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Asset LTE- Practical's / Demostrations


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INSTRUCTOR - GRAHAM
WHYLEY
WELCOME
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LTE Frequency Bands
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LTE Frequency Bands
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LTE Frequency Bands
Supported Channels (non-overlapping)
E-UTRA
Band
Downlink
Bandwidth
Channel Bandwidth (MHZ)
1.4 3 5 10 15 20
1 60 - - 12 6 4 3
2 60 42 20 12 6 4* 3*
3 75 53 23 15 7 5* 3*
4 45 32 15 9 4 3 2
5 25 17 8 5 2* - -
6 10 - - 2 1* X X
7 70 - - 14 7 4 3*
8 35 25 11 7 3* - -
9 35 - - 7 3 2* 1*
10 60 - - 12 6 4 3
11 25 - - 5 2* 1* 1*
12 18 12 6 3* 1* - X
13 10 7 3 2* 1* X X
14 10 7 3 2* 1* X X
...
33 20 - - 4 2 1 1
34 15 - - 3 1 1 X
35 60 42 20 12 6 4 3
36 60 42 20 12 6 4 3
37 20 - - 4 2 1 1
38 50 - - 10 5 - -
39 40 - - 8 4 3 2
40 100 - - - 10 6 5
* UE receiver sensitivity can be relaxed
X Channel bandwidth too wide for the band
- Not supported
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E-UTRA
Band
Bandwidth
UL (MHz)
E-ARFCN
UL
Bandwidth
DL (MHz)
E-ARFCN
DL
Duplex
Mode
1 1920-1980
13000 13599
2110-2170 0 599
FDD
2 1850-1910
13600 14199
1930-1990
600 - 1199 FDD
3 1710-1785
14200 14949
1805-1880
1200 1949 FDD
4
1710-1755 14950 15399 2110-2155 1950 2399 FDD
5
824-849 15400 15649 869-894 2400 2649 FDD
6 830-840
15650 15749
875-885
2650 2749 FDD
7 2500-2570
15750 16449
2620-2690
2750 3449 FDD
8 880-915
16450 16799
925-960
3450 3799 FDD
9 1749.9-1784.9
16800 17149
1844.9-1879.9
3800 4149 FDD
10
1710-1770 17150 17749 2110-2170 4150 4749 FDD
11
1427.9-1452.9 17750 17999 1475.9-1500.9 4750 4999 FDD
12
698-716 18000 18179 728-746 5000 5179 FDD
13
777-787 18180 18279 746-756 5180 5279 FDD
14
788-798 18280 18379 758-768 5280 5379 FDD
...

33
1900-1920 26000 26199 1900-1920 26000 26199 TDD
34
2010-2025 26200 26349 2010-2025 26200 26349 TDD
35
1850-1910 26350 26949 1850-1910 26350 26949 TDD
36
1930-1990 26950 27549 1930-1990 26950 27549 TDD
37
1910-1930 27550 27749 1910-1930 27550 27749 TDD
38
2570-2620 27750 28249 2570-2620 27750 28249 TDD
39 1880-1920 28250 28649 1880-1920 28250 28649 TDD
40 2300-2400 28650 29649 2300-2400 28650 29649 TDD
LTE Frequency Bands
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Frame Structures
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LTE Frame Structure
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Frame Structures-TDD
0 1 2 3 19
10 ms
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Frame Structures-TDD
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Frame Structures-FDD
0 1 2 3 19
One Sub-
frame = 1 mS
10 ms
In half-duplex FDD operation, the UE cannot
transmit and receive at the same time while there
are no such restrictions in full-duplex FDD.
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Frame Structures-FDD
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LTE Carriers
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LTE Carriers
Supported Channels (non-overlapping)
E-UTRA
Band
Downlink
Bandwidth
Channel Bandwidth (MHZ)
1.4 3 5 10 15 20
1 60 - - 12 6 4 3
2 60 42 20 12 6 4* 3*
3 75 53 23 15 7 5* 3*
4 45 32 15 9 4 3 2
5 25 17 8 5 2* - -
6 10 - - 2 1* X X
7 70 - - 14 7 4 3*
8 35 25 11 7 3* - -
9 35 - - 7 3 2* 1*
10 60 - - 12 6 4 3
11 25 - - 5 2* 1* 1*
12 18 12 6 3* 1* - X
13 10 7 3 2* 1* X X
14 10 7 3 2* 1* X X
...
