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RC Detailing to Eurocode 2

Jenny Burridge
MA CEng MICE MIStructE
Head of Structural Engineering
BS EN 1990 (EC0): Basis of structural design
BS EN 1991 (EC1): Actions on Structures
BS EN 1992 (EC2): Design of concrete structures
BS EN 1993 (EC3): Design of steel structures
BS EN 1994 (EC4): Design of composite steel and concrete structures
BS EN 1995 (EC5): Design of timber structures
BS EN 1996 (EC6): Design of masonry structures
BS EN 1999 (EC9): Design of aluminium structures
BS EN 1997 (EC7): Geotechnical design
BS EN 1998 (EC8): Design of structures for earthquake resistance
Structural Eurocodes
General
Basis of design
Materials
Durability and cover to reinforcement
Structural analysis
Ultimate limit state
Serviceability limit state
Detailing of reinforcement and prestressing tendons General
Detailing of member and particular rules
Additional rules for precast concrete elements and structures
Lightweight aggregated concrete structures
Plain and lightly reinforced concrete structures
Eurocode 2 - contents
A. (Informative) Modification of partial factors for materials
B. (Informative) Creep and shrinkage strain
C. (Normative) Reinforcement properties
D. (Informative) Detailed calculation method for prestressing steel
relaxation losses
E. (Informative) Indicative Strength Classes for durability
F. (Informative) Reinforcement expressions for in-plane stress
conditions
G. (Informative) Soil structure interaction
H. (Informative) Global second order effects in structures
I. (Informative) Analysis of flat slabs and shear walls
J. (Informative) Examples of regions with discontinuity in geometry or
action (Detailing rules for particular situations)
Eurocode 2 - Annexes
EC2 Annex J - replaced by Annex B in PD 6687
BS EN 1992
Design of concrete structures
Part 1-1: General & buildings
Part 1-2: Fire design
Part 2: Bridges
Part 3: Liquid retaining
Standards
BS EN 13670
Execution of
Structures
BS 4449
Reinforcing
Steels
BS EN 10080
Reinforcing
Steels
BS 8500
Specifying
Concrete
BS EN 206-1
Specifying
Concrete
NSCS
BS 8666
Reinforcement
Scheduling
National Annex
PD 6687-1 (Parts 1 & 3)
PD 6687-2 ( Part 2)
N.A.
Specification NSCS, Finishes
NSCS Guidance:
1 Basic
2 Ordinary
3 Plain
4 Special Visual Concrete
Labour and Material (Peri)
18%
24%
58%
Rationalisation of Reinforcement
Optimum cost depends
on:
Material cost
Labour
Plant
Preliminaries
Finance
Team decision required
Detailing
Reinforcement
EC2 does not cover the use of plain or mild steel reinforcement
Principles and Rules are given for deformed bars, decoiled rods,
welded fabric and lattice girders.
EN 10080 provides the performance characteristics and testing methods
but does not specify the material properties. These are given in Annex
C of EC2
Reinforcement
Product form Bars and de-coiled rods Wire Fabrics

Class

A

B

C

A

B

C

Characteristic yield
strength f
yk
or f
0,2k
(MPa)



400 to 600

k = (f
t
/f
y
)
k


1,05

1,08


1,15
<1,35

1,05

1,08


1,15
<1,35

Characteristic strain at
maximum force,
uk
(%)

