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Career Planning and Development

Prof. M. A. Akkas, Dhaka University.


1. What is Career?
The term career has a nm!er of meanings. "t can !e vie#ed from
different perspectives. "n poplar sage it can mean advancement or
p#ard movement to linear progression. $or e%ample, he is moving p
in his career. This definition sggests that a person is prsing a career
only if he or she e%hi!its steady or rapid advancement in stats, money
and the like. People #ho have not e%perienced advancement or other
s!stantial achievements do not really have a career.
Career means a profession &for e%ample, he has chosen a career in
medicine'. "t is a lifelong se(ence of )o!s. "t is se(ence of positions
that a person has held over his or her life. "t means sta!le employment
#ithin a profession. $or e%ample physicians and la#yers are thoght to
have careers, #hereas clerks and mechanical are not. This definition
sggests that one mst achieve a certain occpational or social stats for
one*s #ork activities to constitte a career.
A career is the sm total of paid and npaid #ork, learning and life roles
yo ndertake throghot yor life.
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The term +career+ #as traditionally associated #ith paid employment and
referred to a single occpation. "n today+s #orld of #ork the term +career+
is seen as a continos process of learning and development.
Contri!tions to a career can inclde,
-ork e%perience
Commnity involvement
.mployment
/ife roles
.nterprise activities
Cltral activities
Training
.dcation
"nterests
0port
1olnteer #ork.