33 20 - - 4 2 1 1
34 15 - - 3 1 1 X
35 60 42 20 12 6 4 3
36 60 42 20 12 6 4 3
37 20 - - 4 2 1 1
38 50 - - 10 5 - -
39 40 - - 8 4 3 2
40 100 - - - 10 6 5
* UE receiver sensitivity can be relaxed
X Channel bandwidth too wide for the band
- Not supported
Bandwidth
(MHz)
1.4 3 5 10 15 20
# of RBs 6 15 25 50 75 100
Subcarriers 72 180 300 600 900 1200
Since the appropriate LTE Frequency Band
and LTE Frame Structure have been
selected or defined then the Carriers can
be defined.
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LTE Carriers
Supported Channels (non-overlapping)
E-UTRA
Band
Downlink
Bandwidth
Channel Bandwidth (MHZ)
1.4 3 5 10 15 20
1 60 - - 12 6 4 3
2 60 42 20 12 6 4* 3*
3 75 53 23 15 7 5* 3*
4 45 32 15 9 4 3 2
5 25 17 8 5 2* - -
6 10 - - 2 1* X X
7 70 - - 14 7 4 3*
8 35 25 11 7 3* - -
9 35 - - 7 3 2* 1*
10 60 - - 12 6 4 3
11 25 - - 5 2* 1* 1*
12 18 12 6 3* 1* - X
13 10 7 3 2* 1* X X
14 10 7 3 2* 1* X X
...
33 20 - - 4 2 1 1
34 15 - - 3 1 1 X
35 60 42 20 12 6 4 3
36 60 42 20 12 6 4 3
37 20 - - 4 2 1 1
38 50 - - 10 5 - -
39 40 - - 8 4 3 2
40 100 - - - 10 6 5
* UE receiver sensitivity can be relaxed
X Channel bandwidth too wide for the band
- Not supported
Bandwidth
(MHz)
1.4 3 5 10 15 20
# of RBs 6 15 25 50 75 100
Subcarriers 72 180 300 600 900 1200
Since the appropriate LTE Frequency Band
and LTE Frame Structure have been
selected or defined then the Carriers can
be defined.
Assign Carrier to Frequency
Band
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LTE Carriers
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LTE Carriers
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LTE Carriers
E-UTRA
Band
Bandwidth
UL (MHz)
E-ARFCN
UL
Bandwidth
DL (MHz)
E-ARFCN
DL
Duplex
Mode
1 1920-1980
13000 13599
2110-2170
0 599 FDD
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LTE Carriers
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Slot Structure and Physical Resources
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ONE slot = 12
consecutive
subcarriers
One slot = 0.5mS
6 or 7 OFDM symbols
(depending upon cyclic
perfix size), thus a
single resource block is
containing either 72 or
84 OFDM symbols
12x 7 = 84 OFDM
symbols
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LTE Carriers
Bandwidth
(MHz)
1.4 3 5 10 15 20
# of RBs 6 15 25 50 75 100
Subcarriers 72 180 300 600 900 1200
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LTE Carriers
E-UTRA
Band
Bandwidth
UL (MHz)
E-ARFCN
UL
Bandwidth
DL (MHz)
E-ARFCN
DL
Duplex
Mode
...

33
1900-1920 26000 26199 1900-1920 26000 26199 TDD
34
2010-2025 26200 26349 2010-2025 26200 26349 TDD
35
1850-1910 26350 26949 1850-1910 26350 26949 TDD
36
1930-1990 26950 27549 1930-1990 26950 27549 TDD
37
1910-1930 27550 27749 1910-1930 27550 27749 TDD
38
2570-2620 27750 28249 2570-2620 27750 28249 TDD
39 1880-1920 28250 28649 1880-1920 28250 28649 TDD
40 2300-2400 28650 29649 2300-2400 28650 29649 TDD
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LTE Carriers
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
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LTE Carriers
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R1 R1
R1
R1 R1
R1 R1
R1
Configuration of
Carrier- 2 antenna
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LTE Carriers
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REUSE 1(PRIORITISATION)
Carrier 1
Carrier 1
Carrier 1
15 Mhz
5
Mhz
A1
A2
A3
A1
A2
A3
Each sector divides the available bandwidth into prioritised
(one third) and non-prioritised (two third) sections.
