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Book No:

HUMAN FACTORS (E)

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Issue: 01/12
For Training Purposes Only
LRTT 2012

part 66 Cat B1/B2

M10
Aviation Legislation

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ATA MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION

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For Training Purposes Only

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Feb 2012

The Growth of ICAO


At the time of the creation of the Chicago Convention, only the countries who
had signed at the time were members of ICAO. But over the years almost all
countries of the world have become members, each signing an agreement to
the terms of the Convention and committing themselves to acceptance of ICAO
regulations.

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Continuing Role of ICAO


ICAO is still an active international body whose members include almost every
country of the world. ICAO still creates and updates international legislation to
reflect advances in technology and volume of air traffic as well as other
changes. Any ICAO member must accept any new requirements as law in that
country.

The Birth of ICAO


The first step towards international standardisation was taken in December
1944 in Chicago when a meeting was held of over fifty countries to discuss the
harmonisation of civil air transport. At the end of this meeting an agreement
was signed between more than thirty of these countries which became known
as the Chicago Convention and this document formed the basis of the
International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). After the end of the second
world war ICAO became and internationally recognised organisation and
became part of the United Nations (UN).

Summary of ICAO
S Formed in 1944 in Chicago
S Part of United Nations
S Members are sovereign countries
S Purpose is to harmonise international standards in civil aviation

ICAO Regulations
The regulations laid down by ICAO are contained in annexes to the Chicago
Convention, each covering one particular aspect of aviation legislation. All
ICAO member countries must comply with these regulations as a condition of
joining ICAO. These annexes however are not documents which we will refer
to either on this course or, most likely, in our work as aircraft maintenance
personnel. The requirements detailed in the annexes form the minimum
standards for civil aircraft operation worldwide and are the framework on which
national (eg. UK CAA, US FAA) and other international (eg. EU) regulations are
based.
In our study of aviation legislation we will mainly focus on EU legislation, but it
should be kept in mind that these regulations must satisfy the minimum
standards laid down within the ICAO annexes.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

Background
The first aircraft flew at the very beginning of the twentieth century. At that
time there were very few other aircraft around and the only person in danger
was usually the pilot so no legislation was created. Very soon however, the
potential of air travel was realised by many people and aircraft became more
numerous and were able to carry passengers. Eventually, at about the end of
the first world war, the first aviation regulations were created. These were
mostly national regulations and only in some countries as aircraft still did not
travel very far and seldom internationally. There were some international
agreements within Europe but nothing worldwide. As the years went by aircraft
became much more sophisticated and safer as well as being able to travel far
greater distances and eventually it was realised that some form of worldwide
standardisation was necessary.

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION (ICAO)

REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

For Training Purposes Only

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Feb 2012

CAA Safety Regulation Group


The CAA has various divisions but the one which is relevant to maintenance
personnel is the Safety Regulation Group (SRG) which has its headquarters at
Aviation House, Gatwick Airport, Sussex. There are many sub-divisions of the
SRG, each dealing with a specific area of aviation safety.
The SRG also has regional offices located in other parts of the country
The SRG staff who have responsibility for making sure organisations remain in
compliance with the regulations are known as surveyors; they will carry out
audits and checks before any person or organisation can gain approval for any
aviation activity. By doing this they ensure that all national and international
legislation is being complied with.

Air Navigation Order (ANO)


The ANO is a book which lays down the law of the land with respect to civil
aviation in the UK and comprises of both articles and schedules. Each article
is an article of law and must be complied with, each schedule contains further
information on how to comply with the associated article. As we will see later
in the course, most of the legislation which controls the way we work in civil
aviation day-to-day in the UK comes from the EU but the ANO still applies and
must be complied with by all UK based organisations, personnel and any
foreign aircraft operating in or over the UK.

Introduction
After joining ICAO at the Chicago convention the UK government in 1949
passed the Civil Aviation Act. This was an act of law and was applied to all civil
aviation activities. There is still a Civil Aviation Act in force within the UK and
its requirements are laid down in CAP 393, The Air Navigation Order (ANO).
The act was amended over time and the Civil Aviation Act of 1971 formally set
up the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). The CAA was formed in April 1972 as
the first unified and independent body controlling civil aviation.

UNITED KINGDOM LEGISLATION

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

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Sect B - As Sect A but related to foreign aircraft or equipment.


There were many other Sections of BCARs but they have been largely
superseded by EASA requirements.
Airworthiness Notices (AWNs) were superceded in September 2009 by
CAP 562 - Civil Aircraft Airworthiness Information & Requirements &
CAP 747 - Mandatory Requirements for Airworthiness
These publications are issued by the CAA to distribute important airworthiness
information to personnel involved in any aircraft related activity. They are available to be read online at the CAA website.
S CAP 562 General Information, Airworthiness Publication, General
Information. This is information on current airworthiness publications
(formally AWN 6)
S CAP 562 General Information, Safety Regulation Group, General
Information provides contact details for various parts of the CAA SRG
(formally AWN 29).
S CAP 562 Leaflet 15 -2 provides information about the extent of the various
licence categories (formally AWN 3).
S CAP 562 Leaflet 15--6 Personal Responsibility When Medically Unfit or
Under the Influence of Drink or Drugs (formally AWN 47).

Sect A - Airworthiness Procedures Where The CAA Has Primary


Responsibility For The Type Approval Of The Product. This details the
standards for companies who wish to design, build, test, maintain or
modify aircraft or equipment of British origin.

United Kingdom Documents


Air Navigation Order
This book is the embodiment of the Air Navigation Act and is divided into
articles of law and schedules. This is a legal document.
British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (BCARs)
These documents are produced by the CAA and lay down the minimum
standards required for airworthiness of aircraft in the UK. BCARs are
divided into many sections, the most important of which for us are;

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

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Feb 2012

Introduction
The Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) was an associated body of the European
Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) representing the civil aviation regulatory
authorities of a number of European States who had agreed to co--operate in
developing and implementing common safety regulatory standards and
procedures. This co--operation was intended to provide high and consistent
standards of safety and a level playing field for competition in Europe.
Much emphasis was placed on harmonising the JAA regulations with those of
the USA.
The JAA Membership was based on signing the JAA Arrangements
document originally signed by the then current Member States in Cyprus in
1990.
Based upon a decision by the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) in
adopting the FUJA II (Future of JAA) report, it was decided to disband the JAA
system as of 30 June 2009 but keep the JAA Training Organisation
running, based in Hoofddorp, The Netherlands.

JOINT AVIATION AUTHORITIES (JAA)

The European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) or Confrence Europenne


de lAviation Civile (CEAC) is an intergovernmental organization which was
established by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the
Council of Europe. It is located in Neuilly--sur--Seine/Paris in France.
Founded in 1955 with 19 Member States at the time, ECAC counts today 44
members, including all 27 EU, 30 of the 31 European Aviation Safety Agency
and all 39 EUROCONTROL Member States. ECAC promotes the continued
development of a safe, efficient and sustainable European air transport system.
In doing so, it seeks to harmonise civil aviation policies and practices amongst
its Member States and promote understanding on policy matters between its
Member States and other parts of the world.
Its strategic priorities are safety, security and the environment.

EUROPEAN CIVIL AVIATION CONFERENCE (ECAC)

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

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Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

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Cotswold Airport

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Feb 2012

The Birth of EASA


The JAA worked very well to harmonise standards within the European area
but in 2003 it was decided by the European Union to create a lawmaking body
so that common safety standards could be enforced across the EU. The body
which was formed is know as the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).
EASA is an agency of the European Union and sets common safety standards
which become law in all EU countries. These laws superseded the JAA
requirements but when the JAA was still in existence there were aspects of
legislation which were not yet covered by EASA regulations (such as pilot
licensing) and there were JAA member countries who were not EU members
(such as Turkey). As the United Kingdom is a member of the European Union,
the regulations covered on this course will be EASA regulations.

EUROPEAN AVIATION SAFETY AGENCY

The purpose of the EU is to attempt to facilitate easy exchange of products and


services between member states and to have common standard in most
political and economic issues. Additionally, there is some standardisation of
laws across the states of the EU. There are now 27 member countries in the
EU since the addition of two new members in 2007.
The members of the EU are; Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Finland, France, Hungary,
Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Netherlands and The United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN UNION (EU)

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

EASA Key Facts


S Stands for European Aviation Safety Agency
S An agency of the European Union
S Created by an act of EU law
S Purpose is to enforce common standards across the EU
S Requirements become law in all EU countries
S Headquarters in Cologne, Germany

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Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

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Cotswold Airport

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Feb 2012

EASAs Relationship with Other Authorities


Although EASAs standards allow easy movement of persons and services
within the EU area, aviation is a truly global industry and it is often necessary to
do extensive business with organisations in other areas, most notably the USA.
For this reason EASA attempts to bring its requirements as far as possible into
line with the FAA regulations from the USA. Additionally, in cases where it is
not possible or desirable to completely standardise, there is the possibility of an
agreement whereby an American standard can be accepted by EASA or vice
versa.

EASAs Relationship with Member States


Each EU country is automatically bound by the requirements laid down by
EASA, additionally there is a provision for other countries to be covered in the
same way even if they are not EU members. Examples are Switzerland,
Norway and Iceland. The requirements lay down what a person or
organisation must do in order to obtain certain licences or authorisations. Also
included are the actions which the National Aviation Authority must take to
ensure that these standards are met. When a licence, for example, is issued
to an individual in the United Kingdom, it is an EASA licence issued when the
individual is trained and qualified to EASA standards but it is not issued by
EASA in Cologne. The checking and testing of the individual against the
required standard is the responsibility of the Civil Aviation Authority (the UKs
NAA). In this respect the CAA is referred to as the Competent Authority
because it as the right to issue authorisations on behalf of EASA. The term
Competent Authority is referred to throughout the requirements.
Standardisation across the whole of Europe is achieved by a constant process
of cross checking carried out by teams of auditors from different countries who
check that an authority is not being too lenient or too restrictive.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

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Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

AlJ, PeR

Feb 2012

Regulation 1702/2003 Implementing Rule (IR) Certification


1702/2003 is the regulation governing the airworthiness and certification of
aircraft and aircraft products. The annex to this regulation is Part 21 which
details the requirements to be met by organisations who wish to carry out the
design or production of aircraft or aircraft components.
Also included under this regulation are the Certification Specifications (CS).
These detail the standards which the design and manufacture of aircraft and
aircraft components must meet. There are many CSs, a few of which are listed
below.
Part 21 deals with the certification of design organisations for aircraft,
aircraft products and modifications.
CS 23 Deals with certification specifications for small aeroplanes.
CS 25 Deals with certification specifications for large aeroplanes.
CS 27 Deals with certification specifications for small helicopters
CS 29 Deals with certification specifications for large helicopters.

