors, the fact remains that the spreading
of the Islam in the region in 700 AD forms the basis of
Pakistani cuisine. The Moghul Empire began to rule the
present-day Pakistan around 1526. Its style of cooking, called
Mughal typically includes such ingredients as herbs and
spices, almonds, and raisins. Mughal cooking remains an
important part of Pakistani cuisine. Although Pakistani
cuisine has obvious Indian roots (found in its heavy use of
spices, for example), its foods reflect Afghani, Persian, and
Western influences to give it its own distinct character. These
cultures brought different uses of herbs,
flavorings, and sauces to Pakistan, transforming ordinary
staple foods into unique dishes. Pakistans population is
predominantly Muslim and since they are forbidden to eat
pork or consume alcohol, they concentrate on other areas of
food such as beef, chicken, fish, and vegetables.

57
Foods such as shahi tukra, a dessert made with sliced bread,
milk, cream, sugar, and saffron (a type of spice), and chicken
tandoori are still enjoyed in the twenty-first century. Chicken
tandoori is chicken that is cooked at a low temperature in
special large clay ovens called tandoors. The interesting fact
about Pakistani cuisine, which makes it quite unique, is the
variety. Each area of Pakistan offers regional specialties. For
example, machli (fish) and other seafood are delicacies in the
coastal Sind province. In Baluchistan, (the largest province)
located in western Pakistan, cooks use the sajji method of
barbecuing whole lambs in a deep pit. The people living in
Punjab (eastern Pakistan) are known for their roti (bread) and
elaborate cooking preparations. The people of the Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa region (the pashtuns) eat a lot of lamb. Their
cooking, however, is considered blander than the other
regions. Oven-baked bread eaten with cubes of meat, called
nan-kebab, is a favorite pashtun dish.

As a whole, milk, lentils, seasonal sabzi (vegetables), and


flour and wheat products are the most abundant foods,
forming the basis of Pakistani cuisine. Chapati is flat bread
made from wheat and is a staple at most meals. It is used to
scoop up food in place of eating utensils. Vegetables such as
alu (potatoes), gobhi (cabbage), bhindi (okra), channa
(chickpeas),and matar (peas) are eaten according to the
season. Dhal (or dal) is a stew made with lentils, one of the
most commonly consumed food items.

Pakistan offers many fresh fruits that are most plentiful in the
summer and autumn months. Mangoes, papayas, bananas,
watermelon, apricots, and apples are some examples. Many
Pakistanis eat their fruit (especially watermelon) with a light
dusting of salt to offset the sweetness or tartness.

While these dietary staples may seem bland, Pakistani cuisine


is rich with sauces and condiments to spice up their dishes. A
variety of spices, such as chili powder, curry, ginger, garlic,
coriander, paprika, and cinnamon, are at the heart of Pakistani
cuisine. A wide range of chutneys (a
58
relish usually made of fruits, spices, and herbs), pickles, and
preserves that accompany meats and vegetables give
Pakistani cuisine its distinct flavor.

There are a number of ways meat is prepared in Pakistan.


Karahi is a method where the meat is cooked with vegetables
and served in its own pan.Tikka and bhoti kebab both refer to
meat grilled on a spit (a slender rod or skewer) over an open
fire. It is very popular in most parts of Pakistan.

There are a number of foods to cool off the spicy flavors of a


Pakistani meal. Dhai (yogurt) is taken plain or used in lassi.
Lassi is a drink made with yogurt, ice, and sugar for
breakfast, or salt for lunch or dinner. Raita is a yogurt curd
with cumin and vegetables. It is used as a side dish.
Pakistanis enjoy desserts such as kheer (rice pudding)
or kulfi (pistachio ice cream). Some sweet shops
sell jalebi, which are deep-fried orange "pretzels" made
with flour, yogurt, and sugar, and barfi, made from dried milk
solids. Offering sweets to one another to celebrate happy
events is a popular Pakistani tradition.

Kulfi (A traditional sweet)

59
Sometimes a dish made of meat are vegetables with chilies
and other spices is cooked overnight to be consumed for
breakfast the next morning, when it is eaten with naan , a type
of bread, or paratha , which is a flat chapati fried in oil.
Women prepare breakfast and all other meals for their family.

Pakistani lunch and dinner dishes are


similar. Roti (bread), chawal (rice), sabzi (vegetables),and
gosht (meat) are the main elements of a
meal. Chapatis or naan accompanies every meal. Rice is
usually boiled or fried. Some rice dishes include kabuli
pulau, made with raisins, and biryani, rice cooked in a yogurt
and meat sauce. For the main dish, qorma (meat curry in
gravy), qofta (meatballs), or nargasi qofta (minced beef and
egg) are served.

Chai, or tea, is a very popular drink. It is usually boiled with


milk, nutmeg, and sugar. Its another version doodh patti
(tea leaves boiled in milk and sugar) is very famous.
Lassi (a yogurt drink) and sugarcane juice are popular during
the summer months. Another refreshing summer drink is
nimbu paani, or "fresh lime." It is made of crushed ice, salt,
sugar, soda water, and lime juice. Samosas and pakoras are
popular snacks.

CINEMA
When we talk about the cinema of Pakistan, we straight away
think about the films made by Pakistan's largest film industry,
Lollywood, which is situated in Lahore.

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Two legends of Pakistani silver screen; Waheed Murad and
Zeba
Before the separation of former East Pakistan now called
Bangladesh, Pakistan had three main film production centers;
Lahore, Karachi and Dhaka. Dhaka was lost after 1971 and
the center of film making shifted to Lahore. During the
regime of President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, the introduction
of entertainment taxes and strict laws, are considered by
many in Pakistan as obstacles to the industry's growth.
Once thriving, the cinema in Pakistan now is fighting to
survive. However, on the other hand the growth of the smaller
screen has been phenomenal. With Karachi and Lahore
becoming the center of drama production, many production
houses have now come up. Most of the educated and young
individuals have joined this field, considered a taboo few
years ago.
The Pakistani film industry is credited with having produced
some of the notable and recognized filmmakers, actors,
writers and directors, and for introducing pop music to South
Asia and beyond. Use of inferior and outdated techniques,
competition from regional competitors, piracy, as well as
opposition from many quarters in the society, has led to the
industry's decline in the country.
During the time of President Ayub Khan, the Cinema of
Pakistan was known as The Golden Age of Cinema in
Pakistan. Many stars were introduced in this period in time
and became legends on the silver screen. As black-and-
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white became obsolete, Pakistan saw the introduction of first
color films.
In the recent years, despite some optimism of a revival,
progress continues to be slow. Alongside Geo Films, a
leading production house, continued efforts with their
'Revival of cinema', the Pakistan New Cinema Movement
(PNCM) was launched in 2009. With around 1400 members
PNCM, is a grass roots organization that is endeavoring and
facilitating networking in an effort to stimulate revival of the
film industry. Currently the industry has its main centers as
under:

Lahore film industry: Pakistan's largest domestic film


industry is based in the city of Lahore. The industry was
established in 1929 with the opening of the United
Players Corporation Studios on Ravi Road (now Timber
Market) in Lahore and mostly produces films in the Urdu
and Punjabi languages. The industry was first called
Lollywood in 1989.
Peshawar film industry: The film industry based
in Peshawar, the provincial capital of Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa, is the second largest in the country. It
mostly produces Pashto and Urdu language feature
films. The city itself has played a vital role in the
development of the South Asian cinema with
veteran Bollywood artistes like Raj Kapoor, Dilip
Kumar, Vinod Khanna andShahrukh Khan tracing their
lineage to Peshawar.
Karachi film industry: The film industry in the
southern port-city of Karachi mostly produces films in
Urdu. Some recent films have also been produced in
English and Sindhi languages.
Pahariwood: Pahariwood is the name of the Pothwari
filming industry that is based in the city of Mirpur, Azad
Kashmir in Pakistan. Films produced by Pahariwood are
in the Pothwari language.

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LEGENDS OF PAKISTAN
Despite low allocation of funds for education, not existent
infrastructure for training people in various fields, Pakistan
has produced Legends in almost all walks of life. In early years,
Pakistan became prominent on the worlds map of
sports because of achievements in cricket, hockey and
squash. Pakistan was the undisputed King of Squash for
decades and produced luminaries like Roshan Khan, Hashim
Khan, Jahangir Khan, Jansher Khan and Qamar Zaman. In
other fields also such as Economics, Art and Literature as
well as Science and Technology. Pakistan produced World
Class Professionals. Some of these Legendary Figures are as
follows:

POLITICIANS

Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Founder of Pakistan)

He was a lawyer, politician and statesman who is known as


being the founder of Pakistan. He is popularly and officially
known in Pakistan as 'Quaid-e-Azam' (Great Leader) and
'Baba-e-Qaum' (Father of the Nation). As the first Governor-
General of Pakistan, Jinnah led efforts to lay the foundations
of the new state of Pakistan, frame national
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policies and rehabilitate millions of Muslim refugees who
had migrated from India. Jinnah died aged 71 in September
1948, just over a year after Pakistan gained independence
from the British Empire. Jinnah remains a source of
considerable interest among historians and the public. He left
a deep and respected legacy in Pakistan, and according to
Stanley Wolpert, Jinnah remained Pakistan's greatest leader
since the establishment of Pakistan in 1947.

Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal (Poet and Philosopher)

He was a philosopher, poet and politician in British


India who is widely regarded as having inspired
the Pakistan Movement. He is considered one of the most
important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in
both the Urdu and Persian languages.

Iqbal was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual


revival of Islamic civilisation across the world, but
specifically in South Asia; a series of famous lectures he
delivered to this effect were published as The Reconstruction
of Religious Thought in Islam. One of the most prominent
leaders of the All India Muslim League, Iqbal encouraged the
creation of a "state in northwestern India for Muslims" in his
1930 presidential address. He encouraged and worked
closely with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and he is known as
Muffakir-e-Pakistan ("The Thinker of Pakistan"), Shair-e-
Mashriq ("The Poet of the East"), and Hakeem-ul-Ummat
("The Sage of Ummah"). He is officially recognized as the
national poet of Pakistan.

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Fatima Jinnah (Politician)

She was the younger sister of Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali


Jinnah. She is commonly known in Pakistan as Khtn-e
Pkistn ("Lady of Pakistan") and Mder-e
Millat ("Mother of the Nation."). She worked tirelessly
alongside her great brother for the creation of Pakistan. Such
was her devotion to the cause that she did not get married.

Liaquat Ali Khan (1st Prime Minister of Pakistan)

He was among the leading founding fathers of modern


Pakistan. He was a statesman, lawyer, and political theorist
who became and served as the first Prime Minister of
Pakistan, in addition, was also the first Defense minister and
minister of Commonwealth and Kashmir Affairs, from 1947
until his assassination in 1951.

65
Raana Liaquat Ali Khan (Politician)

She was one of the leading woman figures in Pakistan


Movement, along with her husband Liaquat Ali Khan. She
was one of the leading woman politicians of the country.