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REUSE 1(PRIORITISATION)
Carrier 1
Carrier 1
Carrier 1
Number of Partitions = 3
15 Mhz
5
Mh
z
A
1
A
2 A
3
A
1
A
2
A
3
The simplest way to minimize ICI
within a Frequency Reuse 1 (FR 1)
scenario is by prioritisation of
resources. Reuse 1 (Prioritisation)
scheme prioritises certain portions of
the carrier bandwidth (i.e.,
number of RBs) in each cell
according to a set plan.
The whole bandwidth is still available
for transmission in all cells, but the
concept is that each cell uses its
prioritised RBs more often than its
non-prioritised RBs, so that it
minimises the interference that it may
cause to other cells.
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Coordination factor
The improvement of Traffic &
Control SINR with the
deployment of Prioritisation is
dependent on the Cell Loading
and on the coordination factor.
coordination factor of 0
assumes no
coordination at all. No dB
improvement. No ICI
coordination factor of 1 means
perfect coordination.
Recommended 0.7
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REUSE 1(PRIORITISATION)
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Soft Frequency Reuse
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Soft Frequency Reuse
Soft Frequency Reuse Scheme (Power Ratio 50%, Bandwidth
Ratio 50%)
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Soft Frequency Reuse
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inter-cell interference control (ICIC).
The available thresholds
are RSRP and
Relative RSRP.
RSRP is self explanatory
while the latter is defined
in dBs and can be
expressed as
the difference between
the RSRPs of the
serving and the
strongest interfering cell
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Global Editor
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Reuse Partitioning
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Reuse Partitioning
Multiple partitions.
Two dedicated zones, one for CCUs, the
other for CEUs.
Each sector can only consume CE
resources from its own dedicated CE partition
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Comparison
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Site Data Base
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Bearers
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LTE Bearers
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LTE Bearers
The Default Uplink
and Downlink LTE
bearers are defined
per CQI providing 15
DL bearers and 4 UL
bearers.
CQI is a report sent
from the UE to the
eNodeB suggesting
the appropriate
Modulation and
Coding to be used by
the eNodeB
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57
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Channel Quality Indicator Reporting
CQI Report
PUSCH
PUCCH
PDSCH
The UE may not have
PUSCH resources
CQI Modulation Actual
coding rate
Required
SINR
1 QPSK 0.07618 -4.46
2 QPSK 0.11719 -3.75
3 QPSK 0.18848 -2.55
4 QPSK 308/1024 -1.15
5 QPSK 449/1024 1.75
6 QPSK 602/1024 3.65
7 16QAM 378/1024 5.2
8 16QAM 490/1024 6.1
9 16QAM 616/1024 7.55
10 64QAM 466/1024 10.85
11 64QAM 567/1024 11.55
12 64QAM 666/1024 12.75
13 64QAM 772/1024 14.55
14 64QAM 873/1024 18.15
15 64QAM 948/1024 19.25
Each default Bearers has
Control & Traffic SINR
requirements according to
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57
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Channel Quality Indicator Reporting
CQI Report
PUSCH
PUCCH
PDSCH
The UE may not have
PUSCH resources
CQI Modulation Actual
coding rate
Required
SINR
1 QPSK 0.07618 -4.46
2 QPSK 0.11719 -3.75
3 QPSK 0.18848 -2.55
4 QPSK 308/1024 -1.15
5 QPSK 449/1024 1.75
6 QPSK 602/1024 3.65
7 16QAM 378/1024 5.2
8 16QAM 490/1024 6.1
9 16QAM 616/1024 7.55
10 64QAM 466/1024 10.85
11 64QAM 567/1024 11.55
12 64QAM 666/1024 12.75
13 64QAM 772/1024 14.55
14 64QAM 873/1024 18.15
15 64QAM 948/1024 19.25
15 Defaulf
Bearers
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CQI Modulation Efficiency Actual
coding rate
Required
SINR
1 QPSK 0.1523 0.07618 -4.46
2 QPSK 0.2344 0.11719 -3.75
3 QPSK 0.3770 0.18848 -2.55
4 QPSK 0.6016 308/1024 -1.15
5 QPSK 0.8770 449/1024 1.75
6 QPSK 1.1758 602/1024 3.65
7 16QAM 1.4766 378/1024 5.2
8 16QAM 1.9141 490/1024 6.1
9 16QAM 2.4063 616/1024 7.55
10 64QAM 2.7305 466/1024 10.85
11 64QAM 3.3223 567/1024 11.55
12 64QAM 3.9023 666/1024 12.75
13 64QAM 4.5234 772/1024 14.55
14 64QAM 5.1152 873/1024 18.15
15 64QAM 5.5547 948/1024 19.25
The coding rate indicates
how many real data bits
are present out of 1024
while the efficiency
provides the number of
information bits per
modulation symbol.
