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BONES AND JOINTS (2

ND
Semester)
Glossary

1. Cranium- the bony portion that holds the brain. It is composed of eight bones: the frontal,
occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid, and paired temporal and parietal bones.

2. Facial bones-Any of the bones surrounding the mouth and nose and contributing to the
eye sockets, including the upper jawbones, the zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, and palatine
bones, the inferior nasal concha and the vomer, lower jawbone, and hyoid bone.

3. Mandible- The mandible is the lower jaw bone. The jaw in vertebrates that is hinged to
open the mouth

4. Clavicle-Either of two slender bones in humans that extend from the manubrium of the
sternum to the acromion of the scapula. Also called collarbone.

5. Scapula Either of two large, flat, triangular bones forming the back part of the shoulder.
Also called shoulder blade

6. Sternum- a long flat vertical bone, situated in front of the thorax, to which are attached
the collarbone and the first seven pairs of ribs. Nontechnical name: breastbone

7. Humerus- The long bone of the arm or forelimb, extending from the shoulder to the elbow


8. Costal cartilage- the cartilages that connect the sternum and the ends of the ribs; its
elasticity allows the chest to move in respiration

9. Ribs- One of a series of long curved bones occurring in 12 pairs in humans and extending
from the spine to or toward the sternum.

10. Radius- the bone on the outer or thumb side of the forearm.
11. Ulna-The larger bone of the two bones of the forearm, extending from elbow to wrist on
the side opposite the thumb. Also called cubitus, elbow bone.

12. Vertebral column-The vertebral column, also called the spinal column or spine, consists of
a series of vertebrae connected by ligaments. It provides a supporting axis for the body
and protects the spinal cord. The vertebral column consists of seven cervical vertebrae in
the neck, followed by 12 thoracic vertebrae that connect to the ribs, five lumbar vertebrae
in the lower back, the sacrum, and the coccyx.


13. Ilium-The uppermost and widest of the three bones constituting either of the lateral
halves of the pelvis. Also called iliac bone.

14. Carpals-Any of the bones of the carpus, including the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform,
trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones


15. Pelvis-the lower (caudal) portion of the trunk, bounded anteriorly and laterally by the two
hip bones and posteriorly by the sacrum and coccyx.

16. Sacrum-The triangle-shaped bone located between the fifth lumbar vertebra and the
coccyx that consists of five vertebrae fused together. The sacrum joins on each side with
the bones of the pelvis.


17. Meta-carpals-are long bones that are connected to the carpals, or wrist bones, at the wrist, and
connect from there to the phalanges, or finger bones. The metacarpals together are referred to as the
"metacarpus."

18. Phalanges-the bones of the fingers and toes


19. Femur-The long bone of the thigh, and the longest and strongest bone in the human body,
situated between the pelvis and the knee and articulating with the hipbone and with the
tibia and patella. Also called thighbone.

20. Patella-A flat triangular bone located in the combined tendon of the extensors of the leg
and covering the front surface of the knee joint. Also called kneecap


21. Fibula-The outer, narrower, and smaller of the two bones of the human lower leg,
extending from the knee to the ankle, and articulating with the tibia above and the tibia
and talus below

22. Tibia-The inner and larger of the two bones of the lower leg, extending from the knee to
the ankle, and articulating with the femur, fibula, and talus. Also called shinbone.


23. Tarsals-The tarsal bones are located in the midfoot and rearfoot areas. The seven tarsal
bones in the foot and ankle are called; "talus," "calcaneus," "navicular," "cuboid," "medial
cuneiform," "intermediate cuneiform" and "lateral cuneiform."

24. Calcaneus-The quadrangular bone at the back of the tarsus, the largest of the tarsal bones.
Also called heel bone.


25. Metatarsals- Any of the five long bones that form the anterior portion of the foot and
articulate posteriorly with the three cuneiform and the cuboid bones and anteriorly with
the five proximal phalanges.

26. Phalanges- the bones of the fingers and toes


27. Cartilage- a specialized, fibrous connective tissue present in adults, and forming the
temporary skeleton in the embryo, providing a model in which the bones develop, and
constituting a part of the organism's growth mechanism

28. Epiphyseal line (growth line) The line of junction of the epiphysis and diaphysis of a
long bone where growth in length occurs.


29. Spongy (cancellous) bone- Bone in which the spicules form a latticework, with interstices
filled with embryonic connective tissue or bone marrow

30. Endosteum the membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone.


31. Compact bone- A type of osseous tissue consisting of closely packed osteons or haversian
systems, and forms the extremely hard exterior of bones.

32. Medullary (marrow) cavity- is the cavity within a bone where a soft and flexible substance
called marrow is stored.
33. Artery and vein- a blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to any
part of the body.

34. Yellow marrow bone marrow in which the fat cells predominate in the meshes of the
reticular network
35. Periosteum- a specialized connective tissue covering all bones and having bone-forming
potentialities
36. Joints- A point of articulation between two or more bones, especially such a connection
that allows motion.
37. Fibrous joint- A form of articulation in which the bones are connected by a fibrous tissue,
mainly collagen.
38. Cartilaginous joint : joints that contain cartilage in between them to allow movement.
39. Synovial joints A joint in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing
joint cavity, which permits substantial movement
40. Types of synovial joints(6)
41. Movement at synovial joints(4)
gliding

-articulating surfaces flat or slightly curved
-sliding or twisting

pivot

-cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with ring of bone and ligament
-rotation around central axis

hinge

-surface of one bone articulates with concave surface of another
-flexion and extension

saddle

-concave surface in one direction and convex in another
-back and forth, side to side

condyloid

-oval-shaped condyle of one bone articulates with elliptical cavity of another
-variety of movements, no rotation

Ball and Socket

ball-shapped head of one bone articulates with cup-shaped cavity of another
-all planes and rotation

42. Dislocation- injury or disability caused when the normal position of a joint or other part of
the body is disturbed
43. Sprain- is a stretching or tearing of ligaments
44. Dorsiflexion- Upward movement (extension) of the foot or toes or of the hand or fingers
45. Disorders of the joints- is a general term describing any abnormal condition that involves
any aspect of a joint.Joint disorders can be caused by infection, inflammation, chronic
repetitive injury, acute injury, degeneration, congenital deformity, and neoplasm.
46. Flexion- a movement allowed by certain joints of the skeleton that decreases the angle
between two adjoining bones
47. Extension- action of stretching part of your body The movement produced by contraction
of one or more extensor muscles
48. Pronation- describes the motion of rotating towards the prone position
49. Supination rotation of the hand or forearm so that the palmar surface is facing upward
(opposed to pronation ).
50. Abduction- The movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
51. Adduction- the movement of a limb toward the midline or axis of the body.
Circumduction Movement of a part in a circular direction
52.
53. Inversion- is a movement in which the plantar surface (sole) of the foot rotates towards
the mid-line of the body.
54. Eversion a turning outward or inside out, such as a turning of the foot outward at the
ankle.
55. Rotation- is movement in which something, e.g. a bone or a whole limb, pivots or revolves
around a single long axis.