Regulation 2042/2003 Implementing Rule (IR) Maintenance


2042/2003 is concerned with the continued airworthiness of aircraft and their
components as well as the approval of organisations and personnel involved in
aircraft maintenance.
Part 145 details the requirements which must be met by an organisation
wishing to carry out and certify the maintenance of aircraft.
Part 66 deals with the qualification of certifying staff to work in Part 145
approved organisations.
Part M deals with the management of the continuing airworthiness of
aircraft.
Part 147 details the requirements which must be met by an organisation
wishing to carry out approved training of aircraft maintenance engineers.

Regulation 1592/2002 and 216/2008 The Basic Regulation


Regulation 1592/2002 established EASA and detailed the function of EASA
and how it would do its job. This was superseded in 2008 by Regulation
216/2008.

EASA REGULATIONS STRUCTURE

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Page: 7

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

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Annex
Part 21

Feb 2012

Figure 1

Certification
Specifications
CS 23
CS 25
CS 27
CS 29

Annex 2
Part 145
Maintenance
Organisations
Annex 4
Part 147
Training
Organisations

Annex 1
Part M
Continuing
Airworthiness
Annex 3
Part 66
Certifying
Staff

EASA Regulations Structure

PART 66

Page: 8

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

Implementing Rule Maintenance

Basic Regulation 216/2008

Implementing Rule Certification

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

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Cotswold Airport

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Feb 2012

Supporting documents.
The requirements in each part sometimes need clarification so for each part
there are Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) and Guidance Material
(GM).
Acceptable Means of Compliance will lay down one acceptable method
for complying with the requirements. This method is acceptable to the
Authority but is not the only method which may be used. A different method
could be used providing that the authority will accept it.
Guidance Material gives some explanation of the contents of a
requirement and helps to clarify what the requirements are saying.

Structure of individual parts.


The individual Parts (eg Part 145) are each divided into sections.
Section A lays down the requirements with which the organisation or
individual must comply and gives guidance on how these requirements can
be satisfied. This is the part of the document which will be considered on
this course.
Section B lays down the procedures for the authorities (eg CAA) to follow
in order to regulate the approved companies and individuals. This part of
the document is of little interest to us and will not be studied on this course.
Note The content of Section A and Section B do not necessarily
correspond.
For example, Section 66.A.20 deals with privileges of certifying staff and
66.B.20 deals with record keeping.
The appendices give extra information, mainly about the relevant forms to
be used but also other information relevant to the requirements.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Page: 9

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

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Cotswold Airport

AlJ, PeR

Feb 2012

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Figure 2

AMC and Guidance Material

Guidance Material

Acceptable Means of Compliance

Requirements

Page: 10

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

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Cotswold Airport

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Feb 2012

Part 145 / Part 66


In the case of personal approvals, part of the approval process involves the
individual holding a licence issued under Part 66 and holding a type rating also
issued under Part 66. At the same time, for the individual to obtain a Part 66
licence he must be able to prove a certain amount of experience gained in a
Part 145 organisation. Once this licence has been issued then the Part 145
organisation can issue certification privileges.

Part 145 / Part M


Part 145 is central to the operation of a maintenance organisation and deals
with all areas including the approval of certifying personnel, the maintenance of
aircraft operated under EU OPS and the acceptance of new and overhauled
aircraft components. EU OPS states that any aircraft used for public
transport must be appropriately maintained in accordance with Part 145.
Although the maintenance of an operators aircraft may be carried out by
another company, the responsibility to ensure that it is carried out correctly and
on time lies with the operator. This function is known as continued
airworthiness and must be carried out in accordance with Part M. This means
that the operator must gain approval under Part M or contract this function to
another company which holds Part M approval.

General
The figure below shows the relationship between the various EASA.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EASA REGULATIONS

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Page: 11

Part 145 / Part 21


Part 21 is concerned with the certification of new components. Therefore it is
important for personnel involved in aircraft maintenance at a Part 145
organisation to have an appreciation of the Part 21 certification.

Part 66 / Part 147


Part 66 is concerned with the licensing of aircraft engineers, and lays down all
the criteria for obtaining a basic licence. Part 147 lays down the criteria for
approval of maintenance training organisations. The Part 66 licence can be
gained by experienced tradesmen passing exams with the national authority or
by an ab-initio student completing an approved training course. The training
course must be approved under Part 147 and carried out at an approved
training school if it is to be used to reduce the experience requirement for the
applicant. Additionally, before an engineer can gain a type rating he must
successfully complete a course of training on the particular aircraft and this
course must be an approved course under Part 147.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

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Figure 3

Feb 2012

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Relationship Between EASA Regulations


Page: 12

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

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Cotswold Airport AlJ, PeR

Feb 2012

General (Part 145.A.1--20)


Part 145 is Annex II to IR Maintenance and details the standards with which an
organisation must comply in order to be approved to carry out maintenance of
aircraft. Any aircraft used for commercial air transport must be maintained in
accordance with the terms of Part 145.
The Part 145 approval is granted by an organisation known as the competent
authority. If the maintenance organisation is situated inside the European
Union then the competent authority is national aviation authority of that country
( Civil Aviation Authority in the UK). If the organisation is outside the EU then
the competent authority is EASA itself. The procedures which the competent
authority must follow are laid down in Section B of Part 145 and will not be
discussed on this course.
In order to gain approval the organisation produces a document known as an
exposition which details how the requirements of Part 145 will be met. The
format of this Maintenance Organisation Exposition (MOE) is detailed in Part
145.

PART 145

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.3 PART 145

Page: 13

Facility Requirements (Part 145.A.25)


The organisation must demonstrate that there are sufficient, suitable facilities
for the work which they intend to carry out. This applies not only to the
hangars for maintenance but also to workshops for component overhaul and
office accommodation for management and administration functions.
In all cases there must be enough lighting and temperature control to allow
staff to carry out maintenance and associated activities with the highest level of
safety. Also there should be a minimum of noise to reduce the risk of mistakes
due to distraction.
In the case of hangars, there must be sufficient protection from the elements to
ensure that the work area is not contaminated by rain, snow or dust. There
must also be sufficient space for the aircraft and any necessary support
equipment required for maintenance.
Workshop space must be provided for all planned overhaul work on components. Where appropriate it must be shown that there is separation between
different areas such as clean and dirty rooms for composite repair or separate
workshops for different types of battery.
Storage facilities for aircraft components must be provided and they must be
secure so that entry is restricted to authorised personnel only. Additionally,
there must be segregation between storage areas used for serviceable,
repairable and unrepairable components. The storage areas must contain
enough racking for this storage and have sufficient temperature control and
ventilation to prevent excessive condensation.
Office areas must be provided to accommodate all management and
administrative activities. This can be all in one place as long as there is
enough space for all activities to take place. Certifying staff must have space
to refer to the maintenance data required and to update the aircraft paperwork
as work progresses.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

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Cotswold Airport AlJ, PeR

Feb 2012

Personnel Requirements (Part 145.A.30)


(a) The maintenance company must appoint an accountable manager who
has overall responsibility to ensure that there are enough resources available to
carry out the work of the company.
The accountable manager must be acceptable to the competent authority but
need not necessarily have technical knowledge.
It also is the accountable managers responsibility to promote the companys
safety and quality policy.
(b) The company must also appoint a person or a group of persons who have
responsibility to see that the company stays within the requirements of Part
145 at all times. These persons must be acceptable to the authority and it
must be clearly stated who is responsible for which aspect of Part 145
compliance and who deputises for each of these persons in their absence.
(c) The accountable manager has to appoint a quality manager who is responsible for setting up and maintaining an independent quality system.
(d) The organisation must also demonstrate that it has a man hour plan to
show that all activities can be adequately staffed for all planned activities. The
manhour plan has to take into account all activities of the company including
work on foreign (non EU) aircraft as well as non Part 145 work. The manpower
should consist of no more than 50% sub contract staff, the rest should be
employed by the company directly. Where the staff are sub contracted, they
must nevertheless always work in accordance with the companys procedures.
The manhour plan includes not only the production staff but also quality,
planning and all other functions.
The manhour plan must be reviewed at least every three months and updated
when necessary.
(e) The organisation must establish and control the competence of all maintenance, management and quality audit staff to ensure that an acceptable level of
competence is maintained. This would include their technical competence as
well as their knowledge of human factors.
In order to fulfil this function the organisation must put into place a procedure
for assessing the employees competence and must keep records of all the
qualification and competence assessments.
A basic job description should be created for each position to assist in the
assessment of competence. Further guidance can be found in
AMC 145.A.30(e). Human factors initial training should also be tailored to the
particular job function as different functions will encounter different human
factors issues. Human factors refresher training (referred to as continuation

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.3 PART 145

Page: 14

training) must be carried out at least every two years. A suggested training
syllabus for human factors is contained in GM 145.A.30(e).
(f) The organisation must demonstrate that it has sufficient qualified staff to
carry out non destructive testing (NDT) on aircraft. The only NDT method that
can be carried out by B1 staff is the colour contrast dye penetrant test.
(g) If an organisation wishes to run a line station then it must have enough B1
and B2 certifying staff. This means that they must have enough staff who are
B1 and B2 licence holders and who have undergone a qualification process
allowing them to release aircraft back into service after maintenance has been
carried out. Additionally, the organisation may employ Cat A line certifying
mechanics to support the B1/B2 staff. This means that the line station could
run with less B1/B2s but not without them completely.
(h) If the organisation wishes to carry out base maintenance activities it must
have sufficient Cat C certifying staff as well as B1/B2 staff working as support
staff. In this situation the B1/B2 support staff supervise each individual task
and then, when all tasks have been completed, the Cat C base certifying
engineer makes the final certification to release the aircraft back to service.
(i) Part 145 states that component certifying staff shall comply with Part 66. A
check of Part 66 reveals that at the present time there are no licences for
component certifying staff and that they should continue to be certified in
accordance with the applicable national standards. In the UK this is covered by
British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (BCARs).
(j) There are certain cases in which maintenance can be carried out by non
licence holders, these mostly concern activities outside the EU or when the
aircraft is away from base.
If an organisation is based outside the EU but gains Part145 approval it would
be very difficult and expensive to only be able to employ Part 66 licence
holders as certifying and support staff. Provision is made for them to use
holders of licences issued in that country instead.
Another exception is where an aircraft is stuck at a remote location and there is
no Part 145 organisation there who can repair it. In this case a local licensed
engineer with the relevant experience and training could be given a one off
authorisation to carry out the job.
In some cases a repetitive preflight airworthiness directive can be carried out
by the flight crew and not necessarily by a Part 66 licence holder.In both of the
above cases the Part 145 organisation must establish the competence of the
person to carry out the work and must keep a record of all details.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