Maulvi Abul Kasem Fazlul Haq (Politician)

He studied at the Calcutta University and started his career as


a Professor; but in 1906 joined Government Service as
Deputy Magistrate. In 1911 he resigned from his job and
rejoined the Bar and was elected unopposed Member of the
Bengal Legislative Council in 1913. In 1914, he presided
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over the Bengal Presidency Muslim League. From 1913 to
1916 he served in Bengal Provincial Muslim League as its
Secretary and from 1916-21 he was the President of All India
Muslim League. Fazlul Haq had the honour to present the
'Pakistan Resolution' in the historic Lahore Session of the
Muslim League in 1940.

Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar

He was a member of the Working Committee of the All-India


Muslim League. He was also a part of the Muslim League
delegation at Simla Conference in 1945. He was elected to
the provincial Assemble in 1937, and became the Finance
Minister in Sardar Aurangzab's provincial cabinet in 1943.
He also became a Minister in the interim League Congress
cabinet in 1946. After independence, he served as Federal
Minister of Industries for four years and remained also the
Governor of Punjab for two years.

67
General Ayub Khan

He was the second President of Pakistan and first military


dictator from October 1958 until forced to resign in March
1969. He worked very hard for the betterment of Pakistan.
Most of the industrial development took place during his
period.

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (Politician)

He was the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan and held office


from 1973 to 1977. Prior to that, he held the office as the 4th
President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He was noted for
his progressive economic initiatives,
industrialization, education, and foreign policy, and his
intellectualism. He is also known as the father of Pakistans
nuclear programme.

68
Benazir Bhutto (Politician)

Daughter of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, also popularly known as


the Daughter of East, was a Pakistani democratic
socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of
Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990
and 1993 until 1996. She is the first woman in Pakistan to
head a major political party. In 1988, she became the first
woman elected to lead a Muslim state and was also Pakistan's
first (and thus far, only) female prime minister.

Pervez Musharraf (General)

He is a retired four-star general and a politician who served


as the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until 2008. Prior
to that, he was the 13th Chief of the Army Staff of Pakistan
Army. He is known for introducing the concept of
Enlightened Moderation in Pakistan.

69
WAR HEROES

Major Raja Aziz Bhatti (Shaheed/ Army Officer)

He was a Hong Kong-born Pakistan Army's Staff officer who


received Pakistan's highest award for valor.He displayed
exceptional courage and valour in defending the city of
Lahore against Indian aggression in the war of 1965. He has
been awarded the highest military decoration of
Pakistan the Nishan e Haider posthumously.

Rashid Minhas (Pilot Officer)

He was a Pilot Officer in the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) during


the 1971 Pakistan-India War. He is the only PAF officer to
receive the highest valour award, the Nishan-e-Haider. He is
also the youngest person and the shortest-serving officer to
have received this award.

70
Captain Sher Khan (Pakistan Army Officer)

He was a Pakistan Army officer who is one of only eleven


recipients of Pakistan's highest gallantry award, the Nishan-
e-Haider. He was a Captain in the 12 Northern Light Infantry
(NLI) and, previously in 27 Sindh Regiment of the Pakistan.

Nur Khan (Air Marshall-Pakistan Air Force Officer)

He was a high-profile military official who represented the


Pakistan Air Force as its Air Commander-in-Chief.He was
also the chairman of Pakistan International Airlines (PIA).

71
Colonel Hassan Khan (Freedom Fighter)

He was an Army Officer and was a Freedom fighter and


was the man behind the freedom of Gilgit.

Muhammad Mahmood Alam (Fighter Pilot)

He was a Pakistani fighter pilot ace and one-star general who


served with the Pakistan Air Force. He was awarded the
Sitara-e-Jurat ("The star of courage"), for display of
exceptional courage and skills during the Indo-Pakistani War
of 1965, when he shot down five Indian aircraft in less than
a minute.

72
SOCIAL ACTIVISTS

Abdul Sattar Edhi (Humanitarian)

He is a Pakistani philanthropist known for international


humanitarian work. He is the founder and head of Edhi
Foundation, a non-profit social welfare program in Pakistan.
He and his wife, Bilquis Edhi, are revered in Pakistan for
their social and charity work. The couple has been decorated
with the 1986 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service.
He is also the recipient of the Lenin Peace Prize and the
Balzan Prize.

Ansar Burney (Human Rights Activist)

73
He is a leading Pakistani human rights and civil rights
activist. In 1980, he began the "Ansar Burney Welfare Trust",
"Prisoners Aid Society", and "Bureau of Missing and
Kidnapped Persons" in Karachi, Pakistan.His works revolves
around pro viding free legal aid to poor and needy persons
especially those held in jails. Recently he received worldwide
acclaim for his efforts in the release of hostages held by
Somali pirates.

Mir Khalil Ur Rehman (Founder of Jang Newspaper)

He was the founder and editor of the Jang Group of


Newspapers which has currently grown to be the most
popular Urdu and English newspapers in Pakistan. As a
founder of the Jang Group of newspapers, he is a print media
legend in Pakistan.

Alam Channa

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Alam Channa was the world's tallest living man at 232.4 cm
(7 ft. 7 inch) high. During his life he had been billed at various
heights of up to 9 ft. 6 while working at a circus.

WRITERS

Ashfaq Ahmed

He was a distinguished writer, broadcaster, intellectual and


a spiritualist. He was regarded by many as among the finest
Urdu short story writer.

Bano Qudsia

She is a writer, intellectual, playwright and spiritualist. She


is the wife of Ashfaq Hussain (writer and spiritualist). She
has written many famous Urdu novels and short stories. She
is best known for her novel Raja Gidh and has written for
television and stage in both Urdu and Punjabi languages.
75
Amjad Islam Amjad

He is a well-known Urdu poet and drama writer.He has


written many books including poetry and prose. He has
received many awards for his literary work and Screenplay
for TV including the coveted Pride of Performance and
Sitara-e-Imtiaz.
Anwar Maqsood

He is a Pakistani playwright, poet, television host, satirist,


humorist, infrequent actor and painter who has worked in the
entertainment industry since the early 70s.

76
Fatima Surrayya Bajia

She is a renowned Urdu novelist, playwright and drama


writer of Pakistan. She has been awarded various awards at
home and abroad including Japan's highest civil award in
recognition of her works. She has also remained Advisor to
the Chief Minister of Sindh province in Pakistan.

Haseena Moin

She is a playwright and scriptwriter, extremely popular


among the youngsters. She has written several dozen plays
for radio and television in Pakistan and abroad. She is the
recipient of Pride of Performance for her services to the
performing arts in Pakistan.

77
Kamal Ahmed Rizvi

He is a famous writer, stage artist and TV producer who


gained meteoric fame through his satirical TV and stage
dramas. His rise is almost unparalleled in Pakistans
entertainment history.

Ahmed Faraz (Poet)

He was a great Pakistani Urdu poet. He was considered one


of the great modern Urdu poets of the last century. Faraz was
arrested for writing poems that criticised military rulers in
Pakistan during the era of Gen Zia ul Haq. Following that
arrest he went into a self-imposed exile and stayed for 6 years
in Britain, Canada and Europe. He has been awarded with
numerous national and international awards.

78
Parveen Shakir (Poet)

She was a great Urdu poet, teacher and a civil servant of the
Government of Pakistan.

Habib Jalib (Poet)

He was a Pakistani revolutionary poet, who is famous in


Pakistan for his opposition of martial law, authoritarianism
and state oppression. Today he is considered one of the most
renowned Pakistan revolutionary Urdu Poet.

79
Faiz Ahmed Faiz (Poet)

He was a left-wing intellectual, revolutionary poet, and one


of the most famous poets of Urdu language. A known Marxist
has been awarded the Lenin Peace Prize by the Soviet Union
in 1962.

Saadat Hasan Manto (Writer)

He was a short story writer of Urdu language. In addition he


was also a film and radio scriptwriter and a journalist. In his
short life, he published twenty-two collections of short
stories, one novel, five collections of radio plays, three
collections of essays, and two collections of personal
sketches.

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ACTORS

Zia Mohyuddin

He is a Pakistani actor famed for his voice. He is still active


among Pakistani media as a speaker and hosts several TV
programs both for national and private channels. He is also
involved in narrating some abstract short films and
commercials.

Moin Akhter

He was a Pakistani television, film and stage actor, as well as


a humorist, comedian, impersonator, and a host. He was also
a play writer, singer, film director and a producer. He is very
popular in Pakistan for providing humor for people of all
ages.

81
Shafi Muhammad Shah

He was a Pakistani film and television actor. He is famously


known as Shahjee. During his 30-year career, he performed
in over 50 drama serials and over 100 television plays in the
Urdu and Sindhi languages on different television channels.

Muhammad Qavi Khan

He is a versatile actor, who has been associated with Pakistan


film industry and TV since their very inception. An
institution within himself, he has many famous dramas, films
and stage plays to his credit.

82
Talat Hussain

He is a Pakistani Film/Television/Stage actor who started his


career from PTV. A versatile actor, who has many famous
dramas, films and stage dramas to his credit. In 1972, he
moved to England, and joined the London Academy of Music
and Dramatic Art (LAMDA). Talat Hussain's early roles was
in Jimmy Perry and David Croft's It Ain't Half Hot Mum. His
roles in It Ain't Half Hot
Mum was The Club Proprietor (bartender) in Cabaret Time,
The Bar Proprietor in Dont Take the Mickey, The RAF
Control Tower Officer in Fight to Jawani alongside Jeffrey
Holland and Robin Parkinson. He was also worked for BBC
Radio in play Crown Coat.Talat has worked in several
foreign films and television drama serials and long plays. He
worked in some episodes of Channel Four's television
serial Traffik. In 2006, Talat Hussain won the Amanda
Award for the Best Supporting Roll categoryin
the Norwegian film Import-eksport. He also starred
in Jinnah which starred Christopher Lee, who played
Jinnah but Hussain played a refugee. Talat also lends his
voice to the person of Jesus in the Urdu dubbed version of the
famous movie Jesus.

83
Shakeel

He is a Pakistani television actor best known for his romantic


roles in famous TV plays. He has also acted in a number of
local films as well as an English film, Jinnah and Traffic
Serial for BBC Channel-4. He is also known for his
philanthropic activities.

Uzma Gillani

She is a great professional actress of Pakistani dramas and has


been acting since the 90s. With her great acting skills
and unique expressions and emotions, she has gained great
respect from her fans. During the 80s and 90s she proved her
versatility by acting in a number of popular TV plays.

84
Bushra Ansari

She is a Pakistani television presenter, singer, actress and


playwright who started as a child performer in the 1960s and
has remained a major TV personality for over four decades.
She is a great actress with lots of talent. She is probably the
most versatile female artist in Pakistan. She has made a name
for herself not only in comedy, but also is serious plays, stage
dramas and singing.

Khalida Riyasat

She made her debut on television towards the end of 1970s.


She was a very talented actress who inspired many. Her way
of acting was lively and realistic. This talented actress is
loved and remembered even today because of her excellent
and rare personality. She dies at an early age fighting a deadly
cancer, but her legacy reminds the Pakistanis of her great
skills.

85
Saleem Nasir

He was a Pakistani film and TV actor. With his experience in


film and television acting, he developed mastery in artistic
skills and built a career based on his versatile performances.
During the 80s and 90s he appeared in many historical plays
and won accolades due his exceptional performances. He also
acted in a number of comedy plays, where he excelled as
well.

Jamshed Ansari

He was a notable, great and legendary Pakistani film and


television actor as well as radio artist. His dramas are famous
even today and loved by all who see them. He died in 2005
of a brain tumor at an early age. He gained popularity for his
comedy as well as serious roles.