2,5

5,0

7,5

2,5

5,0

7,5

Fatigue stress range

(N = 2 x 10
6
) (MPa) with
an upper limit of 0.6f
yk



150



100

cold worked seismic
hot rolled
The UK has chosen a maximum value of characteristic yield strength, f
yk
, = 600 MPa,
but 500 MPa is the value assumed in BS 4449 and 4483 for normal supply.
Properties of reinforcement
(Annex C)
Extract BS 8666
UK CARES (Certification - Product & Companies)
1. Reinforcing bar and coil
2. Reinforcing fabric
3. Steel wire for direct use of for further
processing
4. Cut and bent reinforcement
5. Welding and prefabrication of reinforcing
steel
www.ukcares.co.uk
www.uk-bar.org
www.ukcares.co.uk
www.uk-bar.org
A
B
C
Coil up to 16mm (2.5T)
Bar 12,14,15 and 18m
Cut and bent approx 550 to 650/T
Reinforcement supply
Table power bender
High
Medium
Low
Potential Risk factor
Smaller diameter bars cause
less of a problem as they
can often be produced on
an automatic link bending
machine. Larger diameter
bars have to be produced on
a manual power bender with
the potential to trap the
operators fingers. Try to
avoid/minimise the use of
shapes which cause a scissor
action, especially with
larger diameter bars.
Boot Link.
Greater risk than shape code 51 as the
bars have to cross over twice to
achieve the shape.
Health and safety risk becomes higher
with larger diameter bar.
Also the risk increases with small
dimensions.
See Note SN2.
When bent on an automatic link bender
with small diameter bars the risk is
relatively low. When bending on a
manual bender the risk is higher,
especially with larger diameters.
64
See Note SN2.
Great care should be taken
when bending this shape. If
the operator has concerns
when producing this shape
he should consult his
supervisor.
This shape is designed for
producing small to medium
sized links in small diameter
bar.
Do not detail this shape in
large diameter bar, try to
use an alternative (eg. 2 no.
shape code 13s facing each
other to create a shape
code 33).
See Note SN2.
Sausage Link.
Health and safety risk is high with
larger diameter bar.
Also the risk increases with small
dimensions.
When bent on an automatic link bender
with small diameter bars the risk is
relatively low. When bending on a
manual bender the risk is high,
especially with larger diameters and
non standard formers.
33
Fabricator Designer Comment Detail SC
High Risk
33,51,56,63,64 & 99?
Health & Safety
Minimum Bending & projections
Minimum Bends
6mm - 16mm = 2x Dia Internal
20mm - 50mm = 3.5x Dia Internal
Minimum of 4 x dia between bends
End Projection = 5 x Dia from end of bend
Bending
BS8666, Table 2
Tolerances (not in EC2BS8666)
For bars: Bar diameter
For post-tensioned tendons:
Circular ducts: Duct diameter
Rectangular ducts: The greater of:
the smaller dimension or
half the greater dimension
For pre-tensioned tendons:
1.5 x diameter of strand or wire
2.5 x diameter of indented wire
Minimum Cover for Bond
a
Axis
Distance
Reinforcement cover
Axis distance, a, to centre of bar
a = c +
m
/2 +
l
Scope:
Part 1-2 Structural fire design gives several methods for fire engineering
Tabulated data for various elements is given in section 5
Structural Fire Design
BS EN 1992-1-2
c
dev
: Allowance for deviation = 10mm
A reduction in c
dev
may be permitted:
for a quality assurance system, which includes measuring concrete
cover,
10 mm c
dev
5 mm
where very accurate measurements are taken and non conforming
members are rejected (eg precast elements)
10 mm c
dev
0 mm
Allowance in Design for
Deviation
Nominal cover, c
nom
Minimum cover, c
min
c
min
= max {c
min,b
; c
min,dur
; 10 mm}
Axis distance, a
Fire protection
Allowance for deviation, c
dev
Nominal Cover
Lead-in times should be 4 weeks for rebar
Express reinforcement (and therefore expensive) 1 7 days
The more complicated the scheduling the longer for bending
Procurement
Practicalities
12m maximum length H20 to H40
(12m H40 = 18 stone/ 118Kg)
Health & safety
9m maximum length H16 & H12
6m maximum length H10 & H8
Transport
Fixing
Standard Detailing
Control of Cracking
In Eurocode 2 cracking is controlled in the following ways:
Minimum areas of reinforcement cl 7.3.2 & Equ 7.1
A
s,min

s
= k
c
kf
ct,eff
A
ct
this is the same as
Crack width limits (Cl. 7.3.1 and National Annex). These
limits can be met by either:
direct calculation (Cl. 7.3.4) crack width is W
k
Used
for liquid retaining structures
deemed to satisfy rules (Cl. 7.3.3)
Note: slabs 200mm depth are OK if A
s,min
is provided.
EC2: Cl. 7.3
Minimum Reinforcement Area
The minimum area of reinforcement for slabs (and beams) is given by:
d b 0013 . 0
f
d b f 26 . 0
A
t
yk
t ctm
min , s