602/1024 = 0.5879
QPSK = 2bits
Efficiency=
2x0.5879=1.1758 data
bits per symbol
coding rate
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CQI Modulation Efficiency Actual
coding rate
Required
SINR
1 QPSK 0.1523 0.07618 -4.46
2 QPSK 0.2344 0.11719 -3.75
3 QPSK 0.3770 0.18848 -2.55
4 QPSK 0.6016 308/1024 -1.15
5 QPSK 0.8770 449/1024 1.75
6 QPSK 1.1758 602/1024 3.65
7 16QAM 1.4766 378/1024 5.2
8 16QAM 1.9141 490/1024 6.1
9 16QAM 2.4063 616/1024 7.55
10 64QAM 2.7305 466/1024 10.85
11 64QAM 3.3223 567/1024 11.55
12 64QAM 3.9023 666/1024 12.75
13 64QAM 4.5234 772/1024 14.55
14 64QAM 5.1152 873/1024 18.15
15 64QAM 5.5547 948/1024 19.25
The coding rate indicates
how many real data bits
are present out of 1024
while the efficiency
provides the number of
information bits per
modulation symbol.
602/1024 = 0.5879
QPSK = 2bits
Efficiency=
2x0.5879=1.1758 data
bits per symbol
coding rate
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Coding rate
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Bearers
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Bearers
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MIMO - Multiple Input Multiple Output
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MIMO - Multiple Input Multiple Output
The propagation channel is the air interface, so that
transmission antennas are handled as input to the channel,
whereas receiver antennas are the output of it
MIMO Types Number of Antennas
SISO
(Single Input
Single Output)
MISO
(Multiple Input
Single Output

SIMO
(Single Input
Multiple Output)

MIMO
(Multiple Input
Multiple Output)

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MIMO
LTE supports downlink transmission on 1, 2 or 4 cell specific antenna ports
corresponding either to 1, 2 or 4 cell-specific reference signals.
On their turn each one of the RS corresponds to one antenna port.
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
each antenna is uniquely
identified by the position
of the reference signals
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R1 R1
R1
R1 R1
R1 R1
R1
On their turn each one of the RS
corresponds to one antenna port.
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MIMO
Single antenna port; port 0
Single User MIMO
Transmit diversity
Open loop spatial multiplexing
Closed loop spatial multiplexing
Multi User MIMO
Closed-loop Rank=1 pre-coding
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Tx diversity:
The first and simplest downlink LTE multiple antenna scheme is :
Open-loop Tx diversity.
It is identical in concept to the scheme introduced in UMTS Release 99.
Closed loop Tx diversity
The more complex, closed loop Tx diversity techniques from UMTS have not
been adopted in LTE, which instead uses the more advanced MIMO, which
was not part of Release 99.
T
X
R
X
010100
010100
010100
SU-MIMO
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Open-loop spatial multiplexing, no UE
feedback required
In open loop in which no feedback is provided from UE
configuration collapses to time diversity and relies on
Cyclic Delay Diversity (CDD)
Creates multi-path on the received signal. Prevents
signal cancellation
In case of UEs with high velocity, the quality of the feedback
may deteriorate.
Thus, an open loop spatial multiplexing mode is also
supported which is based on predefined settings for spatial
multiplexing and precoding.
SU-MIMO includes :
conventional techniques such as Delay
(cyclic for OFDM) Diversity
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Closed loop Tx diversity
PUSCH
Data
Transport Blocks
Code Block Segmentation
Turbo Coding
Rate Matching
Data and Control Multiplexing
CQI
4 bit
16 CS
PMI RI
The UE asks for two
layersRank Indicator 2
from the enodeB.
UE feels it can distinguish
between to different layers
Layer Mapping
Layer 0
Layer 1
Pre Coding
Physical Uplink Shared Channel
(PUSCH): This physical channel
found on the LTE uplink is the Uplink
counterpart of PDSCH
SU-MIMO includes :Spatial Multiplexing
and Precoded Spatial Multiplexing.
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SU-MIMO-Spatial Multiplexing
Spatial multiplexing allows to transmit different streams of data simultaneously
on the same resource block(s)
Two code-word streams 2x2 SU-MIMO
T
X
R
X
010 100
010
100
SU-MIMO
CW0 CW1
Depending on the pre-coding used, each
code word is represented at different
powers and phases on both antennas.