86
Zeba Shehnaz

She is a film, stage and drama actress who has won fame
through her versatile acting. Her real name is Shaheen, but
she adopted the name Zeba. She is widely regarded as one of
the top stars in the 1960s and the early 1970s. One of her most
memorable role came in 1972 film Mohabbat which
was critical and commercial success and earned her
third Best Actress award from Nigar Awards. She
acclaimed stardom through TV series fifty-fifty.

Muhammad Ali

He was a legendary Pakistani actor who is also known


as Shahenshah-e-Jazbaat meaning The Emperor of
Emotions. He had starred in over 250 movies playing roles
as hero and villain. He was included among 25 greatest

87
actors of Asia (all time) by CNN survey. Along with oth er
famous actors such asWaheed Murad and Nadeem, he
remained one of the leading actors of Pakistan film industry.

Nadeem Baig

He has acted in several films, telefilms, and TV drama serials.


He has played a leading role in more than 200 films.

Sabiha Khanum

She was the leading star of Pakistani cinema in the 1950s and
1960s. Most of her movies were with her husband, the late
Santosh Kumar (Musa Raza). Sabiha and Santosh were
highly regarded as performers, and movie-goers loved to see
them together.

88
Nayyar Sultana

She was an acting legend whose highly successful movies


touched on the themes of pathos and longings.

Waheed Murad

He was a legendary Pakistani film actor, producer and script


writer. He is considered to be one of the most famous and
influential actors of subcontinent. He is well known for his
charming expressions, attractive personality, tender voice
and unusual talent for acting in films. His romantic style of
acting made him popular amongst the young cinema viewers
of South Asia.

89
Mustafa Qureshi

He is a great legendary Pakistani film and television actor.


He is famous for his roles in Punjabi films. He has acted in
more than 500 movies, in both Urdu and Punjabi languages.

Sultan Rahi

He was a notable Pakistani film actor who was prominent in


Pakistan in Punjabi films during the 1970s and 1980s. With
his rugged looks and an aggressive style of dialogue delivery.
'Sultan Rahi' the Pakistani film superstar was the ultimate
action hero and the biggest film personality from Pakistan.
He was a Pakistani version of 'Bruce Lee', 'Chuck
Norris','Sylvester Stallone', and 'James Bond' all rolled into
one He worked in over 703 plus Punjabi films and 100 Urdu
films and won 160 Film Awards. He is the onlyPakistani
actor to be in the Guinness Book of World Records. On 9
January 1996 he was shot dead on the main highway in
Pakistan

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Athar Shah Khan

Ather Shah Khan is a multitalented, multi-faceted artist, who


emphasized Pakistani Media, Literature and Performing arts
in the whole world. He is among the first artists of PTV. He
is a trend setter who revolutionized the Pakistan Television
and entertainment industry from his very young age, in early
1960s. He has written over 700 radio plays, many TV drama
serials and solos.

Rafi Khawar/ Nannha (Comedian)

He was a renowned comedy actor of Pakistan ifilms


and TV drama popularly known as Nannha, meaning
small. He was regarded as an exceptional comedy talent
and for many years was the star of the hit TV show "Alif
Noon". He died in mysterious circumstances in 1986.

91
Lehri

He is one of Pakistan's greatest comedians who made his


name in Urdu films. His film career started in the 1950s and
lasted until the 1980s.
Umar Shareef

The undisputed king of Pakistani stage dramas, and is also


known as the king of comedy. He rose to fame due to his
work on stage and his stage shows are considered among the
most popular in Pakistan. He started his showbiz career from
Karachi as stage performer at the age of 14.

92
Liaquat Soldier

He was a Pakistani stage and television comedy actor, writer,


and director. He started his acting career in 1973. He featured
in over 250 plays.

SPORTSPERSONS

Roshan Khan (Squash Player)

He was a squash player from Pakistan. He was one of the


leading players in the game in the 1950s and early-1960s, and
won the British Open title in 1957. His son Jahangir Khan
became the world's leading squash player in the 1980s (and
arguably the greatest player of all time).

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Hashim Khan (Squash Player)

He is a former squash player from Pakistan. He won the


British Open seven times between 1951 and 1958.

Jahangir Khan (Squash Player)

He is a former World No. 1 professional squash player, who


is considered by many to be the greatest player in the history
of the game. During his career he won the World Open six
times and the British Open a record ten times. From 1981 to
1986, he was unbeaten in competitive play. During that time
he won 555 matches consecutively, the longest winning
streak by any athlete in top-level professional sports as
recorded by Guinness World Records

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Jansher Khan (Squash Player)

Another of Pakistans legendary squash player who won


the World Open a record eight times and the British Open six
times. Jansher won the World Junior Squash Championship
title in 1986. At the time, the men's professional tour was
dominated by another great Pakistani player Jahangir Khan.
Jahangir won the pair's first few encounters in late-1986 and
early-1987. Jansher then scored his first win over Jahangir in
1987.

Fazal Mahmood (Cricketer)

He was a cricketer, regarded as the finest pace bowler of his


country's early years. He played in 34 Test matches and
took 139 wickets at a bowling average of 24.70. The first
Pakistani to pass 100 wickets, he reached the landmark in
his 22nd match.

95
Hafeez Kardar (Cricketer)

He was an international cricketer, who is one of the only three


players to have played Test cricket for both India and
Pakistan; the other two being Amir Elahi and Gul
Mohammad. He became the first captain of the Pakistan
cricket team and is widely regarded as a father figure of
Pakistan's cricket.

Hanif Mohammad (Cricketer)

He is a former cricketer. He played for the Pakistani cricket


team in 55 Test matches between 1952/53 and 1969/70 and
averaged 43.98, with twelve hundreds. The highest of his
Test centuries was a famous 337 made against West Indies in
a six-day test at Bridgetown in 1957/58. He also made 499
runs in a first class match, a record which remained unbeaten
for many decades.

96
Zaheer Abbas (Cricketer)

He is a former cricketer, regarded as one of the


finest batsman produced by that country. He is widely
known as the "Asian Bradman" a reference to former
Australian great Sir Donald Bradman.

Imran Khan (Cricketer & Politician)

He is a politician, statesman and famous former cricketer. He


has played international cricket for two decades. After
retiring, he entered politics. Imran Khan is also a
philanthropist, cricket commentator, Chancellor of the
University of Bradford and Founding Chairman Board of
Governors of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital &
Research Centre.

97
Javed Miandad (Cricketer)

He is Pakistan's leading run scorer in Test cricket. He has


served as a captain of the Pakistan national cricket team. He
is widely known for his big six against India in 1986 where 5
runs were required from 1 ball. After his playing career, he
has remained the coach of Pakistan cricket team at various
occasions, as well as held positions in the Pakistan Cricket
Board.

Saeed Anwar (Cricketer)

He was an opener capable of electrifying starts in all cricket


through graceful stroke play. He first came to prominence as
a one-day player but soon achieved equal success in Test
cricket. He is most notable for scoring 194 runs
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against India in Chennai in 1997, then the highest, and now
the joint third highest individual score in ODI.

Muhammad Yousuf (Cricketer)

He is a Pakistani right-handed batsman. He is best known in


cricket for his achievement in 2006 when he broke the world
record for most Test runs in a single calendar year.
For many years, he was the pillar of Pakistans middle
order batting.

Wasim Akram (Cricketer)

He is regarded as one of the best left arm fast bowlers in the


history of cricket. He holds many world records and is one of
five new members inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of
Fame. He reached the 500-wicket landmark in One Day
International matchs in the 2003 World Cup, but retired
shortly afterwards.

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Shoaib Akhtar (Fastest Bowler/ Cricketer)

He is a former cricketer. He holds the record for being the


fastest bowler in the history of international cricket.

Jan Muhammad Baloch

Jan Muhammad Baloch represented Pakistan in the Munich


Olympic in 1972. He won a Gold medal for Pakistan in the
Asian boxing championship, in South Korea in 1970. Jan
Muhammad Baloch remained all Pakistan National
champion for 12 consecutive years. He is the mentor of many
Pakistani boxing stars.

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Syed Hussain Shah

He is the first Pakistani boxer to win any medal in Olympic


boxing. Syed Hussain Shah won the bronze medal in the
Middleweight division (7175 kg) at the 1988 Seoul
Olympics.He received the Sitara-i-Imtiaz from Government
of Pakistan in 1989. In addition he has the rare honor of
winning five gold medals in South Asian games for Pakistan.
Shahid Afridi

He is famous for his aggressive batting style, and holds the


record for the fastest ODI century which he made in his first
international innings. In addition he also holds the distinction
of having hit the most number of sixes in the history of ODI
cricket.

101
Muhammad Yousuf (Snooker Player)

He is an internationally notable Pakistani snooker player and


one of the most successful players to come from
Pakistan. In 1994, at the IBSF World Snooker
Championship, he defeated Icelands Johannes R.
Johannesson 11-9 to become the IBSF World Snooker
Champion. In 2006, he beat Glen Wilkinson of Australia in
Amman 5-4 to win the IBSF World Masters Championship.

Islahuddin Siddique (Hockey Player)

A right winger from Pakistan, he led Pakistan to Hockey


World Cup glory in 1978. Not only did Pakistan win the
World Cup in 1978 under his leadership but it completed a
grand slam by winning the Champions Trophy and an Asian
Games Gold medal as well.

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Sohail Abbas (Hockey Player)

He is a field hockey defender and penalty corner specialist.


He is the highest goal scorer in the history of field hockey,
with his current goal tally at 345.

Chishti Mujahid (Commentator)

He is a great Pakistani cricket commentator. His interest for


cricket is defined during his commentating. He also served in
the Pakistan Cricket Board. He has a versatile style and is
considered as the pioneer of cricket commentary in Pakistan.

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Aleem Dar (Cricket Umpire)

He won three consecutive ICC Umpire of the Year awards


2009, 2010 and 2011, after being nominated twice in 2005
and 2006. He and Simon Taufel are the only umpires to have
received the award since its inception. Since his retirement as
a player, he has gained prominence as one of the leading
umpires in international cricket.

TELEVISION TALENTS
Tariq Aziz (Television show Host)

He is a Pakistani television host known for his work on the


general-knowledge quiz show Neelam Ghar, later renamed
the Tariq Aziz Show and now known as Bazm-e-Tariq Aziz.
He is also a politician, and poet.

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Naeem Bukhari (TV Personality)

He is a famous TV personality and senior advocate of


Supreme Court of Pakistan. He attained intellectual celebrity
status for his famous TV talk show appearances.

Dildar Pervaiz Bhatti (Radio & TV Host)

He was a Pakistani television and radio host and announcer.


He worked for Radio Pakistan and Pakistan Television. He is
famous for his wit and humor. Dildar hosted many famous
shows on Pakistan Television, where he earned the reputation
of being an exceptionally intelligent host. He was also a
teacher. was multi award winner for his compering on TV &
Stage shows. He died at an early age in New York, during a
stage show, and is still a role model for many young and
aspiring TV hosts Pakistan.