EC2: Cl. 9.2.1.1, Eq 9.1N
Crack Control Without Direct
Calculation
Provide minimum reinforcement.
Crack control may be achieved in two ways:
limiting the maximum bar diameter using Table 7.2N
limiting the maximum bar spacing using Table 7.3N
EC2: Cl. 7.3.3
Note: For cracking due to restraint use only max bar size
Clear horizontal and vertical distance , (d
g
+5mm) or 20mm
For separate horizontal layers the bars in each layer should be
located vertically above each other. There should be room to allow
access for vibrators and good compaction of concrete.
Spacing of bars
EC2: Cl. 8.2
The design value of the ultimate bond stress, f
bd
= 2.25
1

2
f
ctd
where f
ctd
should be limited to C60/75

1
=1 for good and 0.7 for poor bond conditions

2
= 1 for 32, otherwise (132- )/100
a) 45 90 c) h > 250 mm
h
Direction of concreting
300
h
Direction of concreting
b) h 250 mm d) h > 600 mm
unhatched zone good bond conditions
hatched zone - poor bond conditions

Direction of concreting
250
Direction of concreting
Ultimate bond stress
EC2: Cl. 8.4.2
l
b,rqd
= ( / 4) (
sd
/ f
bd
)
where
sd
is the design stress of the bar at the position
from where the anchorage is measured.
Basic required anchorage length
EC2: Cl. 8.4.3
For bent bars l
b,rqd
should be measured along the
centreline of the bar
l
bd
=
1

2

3

4

5
l
b,rqd
l
b,min
However:
(
2

3

5
) 0.7
l
b,min
> max(0.3l
b,rqd
; 10 , 100mm)
Design Anchorage Length, l
bd
EC2: Cl. 8.4.4
Alpha values
EC2: Table 8.2
Table 8.2 - C
d
& K factors
EC2: Figure 8.3
EC2: Figure 8.4
Anchorage of links
EC2: Cl. 8.5
l
0
=
1

2

3

5

6
l
b,rqd
l
0,min

6
= (
1
/25)
0,5
but between 1.0 and 1.5
where
1
is the % of reinforcement lapped within 0.65l
0
from the
centre of the lap
Percentage of lapped bars
relative to the total cross-
section area
< 25% 33% 50% >50%

6
1 1.15 1.4 1.5
Note: Intermediate values may be determined by interpolation.

1

2

3

5
are as defined for anchorage length
l
0,min
max{0.3
6
l
b,rqd
; 15; 200}
Design Lap Length, l
0
(8.7.3)
EC2: Cl. 8.7.3
Worked example
Anchorage and lap lengths
Anchorage Worked Example
Calculate the tension anchorage for an H16 bar in the
bottom of a slab:
a) Straight bars
b) Other shape bars (Fig 8.1 b, c and d)
Concrete strength class is C25/30
Nominal cover is 25mm
Bond stress, f
bd
f
bd
= 2.25
1

2
f
ctd
EC2 Equ. 8.2

1
= 1.0 Good bond conditions

2
= 1.0 bar size 32
f
ctd
=
ct
f
ctk,0,05
/
c
EC2 cl 3.1.6(2), Equ 3.16

ct
= 1.0
c
= 1.5
f
ctk,0,05
= 0.7 x 0.3 f
ck
2/3
EC2 Table 3.1
= 0.21 x 25
2/3
= 1.8 MPa
f
ctd
=
ct
f
ctk,0,05
/
c
= 1.8/1.5 = 1.2
f
bd
= 2.25 x 1.2 = 2.7 MPa
Basic anchorage length, l
b,req
l
b.req
= (/4) (
sd
/f
bd
) EC2 Equ 8.3
Max stress in the bar,
sd
= f
yk
/
s
= 500/1.15
= 435MPa.
l
b.req
= (/4) ( 435/2.7)
= 40.3
For concrete class C25/30
Design anchorage length, l
bd
l
bd
=
1