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
Each antenna is uniquely
identified by the position
of the reference signals
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Single user MIMO principle
4 Closed-loop spatial multiplexing
Closed-loop spatial multiplexing. Here the UE reports both the RI
and index of the preferred pre-coding matrix.
Rank Indicator (RI) is the UEs recommendation for the number of layers, i.e.
streams to be used in spatial multiplexing. RI is only reported when the UE is
operating in MIMO modes with spatial multiplexing
Spatial Multiplexing does
increase throughput but
this comes at an expense
of higher SINR
requirements as shown on
the LTE bearers
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Spatial Multiplexing - Rate Gain
Spatial Multiplexing (SM) targets increasing users throughput.
Depending on the number of TX and RX antennae the user
experiences a Rate Gain
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Single user MIMO principle
SU-MIMO Tx Diversity
SU-MIMO
+22dB
Roughly speaking Diversity is used
to improve coverage
This is the coverage area
for SU-MIMO
Spatial
Multiplexing does
increase
throughput but
this comes at an
expense of higher
SINR
requirements as
shown on the LTE
bearers
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Single user MIMO principle
SU-MIMO Tx Diversity
SU-MIMO
+22dB
SM is used to
increase single
users throughput
Roughly speaking Diversity is used
to improve coverage
When applying diversity
What changes, are the SINR
requirements for the bearers that are
reduced.
This is the coverage area
for SU-MIMO
Spatial Multiplexing (SM) targets increasing
users throughput. Depending on the number of
TX and RX antennae the user experiences a
Rate Gain
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Achievable DL Bearer without and with
MIMO Coverage Improvement
(2TX by 2 RX)
By increasing the coverage for each bearer respectively the
result will be larger areas with higher CQI bearers.
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Achievable DL Bearer without and with
MIMO Coverage Improvement
(2TX by 2 RX)
So from a system perspective Diversity not only increases
coverage but network throughput as well.
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SU-MIMO Diversity
What changes, are the SINR
requirements for the bearers that are
divided by the corresponding table
value
SU-MIMO Tx Diversity
SU-MIMO
+22dB
SM is used to increase single
users throughput
Roughly speaking
Diversity is used to
improve coverage
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How do we set this up on Asset
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Bearers-LTE Parameters
SU-MIMO Diversity SU-MIMO
+22dB
Above this threshold
switch to SU-MIMO
Below this threshold
switch to SU-MIMO
Diversity
If
enabled
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Multi User MIMO
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Multi User MIMO
MU-MIMO is used
to increase the
cells throughput.
This is achieved by
co-scheduling
terminals on
the same Resource
Blocks.
Spatial Multiplexing does increase throughput but this comes at an
expense of higher SINR requirements as shown on the LTE bearers
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Multi User MIMO
Applying MU-
MIMO will make no
obvious changes to
a network unless it
is overloaded.
In order for MU-
MIMO to be used
there is a higher
Traffic & Control
SINR requirement
defined
Spatial Multiplexing does increase throughput but this comes at an
expense of higher SINR requirements as shown on the LTE bearers
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MU-MIMO
MU-MIMO increases cell throughput and number of terminals
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MU-MIMO
Applying MU-MIMO will make no obvious changes to a
network unless it is overloaded.
To demonstrate the use of MU-MIMO we will spread terminals
and run the SIM in snapshot mode.
The density of terminals will be high enough for many of them
to fail due to insufficient capacity.
Then we will enable MU-MIMO and observe how the network
is now capable to serve more of the terminals
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MU-MIMO
RSRQ changes when MU-MIMO is deployed because the number of
served terminals changes.
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large improvements close to the cell edge
DL Data Rate without and with MU-MIMO
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DL Cell Throughput without and with MU-
MIMO
effect of the eNodeB now being
capable to serve a higher
number of users by scheduling
them on the same resources
DL Cell Throughout (per cell) when MUMIMO
is enabled.
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The following table indicates how a highly loaded network can accommodate extra
users by deploying MU-MIMO.
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Spatial Multiplexing does increase throughput but this comes at an
expense of higher SINR requirements as shown on the LTE bearers
MU-MIMO is used to
increase the cells
throughput.