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Azhar Lodhi

Azhar Lodhi was a newscaster and commentator at


the Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) during 1985-
1988. He gained fame for his emotional coverage of the
funeral of late president Zia ul Haq. A Gallup survey held in
1986 stated that he was the 2nd most famous news caster on
Pakistan National TV, PTV.
Shaista Zaid

She was a very popular news anchor of Pakistan Television,


who served the institution for more than four decades. She
was famous for her flawless English in typical Pakistani
accent. She retired in 2012.

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Khalid Hameed

Khalid Hameed was a famous PTV news anchor. He was


famous and known for his voice. His way of talking was very
unique. After quitting his job with PTV, Khalid moved to
USA, where he is now settled in New York.

Ishrat Fatima

She was one of the finest news-caster of Pakistani Television.


She was famous for her Urdu news reading. She recently
retired from the PTV, after serving in that organization for
many years.

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Mustansar Hussain Tarar

He is a Pakistani author, actor, former radio show host and


compere. He is also famous for his literary work and hilarious
writings. Mustanssar Tarrar is a very versatile personality,
who has acted in a number of TV plays as well. He has also
hosted many TV shows.

Obaidullah Baig (Scholar)

He was an eminent scholar, Urdu writer/novelist, columnist


and media expert from Karachi. He started his career from
Radio
Pakistan but gained fame from the famous TV quiz show
Kasuti. Obaidullah Baig was awarded 'Pride of
Performance' (August 14, 2008) by the President of Pakistan
for his services to Pakistani media. His wife, Salma Baig was
also a renowned face on PTV for hosting programs in the past
and for her participation in the educational sector.

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Munni Baji

She is a famous personality of Radio Pakistan and remained


associated with this organization for almost 45 years. She
started with kid roles in dramas for the Radio Pakistan due to
her voice. She did children programme Naunehaal, for more
than 30 years, whose name later changed into Bachchon Ki
Duniya. Bachchon Ki Duniya is still remembered by the
young-ones of the 1970s and 1980s. Her poor health forced
her to retire in 1993. She died on 14 May 2007 in Karachi.
She received Ilyas Rashidi's Nigar award for her services.
ISLAMIC PERSONALITIES

Dr. Israr Ahmed

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Dr. Israr spent more than 50 years teaching Quran and
preaching Islam. An Islamic theologian, he is the founder of
the Tanzeem-e-Islami.

MaulanaTariq Jameel

He is an Islamic scholar whose lectures incorporate a wide


range of issues of Islam and social concern. He especially
emphasizes on self-purification, avoidance of violent ways,
observance of Allahs orders and to follow the
Prophet Muhammad's (PBUH) Sunnah.

Sabri Brothers

The brothers were famous in South Asia for their Sufi brand
of singing commonly known as Qawwali.

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Waheed Zafar Qasmi (Naat Khawan)

Qari Waheed Zafar started reciting Quran-e Majeed at the age


of 6. At the same time he started reciting Naat and Hifz of the
Holy Quran as well. Qari Waheed Zafar has participated in
many international competitions. In Qur'an reciting, he won
his first competition in 1969 in Malaysia.
He joined Radio Pakistan in the 1970s, and the first program
that he contributed was Sar Chashma-e- Hidayat.
He also perform as a guest in different institute such like
Ghulaman-e-Abbas School in Naat Competition.

Muneeba Sheikh (Naat Khawan)

She is the sister of Qaari Shaakir Qaasmi and Waheed Zafar


Qaasmi. She has recited numerous Hamds and Naats on
Radio and TV. She has participated in many national and
international competitions. One of her daughters is also a naat
khawan.

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Umm-E-Habiba (Naat Khawan)

Umm-e-Habiba is amongst the pioneer female Naat Khawans


in Pakistan. The voice of Umme Habiba has been recognized
throughout the Islamic world for the past four decades for her
melodious and spell-binding recitations that poetically praise
Allah and his beloved Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). In her
40 year career, she has been awarded numerous awards and
honors, which include the Pride of Performance award in
2001, the highest honor given in Pakistan by the President,
for her devotion to the field of milaad-un-nabi since she first
began her career in 1969.

SINGERS

Noor Jehan

Noor Jehan was a legendary singer and actress. Her film and
singing career spanned almost seven decades. She was
renowned as one of the greatest and most prolific singers of
her time in South Asia and was given the title of Malika-e-

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Tarannum. Her patriotic songs are an inspiration for
Pakistani soldiersto this day.

Mehdi Hassan (King of Ghazal)

He was a legendary singer whois also known as the King


of Ghazal. He has been honored with Tamgha-e-
Imtiaz, Pride of Performance and Hilal-e-Imtiaz by
the Government of Pakistan, and Gorkha Dakshina Bahuby
the Government of Nepal.

Farida Khanum

She is a famous ghazal singer. The Times of India has called


her "Malika-e-Ghazal" (Queen of Ghazal). Farida Khanum
gave her first public concert in 1950 and then joined Radio
Pakistan where she courted fame and fortune. She became a
star when Pakistans president Ayub Khan invited her to
a public recital in the 60s. She regularly appeared on
Pakistani TV.
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Ahmed Rushdi

Ahmed Rushdi was a versatile playback singer who is a


legend as a play back singer. His contributions for the
Pakistani cinema during the golden age have been
acknowledged at all levels in Pakistan.

Iqbal Bano

She was a highly acclaimed female Ghazal singer. She was


best known for her semi-classical Urdu ghazal songs. It was
observed that her temperament was particularly suited to
vocal genres like thumri, dadra and ghazal. Iqbal Bano was
invited by Radio Pakistan for classical performances. Her
debut public concert took place in 1957, at the Lahore Arts
Council. She was considered a specialist in singing the
ghazals of Faiz Ahmed Faiz. In 1985, Bano became a cult
icon when she roused a strong crowd of 50,000 people in
Lahore by singing Faiz's passionate Urdu anthem, Hum
Dekhenge (We Will See), despite the poet's works being
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banned by General Zia ul-Haq's military regime on the
grounds of his close ties with Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. In due
course, she generated more and more public appeal and
became a specialist in singing the kalam of Faiz Ahmad Faiz.
Her inciting ghazals were seen as an act of defiance and
resistance.
She also sang Persian poetry, which became popular in Iran
and Afghanistan. In pre-1979 Afghanistan, she was often
invited to the annual cultural fair, the Jashn-e-Kabul.
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan (Qawwal)

He was a music legend of South Asia, who blended his


music with modern and western instruments. He is known as
the Singing Buddha in Japan, Voice of Paradise in
USA and Pavarotti of the East in France.

Malika Pukhraj

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She was a highly popular Ghazal and folk singer of Pakistan.
She was generally called as "Malika" meaning "The Queen."

Naheed Akhtar

She is a famous playback singer, who gave the Pakistani


silver screen many hits during the 80s. Naheed Akhtar was a
replacement of Runa Laila, the famous singer from the
former East Pakistan, who had left Pakistan.

Mehnaz

She is the daughter of famous singer Kajjan Begum. She


along with Naheed Akhtar sang a variety of genres. Mehnaz
specialized in ghazal, thumri, dadra, khayal, drupad and
reciting salam, noha and marsiya. She was the daughter of
celebrated sub-continental singer Kajjan Begum.

116
Reshma

She was a renowned folk singer.

Allan Fakir

He is a folk singer and is a one of the foremost exponents of


Sufi music in Pakistan. He is particularly known for his Sufi
dance singing.

Alamgir

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He is the pioneer of pop singing in Pakistan. Alamgir made a
dash on the Pakistani music scene. He sang for the Pakistani
television in the very beginning of his career but later as the
time passed he started singing for the Pakistani music
industry. He was awarded pride of performance by the
President of Pakistan due to his amazing performances in
Pakistan throughout 80's and 90's.

Muhammad Ali Shahki

Mohammad Ali Shahki is a popular pop singer, who during


his hey days was very popular among the youth. Though
Shahki was born in Iran, he lived most of his life in Pakistan.
He studied engineering in NED University Karachi.

Ustad Muhammad Juman

He was a modern musician and classical singer. He remained


associated with Radio Pakistan Hyderabad.

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Nayyara Noor

She is a Pakistani playback singer who is also considered one


of the South Asia's foremost exponents in the Ghazal genre.

Nazia Hassan

She was an iconic Pakistani pop singer. She was the first
Pakistani to win a Filmfare Award and remains its youngest
winner in the category of Best Female Playback Singer to
date. She mostly sand duets with her brother, Zohaib Hassan.

Nazia Hassan fought a long battle with cancer during the last
years of her life and died of lung cancer in London on 13
August 2000 at the age of 36.

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Shehzad Roy

He is a singer and humanitarian. In June 2004, he was


honored as one of the youngest ever recipient of the Tamgha-
e-Imtiaz, for excellence in serving humanity. He has
dedicated his life to the establishment of Zindagi Trust
(founded in 2002), the non-for-profit charity helping the
underprivileged children of Pakistan. He uses the proceeds
from his concerts to fund the trust's operations.

Abrar ul Haq

He is a Pakistani pop, bhangra and folk singer and


Politician. He is also the President of Youth Wing
of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf. Before becoming a singer, he
was a geography teacher at the Aitchison College in Lahore.

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Abida Parveen

She is one of the foremost exponents of Sufi music. She sings


mainly ghazals, Urdu love songs, and Kafis, a solo genre
accompanied.

Tina Sani

She is a Pakistani female singer renowned for her classical


and semi-classical Urdu Ghazals. Tina Sani began working
for an advertising agency in 1977. She was involved in all the
creative aspects of advertising business, including listening
to and evaluating the music that is an integral part of
advertising. Tina also taught at the Karachi American School
in the art department. She entered the professional world of
singing in 1980, when producer Ishrat Ansari introduced her
on TV in a youth programme titled 'Tarang' hosted by
Alamgir. She was influenced by renowned ghazal singers
from the sub-continent like Mehdi Hasan, Malika Pukhraj,
Begum Akhtar, Mukhtar Begum and Farida Khanum but has
created her own style of
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singing. She gained much acclaim in Pakistan and India by
singing the poetry of Faiz Ahmed Faiz including poems like
'Bahaar aayi' and 'Bol ke lab azad' composed by Arshad
Mehmood.
Attaullah Khan Essakhelvi

He is a Pakistani Pride of Performance award-winning


musician. By 2006, he had released 403 music albums.

Rahim Shah

He is a leading Pakistani Pakhtoon pop singer. He started


from Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and is currently based
in Karachi, Pakistan. He sings in Pashto, Urdu and Punjabi.

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Sohail Rana (Music Composer)

He is a famous music composer for films. He has composed


many patriotic songs.

SCIENTISTS AND DOCTORS


Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan (Scientist and Founder of
Pakistans Atomic Bomb Project)

Mohsin-E-Pakistan (Savior of Pakistan) a Pakistani nuclear


scientist and a metallurgical engineer, regarded as the
founder of HEU based Gas-centrifuge uranium enrichment
programme for Pakistan's integrated atomic bomb project. Also
known as the father of Pakistans Atomic bomb, Dr A
Q Khan is now no more attached with Pakistans Atomic
programme and lives in Islamabad with his Dutch wife.

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Dr. Adeeb Rizvi (Urologist/ Philanthropist)

Dr. Adeeb Rizvi is an urologist by profession. He is the


founder of SIUT (Sind Institute of Urology and
Transplantation) and along with his team, providing best
medical care to the poor and deserving. He is currently
based in Karachi and devotes much of his energy to philanthropy.
SIUT is currently Pakistans largest kidney treatment centre. In
2003, his institute performed Pakistans
first liver transplant.

