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AS 3533.

22009
Australian Standard


Amusement rides and devices
Part 2: Operation and maintenance
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This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee ME-051, Amusement Rides and
Devices. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 9 July 2009.
This Standard was published on 31 July 2009.

The following are represented on Committee ME-051:

Australian Amusement Association
Australian Amusement Leisure and Recreation Association
Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Australian Industry Group
Australian Ski Areas Association
Consumers Federation of Australia
Department of Justice and Attorney General, Qld
Department of Labour, New Zealand
Department of the Premier and Cabinet, SA
Engineers Australia
Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand
Safety Institute of Australia
Showmens Guild of Australasia
Victorian Showmens Guild
WorkCover New South Wales
WorkSafe Victoria
WorkSafe Western Australia


This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 05589.

Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that
contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the
Committee and through the public comment period.

Keeping Standards up-to-date
Australian Standards are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology and
systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions
are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued.

Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are
using a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have been
published since the Standard was published.

Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects can
be found by visiting www.standards.org.au

Standards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers to
notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at
mail@standards.org.au, or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001.


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AS 3533.22009
Australian Standard


Amusement rides and devices
Part 2: Operation and maintenance


















Originated as part of AS 35331988.
Revised and redesignated in part as AS 3533.21997.
Second edition 2009.
COPYRIGHT
Standards Australia
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher.
Published by Standards Australia GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
ISBN 0 7337 9205 7
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AS 3533.22009 2


PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand
Committee ME-051, Amusement Rides and Devices, to supersede AS 3533.21997.
This Standard was prepared by the Australian members of the Joint Standards
Australia/Standards New Zealand Committee, ME-051. After consultation with stakeholders
in both countries, Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand decided to develop this
Standard as an Australian Standard rather than an Australian/New Zealand Standard.
The objective of this Standard is to provide proprietors and operating staff with
requirements and guidance for operation and maintenance of amusement rides and devices
in order to protect the health and safety of both operating staff and patrons.
Originally developed from technical literature, existing regulations and guidelines, this
Standard has been developed through the combined experience of the Committee and the
organizations represented on it, along with contributions from several individuals and
organizations having expert knowledge in those areas covered by this Standard. The
Committee acknowledges the contributions made by those individuals and organizations
and wishes to record its appreciation for their permission to include this material.
Major changes to the previous edition are as follows:
(a) Reference to AS 3533.3 for the procedures for conducting any in-service inspections
required by this Standard.
(b) Introduction of requirements for daily inspections and test runs and major inspections
for amusement rides and devices.
(c) Expansion of requirements for records pertaining to the amusement ride or device, its
inspection and maintenance in place of the information previously presented in
AS 3533.2 Supp 1, Amusement rides and devices, Part 2: Operation and
maintenance, Supplement 1: Logbook.
(d) Expansion of requirements and guidance concerning bolts.
(e) Relocation of expanded specific requirements for inflatable structures, particularly for
their anchoring to prevent undue movement with wind changes, to a separate part in
the AS 3533 series.
(f) Relocation of specific requirements for roller coasters to a separate part in the
AS 3533.
(g) Removal of passenger ropeways and passenger conveyors from the scope of
AS 3533.2.
(h) Replacement of requirements concerning clearances from power lines with general
guidance on the types of requirements implemented by regulatory authorities.
The Committee also intends to refer to a new Standard for flying foxes that is under
preparation by Committee SF-047 Artificial Climbing Structures, to replace the
requirements in Clause 4.9. When the new Standard is published, this Standard will be
amended accordingly.
This Standard (AS 3533.2) was created to cater specifically for the proprietors and
operating staff of amusement rides and devices by providing them with a set of guidelines
for the day-to-day operation of such devices.
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3 AS 3533.22009


The occupational health and safety obligations laid out in AS 3533.1 for designers and
manufacturers of amusement rides and devices are continued in this Part (AS 3533.2). This
Part is intended essentially as a working document and ready reference for the proprietors
and operating staff associated with both mobile and permanently installed devices.
The terms normative and informative have been used in this Standard to define the
application of the appendix to which they apply. A normative appendix is an integral part
of a Standard, whereas an informative appendix is only for information and guidance.
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AS 3533.22009 4


CONTENTS
Page
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................ 6
1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS .................................................................................. 6
1.3 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 8
SECTION 2 SITE LAYOUT, ASSEMBLY AND ERECTION, AND ELECTRICAL
REQUIREMENTS
2.1 SITE LAYOUT ......................................................................................................... 12
2.2 ASSEMBLY AND ERECTION ................................................................................ 14
2.3 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS............................................................................ 24
SECTION 3 ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
3.1 PLANNING............................................................................................................... 29
3.2 OPERATION............................................................................................................. 30
SECTION 4 SPECIFIC OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
4.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 32
4.2 AQUATIC AND WATERBORNE AMUSEMENT DEVICES................................. 32
4.3 KARTS AND KART TRACKS................................................................................. 34
4.4 FERRARI 500-TYPE KARTS AND TRACKS......................................................... 36
4.5 TOBOGGANS (LAND-BASED) .............................................................................. 38
4.6 AMUSEMENT DEVICES INCORPORATING ELASTIC SUSPENSION
SYSTEMS................................................................................................................. 39
4.7 AIR CUSHIONED VEHICLES................................................................................. 39
4.8 PARASAILING......................................................................................................... 40
4.9 FLYING FOXES....................................................................................................... 42
4.10 CABLE WATERSKIING.......................................................................................... 43
4.11 MINI BIKES AND MINI BIKE TRACKS................................................................ 44
4.12 DRY SLIDES ............................................................................................................ 45
4.13 STEAM AND HOT WATER EQUIPMENT............................................................. 45
4.14 HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC EQUIPMENT ................................................... 46
SECTION 5 MAINTENANCE, REPLACEMENT, REPAIR AND INSPECTION
5.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 48
5.2 MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT................................................................ 48
5.3 ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS ............................................................................. 49
5.4 INSPECTION............................................................................................................ 49
5.5 RECORDS................................................................................................................. 51
SECTION 6 FIRE SAFETY
6.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 53
6.2 STORAGE AND HANDLING OF FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE
LIQUIDS................................................................................................................... 53
6.3 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS .......................................................................................... 53
6.4 FIRE DETECTORS................................................................................................... 54
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5 AS 3533.22009


Page
APPENDICES
A STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS............................................................................. 55
B SUGGESTED TRAINING, QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE
FOR COMPETENT PERSONS................................................................................. 58
C CLEARANCE DISTANCES FROM AERIAL CONDUCTORS............................... 60
D MARKING OF BOLTS, NUTS AND WASHERS.................................................... 61
E GROUND BEARING (SUPPORTING) CAPACITIES............................................. 67
F HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT AND
RISK CONTROL PROCESS..................................................................................... 69
G GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR OPERATOR AND ATTENDANT SELECTION
AND INSTRUCTION............................................................................................... 73
H PATRON RESPONSIBILITY................................................................................... 75
I SAFETY GUIDELINES FOR OPERATORS............................................................ 76
J WATER QUALITY................................................................................................... 77
K PRECAUTIONS FOR STORING AND HANDLING FLAMMABLE
OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS AND LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS................. 79
L CONTENTS OF LOG AND AVAILABILITY FOR INSPECTION ......................... 81
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AS 3533.22009 6

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

Australian Standard
Amusement rides and devices

Part 2: Operation and maintenance

S E C T I O N 1 S C O P E A N D G E N E R A L
1.1 SCOPE
This Standard specifies requirements for the operation, maintenance, inspection and fire
safety measures for fixed and portable amusement rides and devices, excluding
(a) miniature trains and railway systems owned and operated by model railway societies,
clubs or associations;
(b) rides or devices when operated under the control of public transport legislation;
(c) plant used specifically for sporting, professional stunt, theatrical or acrobatic
activities; and
(d) passenger ropeways and passenger conveyors (see AS 4722).
NOTES:
1 Requirements for the design and construction of amusement rides and devices are given in
AS 3533.1. Details for the conduct of the inspections required in this Standard are specified
in AS 3533.3.
2 Specific requirements for particular types of amusement rides and devices are specified in
Section 4 of this Standard, other Parts of AS 3533 and other Standards; the specific
requirements take precedence over corresponding general requirements in this Standard where
any difference exists. Clause 4.1 lists the other Parts of AS 3533 and the other Standards that
will need to be consulted for certain types of amusement rides and devices.
3 Compliance with the requirements and conditions set down by associations such as The
Australian Association of Live Steamers is generally required for the miniature trains and
railway systems mentioned in Item (a).
1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
The following is a list of the documents referred to in this Standard, apart from referenced
and related documents on bolts, nuts and washers, which are given in Appendix D.
AS
1228 Pressure equipmentBoilers
1499 Personal flotation devicesType 2
1851 Maintenance of fire protection systems and equipment
1940 The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids
2076 Wire-rope grips for non-lifting applications
2260 Personal flotation devicesType 3
2444 Portable fire extinguishers and fire blanketsSelection and location
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7 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
AS
2550 Cranes, hoists and winchesSafe use
2550.1 Part 1: General requirements
2593 BoilersSafety management and supervision systems
2790 Electricity generating setsTransportable (Up to 25 kW)
3533 Amusement rides and devices
3533.1 Part 1: Design and construction
3533.3 Part 3: In-service inspection
3533.4.1 Part 4.1: Specific requirementsLand-borne inflatable devices
3533.4.3 Part 4.3: Specific requirementsRoller coasters
3873 Pressure equipmentOperation and maintenance
3998 Non-destructive testingQualification and certification of personnel
4024 Safety of machinery
4024.1 Part 1: Safety of machinery series
4024.1801 Part 1801: Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper
limbs
4037 Pressure equipmentExamination and testing
4291 Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel
4291.1 Part 1: Bolts, screws and studs
4722 Passenger ropeways and passenger conveyors
HB 241 Water management for public swimming pools and spas
AS/NZS
1596 The storage and handling of LP Gas
1698 Protective helmets for vehicle users
2293 Emergency evacuation lighting for buildings
2293.2 Part 2: Inspection and maintenance
2906 Fuel containersPortablePlastic and metal
3000 Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)
3002 Electrical installationsShows and carnivals
3190 Approval and test specificationResidual current devices (current-operated
earth-leakage devices)
3760 In-service safety inspection and testing of electrical equipment
3788 Pressure equipmentIn-service inspection
3832 Electrical installationsCold-cathode illumination systems
4291 Mechanical properties of fasteners
4291.2 Part 2: Nuts with specified proof load valuesCoarse thread
4360 Risk management
5848 Code of practice for bungy jumping
61558 Safety of power transformers, power supply units and similar
61558.1 Part 1: General requirements and tests (IEC 61558-1 Ed.2, MOD)
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AS 3533.22009 8

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
AS/NZS
61558.2.4 Part 2.4: Particular requirements for isolating transformers for general use
(IEC 61558-2-4:1997, MOD)
61558.2.6 Part 2.6: Particular requirements for safety isolating transformers for general
use (IEC 61558-2-6:1997, MOD)
ISO
898 Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel
898-1 Part 1: Bolts, screws and studs
898-2 Part 2: Nuts with specified proof load valuesCoarse thread
Australian Miniature Boiler Safety Committee Code
1.3 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions below apply.
1.3.1 Amusement device
An arrangement of equipment that produces the desired effect of amusement or
entertainment when the patron moves through it or on it primarily by his or her own action,
or any other system that is not covered by the term amusement ride.
NOTE: See Clause 1.3.2.
1.3.2 Amusement ride
An arrangement of structural or mechanical elements (or both) that is designed to move
patrons in a controlled manner and is not necessarily reliant on patrons moving themselves
to obtain the desired effect of amusement or entertainment.
NOTES:
1 Within this Standard the word device may refer to an amusement ride or an amusement
device.
2 Some regulatory authorities may refer to amusement rides and devices as amusement
structures.
1.3.3 Ancillary equipment
Equipment forming part of the operational complement of the ride or device that is
required, by this Standard or specific legislation, to comply with other Standards or
requirements because of its specialized nature or purpose.
1.3.4 Aquatic amusement device
A device that involves patrons being intentionally, either partially or fully, immersed in
water for a short period of time at some stage during the ride.
1.3.5 Arms reach
A distance of 2.7 m above the relevant reference plane, e.g. walking surface, and 1.5 m
sideways or downwards either from the top of any edge barrier that physically prevents arm
access or from the edge of that surface if there is no effective edge barrier; alternatively,
lower distances determined in accordance with AS 4024.1801 considering the
circumstances and any protective structures present.
1.3.6 Assembly
The process of converting a ride or device from its condition for transport to that of being
suitable for operation in the case of a mobile ride or device. For a fixed ride or device, the
process of building up from as supplied component parts.
1.3.7 Attendant
A person working under the supervision of an operator.
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9 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
1.3.8 Authority
The authority having statutory powers to enforce legislative requirements regarding the
design, manufacture, installation, registration and operation of amusement rides and devices
covered by this Standard.
NOTE: Appendix A contains information regarding legislative requirements for amusement rides
and devices, and a list of some of the authorities responsible for overseeing the implementation of
such requirements.
1.3.9 Cable waterskiing system
A device where patrons are towed along on a body of water by ropes attached to a powered,
overhead, continuous cable system running around sheaves contained in support structures
or towers.
1.3.10 Competent person
A person who has acquired through training, qualifications or experience, or a combination
of these, the knowledge and skills enabling that person to perform a specified task.
NOTE: Appendix B provides suggestions for the training, qualifications or experience considered
appropriate to possess for the various competent persons referred to in this Standard.
1.3.11 Design
The preconceived scheme and substance of the ride or device contrived to achieve the
purpose of the ride or device.
1.3.12 Designer
The person responsible for the design of an amusement ride or device.
1.3.13 Failure
The cessation of the capacity of a component, element or assembly to undertake the task for
which it is included in a design.
1.3.14 Fault
An observed condition
(a) precedent to a failure and may include
(i) corrosion;
(ii) wear;
(iii) cracking;
(iv) instability;
(v) unusual noise or vibration; or
(vi) any other discovery that a component is no longer suitable for purpose or is
likely to become unsuitable for purpose; or
(b) creating a risk to health and safety, e.g. sharp edges, trip hazards or a breakdown in
electrical insulation.
1.3.15 Flume
A shaped channel containing flowing water, along which patrons are transported in various
floating vehicles.
1.3.16 Flying fox
A device consisting of an elevated rope on which a pulley or trolley system (fox) is used to
transport patrons between two support structures.
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AS 3533.22009 10

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
1.3.17 Log
A medium for retaining records permanently, which may include electronic files, paper-
based logs or logbooks.
1.3.18 Minor storage
The amount of directly available fuel kept in or around an amusement device (excluding
fuel contained in dedicated in-built fuel tanks) necessary to ensure that the daily fuel
requirement of the device is able to be met.
1.3.19 Operation
All aspects of the management and control of the ride or device while it is carrying people
so that they experience the ride or motion that the ride or device is designed to supply.
1.3.20 Operator
The person having overall control of an amusement device.
1.3.21 Passenger conveyor
A device where skiers and others are transported, while standing, for recreational purposes
on a moving element, excluding devices used as loading conveyors.
1.3.22 Passenger ropeway
A powered ropeway used for transporting, in a horizontal or inclined plane, passengers
moved by carriers that are
(a) attached to or supported by a moving rope; or
(b) attached to a moving rope but supported by a standing rope, or other overhead
structure.
The term includes the prime mover and any transmission machinery, supporting structure
and equipment. It does not include equipment such as cog railways, cablecars running on
rails, equipment such as flying foxes or elevating systems for vehicles or boat-style carriers
associated with amusement rides such as log or boat flume rides.
1.3.23 Patron
A person participating in an amusement ride or device.
1.3.24 Proprietor
The person having, at any given time, the legal responsibility for the management of an
amusement device.
1.3.25 Roller coaster
A device that transports patrons in wheeled vehicles that are continuously in contact with
and travel along a fixed rail system permitting (in part or in whole) the motion to be the
result of the acceleration due to gravity. Such devices may be categorized as inverting
roller coasters where, by virtue of a rotation of the rail, patrons attain an attitude of head
below abdomen for at least some portion of the ride.
1.3.26 Supervisor
The competent person who is appointed by the proprietor of an amusement ride or device to
manage the day-to-day operation of the ride or device.
1.3.27 Toboggan ride (aquatic)
A device so designed that patrons seated on a toboggan travel down an inclined, trough-
shaped track or shaped channel. The toboggan may be wheeled or on skids, and the device
may or may not incorporate a braking system, a water stop, or a combination of both.
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11 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
1.3.28 Toboggan ride (land-based)
A device so designed that patrons seated on a toboggan travel down an inclined slope in a
shaped channel set into the ground. The toboggan may be wheeled and incorporates a
patron-operated braking system.
NOTE: The term bobsled is also used for this device.
1.3.29 Train
A system of linked vehicles operating on rails, pavement or hard ground and powered by
internal prime mover(s) or an independent, linked prime mover vehicle.
1.3.30 Vehicle
Any carrier (e.g. car, gondola, chair, capsule, compartment or similar) on or in which
patrons are supported, contained or carried when participating in an amusement ride or
using an amusement device.
1.3.31 Waterborne ride
A device that involves patrons travelling, either for part of or for the whole of the ride, in
vehicles floating on and propelled by water in a flume. The flume may terminate at the foot
of an elevating system that returns vehicles and patrons to a higher point. Patrons are not
immersed at any time, and do not become wet unless due to incidental splashing.
1.3.32 Water slide
An aquatic amusement device with an inclined sliding surface terminating in a run-out
trough or pool. Patrons descend the slide (with or without any sliding device between the
patron and the slide) usually under the influence of gravity, with water as the friction-
reducing medium.
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AS 3533.22009 12