In order for MU-MIMO to
be used there is a higher
Traffic & Control SINR
requirement defined
Bearers
Bearers
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How do you set MU-MIMO in Asset
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Bearers-LTE Parameters
SU-MIMO Diversity SU-MIMO
+22dB
Above this threshold
switch to SU-MIMO
Below this threshold
switch to SU-MIMO
Diversity
If
enabled
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Bearers-LTE Parameters
SU-MIMO Diversity MU-MIMO
+18dB
If
enabled
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Bearers-LTE Parameters
Diversity MU-MIMO SU-MIMO
+22dB +18dB
Above this
threshold switch to
MU-MIMO
Below this
threshold switch to
SU-MIMO
Diversity
If
enabled
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Diversity
As previously mentioned Diversitys main purpose is to increase coverage and
this is done by decreasing the bearers SINR requirements.
The bearers with the decreased SINR requirements are easier to achieve.
When applying diversity the RSRP plot and the
SCH/BSC SINR plot stay the same. RSRQ
stays the same as well.
What changes, are the SINR requirements for
the bearers that are divided by the
corresponding table value.
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
R0
each antenna is uniquely
identified by the position
of the reference signals
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RSRP
RSRP is not affected by cell loads. This is the reason why a network is usually
firstly dimensioned to provide adequate signal strength at the desired areas.
WHY?
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RSRQ
RSRQ on the other hand is affected by cell loads
WHY?
Especially with MU-
MIMO
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Comparing all different options for SU-
MIMO and how they affect Data Rates.
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Summary
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Terminal Types
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Terminal Types
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Terminal Types
Path Loss
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Path Loss
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Terminal Types
Ref Sens = KTB + NF + SINR
kTB :thermal noise level , in
units of dBm, in the specified
bandwidth
The receiver Noise Figure
(NF) is a measure of the
degradation of the SINR
caused by components in the
RF signal chain. This
includes the antenna filter
losses, the noise introduced
by the analogue part of the
receiver
SINR (IN) SINR (OUT)
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Bandwidt
h (f)
Thermal noise
power
1 Hz 174 dBm
10 Hz 164 dBm
100 Hz 154 dBm
1 kHz 144 dBm
10 kHz 134 dBm
100 kHz 124 dBm
180 kHz 121.45 dBm
One LTE resource block
360Mhz -118.4
Two LTE resource blocks
200 kHz 120.98 dBm
1 MHz 114 dBm
2 MHz 111 dBm
6 MHz 106 dBm
20 MHz 101 dBm
Link Budget- Up link-Thermal noise
Terminal noise can be
calculated as:
K (Boltzmann constant) x
T (290K) x bandwidth.
k = Boltzman constant (1.38*10
-23
Joules/Kelvin)
T = Temperature in degrees Kelvin
R = Resistance in ohms
B = Bandwidth in Hz
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Bandwidt
h (f)
Thermal noise
power
180 kHz 121.45 dBm
One LTE resource block
Terminal noise can be calculated as:
K (Boltzmann constant) x T (290K) x bandwidth
1.38*10
-23
x 290000 x 180000=0.0000 0000 000072034
Convert to dBm = 10 log 0.0000 0000 000072034
-121.45 dBm for one resource block (180kHz)
k = Boltzman constant (1.38*10
-23
Joules/Kelvin)
T = Temperature in degrees Kelvin
R = Resistance in ohms
B = Bandwidth in Hz
Terminal Types
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Terminal Types
Downlink Reference Signal
DLRS TX Power
Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ)
RSRQ is defined as the ratio NRSRP / (E-UTRA carrier RSSI), where N is the number of RBs of the
E-UTRA carrier RSSI measurement bandwidth. The measurements in the numerator and denominator
shall be made over the same set of resource blocks.
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Terminal Types
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Terminal Types
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Terminal Types
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Terminal Types
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Traffic Raster
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Services
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Intoduction
QoS differentiation, i.e. prioritisation of different services
according to their requirements becomes extremely
important when the system load gets higher.
The most relevant parameters of QoS classes
are:
Transfer Delay
Guaranteed Bit rate:
Delay sensitive QoS Classes have guaranteed bit rate
requirements.
.
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Intoduction
Allocation and Retention Priority (ARP):
Within each QoS class there are different allocation and
retention priorities.
The primary purpose of ARP is to decide whether a bearer
establishment / modification request can be accepted or
needs to be rejected in case of resource limitations .
In addition, the ARP can be used (e.g. by the eNodeB) to
decide which bearer(s) to drop during exceptional resource
limitations
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Intoduction
Users within the same QoS class and ARP class will share
the available capacity.
If the number of users is simply too high, then they will suffer
from bad quality.
In that case it is better to block a few users to guarantee the
quality of existing connections, like streaming videos.