ADVENTURERS

Namira Salim (First Pakistani Astronaut)

She is the first Pakistani to have reached the North and South
Poles. She may also become the first Pakistani to travel into
space after she was shortlisted among 100 space tourists by
the world's first commercial space liner Virgin Galactic in
2007 out of 44,000 candidates.

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Samina Baig (First female Mountaineer)

She is the first female mountaineer from Pakistan to climb


previously unconquered Chashkin Sar (6,400m) peak.

Naima Gul (First Female Pilot)

Naima became the first lady pilot (honorary) of the 9


Squadron in the Pakistan Army. It was a dream-come true for
the 12-year-old thalassemia patient, when she became the
first female pilot and flew a Lama chopper.

Dr. Aafia Siddiqui (Scientist/ Alma)

She is an American- Pakistani cognitive neuroscientist.


Currently she is serving prison in the United States on
terrorism charges.

125
Sharmeen Obaid Chinoy (Documentary Film Maker)

She is an Emmy and Oscar award-winning Pakistani-


Canadian journalist and documentary filmmaker. The Time
magazine has named her within their annual list of the 100
most influential people in the world for 2012.

Majeed Nizami

He is a journalist who is also known as Mujahid-i-Kashmir.


He has also received the Sitara-i-Pakistan, Sitara-i-Imtiaz and
the single greatest honor that can be awarded, the Nishan-i-
Imtiaz. The Pakistan Human Rights Society has awarded Mr.
Majeed Nizami the Human Rights Awards for his dedication
to the protection of human rights in Kashmir and his search
for a democratic solution to the Kashmir issue.

126
Agha Hasan Abedi

He was a banker and philanthropist who founded the Bank of


Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) in 1972. BCCI
was at one point the seventh largest private bank in the world.
At its peak in the 1980's, the bank had 14,000 employees, 400
offices in 72 countries, 1.3 million depositors and more than
$20 billion in assets.

Dr. Abdus Salam (Scientist)

A Pakistani theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in


Physics for his work on the electroweak unification of the
electromagnetic and weak forces. Dr.Salam holds the
distinction of being the first Pakistani and the first Muslim
Nobel Laureate to receive the prize in Physics.

127
Hakim Said (Philanthropist)

He was a prominent and world acclaimed medical researcher


in the field of eastern medicines. He was also a scholar,
philanthropist, and a former Governor of Sindh Province of
Pakistan. He is the founder of Hamdard foundation.

Dr. Mahbub ul Haq (Economist)

He was a world renowned Pakistani economist and professor


of Micro-economics at the Karachi University. He is the
pioneer of Human development theory (HDP), and the
founder of the Human Development Report (HDR). He is
instrumental in the establishment of the United Nations
Economic and Social Council He is known as "the most
articulate and persuasive spokesman for the developing
world".

128
Dr. Atta Ur Rehman (Scientist)

He is a leading scientist and scholar in the field of organic


chemistry. With over 850 publications in the field of his
expertise, he is also credited for reviving the higher education
and research practices in Pakistan.

EDUCATION

Dr. Basit Riaz Sheikh (First Pakistani Award Winner)

He is a Pakistani Ph.D. student in AVLSI Lab at Cornell


University United States. He the best paper award of Global
Scientific Conference 2010 held in Grenoble France.

Ali Moeen Nawazish

129
Ali Moeen Nawazish is a Pakistani student notable for
passing 23 A-levels, a world record. He got 21 As, a B, and
a C.

Arfa Kareem (Youngest Microsoft Certified


Professional)

At a very young age she proved to the world that age doesnt
matter by becoming the Worlds Youngest
Microsoft Certified Specialist till 2008. She was also invited
by Bill Gates in USA. She recently expired in her home town
after a brief illness.

Pakistan Team (Debating Youth)

Each year, the International Debate Education Association


(IDEA) hosts an annual Youth Forum, during which the
World Karl Popper Debate Championships are held. Nations
from all around the world attend this Forum for the
tournament, as well as the 2-week debate training camp. Karl
Popper debate, named after the famed philosopher, is a
130
widely used debate format in Eastern European and Central
Asian high schools. Pakistani youth Zainab Shahid, aged 17,
Aleena Ali, 17 and Murtaza Chaudhry, 18 won the first Asian
championship in Pattaya in May 12.

Zainab Hameed, Azeem Liaquat and Ahmed Shujjan of


teamPakistan have also won the KPDC 2012 held in Mexico
by defeating Korea in the final round. Zainab Hameed
finished the debate tournament as the top speaker of KPDC
2012.
FASHION DESIGNERS

Hassan Sheheryar Yasin

He is a Pakistani fashion designer. Yasin is affiliated with the


La Chambre Syndicale De La Couture Parisienne in France.
Maria B

She is a top fashion designer in Pakistan and is known


internationally for her work.

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MODELS

Aaminah Haq

She is a Pakistani model and actress famous as


a Lux model.

Vaneeza Ahmed

She is a model and actress. Ahmad has earned a reputation of


being the most famous and sought-after female model and
celebrity in Pakistan.

132
Nadia Hussain

She is super model, actress & host of Pakistan Fashion &


Showbiz industry and successfully completed several
projects of ramp, modeling and photo shoot. She has done
many types of modeling and fashion shoots. Especially she
has earned good name in bridal shoots. She is well famous
celebrity both at national & international level.

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PART II

POLITICS

National Assembly of Pakistan

Pakistan is a democratic parliamentary federal republic with


Islam as the state religion. The first Constitution of Pakistan
was adopted in 1956, but was suspended in 1958 by General
Ayub Khan. The Constitution of 1973 suspended in 1977,
by General Zia-ul-Haq was re-instated in 1985 is the
country's most important document, laying the foundations
of the current government.
The legislature comprises a 100-member Senate and a 342-
member National Assembly. The President is the Head of
state and the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and
is elected by an electoral college. The prime minister is
usually the leader of the largest party in the National
Assembly. Each province has a similar system of government
with a directly elected Provincial Assembly in which the
leader of the largest party or alliance becomes Chief Minister.
Provincial governors are appointed by the President.
Pakistani politics has traditionally been dominated by few
families. The most famous of these are the Bhutto and the
Shareef families. The Bhuttos are famous landlords of
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Sindh province of Pakistan, whereas the Shareefs are
industrialists from the province of Punjab. Each family has
been elected to rule the country a number of times. However,
they have failed to improve the lives of common people of
the country.
Due to inefficiency and corruption of the politicians, the
military has overthrown elected governments a number of
times. In Pakistans short history, military dictators have
been the rulers for a significant part. The military dictators as
well as the major political parties have had full support of
feudals of the country in prolonging their respective rules.
While it was hoped that independence from British rule will
usher a new era of prosperity and religious freedom in the
country, the situation for the common masses has virtually
worsened mainly because of the firm grip of the feudals on
the political system of the country. Both the civilian and
military rulers have failed to provide cheap education, justice,
security, medical facilities, housing and other services to the
people of Pakistan.
The emergence of the Muhajir Qaumi Movement (MQM)
whose name was later changed to Muttahida Qaumi
Movement, emerged as a representative political party of the
educated middle class from Southern Pakistan, in the 1980s.
However, despite initial promises, MQM has turned out to be
a big disappointment due to its involvement in militancy.
While all political parties have militant wings, it is the MQM
which virtually owns Karachi, the Pakistani economic nerve
centre. The MQM is famous for its regular shut down strikes,
killing of security personnel, journalists and political
opponents. The MQM is also considered the pioneers of
hostage taking, extortion and snatchings in Karachi. They
have been joined by other political parties and groups such as
the Awami National Party (ANP), Pakistan Peoples Party
(PPP), Jeay Sindh Qaumi Movement (JSQM), Baloch Aman
Committee and various other religious groups.
The emergence of Pakistan Tehreek e Insaaf (PTI) or the
Pakistan justice movement led by former cricketer turned
politician has recently emerged as a major political force and
has the backing of the youth of the country. The PTI
135
which has many educated elites of the country amongst its
ranks is considered by many as the savior of the country.
The focus of Pakistan foreign policy is security against
threats to national identity, territorial integrity and cultivation
of close relations with Muslim countries. The country is an
active member of the United Nations. It is one of the founders
of Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Pakistan is an
active member of the United Nations and is one of the largest
contributors of peace keeping forces in various parts of the
world.
Pakistan is also a member of Commonwealth of Nations,
South Asian Association for Regional
Cooperation(SAARC), Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO),and G20 developing nations. The need for strategic
balance in interest of security lead to Pakistan establishing
itself as a nuclear power in the wake of India's nuclear

Pakistan maintains good relations with all the Arab and most
other Muslim countries. After Sino-Indian War in 1962,
Pakistan's closest strategic, military and economically has
been China.
The Kashmir conflict remains a major nuclear flash point
between India and Pakistan. Pakistan has enjoyed the support
of the Muslim countries on the issue. Pakistan also has
troubled relationship with Afghanistan, which initially
opposed her admission in the United Nations and does not
recognize the Durand line.
Pakistan has had mixed relations with the United States. As
an anti-Soviet power in the 1950s and during the 1980s
Soviet-Afghan War, Pakistan was one of the U.S's closest
allies. The U.S war on terrorism initially led to an
improvement in ties between the two countries; however, the
relationship was strained by a divergence of interests and
resulting mistrust in the war in Afghanistan and on terrorism
related issues.

136
PROBLEMS
Pakistan came into existence after the partition of India in
1947 and since then it has not been able to transform itself
into a progressive State as it would have been expected after
64 years of independence, despite being rich in natural and
human resources. There are major underlying causes of such
a disappointing situation for the country which include
political instability, prevailing feudal system, religious
intolerance and extremism, low education level, high birth
rate, lack of industrial development, corruption, border
disputes and wars with India and the menace of terrorism.

EDUCATION

Agha Khan University Hospital

For more than 60 years now, Pakistan has failed to increase


its literacy ratio as successive governments of Pakistan have
not accorded the right priority to this sector. In addition to
few opportunities to seek education, there is gender disparity
in schooling in Pakistan. Fewer than half of Pakistani women
have had any formal education. The figure is even worse in
rural areas, where just one in three women has ever attended
school.

Despite being a nuclear power, Pakistan today is bracketed


with sub-Saharan states region when it comes to education.
History has witnessed that no nation has been able to
accelerate in terms of development without considering these
aims as pre-requisites. Education is one of these basic rights
that provide a tool for development to nations. The lower
literacy rate in Pakistan is said to be an outcome of
137
greater population, poverty and unemployment; however it
cannot be justified since there are other countries like
Vietnam, Cambodia and Kenya etc. where the advancement
in literacy rate was observed despite of such factors. The
example of, Sri Lanka, a fellow SAARC Nation, is also worth
emulating. The small island state enjoys the same per annum
income as Pakistan; however it has 90 % literacy rate.

In addition to governments apathy towards education,


other factors have also contributed to its decline. Education
is considered a fruitful business in Pakistan and the number
of private schools in urban areas has seen a phenomenal
growth in recent years. These schools are opened in small
bungalows which are rental and do not suit to a standard
school premise. Another drawback is that the Private schools
are limited to urban areas and these have no presence in rural
areas. Another noticeable point is that a significant
percentage of the masses are enrolled in Madrasas; which are
institutions of Islamic religious teachings. These offer free
teaching in religious subjects only, resulting in production of
individuals devoid of modern education.

