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Weight Management

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Chapter 1
Epidemiology, Etiology, and
Consequences of Obesity
Today more than 78 million Americans
are obese.
The obesity rates for adults have
doubled and rates for children have
tripled since 1980.
Source: Center for Disease Control 2012

Prevalence of Obesity in the U.S.
The Obesity Epidemic
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults
BRFSS, 1990, 2000, 2010
(*BMI !30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 54 person)
No Data <10% 10%14% 15%19% 20%24% 25%29% !30%
2000 1990

Defining Overweight and Obesity
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Body Mass Index (BMI): A measure of an adults
weight in relation to his or her height, specifically the
adults weight in kilograms divided by the square of
his or her height in meters.
BMI correlates to body fat but does not measure
amount of body fat. As a result some people,
athletes, may have higher BMI that identifies them as
overweight even thought they do not have excess
body fat!
WHO Classification BMI Risk of Comorbidity
Underweight Below 18.5 Low
Healthy weight 18.5 24.9 Average
Grade I obesity
25.0 -29.9 Mild increase
Grade 2 obesity
30.0 39.0 Moderate/severe
Morbid/severe obese
Grade 3 obesity
40.0 and above Very severe
World Health Organization Classification of Obesity
BMI = weight(kg)/height(m)

Defining Overweight and Obesity
An adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9
is considered overweight.
An adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is
considered obese.

Source: Center for Disease Control 2012
BMI for Children and Teens

Childhood obesity is on the rise, with an
estimated 30% of children overweight and of
that 17% are obese.
BMI charts for children and teens are
different from those used for adults. BMI is
interpreted with age and gender specific
More information: visit www.cdc.gov and search BMI Calculator for Children and Teens
Health Consequences of Obesity
Obese individuals are at increased risk of the following:
Type 2 Diabetes
Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension and Stroke
Gallbladder Disease
Sleep Apnea/Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
Nonalcholic Fatty Liver Disease
Metabolic Syndrome
*Obesity comorbidities are disease conditions that develop or worsen as weight increases and improve with weight loss.
Cost of Obe$ity!
In 2008, medical costs associated
with obe$ity were estimated at $147
billion; the medical costs paid by
third-party payors for people who
are obe$e were $1,429 higher than
those of normal weight.
Factors related to development of obesity.
How is today different from 100 years ago?

Fast Food
Drive thru restaurants, cleaners, banks,
liquor stores, etc.
Transportation services
Quote from Dr. Mehmet Oz

Im a heart surgeon. Every day I open a chest and
see the rusted tubes of another patient whose poor
health habits have left him or her with clogged
arteries. My colleagues and I are treating younger
and younger patients, as the ravages of aging attack
a generation that grew up with much opportunity for
indulgence and little practical guidance on pursuing a
healthy lifestyle.
Source: Foreward, by Dr. Mehment Oz The Dorm Room Diet 2006