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145.A.35 Certifying Staff


The organisation must ensure that the certifying staff and support staff have
adequate understanding of the aircraft or equipment to be maintained and of
the relevant company procedures. This must be done before the authorisation
is issued and the organisation has a responsibility to keep records of all information supporting the authorisation.
In order to be awarded certifying staff or support staff privileges the applicant
must:
hold a Part 66 licence in the relevant category.
hold a type rating for that aircraft.
be able to demonstrate sufficient recent experience.
be over 21 years of age.
When the above criteria have been met the organisation must assess the
individuals competence and knowledge of the relevant company procedures.
This is carried out by the quality department of the company.
When all of these conditions have been met the organisation will issue the
certification authorisation document to the individual. This document will
clearly specify the extent and limitations of the holders privileges. The period
of validity of the authorisation is normally no longer than the period of validity of
the Part 66 licence.
In order to retain the authorisation the individual must be able to demonstrate
that he has maintained each of the conditions of initial issue detailed above.
This means that;
the licence must be renewed and not allowed to run out of date,
the holder must carry out sufficient work on that aircraft type to maintain
recency,
the holder must undergo sufficient continuation training every two years.
Continuation training is training carried out within the company to ensure that
all certifying and support staff are kept up to date as much as possible with
changes to the aircraft, the company procedures relevant to their job, national
and international regulations, and any other requirements relevant to them.
Additionally, the training must include some human factors training.
If this training is not carried out or the engineer does not carry out sufficient
work on that aircraft type or the licence becomes out of date the authorisation
becomes invalid.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.3 PART 145

Page: 15

It is the responsibility of the organisation to keep all records which support the
authorisations, this would include;
details of Part 66 licence held.
all relevant training completed.
the scope of the authorisation issued.
details of staff with limited or one-off authorisation.
Records of all authorisations and supporting documentation must be held by
the organisation for at least two years after the person leaves the organisation
or the authorisation is withdrawn.
The issue and control of the staff authorisations and the record keeping is the
responsibility of the quality department.
If requested, the organisation must give the holder of the authorisation a copy
of it when he leaves the company.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

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Cotswold Airport AlJ, PeR

Feb 2012

145.A.40 Equipment, Tools and Material


The Part 145 organisation must have available and use the correct equipment
and tools to carry out all of the work for which it is authorised.
If a manufacturer says that a particular tool must be used to do a certain job
then this tool must be used unless permission is gained to use an alternative.
All of this tooling must be available all of the time that work is to be carried out.
this includes nights and weekends if applicable. It is not necessarily required
that the tools be owned by that organisation, just that they are available whenever required. If an agreement is in place with another organisation to loan
tools when required then this should be acceptable.
A base maintenance organisation must also show that they have sufficient
access equipment (ladders, steps, safety raisers etc.) to carry out the work
safely and effectively.
Any tools used to carry out measurements, settings or tests on the aircraft
must have a calibration and inspection program in place in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions. This includes, amongst other things, torque
wrenches, precision measuring equipment, test sets, crimping tools and
electrical meters. The company must keep a record of all of these tools
including their inspection and calibration status and records of any repairs.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.3 PART 145

Page: 16

145.A.42 Acceptance of Components


(a) All components within the company must be classified and segregated into
one of the following categories;
Serviceable and accompanied by the appropriate paperwork. Appropriate
paperwork refers to the release certificate which accompanies the
component. This paperwork will be explained in detail later.
Unserviceable components which shall be maintained by a Part 145
organisation.
Unsalvageable components which cannot be repaired or maintained.
These components must be prevented from re-entering the supply chain.
Eventually these parts will be destroyed or stored until such a time that a
repair scheme is created.
Standard parts. These are parts which are manufactured to a recognised
standard for use on aircraft and are specified in the aircrafts parts
catalogue.
Materials which meet the required specification and traceability. This
includes all raw and consumable materials used in the maintenance activity.
(b) The organisation is responsible for ensuring that all components fitted are
eligible to be fitted on the particular aircraft or piece of equipment. This must
take into account any modifications or airworthiness directives. Eligibility
information is included on the release certificate and may contain vital
airworthiness information required by the user.
The organisation must be satisfied that the component is in satisfactory
condition and has the necessary release paperwork. It must also be
ascertained that the component is the correct one and meets the approved
standard. This is done by comparison with the manufacturers manuals or with
other approved information such as service bulletins etc.
(c) The Part 145 organisation may gain approval to fabricate certain
components for its own use. These components are limited in their scope and
cannot be used outside the organisation or supplied to another organisation.
Examples of components which may be fabricated can be found in AMC
145.A.42(c)

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport AlJ, PeR

Feb 2012

145.A.45 Maintenance Data


Maintenance data refers to all data required to carry out all of the work for
which the company is authorised.
Maintenance data would typically include;
all relevant manufacturers documentation such as AMM, IPC, SRM etc,
airworthiness directives and service bulletins applicable to the aircraft or
equipment maintained by the organisation,
repair drawings, drawing standards, NDT manuals,
standard practices information such as CAAIPs,
applicable national and international requirements such as Part 145,
BCARs, etc.
The organisation must show that all of this data is available to the people who
need it at all times when work is being carried out.
Additionally, the organisation must put into place a system for ensuring that the
maintenance data is always kept up to date and a register should be available
so that the engineer can check that the data in use is the most up to date version.
There must also be a system in place to allow any inaccuracies or ambiguities
in a publication to be reported to the author. This would consist of an internal
system which employees could use to report such inaccuracies.
The information would then be gathered together at one point in the company,
usually quality, and then transmitted to the relevant organisations outside the
company.
Also part of maintenance data is the workcard system. This is the system
which creates all the individual jobcards for all of the maintenance activities
which the company carries out. All of the relevant technical data for that task
must appear on the job card so it is clear to the reader exactly what actions are
required. This can either be the printing of detailed instructions on the jobcard
or, more likely, a reference to the relevant maintenance data. This takes the
form;
Carry out lubrication of left hand main landing gear IAW AMM Ch......
If the task is long or complicated the card entry must have several stages so it
is clear to the reader exactly what is required and so that the individual tasks
can be signed off as the job progresses. The cards should have separate
entries for disassembly and reassembly.
Provision should also be made for when a third party aircraft is to be maintained and it is required to use the third party organisations paperwork system.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.3 PART 145

Page: 17

145.A.47 Production Planning


A system must be put in place to plan the availability of personnel, tools, equipment, material, maintenance data and facilities to ensure that all work can be
carried out safely. This could range from a very simple system to an extremely
complex arrangement involving a dedicated department depending on the size
and complexity of the organisation.
The planning system should ensure that any scheduled work does not interfere
in any way with other work with regards to personnel, facilities, etc. and should
provide organisation of shifts in order that there is no undue time pressure.
This has to take into account human factors issues such as length of shifts,
night shifts etc.
The final element in production planning is that there should be an effective
system of handover of information from one shift to another. If a job is to be
continued by a new team of personnel during the next shift period it is essential
that all information is handed from the outgoing shift to the oncoming shift with
no room for omission or error. Firstly it must be stated that all work carried out
must be recorded and signed for at the end of each shift and not allowed to
build up and all be signed at the end of the job (some jobs can be weeks long).
This is carried out on the aircraft paperwork which is kept as part of the aircrafts maintenance record. This information, however is not always sufficient
to give a comprehensive handover at shift change so an additional system is
required. The system normally takes the form of a diary in which relevant
handover information is written. This information must be clear and unambiguous in order that the oncoming shift can interpret it and carry on with the task
with no chance of work being missed out or duplicated.

In this case it is acceptable to use the third partys system but a procedure
must be in place to ensure that the paperwork is used correctly.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport AlJ, PeR

Feb 2012

145.A50 Certification of Maintenance


A Certificate of Release to Service (CRS) must be issued after every maintenance action before the aircraft can be flown. In the case of component maintenance, the CRS must be issued before the component is released to be installed on the aircraft. This certification can only be made by appropriately
authorised certifying staff on behalf of the Part 145 organisation (already mentioned in 145.A.35). CRSs may only be issued for tasks within the scope of the
organisations approval, this scope is detailed in the exposition.
Depending on the organisations capabilities, CRSs may be issued for work on
various types of aircraft, overhaul or maintenance of certain types of components or the carrying out of certain repair techniques. An organisation may
have approval to certify one or a combination of these activities.
The CRS has a prescribed wording;
Certifies that the work specified except as otherwise specified was carried
out in accordance with Part-145 and in respect to that work the aircraft/aircraft component is considered ready for release to service
In the case of work on the aircraft the certification is made in the technical log of that aircraft.
In the case of a base maintenance check the certification is made on a
worksheet which closes the check, this certification is then entered into
the aircraft tech log.
In the case of a component the certification is made on the Authorised
Release Certificate (EASA Form 1).
Depending on the company procedure, the certifying staff member will either
sign the CRS, stamp it with a unique stamp issued to him at the time of approval or sign it and stamp it.
It is also permissible to use a computer based workcard system in which the
CRS would be made by entering a PIN code unique to, and known only by, the
certifying staff member.
The method in use will be detailed in the company procedures.
It has been stated that every component must have a valid EASA Form 1 before it can be fitted to an aircraft. There is one exception to this rule. If an aircraft is grounded at a remote location away from its main base or any line station and there is no suitably certified component available, it is permissible to
temporarily fit a component with no EASA Form 1. The component must have
some form of certification (for example from a non EU country) and must otherwise be serviceable and satisfy all other operational and legal requirements.
This component must be removed or appropriate certification obtained
within 30 flight hours or on return to the main line station or main base

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M10.3 PART 145

Page: 18

145.A.55 Maintenance Records


Records must be kept of all details of maintenance carried out by the organisation.
These records must be kept for at least two years from the date that the aircraft or piece of equipment was released to service. The purpose of this is to
provide a reliable and accurate record of all maintenance activities on a certain
aircraft or piece of equipment. As far as possible the records should be stored
in such a way to protect them from fire, flood or theft and the records must be
of a good enough quality to be still legible and useful after the period of storage.
If some records are lost for any reason eg. fire or flood, the records can be reconstructed as far as possible by reference to other documentation such as
mechanics own records and overhaul documentation from other organisations.
In this case the reconstructed records would have to be submitted to the NAA
fro inspection. If there are still gaps in the records then additional aircraft work
may be required to ensure that the aircraft is in an airworthy condition.
It is acceptable to have a computer based records system provided that an adequate level of security can be shown and that a backup is made within 24
hours of any maintenance activity.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport AlJ, PeR