2

3

4

5
l
b.req
l
b,min
l
bd
=
1

2

3

4

5
(40.3) For concrete class C25/30
Alpha values
EC2: Table 8.2 Concise: 11.4.2
Table 8.2 - C
d
& K factors
Concise: Figure 11.3
EC2: Figure 8.3
EC2: Figure 8.4
Design anchorage length, l
bd
l
bd
=
1

2

3

4

5
l
b.req
l
b,min
l
bd
=
1

2

3

4

5
(40.3) For concrete class C25/30
a) Tension anchorage straight bar

1
= 1.0

3
= 1.0 conservative value with K= 0

4
= 1.0 N/A

5
= 1.0 conservative value

2
= 1.0 0.15 (c
d
)/

2
= 1.0 0.15 (25 16)/16 = 0.916
l
bd
= 0.916 x 40.3 = 36.9 = 590mm
Design anchorage length, l
bd
l
bd
=
1

2

3

4

5
l
b.req
l
b,min
l
bd
=
1

2

3

4

5
(40.3) For concrete class C25/30
b) Tension anchorage Other shape bars

1
= 1.0 c
d
= 25 is 3 = 3 x 16 = 48

3
= 1.0 conservative value with K= 0

4
= 1.0 N/A

5
= 1.0 conservative value

2
= 1.0 0.15 (c
d
3)/ 1.0

2
= 1.0 0.15 (25 48)/16 = 1.25 1.0
l
bd
= 1.0 x 40.3 = 40.3 = 645mm
Worked example - summary
H16 Bars Concrete class C25/30 25 Nominal cover
Tension anchorage straight bar l
bd
= 36.9 = 590mm
Tension anchorage Other shape bars l
bd
= 40.3 = 645mm
l
bd
is measured along the centreline of the bar
Compression anchorage (
1
=
2
=
3
=
4
=
5
= 1.0)
l
bd
= 40.3 = 645mm
Anchorage for Poor bond conditions = Good/0.7
Lap length = anchorage length x
6
How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2
Anchorage & lap lengths
Arrangement of Laps
EC2: Cl. 8.7.2, Fig 8.7
If more than one layer a maximum
of 50% can be lapped
Arrangement of Laps
EC2: Cl. 8.7.3, Fig 8.8
Anchorage of bars
F
Transverse Reinforcement
There is transverse tension reinforcement required
F/2 F/2

F tan
F tan
F F
Lapping of bars
Transverse Reinforcement
There is transverse tension reinforcement required
Where the diameter, , of the lapped bars 20 mm, the transverse
reinforcement should have a total area, A
st
1,0A
s
of one spliced bar. It
should be placed perpendicular to the direction of the lapped
reinforcement and between that and the surface of the concrete.
If more than 50% of the reinforcement is lapped at one point and the
distance between adjacent laps at a section is 10 transverse bars should
be formed by links or U bars anchored into the body of the section.
The transverse reinforcement provided as above should be positioned at
the outer sections of the lap as shown below.
l /3
0
A /2
st
A /2
st
l /3
0
F
s F
s
150 mm
l
0
Transverse Reinforcement at Laps
Bars in tension
EC2: Cl. 8.7.4, Fig 8.9
only if bar 20mm or laps > 25%
A
s,min
= 0,26 (f
ctm
/f
yk
)b
t
d but 0,0013b
t
d
A
s,max
= 0,04 A
c
Section at supports should be designed for a
hogging moment 0,25 max. span moment
Any design compression reinforcement () should be
held by transverse reinforcement with spacing 15
Beams
EC2: Cl. 9.2
Tension reinforcement in a flanged beam at
supports should be spread over the effective width
(see 5.3.2.1)
Beams
EC2: Cl. 9.2
Shear Design: Links
Variable strut method allows a shallower strut angle
hence activating more links.
As strut angle reduces concrete stress increases
Angle = 45V carried on 3 links
Angle = 21.8 V carried on 6 links
d
V
z
x
d
x
V