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Services
When running a simulation,
ASSET first attempts to serve
the GBR demands of both
Real Time and Non-Real
Time services, taking into
account the Priority values of
the different services.
Resources are first allocated
to the service with the highest
priority, and then to the next
highest priority service, and
so on.
Allocation and Retention Priority (ARP)
If resources are still available after the GBR demands have been met, then different
scheduling algorithms can be employed to attempt to serve the MBR of real time
services.
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LTE QoS
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Services
When running
a simulation,
ASSET first
attempts to
serve the GBR
demands of
both Real Time
and Non-Real
Time services,
taking into
account the
Priority values
of the different
services.
After defining the General Service Parameters one or more Carriers can be related
to the Service. Since a supporting Carrier has been assigned to the Service, all UL
and DL Bearers will be available for selection as the Supporting Bearers.
No carrier
defined OR
BEARER
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Services
A Minimum Bit Rate (Min-GBR) and a Maximum Bit Rate (Max-MBR) have been
specified for the service.
If a terminal achieves connection to one or more of the available bearers then the
eNodeB will firstly allocate enough resources to it in order to achieve the Min-
GBR.
It will keep allocating more resources to it until the terminal either reaches the
Max-MBR ceiling or until there not more resources available due to cell loading.
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LTE Bearers
The Default Uplink and Downlink LTE bearers are defined per CQI providing 15 DL bearers
and 4 UL bearers.
The most preferable bearer is DL-CQI-15 and the least preferable bearer is DL-CQI-1
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Services
The Default Uplink and Downlink LTE
bearers are defined per CQI providing 15
DL bearers and 4 UL bearers
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Services
The Default Uplink and Downlink LTE
bearers are defined per CQI providing 15
DL bearers and 4 UL bearers
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Services
After defining the General Service Parameters one or more Carriers can be related
to the Service. Since a supporting Carrier has been assigned to the Service, all UL
and DL Bearers will be available for selection as the Supporting Bearers.
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Packet Scheduler
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Packet Scheduler
If resources are still available
after the GBR demands have
been met, then different
scheduling algorithms can be
employed to attempt to serve
the Max Bit Rate.
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UE 1 Data
sent
UE 2 Data
sent
UE 1
UE 6
UE 5
UE 4
UE3
UE 2
UE 3 Data
sent
UE 4 Data
sent
UE 5 Data
sent
UE 6 Data
sent
UE 1 Data
Request
UE 2 Data
Request
UE 3 data
Request
UE 4 Data
Request
UE 5 Data
Request
UE 6 Data
Request
NodeB Packet
Scheduler
Round Robin Scheduler
NodeB Buffers
The aim of this
scheduler is to
share the
available/unused
resources equally
among the RT
terminals
The Round Robin approach is completely
random asit simply allocates the same
resources to all terminals in turns.
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Proportional Fair
If resources are still available after the GBR
demands have been met:
Terminals with higher data rates get a larger
share of the available resources.
Each terminal gets either the resources it
needs to satisfy its RT-MBR demand.
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Proportional Demand
The aim of this scheduler is to allocate the remaining
unused resources to RT terminals in proportion to their
additional resource demands.
If resources are still available after the GBR
demands have been met:
Proportional Demand completely ignores RF
conditions
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Max SINR
Terminals with higher bearer rates(and consequently higher SINR) are preferred
over terminals with lower bearer rates (and consequently lower SINR).
This means that resources are allocated first to those terminals with better
SINR/channel conditions, thereby maximising the throughput.
where S is the average received signal
power,
I is the average interference power,
and N is the noise power.
Best RF conditions are served first.
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Max SINR
Own-signal interference in LTE an occur due to :
Inter-symbol interference due to multipath power exceeding cyclic prefix length
Inter-carrier interference due to Doppler spread (large UE speed)
In LTE, orthogonality is often assumed unity for simplicity:
a = 1 is assumed for LTE and hence Iown = 0.
where S is the average received signal
power,
I is the average interference power,
and N is the noise power.
Best RF conditions are served first.
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The effect of different schedulers on a fairly
loaded network
Best RF conditions are served first.
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The effect of schedulers on a heavily loaded
network
Max SINR Scheduling will maximise the network
throughput as terminals with the best RF
conditions are served first.