A key factor in low level of literacy rate in Pakistan is the


allocation of resources. Governments in Pakistan have been
allotting a miserable percentage (less than 2%) of its GDP to
education and even these funds are not properly utilized due
to the absence of basic and prerequisite strategy. The
situation is becoming alarming with high inflation rate and
population explosion. Pakistan needs to declare an
education emergency if it has to emerge as a modern,
progressive and a useful member of the international
community.

CORRUPTION
Despite being an Islamic Republic, Pakistan is ranked
high in the list of corruption infested societies.

138
According to the most recent perception report from
Transparency International Pakistan published at the end of
2011, corruption in Land Administration leads the long list
of corrupt affairs followed by police, income tax, judiciary,
tendering and contracting, customs, plus state corporations
and the least corrupt sector is perceived to be the military.
Corruption is now seriously impeding Pakistans growth
and it is vital to understand its root cause. There is no
attention paid or effort put by the government to lessen or
eradicate corruption in the country as the politicians
themselves are corrupt and are only willing to fill their
pockets rather than to solve various problems Pakistan faces.
Halfhearted efforts by the government to control corruption
are more commonly directed towards political victimization.
A common form of corruption in Pakistan is to take huge
bank loans and then get them waived off.

PAKISTAN-INDIA RELATIONS

Map of West Pakistan and erstwhile East Pakistan

After independence from the British Raj in 1947, India and


Pakistan had formed diplomatic relations, but the effects of
the fierce partition and territorial conflicts since partition has
defined most of the policies of the two nations. The two
countries have fought three wars with each other, one war
was undeclared, and they also have been involved in various
139
armed skirmishes and military standoffs. Besides the Indo-
Pakistan War in 1971 which resulted in the creation of
Bangladesh, the conflict with Kashmir has been central to all
these wars and issues between the two states.

Numerous steps taken to improve relations between the two


neighbors have not proved fruitful and mutual distrust is
predominant. In the 80s, the Siachen conflict, the upsurge in
momentum in the Kashmir independence movement and later
nuclear tests by both the countries have clouded the
confidence building measures. The attack on the Indian
Parliament in 2001 almost started a nuclear war between the
two states. Other events like the bombings in 2007 of the
Samjhauta express in which 68 people were killed who were
mostly Pakistanis by Indian extremists, accompanied by the
2008 Mumbai attacks have all contributed in spoiling the
atmosphere tremendously. In addition, various steps by the
Indian government in violation of agreements between the
two countries such as construction of dams, in the disputed
territory of Kashmir and Indian support for terrorist/insurgent
activities inside Pakistan have soured the relations
immensely.

The diversion of scarce resources for the defense of the


country has slowed the overall progress of the country.
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

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The easiest way to gauge a countrys development and
economic growth is to view its industrial progress. Without
industrialization a country will continue to remain
underdeveloped. In recent years, progress of countries like
China, South Korea, Taiwan and other East and South-East
Asian countries, which have been called the Newly
Industrialized Countries (NICs), only endorses that view. For
Pakistan, the story has been quite different. The extraordinary
growth in industry in the 1950s and 1960s suggested that
Pakistan might be one of the very few countries at that time
which would join the developed world. However, much of
the growth that had taken place in the first two decades soon
unraveled, with growing income and regional inequalities,
resulting in the separation of East Pakistan. The new Pakistan
after 1971 was different in many respects. The industrial and
economic policies followed between 1972 and 1977
especially the nationalization of the industries dealt a death
blow and the country has not been able to recover from it.
Just as much as there was a change in economic policy in the
early 1970s, in the 1980s too there was another shift, in many
ways similar to that of the earlier period, but also influenced
by the new world order of globalization, privatization,
openness and neo-liberal economic policy. The Structural
Adjustment program sponsored by the IMF and the World
Bank now determines much of what happens regarding
industrial policy in Pakistan.

During the late 80s, Pakistans textile sector developed


tremendously. It now holds a very important position in
Pakistans economy in terms of employment value added
and exports. It has the highest manufacturing value added for
any industry amounting to 17.5 per cent. Similarly, about
one-third of the entire manufactured employment is in
the textile sector. However, owing to a number of factors,
Pakistans textile industry has lost its relatively more
prominent position of the 1960s and 1970s, and today holds
a little over 2 per cent of the world market. Pakistan enjoyed
a very dynamic performance in the 1960s, and was among
the leading; underdeveloped countries that were emerging in
the world cotton textile market. In fact, Pakistans record
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was quite envious, as between 1962 and 1970 it cornered over
11 per cent of the world market. By 1972 Pakistan held about
3.5 per cent of the world market in textiles, which fell to 1.5
per cent in just four years. It rose again to 2.5 per cent in 1983
and has since stabilized at around 2 per cent.

EXTREMISM AND TERRORISM

In order for western societies to understand the extremism


and persisting terrorism in Pakistan, one must look at its
past and origins, at what brought us here in the first place.
After 9/11, the USs immediate and automatic priority
had become to punish Osama Bin Laden and destroy Al
Qaeda; those allegedly responsible for the attack. But after
the Taliban refused to hand over Osama Bin Laden, the US,
assisted by NATO and anti-Taliban elements in Afghanistan,
attacked the fundamentalist regime. Facing an angry super
power, Pakistan was left with no option but to give logistic
and intelligence support to the NATO forces.
Pakistans assistance annoyed the Taliban and most
importantly Al Qaeda, who, perhaps unlike the Taliban, do
not understand Pakistans dilemma when it comes to
meeting international obligations. When former President
Pervez Musharraf agreed to form an alliance with the U.S in
the "War on Terror" there was great rage in the Taliban outfit
who decided then to launch terrorist attacks in the country in
retaliation. Although Pakistan is part of the US alliance they
are often accused by US for being a terrorist country which
has challenged Pakistan's sovereignty. This has also resulted
in internal conflicts in the country with many people raising
their voices against the government and demanding Pakistan
to leave the US alliance against "War on Terror".

The casualties that have resulted from terrorist attacks in the


country have increased from 168 in 2003 to more than 4000
per year in 2011. This is an alarming situation for the country
as terrorist attacks have caused huge losses to Pakistan's
economy. Foreign investors are not ready to come to Pakistan
to initiate business projects because they do not think that the
country is safe for making any
142
investments there have been various incidents where the
Chinese businessmen have been attacked or kidnapped by
terrorists and China being a major investor in Pakistan is
losing confidence in the country. The country's sports have
also been badly affected after a terrorist attack on the Sri
Lankan Cricket Team in Lahore and since then no
international cricket team has visited Pakistan. Terrorist
groups do not miss an opportunity to carry out attacks on any
religious event either. Attacks have been made on Shias and
Ahmedis frequently. Every year there are bomb blasts on
their religious processions.

Tehreek e Taliban Pakistan (TTP)

Pakistan is a victim of terrorism. Since the start of the Global


War on Terrorism (GWOT) in 2002, Pakistan has lost more
than 50,000 of its people, more than any other nation on the
face of this earth. Most of these are common citizens of
Pakistan, who have been the victims of bomb blasts carried
out by Tehreek e Taliban Pakistan or the TTP.

The Tehreek e Taliban Pakistan is an umbrella organization


of more than twenty groups in the tribal areas of north
western Pakistan. The organization took its roots in 2002,
following the US war on terror in Afghanistan and has deep
ties with Al Qaeeda. The declared aims and objectives of TTP
have been changing since the death of its first leader,
Baitullah Mehsud, who was killed in a US drone strike.
Initially the TTP wanted to unite against the NATO forces in
Afghanistan and wage a holy jihad. Later, when the Pakistan
Army commenced military operations in the Pakistani tribal
areas to root out Al Qaeeda and TTP sanctuaries, a jihad was
declared against Pakistan Army and
the state of Pakistan. The Taliban now want the enforcement of
shariah (Islamic system of governance) in
Pakistan and have declared that they do not recognize
countrys constitution.

The TTP is on the list of Foreign Terrorist Organisations of


the US State Department since on September 1, 2010. On
January 18, 2011, Britain also banned the TTP followed by
143
Canada on July 5, 2011. The TTP is involved in gruesome
acts of terrorism not only against the innocent civilians of
Pakistan but also the members of the security forces. Apart
from bomb blasts and attacks on government sites, the
organization is also involved in kidnapping for ransom,
killing and abduction of foreigners especially Chinese. The
TTP is against the education of females in Pakistan and have
destroyed a number of girls schools and colleges in the North
Western Pakistan. They have also conducted attacks on
school going girls, which has caused international
embarrassment to Pakistan. The TTP has now expanded their
anti female education campaign to other parts of Pakistan,
especially to co education schools/colleges and institutions
where western mode of education has been adopted. These
institutions are now under serious threats of terrorist
activities.

Lately a number of groups from different parts of Pakistan


have joined hands with the Taliban. These include the
Punjabi Taliban and other organizations such as the Lashkar
e Jhangvi. Of late, the Shia community of Pakistan is on the
hit list of sister organizations of TTP. It is strongly believed
by the security agencies of Pakistan that the TTP has access
to foreign arms and funding, a claim which the organization
denies. However, the sophistication of various attacks
conducted on security forces gives credence to this suspicion.
Moreover, the presence of foreign fighters such as those from
Uzbekistan, in the organization also gives weight to this
argument.

The Talibanisation of certain parts of Pakistan has caused


major harm to sectarian harmony in the country. The
intolerant brand of Islam which the Taliban wish to impose
on the country would cause polarization of the Pakistani
society and will not be a positive sign for peace and security
in the region. The Taliban have already caused huge death
and destruction in the entire Pakistan and it is about time that
this menace is rooted out once and for all.

Currently the law enforcement agencies are fighting a deadly


battle with the Taliban throughout Pakistan.
144
145
PART III

Despite all the problems Pakistan faces today, hope has never
failed. Lets take a look.

HOPE FOR A RESILIENT NATION

Pakistan is a very resilient country. Right from its inception,


the people of Pakistan have encountered numerous problems,
disasters, calamities and wars. The people of Pakistan have
endured untold miseries and hardships, despite being a very
rich country in terms of natural resources and human
resources.
While Pakistan has made impressive economic strides, today
the country is facing serious problems of internal and external
security. Due to the war on terror, law and order situation has
worsened in the country and foreign buyers and technical
personnel are reluctant to visit Pakistan at present.

Pakistan is also struggling in the field of education. This is


because of the reason that limited budget is allotted to this
sector each year by the government. Despite low investment
in this field, Pakistan produces 445,000 university graduates
and 10,000 computer science graduates each year, which
shows that still Pakistan has one of the highest illiteracy
146
rates in the world. In addition, currently there is a serious
mismatch between the jobs demanded by the emerging needs
of the economy and the supply of skills and trained
manpower in the country. While the economy is moving
towards sophisticated sectors such as telecommunications,
information technology, oil and gas, financial services and
engineering goods, a vast majority of population is illiterate.
In addition, a large number of universities and colleges are
churning out hundreds of thousands of graduates in Arts, and
Humanities. This mismatch has created waste and
misallocation of resources on one hand and the shortages of
essential skills required to keep the wheels of the economy
moving on the other. There is also a lack of technical and
vocational training institutes to fill out the gaps between the
demands of skilled labor.