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
S E C T I O N 2 S I T E L A Y O U T , A S S E M B L Y A N D
E R E C T I O N , A N D E L E C T R I C A L
R E Q U I R E M E N T S
2.1 SITE LAYOUT
2.1.1 Choice of site
The ground chosen for a site should have a firm surface, be well drained and shall be
capable of carrying safely, without excessive settlement, any loads likely to be imposed
upon it. The following additional factors should also be considered in the choice of a site:
(a) The slope or unevenness of the ground.
(b) Perimeter protection.
(c) Availability of services, e.g. electricity, water, drainage and sewerage, and fire
services.
(d) Prevailing or possible wind speed.
(e) Access and egress for patrons, emergency vehicles and equipment.
(f) The proximity of surrounding buildings, man-made or natural objects and cultivated
areas in relation to the potential for collision and the risk of the spread of fire.
(g) The air space required for the ride to operate and not infringe on the air space of other
rides or activities (see Clause 2.1.5.2).
(h) Known history of the site (see Clause 2.1.4).
(i) The proximity of other devices (see Clause 2.1.5).
(j) The proximity of electrified conductors (see Clause 2.1.6).
(k) The possibility of uplift, caused by the action of the device itself or by the wind
acting upon it, and the effect of such uplift upon the ground chosen for the site.
NOTE: The foregoing considerations also apply, with appropriate modifications, where a show,
carnival or similar attraction is on a pier or other elevated structure. In such cases, a detailed
examination of the pier or other structure may be necessary to establish permissible loadings and
to determine whether the larger point loads should be spread over the structure. The capacity of
any pier or structure upon which an amusement ride or device is to be set up may need to be
proved and certified by a competent person.
2.1.2 Preparation of site
The site should be prepared and maintained so that it provides an even and substantially
level surface for those parts on which rides are to be assembled (to minimize the need for
packing). Care should be taken to avoid creating hazards which may cause people to trip or
stumble.
2.1.3 Condition of site
The condition of a site should be checked regularly to ensure that its load-bearing
capabilities have not deteriorated. Settlement in the ground can cause instability, thus
requiring repacking and relevelling of a device.
NOTE: Evidence of deterioration of a site may be hidden from view by the devices themselves.
2.1.4 Seismic activity (earthquakes)
In the case of mobile amusement devices and temporary structures not permanently
founded, the proprietor should consider the known history of the site regarding seismic
activity and take into account the probability of such an occurrence. Advice from the
manufacturer or a competent person may be necessary to ensure the stability of a device
under such circumstances.
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13 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
2.1.5 Clearances
2.1.5.1 General
In all cases, the appropriate clearances as required by AS 3533.1 shall be present.
2.1.5.2 Horizontal clearances for temporary set-ups
Devices should be located so that the moving parts of one device cannot come within less
than 2 m of any fixed man-made or natural object or any moving parts of another device
under all conditions of operation, unless
(a) fixed barriers of substantial construction exist between the device and the object or
the two devices; and
(b) a hazard identification and risk assessment covering the potential for injury to
patrons, bystanders, passers-by, operators or maintenance personnel indicates that the
arrangement presents no risk.
2.1.5.3 Vertical clearances for temporary set-ups
Devices shall be located so that the vertical clearance between the moving parts of one ride
and the moving or fixed parts of another ride is maintained at a minimum of 2.5 m in
addition to any ride envelope clearances required in AS 3533.1.
For temporary set-ups, rides that overhang public access areas shall have a minimum
ground to ride envelope clearance, above the public access area, of 4.5 m where vehicles
can be present.
2.1.5.4 Emergency clearances
Consideration should be given to the space required for emergency evacuation of a device
in the case of fire or a mechanical failure resulting in the use of emergency services to
rescue patrons.
NOTE: Particular attention should be paid to devices featuring enclosed areas (e.g. ghost trains).
2.1.6 Set-up and operation near power lines
2.1.6.1 Above ground power lines
In this Clause, power lines are taken to be permanent arrangements of aerial electricity
conductors providing for the reticulation of electrical power to consumers.
Most States and Territories of Australia have specific rules and requirements governing
activities near power lines. Rules are established and published or otherwise made readily
available to any person who may have to carry out work of various types in proximity to
power lines such as the use of mobile plant (cranes in particular), scaffolding and building.
Persons needing to establish or operate amusement rides or devices shall comply with the
specific requirements of local legislation concerning the appropriate dimensions for
exclusion zones relevant to all phases of their work, e.g. set-up using cranes, set-up using
only manual handling, operational clearances.
NOTES:
1 The diagrams in Appendix C reflect the general form of the rules set by the relevant
authorities and provide a framework for the appropriate enquiry to be made.
2 It cannot be assumed that the dimensions for clearances, exclusion zones and zones requiring
the assistance of an observer (spotter) that apply under any particular jurisdiction will equate
to those under another jurisdiction. Nor is it appropriate to make any assumption as to these
dimensions from the comparison of systems on poles (be they timber, metal, concrete or
composite) to those on pylons or towers.
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AS 3533.22009 14

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
In the case of power lines carried on pylons or towers, persons should assume that the
system traverses an easement extending to a considerable width along the line of the system
(typically this could be 50 m each side of the extreme tower bases). Any works within such
an easement may only be carried out with the express permission of the owner of the
easement (typically a power supply company) and in conformity with the conditions set
down by that permit.
2.1.6.2 Underground power lines
In this Clause, underground power lines are taken to be permanent arrangements of
electrical conductors directly buried under protective covers or slabs, within conduits or
pipes or within ducts or tunnels.
Persons responsible for installing or erecting an amusement ride or device shall make all
appropriate enquiries as to the existence of underground power line systems at any site and
any rules applying to the permissible proximity of equipment, the permissible loading on
the ground above and any necessity to avoid clearing soil or driving spikes, pegs or stakes
in the vicinity or beyond any particular depth.
2.1.7 Locations within buildingsEmergency provisions
Where a device is within a building having other functions, e.g. within a shopping complex
or hall, specific attention shall be paid to the following to ensure compatibility of the
emergency procedures for the device with those of the building or complex:
(a) Provision of emergency systems to effect disembarkation.
(b) Special features required for operation under fire or emergency evacuation
conditions, including provision of emergency lighting for evacuation paths and areas
around the device, which operating staff may need to access to effect evacuation.
(c) Training of operators and proof of procedures to address emergency evacuation
requirements.
2.1.8 Lighting
Adequate lighting shall be provided within, and for the approaches to, any device that
operates in a building or at night.
2.2 ASSEMBLY AND ERECTION
2.2.1 General
The assembly and dismantling of devices shall be carried out by or under the direct
supervision of competent persons and in accordance with manufacturers instructions. If
instructions from the manufacturer are unavailable for part or all of the assembly or
dismantling processes, instructions developed and assessed by competent persons shall be
used. The guidance given in Clause 2.2.5 is not intended to override such instructions.
2.2.2 Lighting
Work shall not be carried out where the lighting is insufficient to allow for the work to be
safely and properly performed and checked.
2.2.3 Public safety
No work in connection with the assembly or dismantling of amusement rides and devices
shall be carried out where such work can present a hazard to the public. Any zones of
concern around a device during assembly or dismantling should be clearly delineated, with
appropriate signage posted.
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15 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
2.2.4 Suitability of equipment and parts
The parts, tools, working platforms, scaffolding and lifting equipment shall be suitable for
the application. Such equipment should comply with the relevant Australian Standard.
2.2.5 Quality of assembly work
Assembly work shall comply with the following:
(a) Parts shall not be bent, distorted, cut or otherwise damaged.
(b) Makeshift devices shall not be used.
(c) Parts shall be aligned in order to fit them.
(d) Parts requiring lubrication shall be lubricated prior to or in the course of assembly.
(e) Cotter pins, split pins, tab washers and similar shall be suitable for the particular
application and properly spread where necessary.
(f) Reusable retaining pins such as R-pins and lynch pins shall be replaced when outside
their allowable tolerance.
(g) Any fitting used in conjunction with a wire rope (e.g. a loadcell, turnbuckle or
shackle) to secure an amusement device whilst in service shall be of adequate
strength, stamped with its working load limit (WLL) and not be exposed to forces
beyond its WLL.
2.2.6 Wire rope grips (bulldog grips)
Wire rope grips shall not be used for making terminations on live running ropes (i.e. a rope
that applies force to a moving object) nor where the rope is required to support persons or
suspended loads.
Unless special types of wire rope grips are specified by the manufacturer, wire rope grips
shall comply with AS 2076 and have correct markings for the rope size being used. Wire
rope grips shall not be used to directly connect two straight lengths of rope. Wire rope grips
should not be used where there is a likelihood of the rope having to be lengthened at the
grip end. Unless a manufacturer calls for the use of a special type of wire rope grip, the
correct fitting method shall be used (see Figure 2.1).

FIGURE 2.1 FITTING WIRE ROPE GRIPS
Wire rope grip terminations shall have the minimum number of grips as shown in Table 2.1.
Where there is the potential for injury if a grip termination failure occurs, one additional
grip shall be used.
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AS 3533.22009 16

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
TABLE 2.1
INSTALLATION OF WIRE ROPE GRIPS
FOR EYE ATTACHMENT
Rope diameter
mm
No. of grips
Min. spacing of grips
mm
8 3 50
9 3 60
11 3 65
12 3 75
16 3 100
18 4 115
22 4 135
24 4 150
28 5 175
32 5 200
2.2.7 Bolted joints
Bolted joints shall be assembled, disassembled (if required), and regularly checked in
accordance with the following requirements:
(a) All bolts shall be the correct size and grade or property class, as specified for the ride
or device by the designer, manufacturer or a competent person. They shall fit the
fastening holes in the designed manner and be equipped with appropriate nuts and
washers. When high tensile bolts are used, a nut of corresponding grade or property
class and a high tensile washer under the rotating component shall be used. High
tensile bolts shall not be used with lower strength nuts and washers.
NOTES:
1 Bolt heads and nuts should be checked for marks indicating their tensile strength and
items not showing such marks should not be used. If existing bolts that are being removed
from a ride or device do not show identification marks, they should be replaced after
checking the details of the bolt that should be used in documentation supplied by the
designer or manufacturer, or consulting a competent person if this is not available.
2 Appendix D provides information on commonly used markings and their meanings.
3 A certificate of compliance should be requested when purchasing fastener assemblies.
(b) Bolts shall not be forced into a misaligned hole in such a way that the bolt can be bent
or damaged in installation. Bolts shall not be bent and any bent bolt shall be
discarded. The alignment of the bolt head and nut shall be checked prior to tightening
to ensure they are parallel.
NOTE: When tightening a joint, it is recommended that bolts be inserted and nuts loosely
done up in all positions that relate to the particular joint, then an alignment check of the joint
surfaces be carried out and alignment corrected as necessary, prior to any bolt being tightened
to its final required tension.
(c) Bolts shall be tightened in accordance with an appropriate tightening procedure set
down by the designer or manufacturer or decided after consultation with a competent
person. The tightening specification shall clearly identify the bolt size, grade or
property class, designed pre-tension and tolerance limits. If torque is specified as the
tightening method, it shall be accompanied with the specified coating or finish of the
bolt, condition of the bolt (new or used) and lubricity level or use of particular thread
anti-seize, corresponding to the specified torque. Regular checking of the remaining
bolt pre-tension on safety-critical joints shall be carried out at intervals determined by
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17 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
the designer or manufacturer of the ride or device or decided after consultation with a
competent person. During this inspection, other parameters that could impact the
performance of the joint such as existence of micro-cracks, corrosion, stress corrosion
and physical damage shall also be evaluated. Bolts tightened to yield shall not be used
again.
NOTES:
1 The safety-critical joints that are subject to cyclic loading can develop cracks and the
bolts can disintegrate if the joints are under or over tightened. Bolt pre-tension is very
important and the bolt should be tensioned to the design pre-tension within a certain
tolerance limit identified in the design. Documentation for the ride or device should
include the appropriate pre-tension value and its tolerance limits. Direct tension
indication devices may need to be used to ensure correct pre-tension. If torque is used as a
tightening method for safety-critical joints subject to cyclic loading, laboratory tests or
in-situ tests need to be conducted to check that the prescribed torque will always achieve
a tension within the design tolerance limits. If the design pre-tension and the tolerance
limits are not available in the documentation supplied by the designer or manufacturer,
this should be established through consulting the designer or manufacturer or a competent
person.
2 If the surfaces to be joined together do not close with reasonable force used on the bolt,
the joint should be investigated and corrective action to be taken prior to tightening the
bolts.
3 The cleanliness and condition of bolts prior to tightening should be assessed and the use
of a new bolt should be considered if the bolt is not adequately clean or the integrity of
the bolt is suspect. This is more so when torque is used as the tightening specification.
(d) The use of proprietary thread repair systems shall be supervised by a competent
person.
(e) Stainless steel bolts shall not be used unless the ride or device is specifically designed
for their use or they are being used following consultation with a competent person.
(f) Bolts shall not be reused if there is any thread damage visible. Bolts showing
distortion or wear shall be discarded.
NOTE: The thread may be checked using a thread gauge or a new bolt as a thread gauge.
(g) Bolts and nuts, particularly high tensile bolts, shall not be welded unless this is part
of the original design, or it is deemed appropriate by a competent person.
(h) Prevailing torque nuts (e.g. Nyloc nuts) shall not be used for joints subject to frequent
disassembly or to replace any nuts without approval from the designer or
manufacturer or a competent person.
NOTE: The suitability of some prevailing torque nuts for reuse depends on the application
and reference should be made to the manufacturers instructions.
(i) Safety-critical joints shall not rely solely on prevailing torque nuts.
In addition to the requirements in Items (a) to (j), a regular replacement program should be
instituted for assembly bolts that are subject to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). High
tensile bolts (Class 10.9 or higher) and stainless steel bolts are prone to SCC. The interval
of replacement should be as set down by the designer or manufacturer or decided after
consultation with a competent person.
2.2.8 Packing and blocking
2.2.8.1 General
Amusement rides and devices shall be set up to maintain stability under all conditions of
operation. Where packings and blockings are used to achieve this, the following should be
considered in their selection and deployment:
(a) The manufacturers instructions.
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AS 3533.22009 18

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
(b) The bearing capacity of the ground or mounting surface on which the ride or device is
to be erected.
(c) The period of time for which the ride or device will be situated at the particular
location.
(d) The drainage of the site both with and without the device in position.
(e) The topography of the site in so far as it affects the provision of level surfaces under
load points, and the stability of soil at those points (slippage problems).
NOTE: Amusement rides and devices are generally designed in mobile or permanent (park)
models. Mobile equipment is, by nature, configured to have reasonably adjustable, specific
mounting points usually arranged for level ground, while permanent or park equipment frequently
requires purpose-built foundations, which are independent of the device itself. It is not unusual
for mobile equipment to become permanent or semi-permanent installations, in which case the
design of packing and blocking systems should be overseen by the manufacturer or a competent
person.
2.2.8.2 Short term set-ups
Brittle fibre composites shall not be used in any packing.
The following principles should be adhered to for the packing of amusement rides and
devices, where the set-up is for a period not exceeding 3 months and, where specific
instructions, equipment or systems are not provided by the manufacturer of the device:
(a) The bearing capacity of the site should be estimated on the basis of prior experience
or the advice of a competent person. In the absence of such an estimate, no site
should be assessed to have a capacity in excess of 100 kPa (10 t/m
2
). The base area of
packings (i.e. at the ground surface) should be estimated from the above and the
known or estimated total of static and dynamic load to be applied at each point of
support.
NOTE: Guidelines for establishing the suitability of a particular site for load-bearing
capabilities are given in Appendix E.
(b) The site should be checked for drainage and the absence of soft spots, sink holes or
other factors which would affect the capacity or stability of the packing at any of the
load points.
NOTE: Special care is required where tarmac is the bearing surface.
(c) The ground should be cleared of debris and surface irregularities in the location of the
load points, and levelled at those points either by cutting or building up with a
suitable fill such as brick sand.
NOTE: Where fill is required it may be necessary to reduce the estimate of bearing capacity.
(d) Packings should be assembled from blocks and shims.
Blocks should be of timber (such as Australian hardwood, oregon or moisture-
resistant plywood) or reinforced concrete, and should be free of defects. They should
be in square or rectangular sections and cut cleanly with parallel sides. Masonry
blocks, bricks, or similar should not be used for short-term set-ups, and should only
be used in permanent or semi-permanent installations (see Note to Clause 2.2.8.1)
where deemed acceptable by a competent person.
Shims (packings of less than 32 mm timber or 25 mm plywood) should be from steel,
moisture resistant plywood, high quality, dressed hardwood with thickness greater
than 8 mm or should be proprietary plastic shims.
(e) No packing, block or stack should have a ground bearing area dimension less than
that of the load point (float, jack, or similar) to which it applies. Blocks in ground
contact in any circumstance should provide an area not less than 200 mm 200 mm.
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19 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
(f) Packing stacks should be assembled from the minimum number of individual blocks,
constructed in alternate layers of increasing dimension (from the top down) so as to
maintain stability. Bridged packing layers should be avoided. Shims installed to level
and stabilize layers should be fixed by nailing as the layers are constructed.
(g) Before a device is put into operation, packings should be checked to ensure that they
are securely fixed in position and do not permit differential settlement, which can be
detrimental to the safe running and stability of the device.
2.2.9 Control stations
Control stations shall be arranged to prevent any interference by the public when
unattended.
Wherever possible, control stations should be located to provide the operator of the device
with an unrestricted view of the device and all embarkation and disembarkation stations.
Where a device has remote areas or areas obscured from the view of the operator, means of
observing and communicating with patrons should be provided at the control station.
2.2.10 Access
Access doors and hatches and any gaps on or beneath devices, which are large enough to
permit unauthorized whole or part of body access, should be sealed or effectively guarded.
2.2.11 Crowd control
2.2.11.1 General
An amusement ride or device shall be provided with crowd control fences, barriers, or other
physical measures as may be necessary to
(a) facilitate the orderly queuing of patrons;
(b) ensure the safety of spectators, passers-by and persons queuing to use the device;
(c) define the safe loading and unloading area;
(d) provide adequate passage for operating staff and patrons; and
(e) exclude unauthorized persons from operating staff and patron areas.
NOTE: Fences and guards required to exclude operating staff, patrons and other persons from
unsafe areas should have been determined in accordance with AS 3533.1 by a competent person
and their continued adequacy may be assessed by application of the process described in
Appendix F (see also Clause 2.2.12).
2.2.11.2 Crowd control barriers
Crowd control barriers shall be not less than 900 mm in height, and shall remain stable
when loaded by a horizontal force of 70 N (approximately equivalent to the weight of a
7 kg mass), applied in any direction, to the uppermost edge. Crowd control barriers shall
not be used as the fence around a ride.
2.2.12 Additional fencing
Any additional site-specific fencing required to prevent any person from reaching a danger
point shall
(a) delineate the zone of concern;
(b) be not less than 1 m in height above adjacent surfaces;
(c) be constructed to effectively prevent any person from moving through it or under it;
and
(d) have no less strength and stability than the existing fence.
NOTE: AS 4024.1801 illustrates distances for prevention of access to danger points.
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AS 3533.22009 20