Feb 2012

145.A.60 Occurrence Reporting


It is the responsibility of the organisation to report any condition of the aircraft
or component which has resulted or could result in an unsafe condition which
hazards flight safety. The report must be made to the NAA, the aircraft
operator and the aircraft design organisation.
Examples of conditions which would be reportable are; burning to components
or structure, deformation of the structure, failure during test of essential
equipment.
The object of this system is to identify the factors contributing to aircraft
incidents, and to make the system resistant to similar errors.
In order to do this the organisation must set up an occurrence reporting
scheme which can be used by the engineers to report any unsafe conditions.
This information will then be collated together, normally by the quality
department, and then forwarded, in the agreed format, to the relevant parties.
This system should also include a monitoring function to identify any adverse
trends which may be uncovered.
The report should include the following information;
Organisation name and approval reference,
Information identifying the aircraft or component,
Date, time and information on aircraft or component life (hours, cycles etc.),
Details of the identified unsafe condition,
Any other relevant information found during evaluation or rectification of the
condition.
The report must reach the authority as soon as possible but in any case
no later than 72 hours from the time the condition is discovered.
In order for such a system to function it is essential that the company create a
culture in which the reporting of unsafe conditions and the cooperation with
investigations is in no way punished. This will encourage open and honest
reporting and help to prevent a culture of covering up problems.
The system should be a closed loop so that the progress and findings of the
investigation are fed back to the individuals involved in reporting it.

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M10.3 PART 145

Page: 19

145.A.65 Safety and Quality Policy, Maintenance Procedures and Quality


System
The organisation must establish a safety and quality policy which must be
included in the Maintenance Organisation Exposition MOE. The safety and
quality policy must include a statement committing the organisation to;
Recognise safety as a prime consideration at all times,
Apply human factors principles,
Encourage personnel to report maintenance related errors and incidents,
Recognise that compliance with procedures, quality standards, safety
standards and regulations is the duty of all personnel,
Recognise the need for all personnel to cooperate with the quality system.
The organisation must put into place procedures covering all maintenance
activities to take into account human factors and human performance issues
and to ensure good maintenance practices.
Especially important is error capture in safety critical systems. This means
that the procedures would guard against one tradesman from making the same
error on multiple systems and causing a flight safety incident. An example is
engine oil replenishment, the procedures should ensure as far as possible that
one tradesman could not leave all the oil filler caps off and cause severe oil
loss from all engines.
The organisation must establish a quality system which must audit the
organisation. The purpose of this system is to ensure that the organisation
maintains a safe standard of work at all times and remains in compliance with
the standards laid down by Part 145.
An essential part of this system is the independent audit, all areas of the
company must be audited in every twelve month period. This audit is
independent in that it is carried out by personnel who are not responsible for
the activity being audited. For example, if a battery servicing facility is to be
audited then the audit must be carried out by personnel who do not carry out
the battery servicing. In larger organisations there will be a staff of dedicated
auditors who are responsible to the quality manager. The quality manager has
ultimate responsibility for the operation of the quality system.
The quality system must include a feedback system which ensures that the
findings of the audits are communicated to the relevant persons within the
company so that the necessary corrective actions can be carried out.
All audit records must be held for at least two years from the date of closure of
the audit.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport AlJ, PeR

Feb 2012

145.A.70 Maintenance Organisation Exposition


This document, often referred to as the MOE is a book which explains how the
organisation is going to comply with Part145. It will contain all the information
required by the national authority to issue or re-issue the Part 145 approval.
The book is an approved document and any changes to it must be approved by
the authority.
The MOE will comprise eight parts;
Part 1 Management
This part will detail the structure of the company, the names and titles of all of
the nominated staff and will contain a statement of corporate commitment by
the accountable manager. Also in this part will be the companys scope of work
and procedures detailing how the amendments to the MOE will be incorporated.
Part 2 Maintenance Procedures
This part details the procedures which must be followed when carrying out any
maintenance activities. It will include procedures for the acceptance and
calibration of tools and equipment, modification procedures, planning
procedures, shift handover procedures and other procedures governing every
area of aircraft and component maintenance.
Part 3 Quality System Procedures
This part contains the procedures used by to maintain the quality system. It
will detail how audits will be carried out, how they will recorded and how the
findings will be followed up. Additionally, the human factors training procedure
and the competence assessment of personnel will be included.
Part 4
This part will contain a list of contracted operators. These are organisations
whose aircraft maintenance is routinely carried out by the Part 145 company
and for which an approved contract exists.
Part 5
This part will list contractors, sub contractors and line stations.
Part 6 Operators Maintenance Procedures
Where an organisation is an operator and holds Part 145 then this section will
comprise procedures used inside the company.

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M10.3 PART 145

Page: 20

145.A.75 Privileges of the Organisation


Privileges of the organisation refers to what the organisation is allowed to do
under its approval. The first thing listed is that the organisation may carry out
maintenance of the aircraft or components for which it has approval at the
locations described in the exposition. This means it can carry out planned
maintenance only at the listed locations. The organisation may, however carry
out unplanned maintenance at any location if the aircraft goes unserviceable
there. For example, if an aircraft is grounded at a location not listed in the
MOE because of a fault, the organisation could rectify the fault at that location
but not carry out a scheduled maintenance there.
Additionally, the organisation may sub-contract work to another organisation to
carry out. There are restrictions on this sub-contracting, only certain types of
work can be sub contracted (normally specialist services such as welding or
plating) and the organisation carrying out the work must be fully covered by the
Part 145 organisations quality system as the work will be certified under the
Part 145 approval. For example, if a Part 145 organisation has a component
which needs to be metal plated as part of a maintenance activity but does not
have the capability to do the work itself, it may have this work done by a
specialist company. The Part 145 organisation can then certify this work under
its own approval. In order to ensure the quality of work and the adequacy of
the specialist companys procedures, the company must be overseen by the
quality system of the Part 145 organisation. This oversight will be detailed in
the MOE.
For all of the above activities the Part 145 organisation may issue certificates of
release to service and allow the aircraft to fly or the component to be fitted to
the aircraft.

Part 7/8 Supplementry Procedures for FAR 145 Repair Stations and
Transport Canada Civil Aviation Maintenance Organisations,
respectively
These parts are used when an organisation is approved under USA or
Canadian regulations as well as EASA regulations. Their purpose is to highlight
the difference between the sets of regulations.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

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Feb 2012

145.A.90 Continued Validity


When the approval is issued it has no expiry date and its validity is open ended
provided that the company remains in compliance with Part 145 and that the
competent authority is granted access to carry out its audits. The NAA must
audit the company every year and for this they must be granted reasonable
access to the organisation. As part of this the organisation must ensure that
the NAA has access to any sub-contracted company working under the organisations approval. (Sub-contracting is described above in 145.A.75).

145.A.85 Changes to the Organisation


The organisation gains its approval on the basis of the company MOE, thus if
there was any change to the company, the MOE would become invalid and the
organisation would be non-compliant. Any proposed change to the organisation such as change of facilities, change of staff, change of name etc should
therefore be notified to the NAA as soon as possible so the changes can be
discussed and approved before they come into effect. The MOE is then
amended to reflect the changes. This way the approval can carry on uninterrupted with the minimum effect on the companys operation.
The process for notifying changes to the NAA and for amending the MOE will
be detailed in the MOE.

145.A.80 Limitations on the Organisation


The organisation may only carry out the work for which it is approved when all
of the necessary tools, facilities, personnel etc are available.
This paragraph allows for a situation when an organisation does not have sufficient tools, equipment etc but it is only a temporary situation. During this time
the NAA would suspend the organisations approval to do that particular type of
work until the tools, equipment etc are available again. There is no need for
the approval certificate to be re-issued or for the approval schedule to be
changed.

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M10.3 PART 145

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145.A.95 Findings
When the NAA carries out its audits it will compare the standards found in the
organisation with the standards laid down in the regulations. If there are any
areas where the organisation is not in compliance then this is called a finding
and will be highlighted to the organisation at the end of the audit.
Obviously some of these findings will be more serious than others so there are
two classifications;
A level 1 findings is any significant non-compliance with Part 145 requirements which lowers the safety standard and hazards seriously the flight
safety.
A level 2 finding is any non-compliance with the Part 145 requirements
which could lower the safety standard and possibly hazard the flight safety.
When these findings have been notified to the organisation then the responsible persons in the company must define the corrective actions to be taken
and must carry out the corrective actions to the satisfaction of the authority.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

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Overhauled, Inspected/Tested, Modified Repaired

Block 1 The name and country of the Member State where the approval
was issued.
Block 2 Pre-printed Authorised Release Certificate/EASA Form 1.
Block 3 The unique number established by the numbering system/
procedure of the organisation identified in block 4; this may include
alpha/numeric printed characters.
Block 4 Name and address of the company releasing the component.
Block 5 Reference to a particular contract or internal process in order to
provide faster traceability.
Block 6 This to provide item numbers so that components can be
individually referred to and identified in Block 12.
Block 7 Name or description of the component, preferable the name used
in the illustrated parts catalogue (IPC).
Block 8 Part number, again preferably the number used in the IPC, AMM
or Service Bulletin.
Block 9 State the quantity of items being released.
Block 10 If the item is required by regulations to be identified with a serial
number, enter it here. Additionally, any other serial number not required by
regulation may also be entered. If there is no serial number identified on the
item, enter N/A.
Block11 This block will contain one or more of the following words as a
basic description of the work which is being certified by this Form 1.

Appendix I Use of the EASA Form 1 Issue 2 for Maintenance


The EASA Form 1 is the certificate which must be issued with every
component which is to be fitted to an aircraft. Its title is the Authorised
Release Certificate and it carries the certificate of release to service for the
component. It can be used for components which have been released from
maintenance (by a Part 145 organisation) or for new components which have
been manufactured (by a Part 21 organisation). The form is largely the same
in both cases but will be certified slightly differently. The Form 1 is created by
the Part 145 organisation to suit its own needs but will always take the same
format and contain the same information as all other Form 1s. The basic
format is shown below.