As yo gain more e%perience in the #orld of #ork and ndertake a
variety of life e%periences, yo are !ilding yor ni(e career path. All
life e%periences, inclding paid #ork, sporting interests and managing a
hosehold shold !e dra#n pon as evidence to a potential employer
that yo are the person for the )o!.
0per and 2all &1344' define career as a se(ence of positions occpied
!y a person dring the corse of a lifetime. A career is all the )o!s that
are held dring one*s #orking life. This is the o!)ective career.
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Career may !e defined as a sorce of sta!ility #ithin single occpational
field or closely connected fields. A person*s prsit of closely connected
)o!s like teacher, gidance conselor and private ttor is thoght to
represent a career.
$rom another perspective, a career consists of the changes in vales,
attitdes and motivation that occr, as a person gro#s older & Davis,
1336'. This is the s!)ective career. 0o all careers have !oth s!)ective
and o!)ective elements that together from the !asis of an individal*s
career.
7oth of these perspectives, o!)ective and s!)ective, focs on the
individal. 7oth assme that people have some degree of control over
their destinies and that they can maniplate opportnities in order to
ma%imi8e the sccess and satisfaction derived from their careers.
Career means advancement, professional stats and sta!ility. Arther, 2all
and /a#rence consider the career to !e an evolving se(ence of a
person*s #ork e%perience over time.
A career is defined as the pattern of #ork9related e%periences that span
the corse of a person*s life. -ork9related e%periences inclde o!)ective
:
events or sitations sch as )o! positions, )o! dties, and #ork9related
decisions; and s!)ective interpretations of #ork9related events sch as
#ork aspirations, e%pectations, vales and needs, and feelings a!ot
particlar #ork e%periences.
<ecently researchers have advocated a mltiple career concept that
distingishes for career patterns,
9 A traditional linear career that emphasi8es p#ard mo!ility,
9 An e%pert career that focses on sta!ility in a specially area,
9 A spiral career in #hich ma)or career shifts occr periodically,
perhaps every = to 1> years
9 A transitory career, #hich is characteri8ed !y changes in career
fields as fre(ently as every three to five years.
Career is often confsed #ith )o!. .%perts make difference !et#een a
career and a )o!. According to them, a career is a perceived se(ence of
attitdes and !ehaviors associated #ith #ork9related e%periences and
activities over the span of the person*s life.
-hereas a )o! is #hat a person does at #ork to !ring home a paycheck,
a career is !eing engaged in a satisfying and prodctive activity. Ths a
career involves a long9term vie# of a series of )o!s and #ork
e%periences.
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$or some people their )o!s are part of a carefl plan. $or others, their
career is simply a matter of lck. Merely planning a career does not
garantee career sccess. 0perior performance, e%perience, edcation,
and some occpational lck play an important role. -hen people rely
largely on lck, ho#ever, they seldom are prepared for career
opportnities that arise. 0ccessfl people identify their career goals,
plan, and then take action. To pt it another #ay, sccessfl careers are
managed throgh proper and carefl career planning.
People #ho fail to plan their careers may do so !ecase they think that
their company or their !oss #ill assme that responsi!ility. @r perhaps
they are na#are of the !asic career planning concepts. -ithot an
nderstanding of career goals and career paths, planning is nlikely. A
career path is the se(ential pattern of )o!s that forms one*s career.
Career goals are the ftre positions one strives to reach as part of a
career.
5. Career planning
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Career planning is the process of one*s life #ork and involves evalating
a!ilities and interests, considering alternative career opportnities,
esta!lishing career goals, and planning practical development.
Career planning is the deli!erate process throgh #hich a person
!ecomes a#are of personal career related attri!tes and the lifelong
sense of stages that contri!te to his or her career flfillment.
@rgani8ation has a vested interest in the careers of their mem!ers and
career planning and development programs help them to enhance
employees* )o! performance and ths the overall effectiveness of the
organi8ation.
:. What do employees want in organizational career planning?
.ffective career planning and development programs mst consider the
different perceptions and desires of employees. .mployees #ant the
follo#ing factors in organi8ational career planning,
Career e(ity, .mployees #ant to perceive e(ity in the
organi8ation*s performance and promotion system #ith respect to
career advancement opportnities.
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0pervisory concern, .mployee #ant their spervisors to play an
active role in career development and to provide timely performance
feed!ack.
A#areness of opportnities, .mployees #ant kno#ledge of the career
advancement opportnities that e%ist in their organi8ations.
.mployee interest, .mployees needs different amont of information
and have different degrees of interest in career advancement
depending on a variety of factors &age, se%, occpation, edcation'.
Career satisfaction, .mployees, depending on their age and
occpation, have different levels of career satisfaction.
?. Benefits of career planning
Personnel department shold take an active interest in employee career
planning. They often handle career planning !ecase their hman
resorces plans indicate the organi8ation*s ftre employment needs and
related career opportnities. D. 7. Miller &133=' says that organi8ations
have different perspective on careers. They #ant to assre that
managerial sccession is orderly and efficient so that #hen managers
need to !e replaced !ecase of promotion, retirement, accident or illness,
=
termination or resignation, high9(alified people can replace them
(ickly and easily. "n addition, personnel e%perts are more likely to !e
a#are of training and other developmental opportnities. @f corse
individal managers shold encorage career planning. The involvement
of personnel managers in career planning has gro#n dring recent years
!ecase of its !enefits. 2ere is a partial list of those !enefits,
Develops promota!le employees. Career planning helps to develop
internal spplies of promota!le talent.
/o#ers trnover. The increased attention and concern for individal
careers generate more organi8ational loyalty, and therefore, lo#er
employee trnover.
"mproves the organi8ation*s a!ility to attract and retain high talent
personnel.
Taps employee potential. Career planning encorages employees to
tap more of their potential a!ilities !ecase they have specific career
goals.
$rthers gro#th. Career plans and goals motivate employees to gro#
and develop.
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<edces hoarding. -ithot career planning, it is easier for managers
to hoard key s!ordinates. Career planning cases employees,
managers and the personnel department to !ecome a#are of employee
(alifications.
0atisfies employee needs. -ith less hoarding and improved gro#th
opportnities for employees, an individal*s esteem needs, sch as
recognition and accomplishment, is more readily satisfied.
<edce employee frstration.
Assists affirmative action plans. Career planning can help mem!ers of
protected grops prepare for more important )o!s. This preparation
can contri!te to meeting affirmative action timeta!les.
"t ensres needed talents #ill !e availa!le.
"mproves the organi8ation*s a!ility to attract and retain high talent
employees.
Promotes organi8ational good#ill.
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