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
2.2.13 Signage
Where required, signs for the control of patrons, the safe use of a device or the operating
restrictions for a device shall be prominently positioned, clearly legible and of a consistent
presentation. The information on such signs should include the following:
(a) The minimum or maximum allowable dimensions of patrons.
NOTE: Indicators may be installed to assist operating staff in preventing patrons of
unsuitable size from boarding a device.
(b) Advice that physical capabilities may be required where forces created by the device
may demand limb use or body control.
(c) Advice for patrons who are pregnant, have medical conditions or are under
medication.
(d) Advice for patrons under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
(e) Advice on the potential for motion sickness.
(f) Any other specific advice about the safe operation of the device, e.g. loose articles.
Emergency exit signs shall comply with the requirements of Clause 2.3.6.
2.2.14 Discharge of exhaust fumes
Engine exhaust fumes or noxious fumes from any source shall be discharged clear of any
persons or equipment.
2.2.15 Access and egress for patrons of rides and devices
Access ways for patrons boarding or disembarking from a ride or device shall be clearly
defined, illuminated where necessary and supervised by the operator.
Where clearances and step-up heights to cars and gondolas are set by the operator on
erection of the ride or device, the operator shall ensure the clearances and heights comply
with those specified by the manufacturer in documentation with the device or by a
competent person.
Where a single step up, or over a combing of more than 300 mm is necessary to board (or
exit) a car or gondola, the operator shall provide appropriate instructions to ensure patrons
are aware of the most appropriate method for boarding and exiting the car. Operators shall
ensure that sufficient trained attendants are available to assist patrons in boarding and
exiting the cars or gondolas of devices where the motion of cars due to boarding activities
or the step-up height could create a hazard to patrons.
NOTES:
1 Where any step exceeds 215 mm, handholds should be provided wherever practical.
2 Edges of steps and combings should be highlighted, and illuminated when visibility is poor.
3 Step surfaces should, as far as practical, be slip resistant and kept free of any substance which
may reduce the anti-slip characteristics (e.g. mud or water).
4 Refer to requirements for restricting the motion of freewheeling vehicles in AS 3533.1.
5 Examples of appropriate arrangements for a selection of circumstances are illustrated in
Figure 2.2. While not shown here, many other types of rides and devices have similar sets of
arrangements which address the issues of access and egress appropriately.
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21 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES
FIGURE 2.2 (in part) EXAMPLES OF APPROPRIATE ACCESS
AND EGRESS ARRANGEMENTS
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AS 3533.22009 22

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES
FIGURE 2.2 (in part) EXAMPLES OF APPROPRIATE ACCESS
AND EGRESS ARRANGEMENTS
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23 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES
FIGURE 2.2 (in part) EXAMPLES OF APPROPRIATE ACCESS
AND EGRESS ARRANGEMENTS
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AS 3533.22009 24

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES
FIGURE 2.2 (in part) EXAMPLES OF APPROPRIATE ACCESS
AND EGRESS ARRANGEMENTS
2.3 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS
2.3.1 General
All electrical equipment used in the assembly, erection and operation of an amusement
device shall comply with this Clause and AS 3533.1.
NOTE: Some provisions of AS/NZS 3002 may apply to mobile amusement rides and devices.
2.3.2 High voltage
High voltage shall not be used on any amusement device unless used for
(a) cold-cathode illumination systems (e.g. neon lights), which shall comply with
AS/NZS 3832;
(b) special effects, e.g. flame effects, which shall comply with relevant Standards; or
(c) ignition systems for internal combustion engines.
NOTE: In accordance with AS/NZS 3000 the following defines the values for extra-low, low and
high voltages:
Voltage a.c. d.c.
Extra-low Less than or equal
to 50 V
Less than or equal
to 120 V ripple free
Low Greater than 50 V,
less than or equal
to 1 000 V
Greater than
120 V, less than or
equal to 1 500 V
High Exceeding low voltage
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25 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
2.3.3 Switchboards
All switchboards shall be mounted in tool or key-lockable enclosures located in positions
not readily accessible to unauthorized persons and shall be locked where a risk of
electrocution exists.
2.3.4 Specific requirements for all electrical installations
Every electrical installation shall comply with the following requirements:
(a) Exposed lamps, except where supplied by extra-low voltage or protected by a Type 2
residual current device (RCD) complying with AS/NZS 3190, shall not be installed
within arms reach of any position accessible to the public.
(b) Pendant, roving controls or any controls handled by patrons shall be connected to an
extra-low voltage supply.
(c) Pendant, roving controls or any controls handled by operating staff shall be either
double insulated or connected to an extra-low voltage supply.
(d) An electric cable passing under an amusement device or within 900 mm of any
moving part thereof shall be adequately protected.
(e) No damaged or faulty cable, appliance, switch or electrical fitting shall be permitted
or retained as part of any electrical installation.
(f) Where an amusement device is connected by means of a flexible cord and plug to a
voltage supply exceeding extra-low voltage
(i) any suspended wiring shall be of stranded cables and shall not be within arms
reach of the ground or floor level; and
(ii) any electrical wiring that is on the ground and vulnerable to damage shall be
mechanically protected.
Inspection and testing shall be carried out on portable electrical equipment including cord
extension sets, electrical portable outlet devices (EPODs), flexible cords connected to fixed
equipment, all isolation transformers and all residual current devices in accordance with
AS/NZS 3760, and the frequency of such testing and inspection shall be as follows:

Interval between inspection and tests
Electrical Class of
equipment
Residual current devices
Cord
extension
sets and
EPODs
Class I
(Protectively
earthed)
Class II
(Double
insulated)
(Inspection
only)
Push button test by user
Operating time
RCD tester
Portable Fixed Portable Fixed
6 months 12 months
Daily, or
before use,
whichever
is longer
6 months 12 months 12 months
6 months
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AS 3533.22009 26

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
2.3.5 Requirements for electrical installations with electrified metallic grid
Where an electrified metallic grid is installed over an area of an amusement device
accessible to the public, it shall be
(a) supplied from an extra-low voltage supply obtained from the non-earthed secondary
of an isolating transformer complying with AS/NZS 61558.1, AS/NZS 61558.2.4 and
AS/NZS 61558.2.6 as appropriate;
(b) effectively insulated from its supports; and
(c) securely installed in a position at least 2.1 m above floor level and 250 mm clear of
any part of the same device other than its own means of support.
2.3.6 Emergency lighting
Emergency lighting shall be used and illuminated exit signs deployed, except where natural
light during power failure would be adequate. Such emergency lighting shall be inspected
and maintained in accordance with AS/NZS 2293.2. Where the nature of the construction
prevents the use of internally illuminated exit signs (e.g. light fabric walls), painted signs
illuminated by general and emergency lighting may be used.
For amusement rides and devices where darkness is an integral part of the ride, emergency
lighting and self-contained power source illuminated exit signs may be configured to only
be lit when
(a) deliberately activated by an emergency stop if fire detectors or smoke detectors are
fitted; or
(b) there is a general power failure to the ride.
In addition, the following requirements shall apply:
(i) Where the emergency power is not generated by a self-contained power source within
the device, an emergency generator or central battery system shall be used.
(ii) The emergency lighting and exit sign system shall be tested on a regular basis. For
mobile amusement devices, this testing shall take place each time the device is set up,
and prior to daily operation.
2.3.7 Lightning protection
An assessment of risk of lightning strike shall be made and appropriate control measures
implemented.
NOTE: AS 3533.1 provides guidance on assessment of the risk of lightning specific to amusement
rides and devices.
If lightning protection is supplied with the amusement device, it shall be deployed each
time the device is erected.
2.3.8 Earthing
Every amusement ride or device, which is electrically powered or otherwise supplied
(except at extra-low voltage), shall be earthed in accordance with the following
requirements:
(a) Conductive parts liable to become live under fault conditions of an amusement ride or
device shall be bonded to the protective power supply conductor (earthing conductor),
if necessary in more than one place if the type of construction does not ensure
continuity (e.g. a ticket box that is not permanently affixed to the device or ride
structure).
(b) Where power is site-generated, there shall be electrical continuity between the frame
of the generator and the frame of the ride or device.
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27 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
The size of any conductor bonding the main winding(s) to the frame shall not be less
than that of the live conductor.
(c) The electricity generating set shall comply with AS 2790 in respect to equipotential
(earthing) facilities and connections between main winding(s) and the frame, and
shall be configured in a manner providing protection to all sub-mains and final sub-
circuits.
NOTES:
1 Figures 2.3 and 2.4 illustrate how this can be achieved.
2 This may be achieved by providing a separated circuit only where each winding of the
electricity generating set supplies not more than one item of Class 1 electrical equipment.
All electrical connections bonding the frame of the generating set to the neutral
conductor or star point shall be provided on the line side of the electricity generating
set.
Earthing of generator frames is not required, nor recommended.
Earth electrodes are only required to facilitate lightning protection schemes (see
AS 3533.1). Prior to driving earth electrodes, the absence of underground services shall be
ascertained.

FIGURE 2.3 ISOLATED WINDING GENERATOR WITH INTEGRAL SOCKET OUTLETS
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AS 3533.22009 28

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au

FIGURE 2.4 GENERATOR WITH INTEGRAL RCD PROTECTED SOCKET OUTLET
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29 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
S E C T I O N 3 O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L
A R R A N G E M E N T S
3.1 PLANNING
An amusement ride or device shall only be operated when the following planning has been
carried out:
(a) Policies relating to an amusement device and procedures for its operation have been
prepared and communicated to all staff and are adhered to at all times.
(b) Legislation pertaining to occupational health and safety and the environment is
observed.
(c) In addition to the relevant specific requirements outlined in Section 4, all
manufacturers instructions relating to the safe operation of an amusement device and
any rider restrictions specified by the manufacturer, or determined by a competent
person in the absence of any instructions from the manufacturer, are followed.
NOTE: Additional safety criteria as specified by the designer, manufacturer, importer,
supplier, erector or (where implemented) any quality assurance scheme, may also have to be
met.
(d) A supervisor and sufficient operating staff have been appointed and a supervisor is
accessible to operating staff at all times while the device is operating.
(e) The supervisor and all operating staff have received sufficient training and instruction
in the safe set-up, operation and maintenance of the device (including training in
emergency procedures, operation of emergency controls and, where appropriate,
retrieval/rescue of patrons) for them to be considered competent persons, and that
they understand their roles in the control of all activity of the device.
NOTES:
1 Legislation relating to the safety of amusement devices may require periodic inspection of
devices by competent persons, and the certification of operators of certain equipment
(e.g. steam equipment) associated with, or forming part of an amusement device.
2 Guidelines for the selection and instruction of operators are given in Appendix G.
(f) Sufficient fencing, handrails, guards and crowd control barriers are supplied and
installed in accordance with the requirements of AS 3533.1 and Clauses 2.2.11
and 2.2.12.
(g) An appropriate level of first aid training and equipment is available, and all incidents
requiring first aid are recorded and the records retained in accordance with the
requirements of the relevant regulatory authority having jurisdiction over the area in
which the amusement device is to be set up and operated.
NOTES:
1 It may be required by legislation to report all lost-time injuries, incidents involving bodily
injury or damage to equipment and serious incidents where no injury or damage to
equipment occurred. The circumstances that require such reporting may also vary, and the
relevant regulatory authority should be contacted for details. A list of such regulatory
authorities is given in Appendix A.
2 The level of first aid training and equipment required will vary for different amusement
devices and operations. Basic first aid equipment should be available on individual
devices, or a first aid facility should be set up to service a group of devices or an entire
operation. Such facilities should be established prior to commencement of operation in
any one location.
3 A log of incidents requiring first aid should be maintained. Log entries should include
(a) name and address of person(s) involved;
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AS 3533.22009 30

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
(b) details of injury;
(c) details of treatment given;
(d) all relevant background information, including the time and place of the incident
and the operational stage of the device involved;
(e) prevailing weather conditions;
(f) names of witnesses; and
(g) any relevant comments made by the injured party or others.
4 A log of incidents not requiring first aid should also be maintained. Log entries should
include
(a) name and address of person(s) involved;
(b) details of injury;
(c) details of treatment given;
(d) all relevant background information, including the time and place of the incident
and the operational stage of the device involved;
(e) prevailing weather conditions;
(f) names of witnesses; and
(g) any relevant comments made by those involved.
(h) Each amusement ride or device has been subject to a hazard identification risk
assessment and risk control process by a competent person each time the device has
been set up.
NOTE: Legislation requires this process to be carried out. Appendix F contains guidance in
this respect, and includes a flow chart for a typical hazard identification, risk assessment and
risk control process, which may be applied to amusement rides and devices.
(i) The records and documentation relating to the device (including records of testing of
equipment and staff training) are fully maintained.
3.2 OPERATION
An amusement ride or device shall only be operated when
(a) the device is set up in accordance with Section 2;
(b) the device is operated in a responsible manner;
(c) the device does not carry more than the maximum number of patrons which the
device was designed to accommodate;
(d) the device is not overloaded or loaded in a manner which may cause the device to
become out of balance during operation;
(e) the device is not operated at an unsafe speed or at a speed greater than that
recommended by the manufacturer;
(f) the device is not in a condition whereby an automatic response to unsafe
circumstances within the control system is overridden or disabled;
(g) patrons have received sufficient instructions to enable them to participate safely
without putting themselves or others at risk;
NOTE: Appendix H contains guidance on instructions for patrons relating to patron
responsibility.
(h) the movement of patrons and attendants on or within the device is adequately
controlled to prevent the risk of collision or injury;
(i) patrons with loose clothing, accessories or unrestrained hair are not permitted to
participate where there is a risk of entanglement;
(j) loose items that could escape during the ride and create a hazard are not permitted;
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31 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
(k) any patron restraints provided are used;
(l) attendants are supervised and perform their duties in accordance with the instructions
and training provided to them;
NOTE: Safety guidelines for operators are given in Appendix I.
(m) the level of noise to which operating staff and patrons are exposed is below the
specified legal limits;
(n) all maintenance, replacements, repairs and inspections are carried out in accordance
with Section 5; and
(o) a copy of the instructions developed in accordance with Items (a) and (c) of
Clause 3.1 are available at all times.
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AS 3533.22009 32