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PCI Planning
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PCI
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General
PCI GROUP CODE CELL
SPECIFIC
FREQ SHIFT
0 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
2 0 2 2
3 1 0 3
4 1 1 4
5 1 2 5
6 2 0 0
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PCI
PCI GROUP CODE CELL
SPECIFIC
FREQ SHIFT
0 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
2 0 2 2
3 1 0 3
4 1 1 4
5 1 2 5
6 2 0 0
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General
PCI GROUP CODE CELL
SPECIFIC
FREQ SHIFT
0 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
2 0 2 2
3 1 0 3
4 1 1 4
5 1 2 5
6 2 0 0
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General
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Minmise Groups
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Minmise Codes
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LTE Network Performance- Coverage and
Capacity Predictions
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Cell Loads
Option 1 - Cell loads
Site Database and specifically under the LTE Parameters tab in the fields of
Downlink Load (as a percentage) and Mean UL Interference Level (in dB)..
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Cell Loads
The second option is to create a traffic raster spreading the defined LTE
Terminal Type(s) and then the cell load levels get calculated by running
Simulator Snapshots. In both cases a reference terminal type has to be
specified for the calculation process.
Cell load levels get calculated
by running Simulator
Snapshots.
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Cell Loads
The second option is to create a traffic raster spreading the defined LTE
Terminal Type(s) and then the cell load levels get calculated by running
Simulator Snapshots. In both cases a reference terminal type has to be
specified for the calculation process.
You must run a traffic raster first
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Creating a Traffic Raster
Creating a
Traffic Raster
This is usually
done per
clutter type by
assigning a
terminal
density or a
relative weight
to each one of
the clutters.
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Creating a Traffic Raster
Creating a
Traffic Raster
This is usually
done per
clutter type by
assigning a
terminal
density or a
relative weight
to each one of
the clutters.
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Traffic
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Creating a Traffic Raster
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Creating a Traffic Raster
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Creating a Traffic Raster
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LTE Simulation - Resolution
The decision on what
resolution should be
used for the simulations
is based on what
propagation models are
assigned to the cell
antennas.
Firstly, it is suggested
to use a propagation
model at the resolution
it has been tuned for.
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Resolution
Secondly, it is suggested to
use two propagation
models.
The first one (Primary)
should be calculated at high
resolution (2-20 meters) and
for a relatively small radius
(1-3 km).
The second one
(Secondary) should be
calculated at relatively lower
resolution (20-100 meters)
and for a larger radius (3-
30km).
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Array Setting
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Path Loss
The first one (Primary)
should be calculated at
high resolution (2-20
meters) and for a
relatively small radius
(1-3 km).
The second one
(Secondary) should
be calculated at
relatively lower
resolution (20-100
meters) and for a
larger radius (3-
30km).
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Number of covering cells
The number of
covering cells mainly
affects the accuracy of the
interference based
calculations.
The more cells taken
into account, the more
accurate the interference
values are.
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Results
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Best RSRP
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Path Loss
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Simulator Results
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Simulator Results
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Simulator Results
Default
Beares
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BCH/SCH SINR
BCH/SCH SINR is not affected by the cell load.
BCH and SCH channels are positioned in the 6 central RBs of the Band Width
and effect from interference is small.
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RSRQ
RSRQ on the other hand is affected by cell loads. WHY?
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Diversity
When applying diversity the RSRP plot and the SCH/BSC SINR plot stay the
same. RSRQ stays thesame as well.
What changes, are the SINR requirements for the bearers that are divided by
the corresponding table value.
SU-MIMO Diversity SU-MIMO
+22dB
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Diversity
When applying diversity the RSRP plot and the SCH/BSC SINR plot stay the
same. RSRQ stays thesame as well.
What changes, are the SINR requirements for the bearers.
As previously mentioned Diversitys main purpose is to increase coverage
and this is done by decreasing the bearers SINR requirements.
By increasing the coverage for each bearer respectively the result will be
larger areas with higher CQI bearers.
So from a system perspective Diversity not only increases coverage but
network throughput as well.
SU-MIMO Diversity SU-MIMO
+22dB
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Diversity
What changes, are the SINR requirements for the bearers that
are divided by the corresponding table value.
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Diversity
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DL Data Rate Improvement with Spatial
Multiplexing
SU-MIMO Diversity SU-MIMO
+22dB
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Adaptive Switching
Diversity and Spatial Multiplexing provide significant gains
to the network.
Both of them can be deployed at the same time in Adaptive Switching mode by
eNodeBs so as to provide higher throughput to users close to the cell and
extended coverage to users at cell edge.
SU-MIMO Diversity SU-MIMO
+22dB
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Simulator Results
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Cell Edge Threshold
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Cell Edge Threshold (Global Editor)