z
s
EC2: Cl. 6.2.3
Where a
v
2d the applied shear force, V
Ed
, for a point load
(eg, corbel, pile cap etc) may be reduced by a factor a
v
/2d
where 0.5 a
v
2d provided:
d
d
a
v
a
v
The longitudinal reinforcement is fully anchored at the support.
Only that shear reinforcement provided within the central 0.75a
v
is
included in the resistance.
Short Shear Spans with Direct
Strut Action
EC2: Cl. 6.2.3 (8)
Note: see PD6687-1:2010 Cl 2.14 for more information.
Shear reinforcement
Minimum shear reinforcement,
w,min
= (0,08f
ck
)/f
yk
Maximum longitudinal spacing, s
l,max
= 0,75d (1 + cot)
Maximum transverse spacing, s
t,max
= 0,75d 600 mm
EC2: Cl. 9.2.2
For vertical links s
l,max
= 0,75d
Shear Design
d
V
z
x
d
x
V

z
s
EC2: Cl. 6.2.3
For members without shear reinforcement this is satisfied with a
l
= d
al
Ftd
al
Envelope of (MEd /z +NEd)
Acting tensile force
Resisting tensile force
lbd
lbd
lbd
lbd
lbd lbd
lbd
lbd
Ftd
Shift rule
Curtailment of reinforcement
EC2: Cl. 9.2.1.3, Fig 9.2
For members with shear reinforcement: a
l
= 0.5 z Cot
But it is always conservative to use a
l
= 1.125d
l
bd
is required from the line of contact of the support.
Simple support (indirect) Simple support (direct)
A
s
bottom steel at support 0.25 A
s
provided in the span
Transverse pressure may only be taken into account with
a direct support.
Shear shift rule
a
l
Tensile Force Envelope
Anchorage of Bottom
Reinforcement at End Supports
EC2: Cl. 9.2.1.4
Simplified Detailing Rules for
Beams
h /3 1
h /2 1
B
A
h /3 2
h /2 2
supporting beam with height h
1
supported beam with height h
2
(h
1
h
2
)
The supporting reinforcement is in
addition to that required for other
reasons
A
B
The supporting links may be placed in a zone beyond
the intersection of beams
Supporting Reinforcement at
Indirect Supports
Plan view
EC2: Cl. 9.2.5
Curtailment as beams except for the Shift rule a
l
= d
may be used
Flexural Reinforcement min and max areas as beam
Secondary transverse steel not less than 20% main
reinforcement
Reinforcement at Free Edges
Solid slabs
EC2: Cl. 9.3
Where partial fixity exists, not taken into account in design: Internal
supports: A
s,top
0,25A
s
for M
max
in adjacent span
End supports: A
s,top
0,15A
s
for M
max
in adjacent span
This top reinforcement should extend 0,2 adjacent span
Solid slabs
EC2: Cl. 9.3
Distribution of moments
EC2: Table I.1
Particular rules for flat slabs
Arrangement of reinforcement should reflect behaviour
under working conditions.
At internal columns 0.5A
t
should be placed in a width =
0.25 panel width.
At least two bottom bars should pass through internal
columns in each orthogonal directions.
Particular rules for flat slabs
EC2: Cl. 9.4
h 4b