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
S E C T I O N 4 S P E C I F I C O P E R A T I O N A L
R E Q U I R E M E N T S
4.1 GENERAL
Specific operational requirements are intended to expand and complement (rather than
contradict) the operational requirements outlined in Section 3, any designers or
manufacturers instructions or other requirements as may be specified by other bodies. The
specific operational requirements shall be applied as minimum requirements apart from
where there is any contradiction between these requirements and the instructions supplied
by the designer or manufacturer, in which case, any instructions provided by the designer or
manufacturer take precedence.
The specific operational requirements for some types of amusement rides and devices are
set out in Clauses in this Section. For certain other types of amusement rides and devices,
the specific operational requirements are set out in other Australian Standards. Examples of
such other Australian Standards are as follows:
(a) For inflatable devices, AS 3533.4.1.
(b) For roller coasters, AS 3533.4.3.
4.2 AQUATIC AND WATERBORNE AMUSEMENT DEVICES
4.2.1 Water quality
The water quality shall comply with the relevant requirements specified in Appendix J.
4.2.2 Chemicals
Chemicals for water treatment should be stored and handled in accordance with the material
safety data sheet (MSDS) supplied with the chemicals.
NOTE: Legislation generally requires MSDSs to be supplied at all times with chemicals.
4.2.3 Entry and exit
The manner of entry to and exit from the device shall prevent any possibility of patrons or
vehicles colliding with each other.
4.2.4 Water slides
4.2.4.1 General
The requirements in Clause 4.2.4.2 apply unless the height of the slide does not exceed 3 m
and a risk assessment for collisions determines there is minimal risk of injury to patrons if a
collision occurs.
4.2.4.2 Dispatching
The following requirements apply for dispatching riders on water slides:
(a) Orientation The appropriate orientation and posture of patrons for safe use of a
water slide shall be prominently displayed by signage at the approach and boarding
points. Unless the water slide is specifically designed and equipped to accept riders in
a head-first orientation, no patron shall be permitted to commence a ride except in a
feet-first posture.
NOTE: It may be expected that any water slide designed to operate head-first will require the
use of a special mat or protective device.
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33 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
(b) Order and spacing An effective method to prevent collisions between patrons on a
water slide shall be put in place and maintained and shall include
(i) supervision of the start point;
(ii) the dispatching of riders at no less than a minimum spacing which has been
established as safe by exhaustive testing and may be signalled by an automatic
or manual light system or similar device; and
(iii) the provision of instructions for safe riding given both verbally and by signage.
Water slides shall be monitored to ensure that the slowing or stopping of a rider is
noted and dispatch interrupted so as to minimize the chance of any collision.
(c) Riders The following requirements shall apply:
(i) No person shall be permitted to ride or be dispatched on a water slide while
wearing any eyewear, such as glasses or goggles.
(ii) Any rider restrictions recommended by the manufacturer or determined by a
competent person shall be enforced.
4.2.4.3 Water management
The following requirements shall apply:
(a) Levels of water in run-out troughs and splash pools shall be kept between appropriate
limits at all times during the operation of any slide to slow down and stop the rider.
(b) The flow of water onto a water slide shall be consistent and shall be maintained at
that quantity specified by the manufacturer, or determined by a competent person, at
all times during the operation of a water slide.
NOTE: Where a close tolerance is necessary for safe operation, a monitor and alarm system
should be in place for either or both of these characteristics (see AS 3533.1).
4.2.5 Rescue plan
A rescue plan shall be in place unless a risk assessment determines there is no risk of
patrons requiring rescue from water deeper than wading depth. In developing the rescue
plan, the need for operators and attendants to rescue patrons shall be considered.
4.2.6 First aid
First aid equipment shall be available at a designated location. A person with first aid,
expired air resuscitation (EAR) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) qualifications and
experience shall be immediately available during all operating hours. Additional portable
first aid equipment and qualified personnel should be considered for large facilities.
NOTES:
1 Personal protective equipment such as gloves and pocket-size face masks should be provided
for all first aid personnel.
2 The above first aid, expired air resuscitation (EAR) and CPR qualification requirements are
met by most general first aid courses leading to certification.
3 The Australian Resuscitation Council provides guidelines regarding appropriate levels of
training and equipment for first aiders.
4.2.7 Qualifications of operators and attendants
All operators and attendants who have supervisory responsibilities associated with splash
downs or run-out pools of aquatic amusement devices shall be certified and competent in
expired air resuscitation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid. These certifications
shall be current at the time of undertaking such supervisory responsibilities.
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AS 3533.22009 34

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
Operators and attendants that may be required to rescue patrons should be proficient
swimmers, trained in the rescue system, e.g. the use of rescue techniques and the rescue
device or craft. Such rescue training may be demonstrated by the person holding a current
bronze medallion qualification.
4.2.8 Outdoor operations in inclement weather
If environmental conditions (e.g. severe rainfall or wind) impair visibility of a pool or water
slide to the extent that patrons cannot be supervised, the dispatch of patrons should be
ceased and, if necessary, the facility should be evacuated.
During an electrical storm, all pools and devices shall be evacuated. Patrons should be
advised to move to a designated area.
4.3 KARTS AND KART TRACKS
4.3.1 Fire extinguishers
Fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of Clause 6.3, and
fire blankets shall be placed around the track so that track attendants do not have to move
more than 20 m for their retrieval. The location of such fire equipment shall be clearly
identified in accordance with AS 2444. The fire equipment shall be inspected and
maintained in accordance with AS 1851 and the manufacturers instructions.
4.3.2 First aid
Adequate first aid equipment should be available at the attendants station and track
attendants should receive basic first aid training. A person qualified in first aid should be on
duty, at all times, during operation of the track, and a designated area equipped with a fully
maintained first aid kit should be set aside to administer first aid.
4.3.3 Dress code
The following requirements for the protection and safety of patrons shall be implemented:
(a) Safety helmets complying with AS/NZS 1698 and maintained in a fit and hygienic
condition shall be worn by all patrons. Disposable liners or hair nets shall be made
available for hygienic purposes.
(b) Patrons shall not wear loose fitting clothing or accessories that could become
entangled in any part of the kart or barriers.
(c) Appropriate footwear giving adequate protection shall be worn by patrons.
(d) Long hair shall be contained to prevent entanglement in moving parts. Means to
contain hair provided by the operator shall be of a single-use type.
(e) Unless a risk assessment shows eye protection is unnecessary, suitable eye protection
(e.g. safety spectacles, goggles or helmets with visors) shall be provided and worn.
Prior to allowing any patron to operate any kart, the operator shall carry out a detailed
check of each patron. This check shall determine the length of each patrons hair and
whether they are wearing any loose or baggy clothing. Any patron with hair longer than
shoulder length or wearing loose or baggy clothing shall be instructed by the operator to
effectively secure, contain and generally confine the hair, clothing or both so that there is
no reasonable possibility that the hair or clothing may come loose during the ride.
All equipment shall be maintained in a fit and hygienic condition or shall be of single-use,
disposable type.
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35 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
4.3.4 Refuelling
Refuelling of karts shall be carried out by competent persons in a dedicated area located off
the track and clear of patrons or members of the public. Refuelling procedures shall comply
with the requirements of Appendix K.
The loading/unloading area may be used for refuelling, provided it is clear of all patrons,
spectators and members of the public.
4.3.5 Safety of patrons
All patrons shall
(a) receive as a minimum the instructions specified in Clause 4.3.6;
(b) wear the safety helmets provided at all times;
(c) wear seat belts at all times while occupying the kart (where seat belts are required
after a hazard identification and risk assessment process has been carried out) (see
clauses in AS 3533.1 on hazard identification, risk assessment and control of risk and
exceptions to requirements regarding restraints and locking systems);
(d) keep both hands on the steering wheel, at all times, while driving the kart, except
when assistance is required or when signalling; and
(e) remain seated in the kart, at all times, on the main circuit and in the
loading/unloading area until instructed otherwise.
4.3.6 Instructions for patrons
Patrons shall be instructed in the following before being allowed to participate:
(a) The safe operation of the karts and any rules applied for the safety of patrons.
(b) The location of the warning signals, what the symbols mean, and the importance of
strictly following all messages displayed by the warning signals.
(c) The location of the entry to the loading/unloading area, so that patrons can return to
this area in a safe manner at all times.
(d) General instructions in overtaking procedures, collision situations, general vigilance
and patron responsibility.
NOTE: Track rules and operating procedures should be clearly displayed on signs in the
loading/unloading area.
4.3.7 Warning system
A suitable warning system including caution and stop commands (e.g. warning light
system) shall be visible to all patrons and shall be controlled by the track supervisor.
4.3.8 Track operation
During the course of operation, the following requirements apply:
(a) Only karts suitable for the track design shall be permitted on the track.
(b) All karts shall travel in the same direction.
(c) The number of karts on the track, at any one time, shall be such that the safety of the
operation is not compromised.
NOTE: As a guide, the number of karts should not exceed 1 kart per 25 m of track length
where the track is measured along the centre-line.
(d) All karts on the track, at any one time, shall be capable of running at the same
maximum speed.
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AS 3533.22009 36

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
4.3.9 Track supervision
When the track is in operation, the following requirements apply:
(a) A supervisor shall be in a position at all times to supervise the entire track area and to
operate the warning system. Where it is not possible for one person to supervise the
entire track, more supervisors shall be deployed as required.
(b) No other duties shall be performed by supervisors while the karts are travelling other
than ensuring the safe operation of the facility (including notifying attendants of any
situations requiring their attention) and the operation of the warning system.
(c) One attendant shall be present when up to six karts are operating, with an additional
attendant for every four karts thereafter.
NOTE: Where track layouts are such that run-off areas are provided instead of barriers,
additional attendants may be present at the rate of one attendant for every six karts thereafter.
Supervisors and attendants should be dressed in such a manner that they are easily
recognizable at all times.
4.3.10 Communications
A reliable form of communication (such as two-way radios) shall be provided between
supervisors and attendants. Attendants should also be provided with means of
communicating with each other (e.g. two-way radios, whistles or similar).
4.3.11 Fencing
Fencing in accordance with AS 3533.1 shall be provided around the perimeter of the track
at a sufficient distance to prevent a barrier from striking a fence in the event of a kart
colliding with the barrier. Any area containing persons other than operating staff or patrons
shall be enclosed by fencing of a minimum height of 1 m, similarly located behind a barrier.
A fence may be attached to a barrier only in areas not accessible to the public, in which
case it shall remain effective and not reduce the impact absorbing capability of the barrier
in the event of a kart colliding with the barrier.
4.3.12 Fuel storage
An area separate from the track and loading/unloading area, and complying with the
requirements of Appendix K, shall be provided for fuel storage.
4.3.13 Lighting
The track and surrounding area shall be sufficiently illuminated so as to
(a) allow supervision of the track;
(b) provide adequate visibility; and
(c) enable patrons to safely negotiate the course.
Lights and fittings shall be erected clear of any item with which a kart may collide.
4.4 FERRARI 500-TYPE KARTS AND TRACKS
4.4.1 Fire extinguishers
Fire extinguishers, in accordance with the requirements of Clause 6.3, and fire blankets
shall be provided and placed around the track so that track attendants do not have to move
more than 20 m for their retrieval. The location of such fire equipment shall be clearly
identified in accordance with AS 2444. The fire equipment shall be inspected and
maintained in accordance with AS 1851 and the manufacturers instructions.
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37 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
4.4.2 Dress code
Patrons shall be required to
(a) not wear loose fitting clothing or accessories that could become entangled in any
moving part or barrier;
(b) wear appropriate footwear giving adequate protection; and
(c) wear means of containing long hair to prevent entanglement in any moving part or
barrier.
All equipment shall be maintained in a fit and hygienic condition or shall be of single-use,
disposable type.
4.4.3 Refuelling
Refuelling shall be carried out by competent persons and may take place on the track if all
karts are stationary, their engines switched off, and the area is clear of all patrons and
members of the public. Refuelling procedures shall be in accordance with Appendix K.
4.4.4 Loading and unloading
Loading and unloading of patrons shall be carried out only when the karts are stationary.
4.4.5 Safety of patrons
Track safety rules shall be clearly displayed on signs at the track entrance gate.
All patrons shall
(a) receive sufficient instruction in the safe operation of karts and the safety rules of the
track so as to operate the kart safely and without risk to themselves or others;
(b) wear the restraints provided at all times while occupying the kart (where restraints are
required after a hazard identification and risk assessment process has been carried
out) (see clauses in AS 3533.1 on hazard identification, risk assessment and control of
risk and exceptions to requirements regarding restraints and locking systems);
(c) keep both hands on the steering wheel, at all times, while driving the kart; and
(d) stay in the kart until instructed to disembark.
4.4.6 Warning system
A warning system including caution and stop commands shall be visible to all patrons.
4.4.7 Track operation
During the course of operation, the following requirements apply:
(a) Only karts suitable for the track design shall be permitted on the track.
(b) All karts shall travel in the same direction.
(c) All karts on the track at any one time shall be capable of running at the same
maximum speed.
(d) An operator shall be in a position at all times to supervise the entire track area, and to
operate the warning system.
(e) The operator supervising the track shall have no other duties, while the karts are
travelling other than ensuring the safe operation of the facility and the operation of
the warning system.
4.4.8 Fuel storage
An area separate from the track and loading/unloading area, and complying with the
requirements of Appendix K, shall be provided for fuel storage.
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AS 3533.22009 38

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
4.4.9 Lighting
The track and surrounding area shall be sufficiently illuminated so as to
(a) allow supervision of the track;
(b) provide adequate visibility; and
(c) enable patrons to safely negotiate the course.
Lights and fittings shall be erected clear of any item with which a kart may collide.
4.4.10 Tracks
Tracks should be laid correctly and properly aligned to prevent unnecessary jolting of
patrons or damage to karts.
4.5 TOBOGGANS (LAND-BASED)
4.5.1 Supervision
The supervision of a land-based toboggan ride shall be as follows:
(a) For high volume operations (track loading greater than 10 patrons per hour)one
operator located at the loading station and one attendant at the unloading station.
NOTES:
1 Where volume may fluctuate, extra attendants may be necessary.
2 Where the configuration of the track or profile of the hill prevents the operator from
having an overall view of the track, more attendants may be required.
(b) For low volume operations (track loading up to 10 patrons per hour)one operator
located at the loading station.
(c) A communication system between the operator at the loading station and the attendant
at the unloading station.
4.5.2 Daily checks
The following items shall be checked daily:
(a) The channel or track and perimeter rails (where fitted) shall be checked for alignment
and integrity, and any debris or loose objects removed.
(b) The toboggans shall be checked for defects.
4.5.3 Automatic speed controls
Automatic speed controls limiting the maximum speed of the toboggan should be provided
unless a detailed risk assessment of the toboggan ride and track layout demonstrates this to
be unnecessary.
Automatic speed controls and braking systems shall be provided to reduce the speed of the
toboggan to a maximum of 4 km/h over the last 10 m of the track, and then halt the
toboggan in a safe manner.
Any automatic speed controls and braking systems provided by the manufacturer shall not
be altered.
4.5.4 Track maintenance
The channel and safety zone of the track shall be maintained regularly to ensure it is free of
all obstacles including trees, tree branches and rocks in accordance with the clearance
requirements determined for the particular installation.
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39 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
4.6 AMUSEMENT DEVICES INCORPORATING ELASTIC SUSPENSION
SYSTEMS
4.6.1 Bungy jumping
Bungy jumping shall be conducted in accordance with AS/NZS 5848.
4.6.2 Other amusement devices incorporating elastic suspension systems
Other amusement devices incorporating different configurations and applications of elastic
suspension systems should consider the relevant requirements of AS/NZS 5848.
4.7 AIR CUSHIONED VEHICLES
4.7.1 Area of operation
Air cushioned vehicles shall be operated on land only unless specific written approval is
obtained from the relevant body having jurisdiction over the area of water upon which an
air cushioned vehicle is to be operated.
NOTE: Marine authorities have regulations covering the operation of amusement craft when
using various waterways, including requirements for sufficient personal flotation devices (PFDs)
and other emergency equipment to be carried.
4.7.2 Ground surface
The ground surface within the operational zone shall be level and clear of obstructions and
loose material. Regular checking of the ground surface shall be carried out to ensure any
debris is cleared before any period of operation.
4.7.3 Fencing
Fencing shall be installed in accordance with Clause 2.2.12 to prevent persons encroaching
within the boundary of the area of operation. The operational zone shall be not less than
3 m inside this fence, and shall be delineated by additional fencing, bunting or mesh.
4.7.4 Loading area
The patron loading area shall be clear of the operational zone and delineated by bunting or
similar. A manned gate shall be provided for patrons entering the loading area.
4.7.5 Refuelling area
The refuelling area shall be fenced off from the operational zone and refuelling procedures
shall be carried out by competent persons and shall comply with the requirements of
Appendix K.
4.7.6 Smoking
Smoking shall not be permitted either on the craft or anywhere within the confines of the
boundary fence.
4.7.7 Fire extinguishers
Fire extinguishers in the loading and refuelling areas and on the craft shall be selected,
located and maintained in accordance with AS 2444 and AS 1851.
4.7.8 First aid
Adequate first aid should be provided on the craft and at the loading area.
4.7.9 Safety goggles
Where there is any possibility of operators and patrons being exposed to dust and debris
thrown up by the craft while participating in the ride, safety goggles shall be provided and
worn during starting up of the cushion or propulsion system and for the duration of the ride.
The safety goggles shall be maintained in a fit and hygienic manner.
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AS 3533.22009 40