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M10.3 PART 145

Page: 23

Block 12 State any information in this block, either directly or by reference


to supporting documentation, necessary for the user or installer to
determine the airworthiness of the item in relation to the work being
certified. If necessary a separate sheet may be used and referenced from
the main Certificate. Each statement must be clearly identified as to which
item in block 6 it relates. If there is no statement, state None.
Blocks 13a-13e Not used for maintenance release. Shade, darken, or
otherwise mark to preclude inadvertent or unauthorised use. (they may well
be struck through).
Block 14a Mark the appropriate box(es) indicating which regulations apply
to the completed work. If the box other regulations specified in block 12 is
marked, then the regulations of the other airworthiness authority(ies) must
be identified in block 12. At least one box must be marked, or both boxes
may be marked, as appropriate.
Block 14b This space shall be completed with the signature of the
authorised person. Only persons specifically authorised under the rules and
policies of the Competent Authority are permitted to sign this block. To aid
recognition, a unique number identifying the authorised person may be
added.
Block 14d Enter the name of the person signing block 14b in a legible
form.
Block 14e Enter the date on which block 14b is signed.
The date must be in the format dd/mmm/yyyy
(dd = 2 digit day, mmm = first 3 letters of the month, yyyy = 4 digit year).
EASA Form 1 Issue 2 User/Installer Responsibilities
Place the following statement on the Certificate to notify end users that they
are not relieved of their responsibilities concerning installation and use of any
item accompanied by the form:
This Certificate does not automatically constitute authority to install.
Where the user/installer performs work in accordance with regulations of
an airworthiness authority different than the airworthiness authority
specified in block 1, it is essential that the user/installer ensures that his/
her airworthiness authority accepts items from the airworthiness
authority specified in block 1.
Statements in block(s) 13a and 14a do not constitute installation
certification. In all cases aircraft maintenance records must contain an
installation certification issued in accordance with the national
regulations by the user/installer before the aircraft may be flown.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

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Cotswold Airport AlJ, PeR

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.3 PART 145

Feb 2012

Figure 4

EASA Form 1
Page: 24

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Appendix II Approval Class and Rating System


As part of the approval documentation issued by the competent authority will
be a document showing which aircraft and types of equipment may be maintained by that organisation. An example is shown below.

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M10.3 PART 145

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M10.3 PART 145

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Figure 5

Approval Class and Rating System


Page: 26

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M10.3 PART 145

Feb 2012

Figure 6

Approval Class and Rating System Cont.


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M10.3 PART 145

Feb 2012

Figure 7

Approval Class and Rating System Cont.


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M10.3 PART 145

Feb 2012

Figure 8

Approval Class and Rating System Cont.


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Appendix III Example of Approval Certificate


Below is an example of an approval certificate. The certificate must be written
in English and may also be written in the local language. The certificate will
carry a reference number, issued by the authority, which is unique to that organisation.

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M10.3 PART 145

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M10.3 PART 145

Feb 2012

Figure 9

Part 145 Approval Certificate


Page: 32

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Appendix IV Conditions for the Use of Staff Not Qualified to Part 66 in


Accordance with 145.A.30(j) 1 and 2.
If an organisation is based outside the EU and gains Part 145 approval it is not
practical to insist that all certifying staff have Part 66 licences. In this case they
must hold suitable foreign licences and undergo training in human factors and
aviation legislation as well as completing suitable type or task training and
satisfying the usual experience requirements.

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66.A.1 Scope
The scope of Part 66 is to detail the requirements for issue of an aircraft
maintenance engineer licence and the conditions of the licence validity.

66.1
This details that the competent authority shall be the authority designated by
the member state to issue Part 66 licences. In the UK this is the Civil Aviation
Authority (CAA).

Content
As with all EASA parts there is a section A and a section B. Only section A will
be considered in this course. Section A is further sub-divided into basic
training (the training required to qualify for a licence) and type training (the
training required to add a type rating to a licence). At the end there are
appendices and here we find the knowledge requirements, the modules
required for each category of licence, the contents of each module and the
level of the questions. Additionally there is information relevant to type training
and an example of a Part 66 licence.

Introduction
Part 66 makes up Annex III to the EASA Implementing Regulation (Continuing
Airworthiness). It describes the eligibility criteria and qualifying process for
personnel who wish to become certifying staff or support staff in organisations
carrying out maintenance of aircraft.

PART 66

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M10.2 PART 66

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66.A.15 Eligibility
An applicant for an aircraft maintenance licence shall be at least 18 years of
age.

66.A.10 Application
The applicant for a licence must apply to the relevant competent authority
using an EASA From 19. Although licences from all member states have equal
validity across the EU, when a licence has been issued it can only be
processed by the issuing authority. For example if a licence is issued by the
UK CAA and the holder goes to live in Germany, the licence must still be
renewed, extended and any type ratings added by the CAA and not by the
German LBA or any other authority.
Additionally it is not permitted for a person to hold Part 66 licences issued in
more than one country. This does not however prevent an engineer holding a
Part 66 licence as well as a US licence or other foreign, non-EU licence.
There is no restriction on the number or combination of Part 66 licence
categories which can be held by one person.

66. A.3 Licence categories


There are currently four basic categories of licence:
A
B1
B2
C
In mid 2012 a further category of licence, B3, will be introduced and will be
applicable to piston--engine non--pressurised aeroplanes of 2,000 kg MTOM
and below.
A and B1 are then further sub-divided into:
A1 & B1.1 - Turbine engined aeroplanes
A2 & B1.2 - Piston engined aeroplanes
A3 & B1.3 - Turbine engined helicopters
A4 & B1.4 - Piston engined helicopters

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Category B1
A category B1 licence holder can gain authorisation to certify for maintenance
of the aircraft structure, aircraft mechanical and electrical systems as well as
powerplants. Additionally, he can certify work on the aircrafts avionic system
as long as that work requires only simple tests to prove serviceability. If the
avionic work requires extensive use of test equipment and a degree of decision
making (troubleshooting then the work must be carried out by a licenced B2
engineer.
Cat B1 licence automatically gives the holder Cat A privileges in that sub
category. This means that the holder of a B1.1 licence would also hold Cat A1
privileges. These categories are both annotated on the licence.

Category A
A Category A licence holder can certify minor scheduled line maintenance and
simple defect rectification for which he is specifically trained and qualified and
has performed himself. He cannot certify work carried out by other people.
Minor scheduled line maintenance means checks up to but not including A
check or up to and including weekly checks depending on the check system in
use on that particular aircraft.
Line maintenance includes is defined as any maintenance that is carried out
before flight to ensure that the aircraft is fit for the intended flight. It includes
trouble shooting, defect rectification, component replacement, scheduled
maintenance, and minor repairs and modifications. Anything deeper than this
is classed as base maintenance. This list is found in AMC66.A.20(a)
The list of tasks which a Cat A licence holder can be authorised for is found in
AMC145.A.30 (g).

66.A.20 Privileges
This part details what the holder of each category of licence is allowed to
certify. It is important to remember that holding the licence is only one part of
gaining certification privileges and that a licence alone does not allow the
holder to do anything.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.2 PART 66

Page: 36

Language Requirements
In all cases the licence holder must have enough relevant, recent experience in
order to keep his authorisation and must be able to demonstrate an ability to
communicate satisfactorily in the language in which the organisations technical
documentation is written.
In particular he must be able to interpret the information in the technical
manuals, be able to make understandable entries in the technical paperwork
and communicate sufficiently with other technical staff and flight crews. In
Europe most of this work is done in English but some organisations write their
internal manuals in their own language (most notably the French).

Category C
A category C aircraft maintenance licence permits the holder to issue
Certificates of Release to Service (CRS) following base maintenance on
aircraft. This privilege applies to the aircraft in its entirety.

Category B2
The holder of a B2 licence can gain authorisation to certify work carried out on
aircraft avionic systems.
B2 licence holders does not include A licence privileges.
It should be noted that as there are no sub-divisions of B2 licences, the holder
can work on any aircraft irrespective of whether it is an aeroplane or helicopter
or whether it has turbine or piston engines.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONSECUTIVE ATTEMPTS FOR


EACH MODULE IS THREE. FURTHER SETS OF THREE
ATTEMPTS ARE ALLOWED WITH A 1 YEAR WAITING PERIOD
BETWEEN SETS.

Cotswold Airport AlJ /PeR

Feb 2012

66.A.30 Experience Requirements


In addition to the knowledge requirements, the applicant must also be able to
demonstrate sufficient aircraft experience. The amount of experience required
will depend on the category of licence applied for as well as the type of training
the applicant has completed.
For Category A, B1.2, B1.4 and B3 the experience requirements are:

NOTE:

66.A.25 Basic Knowledge Requirements


Before a licence can be issued, the applicants must demonstrate that they
possess sufficient knowledge. This is demonstrated by passing the relevant
written examinations, either with the competent authority or with an
organisation approved under Part 147 to conduct these exams. When the
exams have been passed the examining body will issue a certificate which can
be used in support of the application.
The examinations are in a multiple choice format but essay questions are
included for module 7 Maintenance Practices ((2)1 mechanical + 1 electrical),
module 9 Human Factors (1) & module 10 Aviation Legislation (1).
The syllabus for the exams takes a modular form with each module covering a
different aspect of aircraft maintenance from module 1 (mathematics)through to
module 17 (propellers). The modules required for each licence category can
be found in Appendix I to Part 66. The modules required and their levels of
complexity will differ for different licence categories.
This also raises the possibility of having to sit an exam for a part of a module if
the applicant wishes to gain another licence category. For example, a B2
licence holder wishing to extend his licence to include B1 would already have
passed an exam on module 6 but the M6 requirement for B1 is higher so he
would have to sit an exam covering the differences between B2 and B1.
In general B1 and B2 can be regarded as being at the same level but in
different subjects and Cat A is a lower level B1. Cat C engineers must possess
knowledge at either B1 or B2 level.
Training courses and examinations shall be passed within 10 years prior to the
application for an aircraft maintenance licence or the addition of a category or
sub-category to such aircraft maintenance licence.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.2 PART 66

Page: 37

Three years if the applicant has no relevant technical training or


Two years if the applicant can demonstrate technical training in a relevant
technical subject or
One year after successful completion of an approved Part 147 training
course.
For Category B2, B1.1 and B1.3 the requirement is:
Five years if the applicant has no relevant technical training or
Three years with training in a related technical discipline or
Two years after completion of a Part 147 approved training course.
All of the experience listed above must be practical experience on operational
aircraft. Details of the experience must be recorded and verified and submitted
with the licence application.
It is acceptable to count aircraft maintenance experience which was not gained
in civil aircraft maintenance (such as military, coastguard, police or aircraft
manufacture) but it is mandatory that some of the experience be gained in a
civil maintenance environment. AMC66.A.30 gives this civil maintenance
requirement as six months for Cat A and twelve months for B1 and B2.
For Category C for large aircraft:
Three years as B1.1, B1.3 or B2 certifying staff or support staff on large
aircraft or
Five years as B1.2 or B1.4 Certifying staff or support staff.
For Category C with respect to other than large aircraft:
Three years of experience exercising category B1 or B2 privileges on other
than large aircraft or as support staff, or a combination of both.
The alternate route to Category C is the so called academic route. In this case
the applicant must hold a relevant technical degree and then three years of
experience in an aircraft maintenance environment.
An engineer who qualifies through this route would only hold Cat C privileges
whereas engineers who qualify by having been B1 or B2 would also still hold
their B1 or B2 privileges. (Remember that it is possible to hold more than one
licence category on the same licence).