min
12
A
s,min
= 0,10N
Ed
/f
yd
but 0,002 A
c
A
s,max
= 0.04 A
c
(0,08A
c
at laps)
Minimum number of bars in a circular column is 4.
Where direction of longitudinal bars changes more than
1:12 the spacing of transverse reinforcement should be
calculated.
Columns
EC2: Cl. 9.5.2
s
cl,tmax
= min {20
min
; b ; 400mm}
150mm
150mm
s
cl,tmax
s
cl,tmax
should be reduced by a factor 0,6:
in sections within h above or below a beam
or slab
near lapped joints where > 14.
A min of 3 bars is required in lap length
s
cl,tmax
= min {12 min; 0.6b ; 240mm}
Columns
EC2: Cl. 9.5.3
Walls
A
s,vmin
= 0,002 A
c
(half located at each face)
A
s,vmax
= 0.04 A
c
(0,08A
c
at laps)
s
vmax
= 3 wall thickness or 400mm
Vertical Reinforcement
Horizontal Reinforcement
A
s,hmin
= 0,25 Vert. Rein. or 0,001A
c
s
hmax
= 400mm
Transverse Reinforcement
Where total vert. rein. exceeds 0,02 A
c
links required as
for columns
Where main rein. placed closest to face of wall links are
required (at least 4No. m
2
). [Not required for welded mesh or bars
16mm with cover at least 2.]
Detailing Comparisons
d or 150 mm from main bar 9.2.2 (8): 0.75 d 600 mm
9.2.1.2 (3) or 15 from main bar
s
t,max
0.75d 9.2.2 (6): 0.75 d s
l,max
0.4 b s/0.87 f
yv
9.2.2 (5): (0.08 b s f
ck
)/f
yk
A
sw,min
Links
Table 3.28 Table 7.3N S
max
d
g
+ 5 mm or 8.2 (2): d
g
+ 5 mm or or 20mm s
min
Spacing of Main Bars
0.04 bh 9.2.1.1 (3): 0.04 bd A
s,max
0.002 bh -- A
s,min
Main Bars in Compression
0.04 bh 9.2.1.1 (3): 0.04 bd A
s,max
0.0013 bh 9.2.1.1 (1): 0.26 f
ctm
/f
yk
bd
0.0013 bd
A
s,min
Values Clause / Values Main Bars in Tension
BS 8110 EC2 Beams
Detailing Comparisons
places of maximum moment:
main: 2h 250 mm
secondary: 3h 400 mm
3d or 750 mm secondary: 3.5h 450 mm S
max
d
g
+ 5 mm or 8.2 (2): d
g
+ 5 mm or or 20mm
9.3.1.1 (3): main 3h 400 mm
s
min
Spacing of Bars
0.04 bh 9.2.1.1 (3): 0.04 bd A
s,max
0.002 bh 9.3.1.1 (2): 0.2A
s
for single way
slabs
A
s,min
Secondary Transverse Bars
0.04 bh 0.04 bd A
s,max
0.0013 bh 9.2.1.1 (1): 0.26 f
ctm
/f
yk
bd
0.0013 bd
A
s,min
Values Clause / Values Main Bars in Tension
BS 8110 EC2 Slabs
Detailing Comparisons
Columns
150 mm from main bar 9.5.3 (6): 150 mm from main bar
12 9.5.3 (3): min (12min; 0.6 b;240 mm) S
cl,tmax
0.25 or 6 mm 9.5.3 (1) 0.25 or 6 mm Min size
Links
0.06 bh 9.5.2 (3): 0.04 bh A
s,max
0.004 bh 9.5.2 (2): 0.10N
Ed
/f
yk
0.002bh A
s,min
Main Bars in Compression
1.5d 9.4.3 (1):
within 1st control perim.: 1.5d
outside 1st control perim.: 2d
S
t
0.75d 9.4.3 (1): 0.75d S
r
Spacing of Links
Total = 0.4ud/0.87fyv 9.4.3 (2): Link leg = 0.053 s
r
s
t
(f
ck
)/f
yk
A
sw,min
Values Clause / Values Links
BS 8110 EC2 Punching Shear
How toCompendium
Detailing
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