Today, Pakistan is also facing the dragon of over population.


This problem has given rise to multi-dimensional problems.
At present we are scarce in resources
and it has become difficult for the government to meet the
rapidly growing needs of the huge population. Pakistans
growth rate is among the highest in the world. The massively
increasing population has almost outstripped the resources in
production, in facilities and in job opportunities.

At the time of partition in 1947, the new government of


Pakistan had almost to start from scratch. Resources like
personnel, institutions, and finances were nonexistent. To
make matters worse, Pakistans share of resources was
stopped by India and has not been paid to date. To rise from
such a state of affairs and attain the status of a nuclear power
within half a century of independence is no mean
achievement. During the decade of 60s, Pakistan was
considered a role model for other developing countries.
Rapid expansion of the economy, however, did not alleviate
widespread poverty. Repeated wars with India, corruption
and poor economic policies slowed the growth rate. The war
with India in 1971 and separation of East Pakistan was a
major blow to the economy of Pakistan. The country reeling
under the effects of the war was given a severe economic
147
jolt when the then government nationalized private sector
industries and institutions, severely shaking the confidence of
the investors. In the early 80s, the inflow of foreign aid
from US and other countries increased because of Pakistans
role in war against the USSR (Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics). This increased the income of
local people and the domestic demand of goods and services
increased. Pakistans GDP jumped to grow by an average of
6.5% during 1980-88. This growth rate was only rivaled by
Korea, China and Hong Kong.

Political instability in Pakistan, including imposition of


martial laws, has also been a major factor behind low foreign
investment and slow industrial development. During the
period 1988-99, there were seven different governments and
two elected prime ministers who were both elected twice.
This was a highly uncertain period and no civilian
government completed its constitutional tenure. The
economy of Pakistan slowed to an average annual growth of
3.8 percent during the 1990s. Sluggish growth rate was also
helped by large scale corruption and mismanagement at the
highest levels of government.

After Pakistan exploded a nuclear device in May 1998, it


faced the imposition of international sanctions. Many
countries including US and UK stopped importing goods
from Pakistan which also affected our industrial production.
In the new millennium, the events of 9/11 provided an
unexpected turn to the countrys economy. After Pakistan
joined in the war against terror it received foreign aid of
billions of dollars. Heavy development projects were
launched and ignited the growth rate, which averaged 6.3 per
cent a year till 2008. However, during this period only the
services sector grew significantly and the growth in the
manufacturing sector remained stagnant. No major
industries were set up and in 2008 when there was a worldwide
recession, Pakistans economy suffered heavily.

148
SURVIVING THE DISASTERS

Throughout her short history, there have been very few


periods when Pakistan has not been affected by disasters and
natural calamities. Short descriptions of disasters that have
hit Pakistan over the years are shown below:
Event Disaster Loc Date Affectee Toll
Earthquake 325
Makran
/Tsunami BCE
1935
31-May-
Baluchistan Earthquake Quetta 60,000
1935
earthquake
1945
Earthquake 27-Nov-
Baluchistan Makran 4,000
/Tsunami 1945
earthquake
Flood 1950 2,900
15-Dec-
Wind storm 10,000
1965
Aug-
Flood 4,800,000
1973
1974 Hunza Northern 28-Dec-
Earthquake 97,000 5,300
earthquake Areas 1974
2-Aug-
Flood 5,566,000
1976
Jun-
Flood 1,022,000 10,354
1977
Flood Jul-1978 2,246,000
Aug-
Flood 1,000,000
1988
Extreme 11-Jun-
961
Temperature 1991
9-Aug-
Flood 6,184,418
1992
Sep-
Flood 12,324,024 1,334
1992
14-Nov-
Wind storm 609
1993
22-Jul-
Flood 1,255,000
1995

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Event Disaster Loc Date Affectee Toll
24-Aug-
Flood 1,186,131
1996
3-Mar-
Flood 1,000
1998
Mar-
Drought 2,200,000
2000
8-Oct-
Earthquake Muzaffarabad 2.5 million 78,000
2005
Jul/Aug-
Flood 20,000,000
2010
As our Quaid has advised us:
You have to stand guard over the development and
maintenance of democracy, social justice and the equality of
manhood in your own native soil. With faith, discipline
and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that
you cannot achieve.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

OUR INCREDIBLE PAKISTAN

Many people in Pakistan as well as abroad only notice the


negative things about this country. However, there are
numerous positives also which are often overlooked. The
media does not project the country the way it should. Nature
has blessed this great country with huge potential, Some are
listed below:

-Home to the 5th largest sub-tropical desert in the world.


-6th major sea in the world.
-40 of the worlds 50 highest mountains including K2
second highest and the most difficult to climb. -
Archeological sites dating back 6000 years BC. -
Endangered species such as snow leopard, Markhor, the
blue whale, wooly flying squirrel thought extinct but
discovered in Pakistan in 90s.
-Karachi one of the largest city in the world. Home to 17
million people roughly 1/10th of the countrys population.
-Protected as legend would have it by the four Sufi saints
whose shrines mark the four corners of the city.
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-Also home to IAL Saatchi and Saatchi.
-110 different opinions expressed in 6 different languages.
-United in one belief.
-2nd Largest Muslim Nation in the World.
-Worlds 9th Largest English Speaking Population in the
World.
-The Pioneer of East-West Musical Fusion.
-Worlds 7th Largest Pool of Scientists and Engineers. -
Record Holder for Most As in Cambridge Exams in the
World, Ali Moeen Nawazish.
-Worlds Youngest Microsoft Certified Specialist, Arfa
Kareem and Babar Iqbal.
-Muslim Worlds Only Female Head of State, Benazir
Bhutto.
-Worlds Largest Run Ambulance Network by Edhi.
-Worlds 7th Nuclear Power.
-One of the Largest Masjid in the World, Faisal Masjid. -
Asias Highest Railway Station in Baluchistan, Kan
Mehtarzai.
-Worlds Oldest Civilization, Harappa and Mohenjo-
Daro. -Worlds Largest Deep Sea Port, Gwadar.
-Worlds Largest Earth-Filled Dam and 2nd Largest Dam
overall, Tarbela Dam.
-One of the Biggest Gas Reserves in the World.
-Asias most peaceful motorway.
-One of the Largest Deserts in the World, Thar Desert.
-Worlds 2nd Largest Salt Mine, Khewra Mines.
-Heaven for Tourism.
-Worlds Highest Paved Road, Karakoram Highway.
-Worlds 5th Largest Coal Reserves.
-Worlds Highest Polo Ground, Shandur.
-Asias Largest Bird Sanctuary, Khaleji Lake.
-Worlds 5th Largest Gold and Copper
Deposits. -Worlds 5th Largest Milk Producer.
-Worlds 3rd Largest CNG Operator.
-World Cup Champions in cricket in 1992 and 2009.
-10 successive British Open Titles, Jahangir Khan
Former Pakistan #1, Carla Khan.
-Worlds 6th Largest Standing Armed Forces.
-World Air Fighting Record: M.M Alams 5 enemy
aircrafts destroyed in 1 minute.
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PAF Record: Only Muslim Air Force to shoot down Israeli
War Planes in 1967 and 1973.
-Only Muslim Nation after Turkey to Open Combat Jobs for
Women. Women rarely fly combat Missions in the World. -
Elite group of Countries that Manufacture Fighter Jets,
Missiles and Advanced Weaponry MADE IN PAKISTAN.
-Highest Tele Density in South Asia: 98 Million Mobile
Users. Highest SMS Traffic in Asia Pacific.
-Largest WiiMax Network in the World. 30 Million Internet
Users.
-Women in Sports: Bringing Laurels Home.
-Pakistans All-Female Pop/ Rock Band, Zeb and Haniya
(Coke Studio).
-U2 of Asia: Asias Biggest Rock Band winner at Channel
Awards in 1997.

Despite the blame of Terrorism and the burden of corruption,


this country has progressed and achieved a lot. Many things
have become a hurdle for Pakistan but Pakistan has jumped
over all of them with hard work and ease.

There is nothing on Earth that can undo Pakistan!


Muhammad Ali Jinnah

PAKISTANS RICH HUMAN RESOURCES

The most important of the natural resources in this globalized


world is human resource. Pakistan is the sixth most populous
country in the world having large share of 'young population'
i.e. 63 percent below age of 25 years, according to United
Nations Development Programme. Due to various reasons,
Pakistan could not develop its human resource properly. At
present, it does not enjoy a favorable position among the
comity of nations. It is ranked 123rd out of 139 countries in
Global Competitive Index; it is at 134th among 192 in Human
development Index by UNDP; and it occupies the critical
position of 12th in Failed States Index 2011 issued by Foreign
Policy Magazine.

152
However, despite this Pakistan has produced some of the
worlds finest engineers, doctors, scientists, business
professionals, sportspersons and students.
Pakistan is not a Nation of Quitters!!
With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is
nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah

PAKISTANS RICH NATURAL RESOURCES

Pakistan is one of the richest countries in the world in terms


of natural resources. It has enormous energy surplus resource
potential of both renewable and nonrenewable, which is
greater than that of oil rich countries of Gulf. Among the
world's 200 plus countries it has the second largest salt mines,
second largest coal reserves, fifth largest copper and gold
reserves, seventh largest wheat and rice production capacity.
It is the sixth most populous country in the world having large
share of young population.

There are plenty of nonrenewable energy resources like oil,


gas and coal in Pakistan. It has more than 436.2 million
barrels of oil, according to CIA World Fact Book, and 31.3
trillion cubic feet of proven gas reserves. The current oil
production is 65,997 barrels per day while gas production is
4 billion cubic feet per day. Moreover, there is resource
potential of 27 billion Barrels of Oil and 282 TCF of gas
reserves in the country which has not been explored so far.

Pakistan has world's second largest coal deposits of 185


billion tons. These are estimated to be equivalent to 618
billion barrels of crude oil. This is more than twice if we
compare it with oil reserves of Saudi Arabia. If it is converted
into oil by gasification, it will generate 650 barrels of crude
oil which at an average market rate of eighty dollars per
barrel, would generate 5.2 trillion dollars. Besides, the
geography of Pakistan enriches it with the renewable energy
resources. Wind and Solar energy are other unused lifelines
of Pakistan. 1046 km long coastal line gives potential of
40000 MW of electricity. The vast lands

153
of Baluchistan can be utilized for solar electricity generation.

The hydropower potential of the country is also enough to


satisfy the needs of energy. Only 33 percent of around 20,000
MW generation capacities are produced from this resource
which has the potential of producing 40,000 MW. Despite
having one of the largest irrigation systems of the world,
Pakistan is facing water scarcity for crops. Storage capacity
of water reservoirs is quickly depleting because of annual
sediment inflow and a substantial quantum of available water
is lost in seepage as the canals have not been cemented. Out
of 77 million acres cultivable area, only 55.5 million acres
have been ploughed. The country is blessed with four seasons
and variety of crops but due to lack of research the
productivity remains low.