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
Operators shall ensure that no loose articles are in or on the craft.
4.7.10 Communication
Where the noise level in the cockpit can exceed 70 dB(A), operators and patrons shall wear
hearing protection which shall incorporate a communication system to enable patrons to
receive advice or instruction from the operator. The hearing protection shall be maintained
in a fit and hygienic manner.
4.7.11 Kill switch
The lanyard of the kill switch shall be securely attached to the operator when the craft is in
operation.
4.7.12 Clearance
Where more than one craft is operating within the operational zone, the clearance between
crafts shall not be less than 3 m at any time.
4.8 PARASAILING
NOTES:
1 The requirements of this Clause are intended for parasailing operations conducted both on
water and on land. For the purpose of this Clause, a towing vessel implies a water-based
operation, and a towing vehicle implies a land-based operation.
2 Water-based operations may involve launching of patrons from land (e.g. beach or pontoon),
or from the towing vessel itself.
4.8.1 General
Parasailing shall only be conducted
(a) after specific written approval has been obtained from the relevant body or marine
authority having jurisdiction over the area of land or water upon which the parasailing
operation is to be conducted;
(b) in daylight hours, unless specific written approval is obtained from the relevant body
or marine authority having jurisdiction over the area of land or water upon which the
parasailing operation is to be conducted;
(c) with the length of the tow rope such that the height of the canopy cannot exceed 91 m
(300 ft) above ground level or water surface, unless specific written approval is
obtained from the relevant air traffic controlling authority;
(d) in favourable weather conditions, with prevailing wind compatible with the
equipment in use and, where appropriate, with a minimum swell;
NOTE: It is recognized that the speed and strength of a prevailing wind is variable, making
compatibility with the equipment in use difficult to assess at any given point in time,
therefore a suitable factor of safety should be applied. Although a constant wind speed is
more critical than the wind speed itself, a prevailing wind speed of not greater than 20 knots
may be taken as an appropriate guide when assessing the viability of a parasailing operation
at any given time, with particular attention being paid to gusty conditions.
(e) with a vertical visibility of 150 m and a horizontal visibility of 1 km; and
(f) where there is no possibility of contact with overhead power transmission lines.
4.8.2 Operator responsibility
The operator of the vessel or vehicle shall have overall responsibility for the parasailing
operation and the safety of all patrons and crew.
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41 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
4.8.3 Personal flotation devices
Where patrons pass over a body of water during any part of the ride, Type 2 personal
flotation devices (PFDs) complying with AS 1499 shall be worn for the duration of the ride.
Where launching and retrieval is conducted from the back of a towing vessel, such PFDs
shall be worn aboard the vessel at all times by non-swimmers and persons under 14 years of
age, in accordance with marine regulations.
4.8.4 Minimum age
The minimum age for patrons is 14 years; however, patrons between the ages of 10 and 14
may parasail provided they are suitably restrained and consent is obtained from a parent or
adult guardian.
4.8.5 Minimum crew requirements
Each vessel or vehicle shall carry the following personnel, who shall be competent in their
particular area of responsibility and able to perform the duties of the other crew member(s)
if required:
(a) Onboard launching and retrieval operations Where launching and retrieval is
conducted from the back of a towing vessel or vehicle, the crew shall comprise a
minimum of two persons for water-based operations where the winch is operated by
the operator of the vessel, and a minimum of three persons for land-based operations
where the winch is operated by a person other than the operator of the vehicle.
For water-based operations where the winch is operated by the operator of the vessel,
the second member of the crew shall assist in the launching and retrieval of patrons
and shall act as general observer for the duration of the ride.
Where the winch is operated by a person other than the operator of the vessel or
vehicle, a third crew member shall assist in the launching and retrieval of patrons, and
for general observation duties throughout the duration of the ride.
(b) Remote launching and retrieval operations Where launching and retrieval of patrons
is conducted with the tow rope fully extended, the crew aboard the towing vessel or
vehicle shall comprise the operator and at least one other crew member.
The second crew member shall be responsible for general observation for the duration
of the ride.
There shall also be at least one competent person at the launching area in charge of
launching operations.
Where patrons are landed at a different location from the launching area, sufficient
personnel shall be immediately on hand to assist in landing operations.
4.8.6 Operator qualifications
The operator of the vessel or vehicle shall be a competent person, qualified in accordance
with the requirements of the relevant regulatory authority.
4.8.7 Vessel registration
The towing vessel shall be registered and hold a current certificate of survey from the
relevant maritime survey authority.
Approval for parasailing shall be endorsed on the vessels certificate of survey.
4.8.8 Operational restrictions
A parasailing operation shall not be permitted within 4 km of a government-licensed
aerodrome unless specific written approval is obtained from the airport operator and, if
required, the relevant air traffic controlling authority.
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AS 3533.22009 42

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
Parasailing vessels or vehicles shall be navigated to ensure that no part of the vessel or
vehicle, tow-rope, parasail or canopy approaches
(a) within a horizontal distance of 200 m from overhead power transmission lines;
(b) within a horizontal distance of 50 m from persons other than those directly associated
with the parasailing operation; and
(c) within a horizontal distance of 100 m from any occupied building, designated bathing
area, beach netting area, dam walls, spillways, any part of another parasailing device
in operation, or any other item which constitutes a hazard.
4.8.9 First aid
All crew members should receive basic first aid training and at least one person at the
operational base should hold appropriate first aid qualifications.
A fully maintained first aid kit should be kept both at the operational base, and on vessels
and vehicles from which launching and retrieval is conducted.
4.8.10 Evacuation procedures
Evacuation procedures for further treatment of any injured person should be practised by
the crew as part of the emergency procedures training.
4.8.11 Communications
A system of communication between the operational base or launching position and the
towing vessel or vehicle shall be provided at all times.
4.8.12 Emergency release
A device for the emergency release of patrons shall be provided at all times.
4.8.13 Patron safety and restraints
Where patrons are seated in a vehicle (see Clause 1.3.30) for the duration of the ride, the
manufacturers maximum recommended seating and payload capacity shall not be exceeded
and restraints shall be worn at all times. Patrons shall be instructed in the operation of the
restraints as part of the pre-flight briefing.
NOTE: Particular attention should be paid to instructions on when such restraints may be
unfastened to allow patrons to disembark.
4.8.14 Stand-by vessel
A stand-by vessel complying with the registration requirements of Clause 4.8.7 shall be
immediately available at all times to render assistance and pick up patrons in the event of
failure of the towing vessel.
4.9 FLYING FOXES
4.9.1 General
This Clause applies to flying foxes used for amusement purposes only, and does not apply
to unsupervised, constantly available devices used for play, and motorized or manually
propelled flying foxes used in industry. Flying foxes constructed and used by training
establishments, outdoor education centres or similar organizations for the purposes of
recreation or training are also not within the scope of this Standard.
4.9.2 Supervision
At least one operator shall be present at all times on the launching platform and shall be
responsible for the loading, dispatch and (where patrons are returned to the launching
platform via a return rope system) unloading of patrons.
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43 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
Where patrons are not returned to the launching platform, an attendant shall be stationed at
the end of the ride to assist in patron unloading.
4.9.3 Use of trees
Where a tree forms part of a flying fox installation, it shall be examined at appropriate
intervals by a person competent to assess the tree for any signs of stress, disease or other
conditions that may compromise the health of the tree and the safety of the flying fox. The
intervals between examinations shall be as recommended by the competent person.
4.9.4 Signage
The following information shall be prominently displayed on a sign or signs in an
appropriate position at or near the launching platform:
(a) Maximum number of patrons permitted on launching platform.
(b) Maximum number of patrons permitted on the device at any one time.
(c) Maximum load permitted on cable.
(d) Contact details in the event of an emergency.
4.9.5 Patron loading
Only the number of patrons participating in the device shall be permitted on the launching
platform and on the travelling block at any one time.
4.9.6 Travelling block
Only one block shall be fitted to the cable at any one time, and the block shall be secured
during patron loading to prevent premature dispatch of patrons.
While the flying fox is not in use, the travelling block shall be either removed or locked in a
static position to prevent unauthorized use.
4.10 CABLE WATERSKIING
4.10.1 First aid
Each operator should be qualified in first aid, with such first aid training including the
administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
4.10.2 Operator training
Each operator shall be a proficient swimmer, fully trained in rescue techniques for the
retrieval of patrons in difficulty.
4.10.3 Personal flotation devices
All supplied personal flotation devices (PFDs) shall be either Type 2 or Type 3 complying
with AS 1499 or AS 2260 respectively, and all patrons shall wear such a PFD.
4.10.4 Patron instruction
Sufficient operating staff shall be available for instruction of patrons, especially on slower
circuits where beginners or children are learning to ski. Typically, this would involve an
operator plus one other competent person on the dock or launching platform.
4.10.5 Rescue craft
A powered rescue craft, under the control of and located adjacent to the operator, shall be
provided at all times.
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AS 3533.22009 44

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
4.10.6 System speed increase
Operating staff shall ensure that
(a) where the speed of the system is increased, the experience of the patrons is sufficient
to cope with such an increase; and
(b) any increase in the speed of the system does not take place while patrons are on the
water.
4.10.7 Debris
The circuit shall be checked for debris and floating objects before the start of operations
each day, and shall be monitored for such hazards during the course of operation.
4.11 MINI BIKES AND MINI BIKE TRACKS
4.11.1 General
This Clause applies to mini bikes of two, three and four wheel configurations.
4.11.2 Fire extinguishers
Fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of Clause 6.3, and
fire blankets shall be placed around the track such that track attendants do not have to move
more than 20 m for their retrieval. Such fire equipment should be clearly visible and
inspected and maintained in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
4.11.3 Apparel
4.11.3.1 Footwear
Appropriate footwear giving adequate protection to patrons shall be worn.
4.11.3.2 Safety helmets
Safety helmets complying with AS/NZS 1698 and maintained in a fit and hygienic
condition shall be worn by all patrons.
4.11.4 Refuelling
Refuelling shall comply with the requirements of Appendix K and may take place on the
track if all mini bikes are stationary, their engines switched off, and the area is clear of all
patrons and members of the public. Refuelling shall be carried out by competent persons.
4.11.5 Loading and unloading
Loading and unloading of patrons shall be carried out only when all mini bikes are
stationary.
4.11.6 Warning system
A warning system including caution and stop commands shall be visible to all patrons and
shall be controlled by the track operator.
4.11.7 Track operation
During the course of operation, the following requirements apply:
(a) All mini bikes shall travel in the same direction.
(b) All mini bikes on the track at any one time shall be capable of running at the same
maximum speed.
(c) The track operator shall be in position at all times to supervise the entire track area
and to operate the warning system, and have no other duties while the mini bikes are
in operation.
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45 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
4.11.8 Fuel storage
An area separate from the track and loading/unloading area, and complying with the
requirements of Appendix K shall be provided for fuel storage.
4.11.9 Lighting
The track and surrounding area shall be sufficiently illuminated so as to
(a) allow supervision of the track;
(b) provide adequate visibility; and
(c) enable patrons to safely negotiate the course.
Lights and fittings shall be erected clear of any item with which a mini bike may collide.
4.11.10 Tracks
Tracks should be laid correctly and should be properly aligned to prevent unnecessary
jolting of patrons or damage to bikes.
4.12 DRY SLIDES
Dry slides shall be prepared for operation by ensuring they are clean and all facilities, such
as handrail extensions, side guards and run-out end impact absorbing systems, are in place
before operations commence. The slide shall also be assessed for safety of operation given
the environmental conditions (e.g. rain) that may lead to patrons travelling too quickly or
slowly. Suitable control measures shall be implemented where necessary to ensure a safe
sliding speed.
An effective method to prevent collisions between patrons on a slide shall be put in place
and maintained and shall include
(a) supervision of the start point;
(b) the dispatching of patrons only when the lane or sliding zone is clear to the end of the
run-out unless a system proved by testing is in place to ensure against collisions
between patrons on the slide or the run-out; and
(c) the provision of instructions for safe riding given both verbally and by signage.
4.13 STEAM AND HOT WATER EQUIPMENT
Where steam or hot water is used in conjunction with an amusement ride or device, the
equipment used to generate the steam or hot water shall be operated in accordance with the
following:
NOTE: See also Note 1 to Clause 3.1(e).
(a) Safety relief valves shall not be adjusted.
(b) Where fitted, main steam stop valves shall be fully opened and closed weekly.
(c) Steam generators shall be inspected in accordance with AS/NZS 3788.
(d) Hot water generators within the scope of AS 1228 and which are externally fired by
gas or oil shall be inspected in accordance with AS/NZS 3788.
(e) All exposed steam and condensation lines, boiler parts, steam cylinders, hot water
generator components, heat exchangers, pipes and pumping equipment shall be
adequately lagged or protected where the temperature of a surface may exceed 40C
and where such equipment could be accessible to the public.
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AS 3533.22009 46

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
(f) Miniature locomotives and steam engines shall be operated as prescribed by the
Australian Association of Live Steamers. Miniature boilers within the scope of the
Australian Miniature Boiler Safety Committee (AMBSC) Code shall be inspected as
prescribed by the AMBSC.
(g) Boilers within the scope of AS 1228 shall be inspected and operated in accordance
with AS 2593, AS 3873, AS 4037 and AS/NZS 3788, as appropriate.
(h) Discharge of steam from safety valves, exhaust lines or blow down lines shall be
directed to preclude any possibility of contact with persons or contamination of
equipment.
The following recommendations should be implemented at the time of commissioning:
(i) Automatic control equipment should be tested.
(ii) Water level gauge glasses should be checked at the normal working pressure of the
steam generator.
(iii) Manual blow down valves on automatic steam generators should be operated to check
operation of feed water supply systems.
(iv) Analysis of steam generator water solids should be completed. Advice on water
treatment should be sought from a competent person having knowledge of local water
quality.
4.14 HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC EQUIPMENT
4.14.1 General operation
Where hydraulic or pneumatic equipment is used in conjunction with an amusement ride or
device, it shall be operated in accordance with the following:
(a) The equipment shall not be adjusted or modified so as to change the operating
parameters of the device outside of the ranges recommended by the manufacturer.
(b) Routine testing of all hydraulic and pneumatic equipment shall be carried out in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions following maintenance, replacement
or repair of the device.
NOTE: See Clause 5.2.1.
(c) Air receivers shall be inspected in accordance with AS/NZS 3788.
(d) Safety or pressure relief valves shall not be adjusted above the maximum allowable
working pressure of the air receivers to which they are fitted.
NOTE: Wherever possible, such valves should be manually tested, at the maximum working
pressure, on a weekly basis.
The following recommendations should be applied:
(i) Hoses should be applied in such a way as to avoid deterioration by natural or induced
radiation, heat, chemicals or mechanical action.
(ii) Hydraulic systems should be checked on a regular basis, determined from experience
or in accordance with the manufacturers instructions, for contaminants (e.g. metallic
particles and water) in the hydraulic fluid.
Filters should be changed according to a strict schedule set either by the manufacturer
or by experience. Filter element replacements should conform in type and filtration
efficiency to the manufacturers specifications.
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47 AS 3533.22009

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(iii) Condensation should be drained from air receivers and associated pipework daily, and
the discharge examined for possible contaminants and excessive lubricants.
NOTE: It is recommended that the manual drain of an air receiver be left open for an
extended period after a ride has been shut down at the end of its daily duty; however, such
periods should not extend beyond 24 h.
4.14.2 Mobile rides and devices
Whenever a mobile amusement ride or device is assembled and prepared for operation at a
site, all ride-related hydraulic and pneumatic functions should be operated through several
complete cycles to ensure system integrity and freedom from fault (e.g. leakage) and to
prove behaviour such as the completion of the proper stroke of actuators, correct
acceleration and speed of operation (linear and rotational) and normal signals and alarms.
Fluid levels in reservoirs should be checked, with all breathers and fillers correctly fitted
and clear of obstructions.
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AS 3533.22009 48

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
S E C T I O N 5 M A I N T E N A N C E , R E P L A C E M E N T ,
R E P A I R A N D I N S P E C T I O N
5.1 GENERAL
All maintenance, replacements, repairs and inspections of amusement rides and devices,
including discrete systems and components within them, shall be carried out by competent
persons and shall be
(a) wherever possible, in accordance with the designer or manufacturers instructions;
(b) fully documented; and
(c) recorded in the log with the device or recorded and kept elsewhere for future
reference (see also Clause 5.5).
In the absence of instructions from the designer or manufacturer, those competent persons
involved in the maintenance, replacement, repair and inspection of amusement rides and
devices should be able to demonstrate a knowledge of the original intentions of the designer
or manufacturer.
Planned maintenance programs and inspection routines shall be implemented for the
moving and load-bearing components and structural members of an amusement device, to
maintain mechanical and structural integrity and to identify areas where excessive rust,
wear, fatigue or any other condition could lead to the failure of such components and
structural members and compromise the safety of patrons and operating staff.
Maintenance plans should be reviewed based on the results of previous inspections and
updated to address any identified needs.
Following major maintenance and repair, and at random intervals on other occasions, a
hazard identification and risk assessment procedure should be completed to ensure new
hazards are not present, and residual risks identified by the designer or manufacturer are not
increased.
NOTE: A typical hazard identification and risk assessment procedure is given in Appendix F.
5.2 MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT
5.2.1 General
Any structural, moving, braking or load-bearing component of an amusement device shall
be replaced by a compatible (preferably new) component that maintains the integrity of the
system.
5.2.2 Hydraulic and pneumatic system components
NOTE: See also Clause 4.13.
Replacements for any of the components in hydraulic and pneumatic systems shall
(a) be compatible with existing parts;
(b) be equal to or superior in specification to the original parts;
(c) not change the operating parameters of the device; and
(d) not adversely affect the performance and safe operation of the device.
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49 AS 3533.22009