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport AlJ /PeR

Feb 2012

Cat A
For a Cat A licence holder to gain a task rating he must complete specific
training for that task.
Example; a licence holder wishes to gain certification authorisation to carry out
mainwheel replacements on A320 aircraft.
They must undergo theory training specific for that task including the use of
documentation and company procedures.
They must undergo practical training for that task.
They must carry out the particular task a number of times under
supervision.
When completed the certification authorisation can be issued.
The authorisation is only valid while the licence holder remains with the
company that issued the authorisation.If they leave the company then the
authorisation becomes invalid. The authorisation also becomes invalid if the
licence is not renewed, is revoked, or if the licence holder does not undergo
continuation training.
If the holder is required to gain additional authorisations to carry out other tasks
on the same type of aircraft or mainwheel replacements on a different type
then he must go through the same process for each new authorisation.
The training can only be carried out by a Part 145 or Part147 approved
organisation with specific approval to carry out the training. This will be
detailed in the companys exposition.

66.A.45 Type/Task Training and Ratings

66.A.40 Continued Validity of the Aircraft Maintenance Licence


An engineers maintenance licence is issued for a period of five years after
which it must be renewed by the competent authority. The licence is returned
to the competent authority who will check the licence details against their own
records to ensure that the licence is correct and unaltered.
The holder of the licence can renew the licence as many times as he wishes
irrespective of whether he is working on aircraft or not. Thus, licence holders
who become planners, quality engineers, instructors, etc. can still renew their
licences. Certification privileges. however do rely on recent experience. These
certification privileges also rely on the validity of the licence, so if the licence is
not renewed the certification privilege becomes invalid.
An example of the licence format and the application form is shown in
Appendix IV to Part 66.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.2 PART 66

Page: 38

66.A.70 Conversion Provisions


This paragraph allows the holders of existing national licences and, in some
cases, company approvals to gain a Part 66 licence equivalent to their old
licence. For example; the holder of an old UKCAA licence issued before Part
66 came into being can automatically convert to a Part 66 licence. The new
Part 66 licence, however may be limited because the old licence does not
cover all of the aspects of the new licence. In this case the limitations will be
printed on the licence. The limitations can be removed by taking the relevant
exams and showing appropriate experience.

Cat C
The process for Cat C licence holders is as above but with no practical
element.

Cat B and C
For Cat B1 or B2 the process is more complicated. In these cases the licence
must have a type rating before any authorisation can be issued.
In order to gain a type rating the licence holder must successfully complete an
approved type course given by the Authority or by an approved Part 147
organisation. This course must include both practical and theory elements and
must cover all aspects of that aircraft type included in the relevant licence
category. The theory training must cover all technical aspects of the aircraft as
well as experience from incidents, significant ADs and any human factors
issues specific to that type. This training can also include computer based
training and simulator work. The practical training must be between two weeks
and four months long depending on the applicants previous practical
experience. The practical training must be structured and recorded in a way
that is acceptable to the authority, sometimes by the use of experience sheets
or a logbook.
Once the training has been completed an application can be made for a type
rating to be added to the licence.
The authority will check the application and if satisfactory will reissue the
licence with the applicable type rating on it.
The applicant is then able to seek approval from a Part 145 organisation.

Module 10 (A/B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport ALJ

Oct 2010

EU OPS states that no operator may operate an aeroplane for the purpose ofcommercial air transport unless it is approved in accordance with EU OPS.This
approval is indicated by the issue of an Air Operators Certificate (AOC) which
constitutes the organisation s approval to operate.
In order to gain AOC the operator must show that they meet all safety
requirements and they must allow the competent authority access to the
operation to ensure compliance.
The organisation must not have an AOC issued by another member state and
they must have their principal place of business in the country in which they
intend to gain approval.
The organisations approval process will be similar to that looked at in Part 145
in that they will need to prove adequacy of management, personnel, facilities,
equipment etc. and must create an exposition detailing how they will comply.
The organisation must as part of the approval process show the NAA that they
have satisfied the maintenance requirements of Part M for all of its aircraft.

AIR OPERATORS CERTIFICATES

General
EU--OPS details the requirements to be met by any organisation based in the
EU wishing to operate civil aircraft for commercial air transportation. It does not
cover military operations. It is based on, and similar to JAR OPS which it
supersedes. Eventually it is intended that there will be an EASA Part OPS, this
is currently proposed for 2012.
EU OPS is divided into four parts;
EU OPS 1 - Concerns the operation of aeroplanes for Commercial Air
Transport.
EU OPS 2 - General Aviation (Aeroplanes).
EU OPS 3 - Commercial Air Transport (Helicopters).
EU OPS 4 - General Aviation (Helicopters).

EU OPS

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.4 EU OPS

Page: 39

Aircraft Continuing Airworthiness


The continued airworthiness of the aircraft is always the responsibility of the
operator.
As part of its AOC approval the operator must demonstrate how it intends to
ensure that its aircraft remain in an airworthy condition.
To do this they must comply with Part M and produce a Continuing
Airworthiness Maintenance Exposition (CAME) which must be acceptable to
the authority.
In addition, the operator must create and gain approval for the aircraft
maintenance programme to be used for each aircraft. This document details
which maintenance actions must be carried out at which intervals during the life
of the aircraft in order to keep it in an airworthy condition. The approval comes
from the NAA.
The operator must also create the aircraft technical log book which has be
approved by the NAA.
The operator must also demonstrate how it will ensure that all the maintenance
actions can actually be performed. Where the organisation has no Part 145
approval of its own then a contract must be put into place with a Part 145
organisation. The technical aspects of this contract must be acceptable to the
NAA.
Also necessary is the operators minimum equipment list (MEL). An MEL is a
document which must be created by the operator and approved by the National
Authority and details which systems or components may be inoperative at the
time that the aircraft is dispatched. The MEL is created and approved for one
aircraft or one fleet only and is not valid for any other aircraft. Once the MEL is
created and approved the organisation must operate in compliance with it. The
NAA may in exceptional circumstances allow operation outside the terms of the
MEL but never outside the terms of the manufacturers master MEL (MMEL).
The use and content of the MEL and aircraft maintenance programme is
covered in more detail in M10.7.
The use and content of the technical log is covered in M10.6

OPERATORS RESPONSIBILITIES

Module 10 A/B1/B2

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport ALJ

Oct 2010

If the aircraft has a seating capacity of nineteen passengers or more then there
must be a door between the flight deck and the passenger compartment and it
must be placarded Crew Only and must be lockable to prevent passengers
from entering.
Each internal door must be marked with a placard if it is the route for
passengers to reach an aircraft exit.
Each external door must be placarded as Exit or Emergency Exit and must
bear instructions for the operation of the door. In the case that the door is
inoperative it may be possible to dispatch the aircraft (In accordance with the
MEL) but the exit must be placarded with a red and white No Entry sign and
the exit and opening instructions placards must be covered.

AIRCRAFT MARKINGS

EU OPS states that the following documents must be carried on every flight.
S Certificate of Registration
S Certificate of airworthiness
S Noise Certificate
S Copy of the Air Operator s Certificate
S Aircraft Radio Licence
S Insurance Certificate
The flight crew must carry a valid licence with rating for that flight.
In addition to these documents there must also be:
S The current parts of the ops manual and the flight manual
S The technical log
S Mass and balance information
S Flight plan, maps, charts and met data required for the flight.
S Information about the aircraft s passengers and cargo.

DOCUMENTS TO BE CARRIED

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.4 EU OPS

Page: 40

Module 10 A/B1/B2

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

ALJ

Jan 2011

What is Continuing Airworthiness?


Continuing Airworthiness is all of the actions required to keep an aircraft in an
airworthy condition as it was when it was built. Below is a diagram showing the
progression of an aircraft from build into service.
When the aircraft is new it is in an airworthy condition because it has been
designed by a design organisation approved under Part 21 and built to an
approved standard by a Part 21 production organisation.
As the aircraft is operated it will wear and deteriorate and its airworthiness will
become degraded. In order to prevent the aircraft becoming unairworthy a
series of actions are required.
One of the key parts of continuing airworthiness is maintenance. When the
aircraft goes into service it will have a maintenance schedule which details
which maintenance inspections must be carried out at which times.
Additionally, any defects or damage which occur must be rectified to an
acceptable level.
As the aircraft carries on in service the manufacturer learns more about it and
from time to time they will decide to modify a part of the aircraft to improve the
operation or to prevent a common failure from occurring. Some of these
modifications are mandatory and form a part of continuing airworthiness.
Sometimes damage or defects will be found in service which require other
operators to inspect their aircraft to ensure they are still in a satisfactory
condition. Again, some of these inspections will be mandatory and are a part
of continuing airworthiness.
On the figure below we can consider the left side of the page to represent an
airworthy condition and as we move to the right the condition deteriorates.
When the aircraft is new it is in airworthy condition but as it is operated its
condition gets worse. The process of continuing airworthiness management
including maintenance ensures that the aircraft is returned to, or rather
maintained in, an airworthy condition.

PART M

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 41

Module 10 A/B1/B2

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

ALJ

Jan 2011

New Aircraft

Figure 10

Airworthy Condition

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Continuing Airworthiness

Airworthiness
Review

Maintenance

Continuing
Airworthiness
Management

Operation

Page: 42

Less
Airworthy
Condition

Module 10 A/B1/B2

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

ALJ

Jan 2011

Content
Part M Section A is divided into nine subparts which have letter designations A
to I. The subsections A and B apply to all activities under Part M. Subsections
D, E, F and H are concerned with the maintenance of small aircraft not used
for commercial air transport and subsections C, G and I are concerned with the
continuing airworthiness of all aircraft.
In order to present the information in a logical sequence for the reader to
follow, the subsections will be considered in the following order: A, B,C,G,I, F,
D, E, H.

