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# 95.

141 PHYSICS I
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Lecture 7
2/13/2012

Course website:
faculty.uml.edu/amittler/teaching/

Queries: Arthur_Mittler@uml.edu

www.masteringphysics.com
Course: UML95141SPRING2012

Lecture video
http://echo360.uml.edu/chowdhury2011/physics1Spring.html
Last Lecture
Chapter 3
Projectile Wrap-up
Chapter 4
Inertia
Force
Mass
Newtons laws of motion
Today
Chapter 3
Relative Velocity
Vector kinematics
Projectile motion
http://www.iclicker.com/registration
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Projectile Motion
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Projectile Motion
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
x v
0x
t
y v
oy
t
1
2
gt
2
v
0x
0 for red ball
v
0y
0 for both
If g = 0, yellow ball would travel
horizontally and hit red ball
For non-zero g, both balls drop
equal amounts in each time
interval, so yellow ball still hits
red ball eventually
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Projectile Motion
x v
0x
t
y v
oy
t
1
2
gt
2
v
0x
0
for red ball v
0y
0
If g = 0, yellow ball would travel in
a straight line and hit red ball
For non-zero g, both balls drop
equal amounts in each time
interval, so yellow ball still hits
red ball eventually
Kinematics to Dynamics
Force
Newtons 1
st
Law
Newtons 2
nd
Law
Newtons 3
rd
Law
From HOW things move to WHY things move
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Force
Intuitively, we understand a Force to be a push
or pull on an object
-racket hitting a ball
-elevator cable pulling a car
-engine pulling a train
Contact forces, where the force is exerted by
one object in contact with another
Non-contact force: magnets, electric fields, or
gravity
Force has magnitude and direction: it is a
VECTOR!
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Force
For an object at rest to start moving, a Force must
be exerted on it
If an object is already moving, also need a Force
on it to stop motion
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Newtons 1
st
Law
Every object continues in its state of rest,
or of uniform velocity in a straight line, as
long as no Force acts upon it
Things want to keep on doing what they
Newtons 1
st
Law: Law of Inertia
So, the previous movie clip makes sense?

CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Inertia
Obviously, some objects are more difficult
to get moving than others
We quantify inertia by a measure we call
mass
SI units: mass [kg]
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Newtons 2
nd
Law
If Newtons first law tells us how an
object behave with no Force, we also
want to understand how an object
behaves with a Force applied.
The acceleration of an object is directly
proportional to the net force applied to
the object, and the constant of
proportionality is mass.
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
F ma
Units for Force
Using Newtons 2
nd
Law, we can figure
out the units of Force.
F ma
[kg]
m
s
2

## New unit of force : Newton N

1 N = 1 kg.m/s
2
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Redefine Force
An action capable of accelerating an object
Acceleration is a vector, as is Force.
Mass is a scalar
Net acceleration is in the same direction as
net Force.
F ma
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Newtons 1
st
& 2
nd
Laws
If F = ma (second law)
and no Force is exerted on an object
how can we describe the objects
velocity?
a=0, so v is constant! (first law)
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Newton's 1
st
and 2
nd
Laws
Do they work everywhere?
Say you are in a pickup truck that is
accelerating, and you put a frictionless block
in the back.
What do you see happening to the block?
What is the force causing this?

CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Inertial Reference Frames
Newtons Laws only work in Inertial
reference frames

Inertial reference frame
a Reference Frame that moves with a
constant velocity
a Reference Frame at rest
a Reference Frame in which Newtons
Laws hold

CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Newtons 3
rd
Law of Motion
1
st
Law: Law of Inertia, things want to keep on
doing what they are already doing.
2
nd
Law: Forces cause objects to accelerate,
with a = F/m.
But where do forces come from?
Forces come from other objects
Earth exerts a force on a falling ball (gravity)
Elevator cable exerts force on car
Hammer exerts a force on the nail

CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Newtons 3
rd
Law
But when hammer hits nail, the hammer stops very
quickly, i.e. it decelerates
So nail must also exert a Force on the hammer.
This is Newtons 3
rd
Law
If object A exerts a Force on object B, B exerts an
equal Force on A in the opposite direction.
For every action, there is an equal and opposite
reaction
NOTE, Action and Reaction forces act on different
objects!
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Force
Exerted by an object; acts on another object.

If we are interested in the motion of an object,
we only sum up Forces acting ON that object.

Must decide which object we want to focus on.

To move an object, force must be external

Internal forces cancel (Newtons 3
rd
Law)
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Force
F
On Person by Ground
F
On Ground by Person
F
PG
F
GP
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Newtons 2
nd
Law Exercise
Superman must stop a train of mass 4x10
5
kg
traveling at 80 m/s in 320 m.
What force must he exert to do this?
2
10
s
m
a
F
superman
4 10
6
N
F ma
v
2
v
0
2
+2a(x x
0
)
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Ignoring air resistance, all objects dropped near
the surface of the Earth accelerates towards
Earth with
Force of Gravity
According to Newtons Second Law, if an object
is accelerating, there must be a net force on it.
Here, the net Force is the gravitational force.
Magnitude of this force is known as weight.
So Weight has units of force (newtons) while
Mass has units of kilogram
How do we measure Weight?

g 9.8
m
s
2
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Force of Gravity
Gravity always acts on objects near the
surface of the Earth
But all objects do not accelerate downwards all
the time
Other forces acts on the objects
Focus on objects at rest
Since the acceleration of an object at rest is 0,
these other forces must equal the Force of
gravity (or weight).
Use these other forces to measure weight
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7
Summary
Inertia
Force
Mass
Newtons laws of motion
CHOWDHURY 95.141 PHYSICS I SPRING 2012 LECTURE 7