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Where the failure of any hose may affect the safety of patrons or operating staff, it shall be
replaced as part of a planned maintenance program, implemented in accordance with either
the hose or device manufacturers instructions or by a risk assessment of the actual duty
cycle. Such risk assessment shall be carried out by the hose manufacturer or supplier, and
the lesser of the two life cycles shall be adopted for replacement purposes.
5.3 ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS
Any alteration or repair shall be such that the strength of the repaired area or component is
maintained or increased. Where damage has occurred from any cause requiring the welding,
straightening, machining or replacing of main frames, struts or other component parts, the
following procedure shall apply, and shall be recorded in the log for the device (see also
Clause 5.5):
(a) The damage shall be assessed by a competent person as requiring replacement or
repair.
NOTE: This assessment should take note of the manufacturers opinion.
(b) The assessment shall be confirmed by a second, independent competent person.
(c) A detailed instruction and procedure shall be prepared to describe and record the
repair.
(d) The repair shall be checked for quality during the performance of the repair work.
(e) Upon completion, the repair work shall be tested to show the component will perform
in the same manner as the original component.
(f) The material used for any repair shall be selected so that it
(i) is of compatible chemical composition with the original component;
(ii) is of compatible heat treatment, section properties and physical performance
with the original component; and
(iii) will not give rise to any unwanted effect likely to reduce the overall
performance of the component.
5.4 INSPECTION
5.4.1 General
A schedule of inspections shall be established and regularly reviewed by the proprietor. The
schedule shall be devised on the basis of Clause 5.4.3, the applicable governing legislation
and any recommendations or implicit requirements provided by the manufacturer at the time
of supply.
The schedule of inspections shall be carried out in compliance with AS 3533.3 and any
other requirements given by ride-specific Standards (see Clause 4.1).
5.4.2 Personnel
Inspections shall be carried out by competent persons selected by the proprietor (where
necessary, in accordance with requirements set by the relevant authority). The proprietor
shall appoint inspecting personnel and, where appropriate, shall identify their duties by
reference to AS 3533.3 or by specific instructions. The appointment should be in writing; in
the case of employees, as a job description.
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AS 3533.22009 50

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
5.4.3 In-service inspections
5.4.3.1 All rides and devices
All rides and devices shall be subject to designer and manufacturer stipulated inspections in
accordance with AS 3533.3, as and when determined by the proprietor on the basis of
advice received (see also Clause 5.4.1.)
5.4.3.2 Mobile rides and devices
Mobile rides and devices shall be subject to in-service inspections in accordance with
AS 3533.3 as follows (but not limited to):
(a) Post assembly and test run at each set-up.
(b) Daily inspection and test run every operational day during any set up.
(c) Annual inspection either
(i) annually; or
(ii) by an inspection and test plan carried on throughout a year period that has been
determined by a competent person to comply with the requirements for annual
inspection given by AS 3533.3. Such a plan shall
(A) be authorized by a competent person;
(B) have all regular inspections and tests supported by adequate
documentation issued at the time of their occurrence;
(C) be in no conflict with the manufacturers instructions (or those of a
competent person issued when the manufacturers are not available); and
(D) take consideration of the occurrence of regular peak operational periods
to ensure the prior inspection of safety critical components.
(d) Major inspection in accordance with AS 3533.3 when any of the circumstances in
Clause 5.4.4 apply.
(e) Ancillary equipment inspection when required by the instructions of the manufacturer
of that equipment, by any relevant Australian Standard or by statute or regulation.
(f) Formal set-up inspection if and when required by a site manager.
5.4.3.3 Fixed location rides and devices
Fixed location rides and devices, whether in use continuously or performing seasonal or
part-time use, i.e. with long periods of inactivity in a year shall be subject to in-service
inspections as follows:
(a) Daily inspection and test run every day on which the ride or device is to be operated.
(b) Annual inspection in accordance with one of the following options:
(i) Annually.
(ii) As may be determined by a competent person based on a documented
operational history and considering the state of loading, frequency of use and
environmental factors applicable.
(iii) By subjecting the ride or device to a documented schedule of regular detailed
inspection procedures by competent persons, including visual and non-
destructive testing, which, throughout the life of the ride, results in the
apprehension of faults and their correction.
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51 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
(iv) By an annual strip down procedure undertaken by the proprietor to include, the
non-destructive testing specified by the manufacturer or a competent person and
the replacements of wearing parts.
(c) Major inspection in accordance with AS 3533.3 when any of the circumstances in
Clause 5.4.4 apply.
(d) Ancillary equipment inspection when required by the instructions of the manufacturer
of that equipment or by any relevant Australian Standard or by statute or regulation.
5.4.4 Major inspection
A major inspection in accordance with AS 3533.3 shall be carried out whenever any of the
following circumstances apply:
(a) At the expiry of the design life, where that is known.
(b) At the expiry of any period stipulated by the manufacturer or determined, or varied,
by a competent person on the basis of the manufacturers advice or the inspection
history of the device.
(c) When the design life is unknown, at 10 years of age and each 10 years thereafter
unless a different period is determined by a competent person (e.g. on the basis of
true operational records and in full knowledge of any instructions of the designer or
manufacturer).
(d) After a ride or device has suffered a major departure from normal operation or a
failure of any major structural or mechanical component.
(e) When a device is to be recommissioned and adequate records are unavailable or the
device was designed and built to unknown Standards.
When the following circumstances apply, the advice of a competent person shall be sought
regarding the need for a major inspection:
(i) A ride or device is to be upgraded such that loads on or within the ride or device are
increased.
(ii) The design of a ride or device has been altered.
The amusement ride or device shall undergo subsequent major inspections if deemed
necessary by a competent person on the basis of the results of any major inspection just
completed.
5.4.5 Surface deterioration
Surface deterioration shall be assessed as part of every in-service inspection in accordance
with the requirements concerning surface deterioration in AS 3533.3.
5.4.6 Non-destructive testing
Non-destructive testing (NDT) shall be applied in accordance with AS 3533.3 using
appropriate, documented schedules for both frequency and extent of investigation. This
schedule shall identify the specific components and locations to be tested and by what
process.
Documentation for NDT shall be made readily available to all inspecting personnel.
5.5 RECORDS
A permanent record of an amusement ride or device containing sufficient details to form a
comprehensive history of the amusement ride or device shall be kept as a log. The log shall
be a record that provides a history of ownership, inspection and operation for the ride or
device. The log shall be available for inspection by regulatory authorities in accordance
with Appendix L.
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AS 3533.22009 52

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
The log may consist of a number of documents or records, kept in a secure location. The log
may be in the form of a booklet, a loose-leaf folder, computer records, job cards or copies
of inspection reports by specialist services, or a combination of all of these.
The method adopted to provide and maintain the log will vary depending on the complexity
of the ride or device, the number of rides or devices owned and operated by a particular
individual or company and the number of company support staff to handle administrative
record keeping.
Where appropriate, separate logs should be kept for ancillary equipment associated with
amusement devices (e.g. for steam, hydraulic and pneumatic systems) which are not able to
be covered by the general log for the entire device.
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53 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
S E C T I O N 6 F I R E S A F E T Y
6.1 GENERAL
The place where an amusement device is to be located and the area surrounding the site
shall be kept free of flammable material not required for the operation of the amusement
device.
Where the amusement device is operated in conjunction with a carnival, fireworks or
similar festivity, the site shall be suitably prepared so as to minimize the risk of fire
spreading to the device.
With respect to any amusement device
(a) smoke, smoke-like vapour or flame shall not be used for effect unless all necessary
precautions as required by legislation are observed;
(b) where any accidental fire is detected, the device shall be closed down and evacuated
immediately; and
(c) fuel filling equipment shall be located and operated to avoid fumes and any fire
hazard.
6.2 STORAGE AND HANDLING OF FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
Minor storage of flammable or combustible liquids in the area allocated for the ride or
device, and which are used for operating purposes only, shall comply with the requirements
of Appendix L. Bulk storage or permanent installations are subject to legislation and fall
within the scope of AS/NZS 1596 and AS 1940 as appropriate.
6.3 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with the following requirements:
(a) The number of extinguishers shall be not less than as specified in Table 6.1.
(b) The capacity of any fire extinguisher shall be not less than a 2A 40 B(E) powder type,
except as follows:
(i) Where a ride or device has an electrical switchboard, includes electronic
equipment, has an associated generator, or both, then consideration should be
given to ensuring an equivalent carbon dioxide extinguisher is provided as long
as ventilation in the area is adequate.
(ii) Where small electrically-driven devices or non-powered devices (e.g. small
merry-go-rounds, ferris wheels, chair-o-planes, platform rides, inflatables,
trackless trains or mini trains) are classified as Class 1 or 2 in accordance with
AS 3533.1, are in the main non-flammable and assessment of the working
environment has established that minimal risk of fire from that source is
present, then a dry powder fire extinguisher with a minimum capacity of 1.0 kg
and a minimum rating of 1A 10 B(E) or two dry powder fire extinguishers with
minimum rating of 1A 5 B(E) may be provided.
NOTE: A 4.5 kg tri-class powder unit complies with the requirement for a 2A 40 B(E)
powder type extinguisher.
(c) At least one of the specified extinguishers shall be located at either the operators
position or the electrical control.
(d) Extinguishers shall be supported by a substantial bracket.
(e) Extinguishers shall be maintained in accordance with AS 1851.
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AS 3533.22009 54

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
(f) Attendants and operators shall be trained in the correct selection and use of the
provided fire extinguishers.
TABLE 6.1
MINIMUM NUMBER OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Number of fire extinguishers Registered capacity of
amusement device
(number of patrons)
Category of amusement device (see Legend)
Over
Up to and
including
A B C D E
0 5 1 1 1 1 1
5 20 2 2 1 1 1
20 50 3 2 2 2 1
50 3 3 3 2 1
LEGEND:
Category A = made of and housed in a structure of primarily combustible or low
melting temperature materials such as timber, aluminium, plastics
Category B = made of primarily combustible or low melting temperature
materials and sited in open air
Category C = made of and housed in a structure where no significant quantities of
combustible or low melting temperature materials are used or
contained
Category D = containing no significant quantities of combustible or low melting
temperature materials
Category E = made in a manner that presents minimal fire danger or hazard
6.4 FIRE DETECTORS
Where detectors for fire and smoke are installed, they shall be maintained and tested on a
regular basis. Any signalling devices associated with fire detection shall also be proved.
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55 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
APPENDIX A
STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS
(Informative)
A1 INTRODUCTION
This Appendix is intended as a general guide to statutory and technical requirements for
notification of design and registration of amusement rides and devices.
This Appendix is not comprehensive; for detailed information and advice regarding
statutory requirements, the relevant authority should be contacted.
A2 REGISTRATION OR NOTIFICATION OF AMUSEMENT DEVICE DESIGNS
Amusement rides and devices that fall within the scope of this Standard may be required to
have their designs registered or notified with the authorities.
A3 REGISTRATION OF AMUSEMENT DEVICES
Amusement rides and devices that fall within the scope of this Standard may be required to
be registered with the authorities.
The application form for registration or renewal of registration is generally required to
include the following:
(a) Sufficient information to clearly identify the amusement device.
(b) A copy of the design registration number.
A4 MODIFICATION AND ALTERATIONS
If an amusement ride or device design registration has been confirmed and that design is
altered to an extent that the device is subject to new measures to control risk, the authority
that confirmed the registered design is required to be notified, and the altered design
confirmed by that authority.
A5 NOTIFICATION OF CHANGE IN OWNERSHIP
If there has been a change of ownership of a registered amusement ride or device, the new
owner is obliged to inform the authority of the change in ownership.
A6 COMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY
Visiting address:
Comcare
Level 4
14 Moore Street
CANBERRA CITY ACT 2600
Postal address:
GPO Box 9905
CANBERRA CITY ACT 2601
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AS 3533.22009 56

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
A7 STATE AND TERRITORY GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES
A7.1 Australian Capital Territory
Visiting address:
Office of Regulatory ServicesWorkCover
Level 3, Callam Offices
Easty Street
WODEN ACT 2606
Postal address:
GPO Box 158
CANBERRA ACT 2601
A7.2 New South Wales
Visiting address:
WorkCover NSW
90-100 Donnison Street
GOSFORD NSW 2250
Postal address:
Locked Bag 2906
LISAROW NSW 2252
A7.3 Northern Territory
Visiting address:
NT WorkSafe
First Floor
Darwin Plaza Building
41 Smith Street
The Mall
DARWIN NT 0800
Postal address:
GPO Box 1722
DARWIN NT 0801
A7.4 Queensland
Visiting address:
Workplace Health and Safety Queensland
Level 3, Block B
Neville Bonner Building
75 William Street
BRISBANE QLD 4000
Postal address:
GPO Box 69
BRISBANE QLD 4001
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57 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
A7.5 South Australia
Visiting address:
SafeWork SA
Department of the Premier and Cabinet, SA
1 Richmond Road
KESWICK SA 5035
Postal address:
GPO Box 465
ADELAIDE SA 5001
A7.6 Tasmania
Visiting address:
Department of Justice
Workplace Standards Tasmania
30 Gordons Hill Road
ROSNY PARK TAS 7018
Postal address:
GPO Box 56
ROSNY PARK TAS 7018
A7.7 Victoria
Visiting address:
WorkSafe Victoria
Reception, Ground Floor
222 Exhibition Street
MELBOURNE VIC 3000
Postal address:
GPO Box 4306
MELBOURNE VIC 3001
A7.8 Western Australia
Visiting address:
WorkSafe Western Australia
Westcentre
1260 Hay Street
WEST PERTH WA 6005
Postal address:
PO Box 294
WEST PERTH WA 6872
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AS 3533.22009 58

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
APPENDIX B
SUGGESTED TRAINING, QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE
FOR COMPETENT PERSONS
(Informative)
This Appendix contains guidance on the minimum training, qualifications and experience
that a competent person (as defined in Clause 1.3.10) might be expected to possess when
undertaking the various roles, responsibilities and tasks referred to in this Standard.

Role/responsibility/task Training/qualifications/experience
Certification of piers or other
elevated structures upon which
amusement rides or devices are to be
set up, for their ability to withstand
loads generated by those devices
Any person proving or certifying the load-bearing
capacity of such structures should have formal
engineering qualifications supplemented by
specialist training and experience in conducting
such assessments
Assessment of the stability of
devices under conditions of seismic
activity (earthquakes)
The person conducting such assessments should
have formal engineering qualifications
Assembly, set up, operation,
dismantling and transportation of
amusement rides and devices (and
supervision thereof)
Persons involved in such operations should have
sufficient experience and knowledge of the device
to enable such operations to be carried out safely
and in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions
Specification of the load-bearing
capacity of sites and the materials
and methods used in packing and
blocking systems for mobile
amusement devices that become
permanent or semi-permanent
installations
The person providing such information should
have an engineering or scientific background
(preferably backed up by formal engineering
qualifications) and experience in the behaviour of
the device, under all conditions of operation
Hazard identification and risk
assessment
Any person conducting a hazard identification and
risk assessment on an amusement device (or any
part or component thereof) should have a thorough
knowledge of the operation of the device, and of
the general history of such a device. This person
should be able to complete such a hazard
identification and risk assessment to the
satisfaction of the relevant regulatory authority
Inspection Competencies for inspection personnel are given
in detail in AS 3533.3
(continued)
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59 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
Role/responsibility/task Training/qualifications/experience
Refuelling operations A person carrying out refuelling operations should
be fully trained in the use of all equipment
involved, and in the procedures for carrying out
refuelling operations in a safe manner. The person
should also be fully trained in the use of the
firefighting equipment appropriate to the fuel
being used, and in the emergency procedures to be
implemented in the case of fire, spillage or other
unplanned hazardous event
Assessment of the suitability of trees
to form part of an amusement device
(e.g. flying foxes)
The person undertaking such an assessment should
be a qualified arborist
Analysis of water A person conducting an analysis of a water sample
should be fully trained in the testing equipment to
be used. The person should possess tertiary
qualifications or technical certification in
chemistry or related discipline depending on the
type and extent of the analysis to be undertaken
Maintenance, replacement and repair
of amusement devices or components
thereof
Persons undertaking maintenance, replacement and
repair of amusement devices or components
thereof should, where necessary, possess relevant
certificates of competency. Where formal
qualifications are not required (e.g. for routine
tasks), persons should be fully trained in the
requirements of the task to be performed
Non-destructive testing (NDT) and
evaluation of NDT results
A person conducting non-destructive testing
should possess technical certification in
accordance with AS 3998.
The person evaluating the results of any NDT
program should be similarly qualified and
experienced in the reporting of NDT programs
(including any recommended courses of action) in
the forms required by the relevant industry body or
regulatory authority
Alteration of an amusement device to
eliminate or minimize a risk
The person providing advice on the implications of
any alterations, where such alterations change the
fundamental design or operating parameters of the
device, should possess formal engineering
qualifications and sufficient experience in the
device to provide a comprehensive analysis of any
change in performance, which the alterations may
bring about

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AS 3533.22009 60

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
APPENDIX C
CLEARANCE DISTANCES FROM AERIAL CONDUCTORS
(Informative)