General
Part M is Annex I to IR Maintenance and lays down the requirements which
must be met in order to ensure the continuing airworthiness of an aircraft in
service. As with the other Parts it is divided into Section A which details the
actions which the organisations must follow to ensure continuing airworthiness
and Section B which contains the procedures to be followed by the
Airworthiness Authorities to ensure that the organisations remain in
compliance. Only Section A will be considered here.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 43

Module 10 A/B1/B2

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

ALJ

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Jan 2011

Figure 11

Part M Layout

Subpart A: General
Subpart B: Accountability
Subpart C: Continuing Airworthiness
Subpart G: C.A Management Organisation
Subpart I: Airworthiness Review Certificate
Subpart F: Maintenance Organisation
Subpart D: Maintenance Standards
Subpart E: Components
Subpart H: Certificate of Release to Service

Part M Notes Layout

Page: 44

Module 10 A/B1/B2

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

ALJ

Jan 2011

M.A.201 Responsibilities
This subpart details who is responsible for which actions with respect to
continuing airworthiness.
The owner of the aircraft is responsible for the continuing airworthiness
of the aircraft and he must ensure that the aircraft never flies unless it is in an
airworthy condition, all operational and emergency equipment fitted to the
aircraft is serviceable, the certificate of airworthiness is valid and all required
maintenance has been carried out.
If the aircraft is leased out to another operator the responsibility shifts to this
operator if this is part of the lease contract. This agreement must be clearly
stated in the contract.
If the aircraft is a small aircraft not used for commercial air transport then this
continuing airworthiness function can be carried out by the operator or
contracted completely to another Continuing Airworthiness Management
Organisation (CAMO) approved under Part M subpart G.
In the case of a large aircraft or and aircraft used for commercial air transport,
the continuing airworthiness function must be carried out by the operator who
must gain Part M subpart G approval as part of his Air Operators Certificate
(AOC). Some parts of the continuing airworthiness function may be sub-contracted to another organisation but these activities remain the direct
responsibility of the operator.
All aircraft maintenance activities must be carried out by organisations
approved either under Part 145 or under Part M subpart F. All aircraft used for
commercial air transport or any component for such an aircraft must be

SUBPART B ACCOUNTABILITY

This subpart introduces Part M and simply states that Part M establishes the
measures to be taken to ensure that airworthiness is maintained, including
maintenance. It also states that Part M specifies the conditions to be met by
the organisations wishing to gain approval to carry out these continuing
airworthiness activities. It will be seen later in the course that organisations
can gain approval under subpart F for maintenance of some aircraft, under
subpart G for management of continued airworthiness and under subpart I for
the issue of airworthiness review certificates.

SUBPART A GENERAL

GENERAL

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 45

M.A 202 Occurrence Reporting


Any organisation approved under Part M must put into place a system of
occurrence reporting to highlight any unairworthy conditions found on aircraft.
Within the company the information must be gathered together and then
transmitted to; the NAA, the manufacturer and the operator of the aircraft.
The report must reach the authority within 72 hours of the discovery of the
unairworthy condition.
This occurrence reporting system is the same as the one covered in Part 145.

maintained by a Part 145 organisation. Small aircraft, not used for commercial
air transport can be maintained by an organisation approved under Part M
subpart F. This does not mean that the operator must hold Part 145 or Part M
subpart F, just that he can demonstrate that the maintenance will be carried out
by such an organisation. The maintenance organisation is responsible for the
standard of all work which it carries out but the requirement for the work to
be done remains the responsibility of the operator.
The operator is also responsible for ensuring that the pre flight inspection is
carried out. This must be carried out by a suitably qualified person but need
not be by an approved maintenance organisation or by Part 66 certifying staff
as the pre flight inspection is not considered maintenance.

Module 10 A/B1/B2

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

ALJ

Jan 2011

M.A.305 Aircraft continuing airworthiness record system


After any maintenance task there must be a certificate of release to service
entered in the aircraft record system. This certification must be made as soon
as practicable but never more than 30 days after the maintenance action took
place.

M.A.304 Data for modifications and repairs


All repair data must be approved by EASA or by a Part 21 organisation (the
aircraft design organisation).

M.A.303 Airworthiness directives


All airworthiness directives must be complied with as directed by the NAA.

M.A.302 Maintenance programme


Every aircraft must have a maintenance program approved by the National
Authority which complies with the requirements of the manufacturer as well as
the requirements of the NAA. Any changes to the maintenance schedule must
be approved by the NAA.
The maintenance programme must provide details of which maintenance
activities must be carried out at what time.
The maintenance programme must have a reliability programme.

M.A.301 Continuing Airworthiness Tasks


It is the responsibility of the operator to ensure the serviceability of the aircraft
and its equipment by;
the accomplishment of pre-flight inspections
the rectification to an approved standard of any damage or defect taking
into account the MEL and CDL
ensuring that all maintenance required by the maintenance schedule is
carried out
ensuring that the maintenance schedule is effective
the accomplishment of any ADs, operational directives or any other action
required by the National Authority
the accomplishment of repairs.

SUBPART C CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS

CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS MANAGEMENT

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 46

Each aircraft must have at least one logbook for the airframe, one for each
engine and one for each variable pitch propeller. There may also be individual
engine module log cards and log cards for other life limited components.
The record system must also include the operators aircraft technical log.
The record system must show the aircrafts current airworthiness state such as
compliance with directives, the status of modifications and repairs, the status of
compliance with the maintenance programme and a list of any deferred
maintenance.
The continuing airworthiness records must be kept for the following lengths of
time;
Detailed maintenance records of the aircraft and its life limited components;
24 months after the aircraft is permanently withdrawn from service.
Total time and flight cycles; at least 12 months after the aircraft is
permanently removed from service.
Time and flight cycles since the last scheduled maintenance; at least until
the next scheduled maintenance of equivalent depth and scope.
Aircraft AD status; until at least 12 months after the aircraft was completely
removed from service.
Details of mods and repairs vital to flight safety; at least 12 months after the
aircraft or component has been permanently removed from service.

Module 10 A/B1/B2

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

ALJ

Jan 2011

M.A.307 Transfer of aircraft continuing airworthiness records


If the aircraft is transferred from one operator to another then all the continuing
airworthiness records mentioned in M.A.305 must be transferred to the new
operator and the document retention periods still apply. This means that the
new operator must keep them for the remainder of the prescribed periods of
time mentioned above.

M.A.306 Operators technical log system


The operators tech log is the day to day part of the record system. It contains
sufficient information for the flight and maintenance crews to carry out their
operations and provides somewhere for them to record the normal day to day
actions on the aircraft.
The tech log is the responsibility of the operator and must be approved by the
competent authority as must any amendments.
The tech log can take various forms, one typical arrangement (taken from AMC
M.A.306) is as follows;
Section 1 contains the name and address of the operator and the
registration of the aircraft.
Section 2 details which scheduled maintenance is due next, when it is due
and any out of phase maintenance due in the meantime. Additionally, there
will be the CRS from the last scheduled maintenance check.
Section 3 contains all the information needed to safely operate the aircraft.
This would include date and time of take off and landing and a running total
of flying hours. Technical information is also required such as quantities of
fuel and oil uplifted, total fuel available in each tank and the time and details
of ground deicing. Also in this section would be a provision for defects to be
entered, a place for the aircraft commander to sign that there are no defects
and a place for details of defect rectification to be entered along with a CRS.
Section 4 is the deferred defects section showing any defects which have
been deferred in accordance with the Minimum Equipment List (MEL).
Section 5 contains maintenance support information such as who the pilot
should contact for maintenance support when operating the company
routes.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 47

Module 10 A/B1/B2

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

ALJ

Jan 2011

M.A.707 Airworthiness review staff


The staff involved in issuing airworthiness review certificates or
recommendations must have;
At least five years of experience in continuing airworthiness,
A Part 66 licence or technical degree,
Formal aeronautical maintenance training and
An appropriate position within the company.

M.A.706 Personnel requirements


The organisation must have the following personnel;
Accountable manager - responsible for ensuring that the organisations
activities can be financed.
Person or group of persons who have responsibility for ensuring that the
organisation remains in compliance with Part M. This person is responsible
to the accountable manager.
Nominated postholder - responsible for the management and supervision of
all continuing airworthiness activities.
Sufficient appropriately qualified staff for the required work.

M.A.705 Facilities
The organisation must show that they have adequate office accommodation for
all of the planned activities of the company.

M.A.704 Continuing airworthiness management exposition


The organisation must produce an exposition detailing how it will comply with
the requirements of Part M. This exposition will be similar to the document
covered in Part 145 and must be approved by the competent authority.

General
This subpart describes the requirements to be met by any organisation wishing
to gain approval to carry out continuing airworthiness management. This
approval will normally constitute part of the air operators certificate.

SUBPART G CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS MANAGEMENT


ORGANISATION

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 48

M.A.710 Airworthiness review


The airworthiness review is a check which is periodically carried out to ensure
that all of the continuing airworthiness activities applicable to a certain aircraft
over a period of time have been carried out. This is done by comparing all data
applicable to an aircraft such as ADs, SBs, mandatory mods and the
maintenance programme to the actual work which has been recorded in the
aircraft logbook. Every aircraft must have a valid airworthiness review
certificate in force at all times when it is in service.

M.A.708 Continuing airworthiness management


In order to ensure continuing airworthiness the organisation must do the
following for every aircraft which it manages.
Develop and control a maintenance programme.
Gain approval for this maintenance programme from the competent
authority.
Manage the approval of any modification or repair to those aircraft.
Ensure that all maintenance is carried out in accordance with the
maintenance programme
Ensure that all airworthiness directives and operational directives are
carried out.
Ensure that all defects are corrected to an approved standard by an
appropriately approved organisation.
Coordinate all maintenance activities to ensure they are carried out
correctly.
Manage and retain all records of these continuing airworthiness activities
and
Ensure that the mass and balance information is always current.
If the operator is not approved to carry out maintenance in accordance with
Part 145 the operator must establish a written contract with a Part 145
organisation to ensure that the maintenance can be satisfactorily carried out.
This contract must be accepted by the competent authority.

Before airworthiness review staff can gain an authorisation they must carry out
an airworthiness review under supervision and be formally accepted by the
competent authority.
The airworthiness review staff must be listed in the CAMO.
The organisation must keep records of all the qualified staff.

Module 10 A/B1/B2

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

ALJ

Jan 2011

M.A.714 Record keeping


All work carried out by the CAMO must be recorded and these records must be
retained.
If the organisation has the approval to issue airworthiness review certificates or
recommendations then a copy of each of these certificates and all the
supporting documentation must be kept until at least two years after the aircraft
is permanently withdrawn from service.
These records must be stored in a manner which keeps them safe from
damage, alteration and theft.

