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In this era of modernization, manager is someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other

people so that organization goals can be accomplished. (Robbins et al., 2012). Due to the consequence of
globalization that caused to rapid changes in the association, manager is vitally to perform duty to bring
the employees together in the organization to achieve the same objective and goal. In this case, manager
is very important as they play a crucial role to help their subordinates in achieving organization objectives.
Hence, in order to know more about the work of manager in practice, an interview has been done. The
manager who has been interviewed for this assignment is Mr J who works as a restaurant area manager in
a company Z which has four outlets in Malaysia and 10 outlets in Singapore. Before joining this company,
Mr J has been working in education industry for more than 10 years. Company Z is a F&B corporation
which is a private sector and is a large organization consisting of more than 100 employees. Based on the
interview, Mr J operates at the middle line level of association hierarchy in company Z. Mr Js job scopes
consists of spending time supervise structured and customize restaurant visits in which under his control
and control budget expenses, ensure good customer service, development of crew, quality and safety of
food and cleanliness of store. In connection with the definition of manager and his job scopes described,
Mr J clearly meets the criteria of being a manager.
The purpose of this essay are to have a better understanding on what managers do and analyze to
what extent Henri Fayols four functions ( planning, organizing, leading and controlling) with Robert. L.
Katzs management skills to Mr Js managerial work as a middle manager. In addition, it is also to
explain how economic and technology condition can affect the organization.
Henri Fayol (1916/1999, as cited in Brunsson, 2008) included planning, organizing, leading and
controlling in his management concept. For this reason, manager should be responsible for what goals or
objective the need to accomplish for the company, creating a list of responsibilities, arrangement of
sequence of the work and correcting activities as planned. (Gray Irwin, 1984 as cited in Brunsson, 2008).
A previous finding of Hughes and Singles ( 1985, as cited in Carroll &Gillen, 1987) showed that although
the importance level of directing, controlling and organizing were about the same from one level to
another, but as the importance of planning increase, it will eventually decrease the importance of staffing.
As manager move on from first line management to top level management. Furthermore, these results
were much the same as Carrolls & Taylors (1968) study.
Based on the interview with Mr J , he rated 5 in planning. The best plans cannot anticipate all
unexpected occurrences which may arise, but does include a place for these events and prepare the
weapons which may be needed at the moment of being surprised. ( Fayol, 1954). Jaquess (1978, as cited
in Gentry & Cullen et al., 2013)Stratified Systems Theory (SST) stated that middle level managers need
to plan daily tasks which maintaining a perception of possible changes in the future. Mr J always set a
target not only for himself but also for the organization. He makes sure that he has allocate sufficient
activities to achieve his objectives (hit the monthly sales target). Every month Mr J will plan a list of new
activities to attract more customers, for example having promotion of buy one free one, free food testing
on new items, lucky draw of the month and so forth.
Definition of organizing is managers are responsible for structuring and arranging work to
achieve the organization goals. (Robbins et al., 2012) In this category, Mr J has rated it for 5. According
to Mr J, in order to accomplish an organizations goal, a company needs to have sufficient subordinates
workforce and make sure everyone has the best training so that they can perform well in from of customer.
There is no point to run a business if a company foes not has any marketing strategies. Thus, a responsible
manager should always determine what idea to be implemented to help the boost up company interest.
For instance, Mr J has to make sure the kitchen have enough ingredients, staff on duty are arrange to their
respective sections and organize how many days for each outlets as Mr J is currently taking control of
three restaurants.
In the leading category, Mr J has rated 5. the challenge of leading people falls to middle
managers. ( Arneson, 2008). As a middle level manager, Mr J always motivates and lead his employees.
Motivation towards 2rganizations employees will cause productivity to be higher. (Van Marrewijk &
Timmers, 2003). Rather than just telling what employees need to do, manager should value the skills and
knowledge of their subordinates. Mr J said that every month he will give his staffs extra incentives as
there is what they deserve. Besides giving incentives, Mr J also takes good care of his employees welfare.
As Mr J believe that if manager does not pay what the employee deserved, they would not willing to put
full commitment into their job. Hence, he realized that what a company pays to their employees is how
much effort their workers will put into their job. According to Mr J, in order to make the workers to
respect the manager, first the manager needs to make himself as a role model and example. Mr J does not
bother how people look at him, in fact he does the same task as his subordinates (wipes table and take
orders). Wright & Snell (1999) stated that, in an organization, people do not work alone, in fact they
combine their talents and energies to meet their goals.
Controlling is monitoring activities to ensure that they are accomplished as planned. (Robbins et
al,. 2012) Mr J has rated 4 in this category. In order to implement empowered work teams for
organization, manager should give their teams a responsibility for managing their own performance,
including appraising performance and taking corrective actions when someone is not performing up to
standard. ( Liden & Arad, 1996) Based on the information from Mr J, he found that having roll call
every day tend to solve some internal problems as everyone will have to discuss about their performance
at the end of the day. In order to correct ongoing activities that went wrong, besides having a roll call
every day, Mr J will change the current plan to alternative idea to get a better results for the organization.
Nevertheless, Henri Fayols four functions have a connection with Robert L. Katzs human and
conceptual skills. Katz defined human skills as the potential in creating a collaborative work condition
towards workers. Human skills is the most significant skills and is crucial in every level of manager (first
line to top managers) by motivating, communicating and leading. (Robbins et al, 2012).
A manager should have a good communication with their subordinates, either through meetings,
face-to-face interaction or by email. Mr J knows that in order to achieve organization objectives, one of
the main key points is communication. In this case, it can be shown how Mr J influence and coordinate
his subordinates to work in the best interests for organization through proposing organization goals
understandably. Furthermore, Bandura and Schunk (1981, as cited in Peterson & Fleet, 2004) stated that
people will not be able to complete the tasks if they believe they do not have the abilities and skills
essential to perform effectively. Based on the theories above, motivation by manager is mandatory in an
In addition, Manns findings (1965, as cited in Peterson& Fleet, 2004) figured that technical skills,
human skills, and conceptual skills are corresponded. As a middle level manager, Mr J applies more of
conceptual and human skills than technical skills. Overall, since majority of Mr Js job involve human
skills, so the basic principles of Katzs human skills are connected and relevant to a managers jobs to full
extent. To sum it up, Katzs human skills and Fayols four functions are relevant with Mr Js job as a
Furthermore, technology, economic and environmental appears to be some of the factors may
affect the organizations future and how it works. (Robbins et al., 2012). Clearly a bigger organization
will have more development in technology compare to a small organization. Mr J belongs to a large sized
organization. Technology might help a manager to attempt organization objective in a more effective and
efficient way. Mr J often uses computer (internet, Microsoft excel) to accomplish his organization goals.
Since time efficiency is a must, technology development will improve organization performance.
As we all know, changes of economic condition will affect many things in this world. As
economic decrease, there will be a huge impact toward an organization. For instant, company will starts
to reduce cost by firing people. In this case, unemployment rate will certainly increase.
In a nutshell, the four functions of Henri Fayol and general principle that existed in Katzs human
skills applied to Mr Js job to great extent as proved by the examples given above. Needless to say, both
theories are suitable and relevant in managers daily job.

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