NOTE: This Figure is based on Figure 6.19.3 of AS 2550.12002. Dimensions have been removed, see
Clause 2.1.6.1.
FIGURE C1 CLEARANCES FROM LIVE AERIAL CONDUCTORS DURING ASSEMBLY
OPERATIONS USING CRANES OR OTHER LIFTING DEVICES
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61 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
APPENDIX D
MARKING OF BOLTS, NUTS AND WASHERS
(Informative)
D1 SCOPE
This Appendix provides examples of the most commonly encountered marking systems for
bolts, nuts and washers. Information on Australian, International and American marking
systems is provided.
D2 GENERAL
There are many different marking systems for bolts and associated nuts and washers. While
some of these are of Australian origin, many that will be encountered are from other
countries or are international systems. The list of Australian Standards in Paragraph D3.2
shows the main Australian Standards that provide details of marking systems for particular
types of bolts and nuts. The Standards listed in Paragraph D3.3 are the source of several
other commonly-encountered marking systems.
It should be noted that there are some types of bolts for which no marking system is
officially set out and proprietary systems may exist for these. Care should be taken to
ensure any markings are interpreted using the appropriate system.
D3 MARKING REQUIREMENTS
D3.1 Sources of information
The documents listed in this Paragraph provide the details for the most commonly-used
marking systems.
D3.2 Australian Standards
The following Australian Standards contain details of marking systems and, where
indicated, are adoptions of International Standards:
AS/NZS 1252 High-strength steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for structural
engineering
AS/NZS 1559 Hot-dipped galvanized steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for
tower construction
AS/NZS 2465 Unified hexagon bolts, screws and nuts (UNC and UNF threads)
Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel AS 4291.1
Part 1: Bolts, screws and studs (adoption of ISO 898-1:1999)
Mechanical properties of fasteners AS/NZS 4291.2
Part 2: Nuts with specified proof load valuesCoarse thread (adoption
of ISO 898-2:1992)
D3.3 Other Standards
The following Standards contain details of marking systems that can be encountered in
Australia:
ISO 3506 Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless-steel fasteners
(series)
ASTM A490 Standard specification for high-strength steel bolts, classes 10.9 and 10.9.3,
for structural steel joints
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AS 3533.22009 62

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
ASTM A325 Standard specification for structural bolts, steel, heat treated 830 MPa
minimum
SAE J429 Mechanical and material requirements for externally threaded fasteners
SAE J995 Mechanical and material requirements for steel nuts
SAE J1199 Mechanical and material requirements for metric externally threaded steel
fasteners
D4 EXAMPLES OF MARKING
D4.1 Marking to Australian Standards
Tables D1 and D2 show examples of markings that may be encountered on bolts and nuts
manufactured to Australian Standards. Table D2 also provides recommendations for
ensuring compatibility of the nut with particular types of bolts.
NOTE: In some cases the Australian Standard listed is a superseded version, however, the bolts
and nuts are still in use.
D4.2 American markings
Table D3 shows examples of markings that may be encountered on bolts manufactured to
American Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) specifications.
D5 REFERENCED AND RELATED DOCUMENTS
In addition to the Standards referenced in Paragraph D3 because they provide details of
marking systems, the following Standards for bolts, nuts and washers are referred to in this
Appendix:
AS
1085 Railway track material
1085.4 Part 4: Fishbolts and nuts
B108 Black cup and countersunk bolts, nuts and washers (obsolescent)
E25 Specification for steel fishbolts (withdrawn)
AS/NZS
1110 ISO metric precision hexagon bolts and screws (superseded)
1111 ISO metric hexagon commercial bolts and screws (superseded)
1112 ISO metric hexagon nuts, including thin nuts, slotted nuts and castle nuts
(superseded)
1252 High-strength steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for structural
engineering
1390 Cup head bolts with ISO metric coarse pitch threads
1393 Coach screwsMetric series with ISO hexagon heads
1559 Hot-dipped galvanized steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for tower
construction
2451 Bolts, screws and nuts with British Standard Whitworth threads (rationalized
series)
2465 Unified hexagon bolts, screws and nuts (UNC and UNF threads)
3506 Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless-steel fasteners (series)
ASTM
A325 Standard specification for structural bolts, steel, heat treated 830 MPa minimum
tensile strength
A490 Standard specification for high-strength steel bolts, classes 10.9 and 10.9.3, for
structural steel joints
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63 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
TABLE D1
BOLT MARKINGS
Head marking Bolt type Australian Standard

Hexagonal head
Metric commercial
AS/NZS 1111:1996

Hexagonal head
British Standard Whitworth (BSW)
mild steel
AS/NZS 2451:1998

Hexagonal head precision
Metric mild steel
AS/NZS 1110:1995

Hexagonal head
Unified high tensile
(UNC/UNF)
AS/NZS 2465:1999
(SAE) Grade 5

Hexagon head
Unified high tensile
(UNC/UNF)
AS/NZS 2465:1999
(SAE) Grade 8

Hexagon head high strength
Structural
AS/NZS 1252:1996

Cup head metric
Square neck
AS/NZS 1390:1997

Cup head BSW
Square neck
Cup head oval neck fishbolts
(with F)
AS B1081952

AS E251964
(AS 1085.42002)

Hexagon head
Metric coach screws
AS/NZS 1393:1996

Hexagon head
Metric tower bolts
AS/NZS 1559:1997
NOTE: XYZ represents the manufacturers identification.
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AS 3533.22009 64

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
TABLE D2
NUT MARKINGS AND BOLT COMPATIBILITY
Bolt specification Nut marking Nut type
Australian
Standard
AS/NZS 2451 Hexagon
Mild steel BSW

Hexagon
Mild steel
BSW
AS/NZS 2451:1998
AS/NZS 1110 High tensile
bolts,
Property class 4.6

Hexagon
Metric property
class 4
AS/NZS 1112:1996
AS/NZS 1110 High tensile
bolts,
Property class 5.8

Hexagon
Metric property
class 5
AS/NZS 1112:1996
AS/NZS 1110 High tensile
bolts,
Property class 8.8

Hexagon
Metric property
class 8
AS/NZS 1112:1996
AS/NZS 1110 High tensile
bolts,
Property class 10.9
Hexagon high
tensile
Property class 10
AS/NZS 1112:1996
AS/NZS 2465 High tensile
hexagon head bolts
Grade 5

Hexagon
Grade 5 nuts
AS/NZS 2465:1999
AS/NZS 2465 High tensile
hexagon head bolts
Grade 8

Hexagon
Unified high tensile
Grade 8
AS/NZS 2465:1999
AS/NZS 2465 High tensile
hexagon head bolts
Grade 8

Hexagon
Unified high tensile
Grade 8
SAE
AS/NZS 1252:1996
Hexagon high strength
structural bolts

Hexagon high
strength
Structural
AS/NZS 1252:1996
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NOTES TO TABLE D2:
1 In the above markings, the dot may be replaced by the manufacturers identification symbol or
trademark. Also the property class identification of either 8 or 10 may appear on the side of the nut
instead of on the face of the nut.
2 Using a lower class or grade nut will significantly reduce the load carrying capacity of the corresponding
bolted joint and nut stripping will occur.
3 Although it is not recommended, use of a higher grade or class nut on a lower grade or class bolt will not
result in a reduction in the load carrying capacity of the joint (based on the bolt strength). This should be
avoided as this could provide wrong information regarding the joint.
4 Details of nut markings are found in AS/NZS 4291.2:1995.

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AS 3533.22009 66

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
TABLE D3
AMERICAN FASTENER MARKINGS
Diameter
Minimum
tensile strength
Proof load stress
SAE
Grade
Head marking
inches lbf/in
2
lbf/in
2

Rockwell
hardness
1

to 1 60 000 33 000 B70-B100
2

to

Over to 1
74 000

60 000
55 000

33 000
B80-B100

B70-B100
4
None
(studs only)
to 1 115 000 65 000 C22-C32
5

to 1

Over 1 to 1
120 000

105 000
85 000

74 000
C25-C34

C19-C30
5.1

No. 6 to 5/8 120 000 85 000 C25-C40
5.2

to 1 120 000 85 000 C26-C36
7

to 1 133 000 105 000 C28-C34
8

to 1 150 000 120 000 C33-C39
8.1
None
(studs only)
to 1 150 000 120 000 C32-C38
8.2

to 1 150 000 120 000 C33-C39
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APPENDIX E
GROUND BEARING (SUPPORTING) CAPACITIES
(Informative)
Manufacturers of mobile amusement rides and devices usually provide floats or stools to
carry the weight and operating loads of the ride onto the ground. Where jacks and other
devices are provided to assist in levelling the ride or device, specific forms and
arrangements of packings may be specified. In general, whatever the form of the ground-
contact devices, the manufacturer should specify the necessary ground bearing capacity for
the method supplied with the ride or device.
In certain circumstances, additional packings may have to be installed to distribute loads
over a larger area and so reduce the ground bearing pressure to a lower figure, particularly
where the ground on which the ride or device is to be set up does not provide the capacity
called for under the manufacturers standard support system.
Table E1 provides a means of judging the capacity of the ground by simple tests.
NOTE: Care should be taken to ensure that when using these judgement criteria, the soil below
the surface is consistent with that described and is homogeneous and undisturbed, i.e. there is no
hard crust over loose fill. Any historical knowledge of a site should be considered and any
evidence of activities due to drains or other services or disturbances should be reason to avoid all
or part of a site. Sites with standing water over sandy and gravel-with-sand soils are likely to
conform to the criteria in Table E1, but standing water over clay and silt-based soils should be
viewed with suspicion.
In any case, care should be exercised during the period of the set-up to avoid loss of footing(s)
due to shrinkage of the soil if drying occurs. Care should also be taken to assess the site for the
potential for flowing water to undermine packing locations in the case of heavy rain.
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AS 3533.22009 68

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
TABLE E1
GROUND BEARING CAPACITIES
Ground description Criterion
Ground bearing capacity
kPa
PART 1: SOIL AND CLAY
Soft clay and silt soil Easy penetration 50 mm by thumb 60
Firm clay soil Fair effort penetration 50 mm by
thumb
110
Stiff clay soil Readily indented by thumb but
only penetrated with great effort
210
Very stiff clay Readily indented by fingernail 430
Hard clay Indented by thumbnail only with
great effort
650
PART 2: SAND AND GRAVEL
Loose sand or gravel Readily removable by shovelling
(easily penetrated by driven stake)
50 w
Medium sand or gravel Removable only by vigorous
shovelling. Difficult penetration by
driven stake
150 w
Dense sand gravel Requires picking for disturbance 350 w
Very dense sand gravel Heavy picking to disturb 600 w
Soft limestone and porous rock
Sandstone and mud-stone
Slate, etc.
Basalt
Variable
Very variable but not normally
less than 100 kPa
NOTE: In the case of the gravelly materials in Part 2, w is the smallest plan dimension, in metres, of the
packing, float or block in contact with the ground.
Example:
For a block with a smallest dimension of 200 mm on ground comprising loose sand or gravel:
Ground bearing capacity = 50 0.2
= 10 kPa

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69 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
APPENDIX F
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT AND
RISK CONTROL PROCESS
(Informative)
F1 GENERAL
The purpose of the hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control process is to
identify all possible situations associated with amusement rides and devices, or parts
thereof, that could give rise to injury or illness to people. Once a hazard has been identified
and the associated risk to persons assessed with regard to the probability and severity of any
harm that could be caused by the hazard, then appropriate measures can be implemented to
eliminate or reduce this risk.
The hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control process will vary for different
amusement devices, and the more information is available about individual devices, then
the more thorough the process and, ultimately, the safer the operation will be. Figure F1
provides a flow chart that outlines the hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control
process. It is important that this process, in particular the risk control measures adopted, is
documented and kept in a permanent record for future reference.
The regulatory authorities listed in Appendix A can also provide information and assistance
in this respect and should be contacted in order that their requirements regarding the hazard
identification, risk assessment and risk control process may be carried out. AS/NZS 4360 is
another source of information on risk management.
F2 INFORMATION
For any amusement device, it is desirable that as much information as possible about the
device is available to assist in the ongoing process of hazard identification, risk assessment
and risk control. As this store of documented information expands, the more likely it is that,
due to this intimate knowledge of the device, potential hazards will be anticipated and
eliminated before any risk to health and safety occurs. In addition to the information
provided by the designer or manufacturer of an amusement device, further information
relating to the safety of the device may be sought from the following sources:
(a) The history of the device as documented in the log, including previous accidents or
incidents involving the device.
(b) Previous owners/proprietors/operators (if any) of the device.
(c) Operating and maintenance staff, and staff responsible for the erection and
dismantling of the device.
Such information should be used to compile comprehensive checklists, which should be
completed and signed off by the relevant parties involved in the set up, operation and
dismantling of individual devices. Consideration should also be given to transportation
procedures for mobile amusement devices.
F3 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
Hazards may be identified at any stage during the set up, operation and dismantling of
amusement devices. In the case of fixed location equipment, a hazard identification should
be undertaken upon initial installation and the device monitored continuously, for example
via a daily pre-operation service check. A new hazard identification process should be
completed after major repairs or maintenance. For mobile equipment, the hazard
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AS 3533.22009 70

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
identification process may best be achieved on a day-to-day basis via device-specific
checklists (see Paragraph F2 above) covering set up, operation and dismantling of devices.
Specific attention should be paid to the list of hazards in Items (a) to (g) below which,
while comprehensive, is not exhaustive and may need to be expanded for certain rides and
devices. Requirements designed to eliminate or minimize many of these hazards and their
associated risks of injury or illness are given in Sections 2, 3 and 4 of this Standard.
(a) Mechanical hazards Mechanical hazards include
(i) crushing hazards (e.g. insufficient clearance between devices);
(ii) shearing/cutting/severing hazards (e.g. machinery insufficiently guarded);
(iii) loss of stability (e.g. device not set up properly);
(iv) entanglement hazards (e.g. through long hair or loose clothing);
(v) entrapment hazards (e.g. through insufficient or poorly illuminated exits);
(vi) impact/puncturing hazards (e.g. where vehicles may collide);
(vii) friction/abrasion hazards (e.g. where patrons slide on surfaces (chutes and water
slides) or may be ejected from vehicles (toboggans); and
(viii) slipping, tripping and falling hazards (e.g. through walkways and stairs
requiring repair).
(b) Electrical hazards Electrical hazards include
(i) contact with live parts or parts becoming live under fault conditions;
(ii) approach to live parts carrying a high voltage;
(iii) emission of molten particles; and
(iv) chemical effects from overloads or short circuits.
(c) Thermal hazards Thermal hazards include
(i) contact with a heat source;
(ii) radiation from heat sources; and
(iii) hot and cold working environments.
(d) Noise hazards Noise hazards (e.g. from poorly attenuated machinery and prolonged
exposure of operating staff) may cause
(i) hearing loss, loss of balance or loss of awareness; and
(ii) interference with communications.
(e) Vibration hazards Vibration hazards, particularly those involving whole body
vibration, can cause a number of physiological conditions, e.g. motion sickness.
(f) Harmful substances/material hazards Harmful substances/material hazards
include
(i) contact with or inhalation of harmful fluids, mists, gases, fumes or dust; and
(ii) fire or explosion, e.g. as a result of dust or similar contaminants.
(g) Ergonomic hazards Ergonomic hazards include
(i) bad posture (e.g. operators stationed in the same position for extended periods)
or tasks requiring excessive effort;
(ii) inadequate lighting;
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71 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
(iii) mental overload, boredom or stress (e.g. operators carrying too much or not
enough responsibility); and
(iv) human error or behaviour (e.g. insufficient training of operating staff or patrons
not complying with instructions).
F4 RISK ASSESSMENT
Where, for whatever reason, it is not feasible to deal with a hazard immediately, the
associated risk to the health and safety of persons presented by the hazard should be
assessed and appropriate action taken (or planned) to eliminate or minimize this risk.
Although most hazards in Paragraph F3 would be identified and subsequently eliminated or
minimized by the designer or manufacturer of the device, operational matters require
similar vigilance and all procedures should be reviewed regularly.
Since different hazards have different implications as far as the health and safety of persons
are concerned, any risk assessment should lead to a prioritizing of measures to eliminate or
minimize the risk of harm presented by the hazard, and the probability of that harm
occurring due to
(a) the frequency and duration of exposure of persons to the hazard (e.g. how many
patrons use a walkway that requires welding?);
(b) the likelihood of a hazardous event occurring (e.g. of those patrons, how many are
likely to trip and fall?); and
(c) the possibility of avoiding harm (e.g. how likely is injury in the event of a fall?)
F5 RISK CONTROL
It is important that the actions taken to eliminate or minimize the risk associated with a
particular hazard do not, in themselves, create further hazards. Where this is not possible,
then any new hazards presented will have to be subjected to the same risk assessment and
risk control process.
As the proprietor is responsible for the safety of the device, it is recommended that the
proprietor consults with those associated with the set-up, operation, maintenance,
inspection and dismantling of the device in order to develop the most appropriate risk
control measures. Such measures are varied, but include
(a) additional guarding of machinery;
(b) increasing maintenance and inspections;
(c) changing of work procedures;
(d) provision of personal protective equipment; and
(e) additional training of personnel.
In any event, where it is proposed to alter the device in some way so as to eliminate or
minimize a risk, the designer, manufacturer or other competent person able to demonstrate
knowledge of the original intentions of the designer or manufacturer should be consulted
before any alterations are carried out. Similarly, such parties may be approached where it is
felt that any risk which has been assessed and (where elimination is not possible)
subsequently minimized is still too great as far as the safety of persons is concerned. The
relevant regulatory authority may also be able to provide advice in such cases.
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AS 3533.22009 72