In addition, being an agricultural country it possesses


tremendous scope of animal husbandry. Pakistan's breeds of
cow like Sahewal cow are the best breeds of world. Due care
to this area can lead to bulk of exports in dairy products. On
other hand, fishing industry has an important role to play in
national economy of Pakistan. The coast line of 814 km
provides ample opportunity to enhance this industry, but poor
performance and poor presentation of our cause in WTO have
put this industry at the verge of destruction.

The minerals are also vital natural resources available in great


quantity. Pakistan has fifth largest copper and gold reserves
in the world. The Riko deq project, copper and gold reservoir,
have been estimated to be worth of 260 billion dollars, which
is ten times the all financial aid received from USA in last
sixty year. Swat Valley is rich of GOD gifted mineral
resources. Most of the minerals in swat belong to family 10
in periodic table. Therefore these minerals are valuable and
internationally recognized. They include Sulphides, oxides
and Hydroxides, Nitrates, Carbonates and Borates, Silicates
and other unclassified minerals.

154
FACTS ABOUT RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN:
Resources Place of Notes
Production
Oil and Gas Tal, Kohat Tal block has
Reserves estimated gas
reserves (25.6
trillion cubic feet)
Estimated life of
117 years
11 mmcf daily

Oil Reserves - (58.6 million


Barrels)
Estimated Life of
178 years
Gold and Copper Reko Diq, (Worth US 3
Reserves Baluchistan Trillion Dollars)
5th Largest
Copper Reserves
Emeralds Mingora, Swat Most valuable
gem in the world
Finest Quality
Gemstone
Estimated to be
13.2 Million cts
Marble and Chiral and FATA Blessed with 10
Granite Reserves kinds of Marble
297 Billion Tons
of Marble &
Granite
Estimated worth
USD 45 Billions
Coal Reserves Thar, Sindh Estimated worth
US 25 Trillion
Dollars
850 Trillion cubic
feet of Gas
Reserves of 185
trillion ton
(UGS Diesel
estimated From
155
Coal Gas 100
Million Barrels
per year) ICET
Koh-E-Suleman MughalKot 7 wells found of
Oil Wells Crude Oil
Providing crude
oil boring only 8ft
Estimation in
Process
Saindak Copper Saindak, Estimated
Project Baluchistan Reserves 412
Million Tons
Also containing
Gold and Silver
Ores

THE GIFT OF GEOGRAPHY

Pakistan is geopolitically placed within some of the most


controversial regional boundaries which share disputes and
have many-a-times escalated military tensions between the
nations, e.g., that of Kashmirwith India and the Durand Line
with Afghanistan.

Pakistans western borders include the Khyber


Pass and Bolan Pass that have served as traditional
migration routes between Central Eurasia and South Asia.
Pakistan has access of warm waters so Pakistan can trade
throughout the year. Arabian Sea is the heaven of trading.
Pakistan has three major ports at Karachi, Port Qasim and
Gwadar.

Pakistan is the gateway to trade in Far East areas, Indonesia,


Malaysia, Maldives, Sir Lanka and Australia. Pakistan is
separating India from Iran and Afghanistan, and Iran has
huge natural resources like natural oil and gas. Pakistan is
very important trade way for China to approach the trade
markets of Middle Eastern and Arabian countries. Chinas
own coastal areas in the South China Sea are far away from
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the resource rich Middle East and the shortest approach for
China to trade is Pakistan. Shahrahe Karakoram is the way
from which Pak-China trade. Some Middle Eastern countries
also dont have their own coasts so they are using
Karachi coast to trade by sea.

Gwadar port is located about 267 NM West of Karachi.


Because of its ideal location at the mouth of gulf and opposite
strategic choke points of Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman
the port is visualized to become a regional hub serving
incoming and outgoing commercial traffic of Middle East
and Gulf countries. The new port of Gwadar will supplement
Karachi Port and Port Qasim. It will attract transit and trans-
shipment trade from over twenty countries including Sri
Lanka, Bangladesh, Oman, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Iraq
and Iran. These countries may open their warehouses in
Gwadar for export of goods and storing of imported goods
for later shipment to their countries.

Gwadar Ports location in proximity of Arabian Gulf and


Central Asian Republics provide it unique opportunity to
serve both. It is anticipated that oil reserves and other
resources of CARs would gradually become the focus of
world attention in coming years. However, in case of
exports to and from CARs a peaceful and stable
Afghanistan is must. The port will also help in promoting
trade with Gulf States possessing 63% of worlds oil
reserves and will prove instrumental in promoting trans-
shipment essentially of containerized cargo besides
unlocking the development potential for hinterland. The most
important factor that makes Gwadar Port strategically unique
is the location with respect to other major ports in the region,
which are all located on the other side of the sea. Gwadar port
being towards north can easily provide services and facilities
to CARs, Afghanistan and China.

Planned fishing harbor/industry linked with this port will


facilitate efficient exploitation of our 960 KM of long coast
which would give boost to fish and crab exports and would
promote food processing industries as well. Gwadar could
also be a potential source of gas and oil exploitation.
157
PHILANTHROPY IN PAKISTAN

Pakistanis are very kind at heart and readily volunteer to give


for their brethren in need. According to a latest survey,
voluntarism is almost 65% of individual giving in Pakistan.
This is twice the global voluntarism rate and even exceeds
that of the USA.What this means is that Pakistanis are highly
driven to voluntary acts of giving (time, money, gifts-in kind)
benevolently. Some of the statistics about philanthropy in
Pakistan indicate that:

- The individual giving is estimated at Rs. 60 billion in cash


and goods.(2011)
- Religious faith is the greatest motivation for 98 percent of
donors.
- Interestingly almost 40 percent of aggregate monetary
giving or approximately Rs. 18 billion is given by individuals
with little or no income.
- Only 25% of the Zakat goes to organizations, the rest goes
to needy individuals directly.

The concerted community relief efforts in the wake of the


devastating tragedies of earthquake in 2005 and floods in
2010/11 showed that Pakistanis are capable of donating. The
catastrophe had shaken up the public to such an effect
158
that despite stories of relief theft and looting in the disaster
hit areas, people continued to give in whatever form they
could. School children collected money, women worked side
by side heavily bearded mullahs and youth volunteered to
travel and serve in far flung areas in difficult conditions. The
tragedies showed the resilience of the Pakistani nation and
proved, perhaps for the first time after 1965 war that the
nation is indeed capable of unconditional benevolence that is
synergized and well planned.

Pakistan-A gift of Allah

Pakistan came into being on the 27th of Ramadan. Allah has


created this country for a specific purpose. This theory is
proved by prophecies of many saints and Sufis. A list of some
of those who have made predictions about Pakistan is
enumerated below:

Naimat Ullah Shah Wali


He was a Sufi saint born in Kashmir about 900 years ago.
Prophecies of Naimat Ullah Shah Wali explain the spiritual
powers and Pakistan in his poetry. A close look at his poetry
reveals stunningly accurate prophecies about various events
in the world. He predicts a great future for Pakistan as well
as defeat of India in Ghazwa e Hind.

Mufti Mumtaz
Mumtaz Mufti was a writer from Pakistan. He disliked the
partition plan but later became a patriotic Pakistani and
defender of Islam and its principles. His main transformation
from a liberal to a hardline sufi came about after he came
under the influence of Qudrat Ullah Shahab. All the same, he
did manage to retain his individual accent
and wrote on subjects which were frowned upon by the
conservative elements in society. In his book Alakh Nagri
he predicts about the glorious future of Pakistan.

Qudrat Ullah Shabhab


Qudrat Ullah Shahab was a well-known bureaucrat of
Pakistan. He was from Kashmir and was initially recruited in
the Indian civil service. He served on several high offices
159
including Pakistans Ambassador to Netherlands. His
personality reflected mysticism, something which he
describes as a gift from an out-of-world personality which he
named as Ninety in his book SHAHAB NAMA. He
has also predicted a glorious future for Pakistan.

Sufi Barkat Ali


Hazrat Abu Anees Muhammad Barkat Ali Ludhianivi
(Qudus Sirruhul Aziz), commonly referred to as 'Babaji
Sarkar' by his disciples, was a Muslim Sufi saint born in
Ludhiana in Northern India on 27th April, 1911. He has made
some heartwarming predictions about Pakistan in a TV
interview.

Bari Imam
Hazrat Bari Imam RA (1617 to 1705), whose real name is
Shah Abdul Latif Kazmi, was born in 1026 Hijra (1617
AD).His father, Syed Mehmood Shah, lived in Jhelum
District but later shifted to Baghan village, presently near
Islamabad. Bari Imam left his father at 12 and came to Nurpur
Shahan. From Nurpur Shahan, Bari Imam went to Ghaur
Ghashti (now known as Attock) where he stayed for two
years for learning fiqh, hadith, logic, mathematics, medicine
and other disciplines. He predicted that the capital city of a
great Islamic nation (Islamabad) would be near his abode.

CONCLUSION

The creation of Pakistan is a miracle. It was made after


hundreds and thousands of sacrifices. It is the first nation in
the world which was created on the basis of ideology. Our
fore fathers had a clear vision of the new state; modern,
Islamic, educated and welfare oriented. After 6 decades of
independence, however, we find ourselves knee deep in
problems. The world blames us for helping terrorists, for
being extremists, uneducated and corrupt. We are being
branded as a failed state because of our dysfunctional society,
corruption and poor social development indicators. Despite
having enormous resources and potential, we have
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failed in our mission to develop as a modern, progressive,
Islamic State.

Pakistan is a resilient nation and has faced many tragedies,


calamities and disasters. During the 65 years of our existence,
we have seen the trauma of separation of East Pakistan,
floods, earthquakes, loss of lives in the war on terror and wars
with a neighbor who has not accepted our creation whole-
heartedly.
Despite all its problems, the Pakistani society is thriving.
There is hope and conviction for the future. This hope is not
baseless given the tremendous potential the Pakistani nation
possesses. By all standards we are a young nation. Sixty,
seventy or hundred years in the history of a nation has no
value and we shall rise Insha Allah.

The resilience shown by our youth is remarkable. The youth


is our Future. We must make a pledge for the sake of our
future to stand on our feet. Develop industrially, make use of
our tremendous potential and shun corruption. We must
concentrate on revamping our education system on war
footing ad stand with our heads high among the comity of
nations. We must also remember what our Quaid said to us:

These words should inspire and make us realize that these


words do the work of strength. We should lead from the
inspirational quote described above.

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Samia Azhar Naim was born in Karachi in October 1998. She


uses the name MOMINA as her nom de plume. Currently,
she is studying in The City School and is in the 9th grade.
When she was young, she mostly travelled abroad and
learned that there was too much negativity about Pakistan.
Since childhood, she is a strong nationalist and this is the
strongest motivation for writing the book. She was always
interested in doing something for Pakistan. She used to write
articles and poems about how much she loves her country and
could not stand the negative thinking of many people.

Momina always studied and read the history and story of


Pakistan and about our leaders. Her main inspiration is The
Father of the Nation, Muhammad Ali Jinnah as she likes the
way he stood up for his rights and Our National Hero, Dr.
Abdul Qadeer Khan. This book is her first endeavor and she
hopes to continue. Her appearances on the media can be
viewed on the following links:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C5XSTmTTx-8
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pc-UrfiQUVA

http://blogs.humnetwork.com/is-todays-pakistan-
truly-the-land-of-the-pure/

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