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au

FIGURE F1 FLOW CHART FOR HAZARD IDENTIFICATION,
RISK ASSESSMENT AND RISK CONTROL PROCESS
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73 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
APPENDIX G
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR OPERATOR AND ATTENDANT
SELECTION AND INSTRUCTION
(Informative)
G1 GENERAL
The following is a guide for proprietors of amusement rides and devices for the selection
and training requirements of operators and attendants:
(a) Select persons as operators who are at least 18 years of age and are able to be trained
to understand the use and function of the ride or device under their control.
(b) Ensure attendants (some of whom may be under 18 years of age) fully understand
their duties and that they are able to perform such duties as instructed by the operator.
(c) Instruct each operator fully in the proper use and function of the device to be
operated, including the following:
(i) Controls and procedures for normal and emergency operation.
(ii) Manufacturers recommended maximum speed and load.
(iii) Manufacturers recommended ride time and frequency of repeat rides.
(iv) Any foreseeable misuse of the device as determined by the manufacturer or
proprietor, or by special conditions such as weather, location or crowds.
(v) Fire fighting and other emergency procedures.
(d) Ensure each operator carries out the following daily routine:
(i) Inspect the device in accordance with a prepared checklist before
commencement of operation each day.
NOTE: The checklist should be prepared by senior operations staff, and should include
a section requiring confirmation that all outstanding repairs, servicing and maintenance
have been completed.
(ii) Determine, as far as they are able, that no portion of the device is damaged or
unsafe, or is liable to deteriorate to an unsafe condition.
(iii) Ensure that the device is not operated unless the checking procedures are
completed.
(iv) Report any operating problem to a supervisor or proprietor.
(e) Instruct the operator and attendant not to allow patrons who appear to be ill or under
the influence of drugs or alcohol to participate in the device.
(f) Instruct the operator not to permit patrons with loose clothing or unrestrained long
hair to participate in the device where the potential for entanglement exists.
(g) Instruct the operator and attendants to not allow smoking on the ride or device.
(h) Instruct the operator and attendants on the correct method of securing patrons in or on
the device, and to ensure that the device is loaded in a balanced manner.
(i) Instruct the operator not to allow patrons who cannot be properly secured due to
physical size, or have a disability which may affect their ability to withstand the
forces generated by the movement of the device, to participate in the activity.
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AS 3533.22009 74

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
(j) Instruct the operator to stop the device if any patron is observed tampering with any
restraint or behaving in such a way as to endanger themselves or others.
(k) Instruct the operator not to start the device while people other than patrons and the
necessary attendants are within the operating zone.
(l) Instruct the operator to remain in control of the device during the entire cycle, and not
allow any person other than another operator to assume control, except where the
device is intended for direct patron control.
(m) Instruct the operator that no safety device is to be altered or removed for service or
replacement purposes without prior approval from the proprietor.
(n) Instruct the operator in all emergency procedures, and other procedures, about
breakdown, power failure, patron illness or any other event which could affect the
safety of the device or patrons.
(o) Inform operators of the danger presented by loose items carried or worn by patrons
and instruct them to inform patrons on how to secure or deposit such personal items
before participating in the device.
(p) Instruct operators on maintaining an operating zone clear of all people other than
attendants (where required) while the device is operating.
(q) If operators are also used as erection crew, ensure that they are competent in such
matters.
(r) Instruct operators on procedures for incident or accident reporting and completion of
logs.
G2 TRAINING PROGRAM
A formal training program should be established and followed to include reference to all of
the above requirements. Operators and attendants should be required to sign a document
clearly indicating their participation in such training and subsequent acceptance of
responsibility of operation.
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75 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
APPENDIX H
PATRON RESPONSIBILITY
(Informative)
H1 GENERAL
The proprietor of an amusement ride or device should
(a) display adequate information on the possible effects the use of a ride or device may
have on patrons; and
(b) instruct operators of devices on the importance of carrying out, at all times, any oral
instructions for patrons as may be necessary for their safe participation in the device.
H2 TYPICAL INFORMATION
The following information (or variations thereof for specific rides or devices) for patrons
should be considered for display at appropriate locations:
(a) There are inherent risks in the participation in or on an amusement ride or device.
Patrons, by their participation, accept the inherent risks of which a prudent person is
or should be aware. Patrons should consider this participation an exercise in good
judgement and act in a responsible manner while using the facility.
(b) Patrons have a duty not to participate in or on any amusement ride or device when
under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
(c) Patrons have a duty to act with good judgement and consideration, both for
themselves and others, and to refrain from behaviour which could affect their safety,
the safety of other patrons, or the safety of the device itself.
(d) Patrons have a duty to obey all reasonable written, and particularly oral, instructions
and warnings, given by the proprietors or operators of any ride or device, without
objection.
(e) Patrons have a duty to use, as instructed, all safety equipment provided when
participating in any ride or device. Patrons choosing to supply their own safety
equipment do so at their own risk and accept full responsibility for any failure or non-
performance of such equipment.
(f) Patrons of amusement rides or devices have a duty to assist in any investigation of
any incident they may have witnessed or in which they may have had some
involvement and to inform an investigation as to any contribution from their own
actions.
Owners or proprietors of amusement rides or devices should display such information on
appropriate signage at the point of sale where the contract for the use of such devices is
completed.
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AS 3533.22009 76

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
APPENDIX I
SAFETY GUIDELINES FOR OPERATORS
(Informative)
The following is a guide for operators of amusement rides and devices to ensure that safe
practices are implemented and followed during operation:
(a) Do not operate the device when feeling ill or under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
(b) Patrons who appear to be under the influence of alcohol or drugs or who are visibly
ill should not be allowed on the device.
(c) Assist patrons on and off the device when necessary. Be careful when assisting
patrons with disabilities, and assist only once they have expressed permission.
(d) If the device is being misused in any way by patrons, shut it down until the condition
is corrected. Do not allow seats to be rocked or patrons to stand up.
(e) Smoking by patrons should not be permitted.
(f) Be cautious and ready for the unexpected, especially where children are involved.
Young children should be accompanied by a responsible adult.
(g) Patrons waiting to participate should be kept out of the operating zone.
(h) Ensure that entrances and exits are closed off before operation commences.
(i) Ensure that the device is loaded in a balanced manner.
(j) Ensure any restrictions (e.g. height or size of patrons) for the participation in a device
are observed.
(k) Be alert when the device is operating and be prepared for an emergency stop.
(l) Never, under any circumstances, walk away from the device while it is operating,
regardless of whether it is carrying patrons or not.
(m) Do not board or mount a device while it is in motion.
(n) Take note of the nearest location of a fire extinguisher and check its condition.
(o) Report any fault or malfunction immediately to your supervisor or the proprietor.
(p) Do not operate the device in unsafe weather conditions, i.e. high winds.
(q) Be familiar with first aid procedures.
(r) Take pride in operating safely and always following operating procedures,
particularly where some restrictions may apply.
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77 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
APPENDIX J
WATER QUALITY
(Normative)
J1 GENERAL
This Appendix specifies the quality of water required for amusement rides and devices
involving contact with water.
NOTE: Local authorities and State health departments may have different requirements, and
should be consulted before commencement of operation.
J2 AQUATIC AMUSEMENT DEVICES
J2.1 Devices used in conjunction with swimming pools
The water used in devices where patrons are discharged into a public swimming pool or run
out trough shall be of a quality required by the local and State authorities. As a guideline,
HB 241 should be consulted.
J2.2 Water quality and treatment in closed circulation systems
For aquatic amusement devices where patrons are at some stage either partially or fully
immersed, the water in a closed circuit circulation system shall comply with the following
requirements:
(a) Disinfection The water shall be adequately disinfected by chlorine or a similar
alternative. Where chlorine is used, the free chlorine level shall be not less than
1.5 mg/L and not more than 10 mg/L, when tested and recorded at four-hourly
intervals.
(b) pH The pH of the water shall be maintained between 7.2 and 8.0.
(c) Total alkalinity The total alkalinity shall be maintained between 80 mg/L and
180 mg/L.
NOTE: This reading should be recorded at least on a weekly basis.
Chemicals shall not be added directly to the pool when it is in use.
(d) Water clarity Particles of matter that can cloud the water shall be removed by
filtration. The filters shall be cleaned on a regular basis to ensure the pool water is
turned over through the filters at least once every four hours.
(e) Pumps and associated equipment Pumps and associated equipment shall be serviced
and maintained in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
NOTE: Supply and replenishment water should meet drinking water quality requirements. In
some instances pre-treatment may be required.
J2.3 Water quality and treatment where the water is drawn from a river or pond
For aquatic amusement devices where patrons are at some stage either partially or fully
immersed in water that is drawn from a river, pond or similar, the water shall meet the
guidelines for primary contact water laid down by the National Health and Medical
Research Council and shall comply with the following requirements:
(a) Faecal coliforms The average number of faecal coliforms shall not exceed 150 per
100 mL of water for a minimum of five samples taken at intervals of not more than
one month. The maximum reading of any one sample shall not exceed 300 faecal
coliforms. Testing for faecal coliforms shall be performed by a competent person.
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AS 3533.22009 78

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
NOTE: Although testing at intervals of not more than one per month is specified, it is
recommended that testing is performed at least weekly, and whenever there has been a change
in the appearance of the water, e.g. after heavy rain.
(b) Odour and appearance The water shall have no objectionable smell or colour.
(c) Floating matter and sediment The bottom shall be safe to walk on. Floating debris,
grease, oil scum or foam should be removed.
(d) Pool water turnover The water in a splash pool should be turned over at least once
per hour to maintain the required water quality.
J3 WATERBORNE AMUSEMENT DEVICES
For waterborne amusement devices where patrons are not immersed at any time and do not
become wet unless due to incidental splashing, the water quality shall comply with the
following requirements:
(a) Faecal coliforms The average number of faecal coliforms shall not exceed 300 per
100 mL of water for a minimum of five samples taken at intervals of not more than
one month. The maximum reading of any one sample shall not exceed 500 faecal
coliforms. Testing for faecal coliforms shall be performed by a competent person.
NOTE: Although testing at intervals of not more than one per month is specified, it is
recommended that testing is performed at least weekly, and whenever there has been a change
in the appearance of the water, e.g. after heavy rain.
(b) Odour and appearance The water shall have no objectionable smell or colour.
(c) Floating matter and sediment The bottom shall be safe to walk on. Floating debris,
grease, oil scum or foam should be removed.
(d) Water clarity The water shall be sufficiently clear to allow a disk of 75 mm to
150 mm diameter with alternating black and white quadrants to be readily visible
when placed at the deepest point of the water.
(e) Pool water turnover The water in a splash pool should be turned over at least once
per hour to maintain the required water quality.
NOTE: The above requirements apply whether the water is in a closed circulation system or is
drawn from a river or pond.
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79 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
APPENDIX K
PRECAUTIONS FOR STORING AND HANDLING FLAMMABLE
OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS AND LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS
(Normative)
K1 INTRODUCTION
This Appendix deals only with minor storage quantities that have to be kept in and around
the devices for use on a daily basis. Any bulk storage or permanent installation would be
subject to legislation and would fall within the scope of AS/NZS 1596 or AS 1940.
K2 PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED WHEN STORING AND HANDLING
FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
The following precautions apply to the storing and handling of flammable or combustible
liquids:
(a) Store in well-ventilated areas not accessible to the public, and in suitable containers.
(b) Do not store or handle in
(i) locations subject to temperatures above 40C;
(ii) the vicinity of an ignition source, e.g. stove or heating appliance;
(iii) the vicinity of combustible waste materials or residues; and
(iv) required egress paths from any building or amusement device.
(c) For dispensing, use a self-closing safety cock.
(d) When decanting from a container, make sure the area is a well-ventilated area and the
operation is carried out at a sufficiently safe distance from any source of ignition.
(e) Keep containers closed when not in use.
(f) Use containers complying with AS/NZS 2906 for transporting between the storage
area and the point of use.
(g) Keep the public, and any ignition sources, clear when transferring flammable or
combustible fuel.
(h) Clean up any spillage immediately.
NOTE: Spill kits appropriate for the materials being stored should be provided in a prominent
location. Operators and attendants should be trained in selection, use and disposal of spill
kits.
(i) Allow only a competent person, fully trained in the handling of flammable liquids to
handle or have access to them.
K3 PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED WHEN STORING AND HANDLING
LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS (LP Gas)
The following precautions apply to the storing and handling of LP Gas:
(a) Only cylinders bearing a current registration mark of an approved gas cylinder station
shall be stored.
(b) Installations shall be carried out only by competent persons.
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AS 3533.22009 80

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
The following additional precautions should also be observed:
(i) The capacity of the cylinder should not exceed a water capacity of 110 L.
(ii) All connections to the appliance and cylinder should be compatible with the hose and
its fittings, and should be protected against accidental displacement. Care should be
taken to prevent over-torquing of connections.
(iii) Cylinders should be installed on a firm, level base of high fire resistance and
protected from direct contact with soil.
(iv) Cylinders should be located and protected, where necessary, to prevent accidental
dislodgment.
(v) Cylinders, which are liable to be damaged from manoeuvring vehicles, should be
protected by guardrails or similar.
(vi) Cylinders should be installed so that the discharge from the relief valve will not
impinge on another cylinder or an adjacent combustible building or structure.
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81 AS 3533.22009

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia
APPENDIX L
CONTENTS OF LOG AND AVAILABILITY FOR INSPECTION
(Normative)
L1 SCOPE
This Appendix specifies the minimum documentation to be present with an amusement ride
or device when it is in use and the availability requirement for the complete documentation
contained in the log.
L2 MINIMUM DOCUMENTATION WITH RIDE
The following minimum documentation shall be present with the ride when it is in use:
(a) Copy of current (State) registration certificate.
(b) Copy of public liability insurance certificate of currency.
(c) Copy of Workers Compensation insurance.
(d) Copy of set-up and pull down procedure.
(e) Copy of operating instructions.
(f) Copy of last engineers certificate.
(g) Copy of hazard identification and risk assessment.
(h) Copy of repairs and alterations for last twelve months.
(i) Copy of maintenance program for the last twelve months.
(j) Copy of any improvement/prohibition notices issued in the last twelve months.
(k) Current original set-up record, and, in South Australia, the pull down record.
(l) Current original daily check sheets for usage in the previous five days, including a
record of operation without passengers prior to use on any day.
L3 MAIN LOG
The main log, containing the originals of the documents listed in Paragraph L2 plus other
information and manuals, shall be available for inspection within 48 h of being requested by
an authorized inspector.
The main log should include the following documentation where it is relevant to the ride:
(a) Equipment identification and classification.
(b) Operating areas, loading details and any restrictions on patron size or age.
(c) Ownership history and registration details.
(d) Any record of pre-delivery testing.
(e) Record of device set-up and pull-down.
(f) Record of repairs and alterations.
(g) Maintenance schedule.
(h) Set-up procedure.
(i) Daily checklist.
(j) Operator training procedure.
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AS 3533.22009 82

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
(k) Register of trained operators.
(l) Operating instructions.
(m) Hazard identification and risk assessment.
(n) Emergency procedures.
(o) NDT requirements.
(p) Record of inspections.
(q) Reports relating to repairs and NDT.
(r) Registration certificates, certificates of currency of insurance, completed checklists,
completed signed operator training procedures.
(s) Information relating to assessment of wind speed, ground-bearing capacity.
(t) Accident recording and reporting information.

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83 AS 3533.22009


NOTES

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AS 3533.22009 84


NOTES

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Standards Australia
Standards Australia develops Australian Standards and other documents of public benefit and national interest.
These Standards are developed through an open process of consultation and consensus, in which all interested
parties are invited to participate. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth Government,
Standards Australia is recognized as Australias peak non-government national standards body. Standards Australia
also supports excellence in design and innovation through the Australian Design Awards.

For further information visit www.standards.org.au

Australian Standards
Committees of experts from industry, governments, consumers and other relevant sectors prepare Australian
Standards. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are a consensus of the views
of representative interests and also take account of comments received from other sources. They reflect the latest
scientific and industry experience. Australian Standards are kept under continuous review after publication and are
updated regularly to take account of changing technology.

International Involvement
Standards Australia is responsible for ensuring the Australian viewpoint is considered in the formulation of
International Standards and that the latest international experience is incorporated in national Standards. This role is
vital in assisting local industry to compete in international markets. Standards Australia represents Australia at both
the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

Sales and Distribution
Australian Standards, Handbooks and other documents developed by Standards Australia are printed and
distributed under license by SAI Global Limited.

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For information regarding the development of Standards contact:
Standards Australia Limited
GPO Box 476
Sydney NSW 2001
Phone: 02 9237 6000
Fax: 02 9237 6010
Email: mail@standards.org.au
Internet: www.standards.org.au

For information regarding the sale and distribution of Standards contact:
SAI Global Limited
Phone: 13 12 42
Fax: 1300 65 49 49
Email: sales@sai-global.com

ISBN 0 7337 9205 7
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