M.A.711 Privileges of the organisation


When the organisation gains its Part M approval it may then manage the
continuing airworthiness of aircraft. Depending on its approval it may also
either issue airworthiness review certificates or issue recommendations to the
authority to issue the certificate.

Typical information checked during this process would be;


Airframe hours properly recorded,
All scheduled maintenance up to date as per the maintenance programme,
ADs carried out and recorded,
Defects rectified promptly and in accordance with correct documentation,
Mass and balance statement up to date.
There will then be a physical survey of the aircraft to ensure that; all placards
are installed, the aircraft complies with the flight manual, no inconsistencies
can be found between the aircraft and the status recorded in the logbook and
there is no evidence to suggest that there any are outstanding defects.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 49

Validity of the airworthiness review certificate


The certificate will remain in force until its expiry date unless it is revoked or
suspended by the authority, the C of A becomes invalid or the type certificate is
revoked for that type of aircraft.
If the aircraft is transferred to another operator the airworthiness review
certificate remains in force until its expiry date.

M.A.901 Aircraft airworthiness review


Every aircraft must have a valid airworthiness review certificate. This
certificate is issued when the airworthiness review has been satisfactorily
completed and is valid for one year from the date of issue. At reissue the date
can be anticipated by up to 90 days to give another full years validity from the
current expiry date.
All certificates have a one year validity however if an aircraft remains in a
controlled environment for that entire year then the certificates validity can be
extended for another year. This can be repeated one more time and then a
new review must be carried out and a new certificate issued. A controlled
environment means that the aircraft is continually managed by the same
CAMO for that entire period of time. If the aircraft is moved from one operator
to another then this is no longer a controlled environment and a new review
must be carried out when the certificate reaches its expiry date.

SUBPART I AIRWORTHINESS REVIEW CERTIFICATE

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Jan 2011

M.A.603 Extent of Approval


When the organisation gains approval it is indicated by the issue of an approval
certificate. This is issued by the competent authority for that country and has
no expiry date.
As with Part 145 organisations, there is a class and rating system showing
which aircraft and pieces of equipment may be maintained by the organisation.
Additionally the Part M subpart F organisation may gain approval to
manufacture a limited range of components such as; bushes, control cables,
flexible and rigid pipes etc. These components may only be manufactured for
use within the organisation and may only be manufactured at the time that they

M.A.602 Application
This subpart covers the requirements which must be fulfilled by an organisation
who wish to carry out maintenance on small aircraft which are not used for
commercial air transportation. It was set up in order to allow a very small
organisation to gain maintenance approval without the complex structure of a
Part 145 company.
Generally, Part M subpart F approved organisations have fewer than ten
employees; if they are any bigger then it is usual to gain Part 145 approval.

SUBPART F MAINTENANCE ORGANISATION

General
All aircraft must be maintained by approved organisations. Large aircraft and
aircraft used for commercial air transport must be maintained by organisations
holding Part 145 approval the requirements of which are covered in Module
10.3.
Small aircraft not used for commercial air transport can also be maintained by
Part 145 organisations but also by organisations approved under Part M
subpart F. These are normally smaller organisations and the requirements of
subpart F are like Part 145 but less complex. The main difference between the
two is that subpart F does not require a complex quality system. Subpart F
has sometimes been referred to as Part 145 Light and this is a good
description, the requirements are much the same but not as complex as Part
145.

MAINTENANCE

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 50

M.A. 605 Facilities


The organisation must ensure that the facilities of the company are adequate
for all of the planned work to be carried out. The facilities must provide
sufficient protection from weather and contamination and must provide secure
storage and segregation for aircraft components.
Aircraft components must be segregated so that serviceable parts are kept
separate from unserviceable parts. Also, the storage facilities must have
enough of the correct type of racking to store all of the components in the

M.A.604 Maintenance Organisation Manual


In order to gain subpart F approval the organisation must produce a Maintenance Organisation Manual (MOM) detailing how it will comply with subpart F.
This MOM must include;
a statement signed by the accountable manager to confirm that the
organisation will continuously work in accordance with Part M and the
manual at all times, and
the organisations scope of work,and
The title(s) and name(s) of persons having responsibility for approval, and
an organisational chart showing associated chains of responsibility between
the named persons, and
a list of certifying staff, and
a general description and location of the facilities, and
procedures specifying how the maintenance organisation ensures
compliance with Part M subpart F, and
The procedure for amendment of the MOM.
If the organisation becomes larger than ten staff then the organisation must
produce a full Maintenance Organisation Exposition (MOE) as detailed in Part
145. At this point it would usually be better for the organisation to gain Part
145 approval.

are required, they cannot be manufactured and kept in stock. All manufactured
parts must be inspected and clearly marked for identification so that they are
completely traceable.

Module 10 A/B1/B2

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For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

ALJ

Jan 2011

M.A.607 Certifying Staff


The organisation must ensure that all certifying staff hold a valid licence and
show adequate understanding of the aircraft and the relevant company
procedures.
Adequate understanding means that they have received training and had their
competency proven on that piece of equipment.
In order for the certifying staff to gain and keep their approval they must
demonstrate that they have at least six months experience on the aircraft or
equipment every two years.
It is the responsibility of the organisation to hold certain information about each
of the certifying staff. The following list is the minimum:
Name
Date of birth
Details of basic training
Details of type training
Records of recurrent training (also referred to as continuation training)
Details of specialised training
Records of experience
Qualifications relevant to the approval

M.A.606 Personnel Requirements


The approved organisation must nominate an accountable manager who has
responsibility to ensure that there are sufficient resources available to carry out
all of the work of the company. The accountable manager must be acceptable
to the national authority.
There must also be a group of nominated persons who are responsible for the
organisations continued compliance with Part M. These persons are
responsible to the accountable manager and must be acceptable to the
national authority.
There must also be sufficient staff available to carry out all of the planned work
in the organisation and sufficient staff to certify the work. The organisation
may, in times of high workload, use contracted staff but not as certifying staff.
All certifying staff shall be qualified in accordance with Part 66.

stores without damage and to store the parts in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 51

M.A.612 Aircraft Certificate of Release to Service


Every aircraft must have a valid Certificate of Release to Service (CRS) before
it can be allowed to fly. The CRS can only be issued by appropriately qualified

M.A.611 Maintenance Standards


All maintenance must be carried out in accordance with subpart D, this will be
dealt with later.

M.A.610 Maintenance Work Orders


Before work is carried out on an aircraft or component there must be a written
work order in place. This is an agreement between the customer and the
maintenance organisation as to exactly what work is required to be carried out.

M.A.609 Maintenance Data


The company must use the approved maintenance data for that type of aircraft
or component. This maintenance data must always be available whenever
work is being carried out on the aircraft.
Maintenance data will be dealt with in more detail in subpart D.

M.A.608 Components, Equipment and Tools


The manufacturer of an aircraft or piece of equipment will specify in its
approved data which tools are to be used to carry out certain tasks. The
maintenance organisation must be able to demonstrate that they have enough
of these tools and that the tools are available whenever the work is being
carried out.
These tools must be controlled by the company and all required inspections,
maintenance and calibration must be carried out and recorded.
These records must be made available to the competent authority on request.
In the case of incoming aircraft components, the organisation must show that
the components are properly classified, segregated and stored in the stores
facility.

The scope of the authorisation


Date of first issue of the authorisation
Expiry date of the authorisation (if any)
Because this is personal information the organisation must ensure the security
of access to it and keep the number of people with access to a minimum.
These records must be made available to the competent authority on request.

Module 10 A/B1/B2

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For Training Purposes Only

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Jan 2011

M.A.616 Organisational Review


It is required that the organisation carries out regular organisational reviews.

M.A.615 Privileges of the Organisation


Once the organisation gains approval it will be able to;
Carry out maintenance on the aircraft or equipment for which it has
approval, at the places listed in its manual
Carry out rectification of aircraft and components for which it has approval
at any location
Issue Certificates of Release to Service for the work carried out.

M.A.614 Maintenance Records


A record must be kept of all maintenance activities carried out by the
organisation sufficient to show that all requirements were met for the issuance
of the Certificate of Release to Service.
A copy of every CRS as well as all repair and modification data must be
supplied to the aircraft operator.
A copy must be kept of all maintenance records and associated maintenance
data for at least three years from the date that the aircraft was released
from maintenance.
The records must be kept safe as far as possible from fire, flood and theft and
they should on paper which is robust enough to withstand normal handling and
still remain legible.
If the organisation stops operation, the records must be transferred to another
place for storage as specified by the competent authority.

M.A.613 Component Certificate of Release to Service


Any aircraft component must have a valid Certificate of Release to Service before it is allowed to be fitted to an aircraft. The exception to this requirement is
any component manufactured locally under Part M approval.
The CRS for a component is found on the EASA Form 1 which is the
Authorised Release Certificate.
The EASA Form 1 is contained in Appendix I to Part M and is the same as was
covered in Part 145.

certifying staff and the requirements for aircraft CRS issue are detailed in
subpart H

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 52

M.A.619 Findings
When the competent authority carries out its audits, any non compliance is
referred to as a finding. The levels of findings are the same as discussed in
Part 145.

M.A.618 Continued Validity of Approval


The approval is valid for an unlimited duration provided that the organisation
remains in compliance with Part M, the competent authority is granted access
for audit and the certificate is not surrendered or revoked.

M.A.617 Changes to the Approved Maintenance Organisation


As was discussed in Part 145, the organisation must notify the competent
authority of any planned change to the organisation.

The purpose of these is to ensure that it continues to meet the requirements of


subpart F and continues to deliver safe maintenance.
As part of its approval the organisation must identify;
The person responsible for the review, and
The frequency of the reviews, and
The scope and content of the reviews, and
the persons accomplishing the reviews, and
The process for planning, performing and processing review findings, and
The procedure for ensuring corrective actions are carried out in the
appropriate time frame.

Module 10 A/B1/B2

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For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport

ALJ

Jan 2011

M.A.501 Installation
No component may be fitted to an aircraft unless it is in a satisfactory condition
and carries the relevant certification. Aircraft components require a Form 1
issued by a Part 145, Part 21 or Part M approved organisation. Raw or
consumable materials and standard parts require a statement that they have
been manufactured in accordance with the relevant standard. The materials
and standard parts are only to be fitted if they are expressly authorised by the
aircraft or equipment manufacturer.

SUBPART E COMPONENTS

Rectification of Defects
Any defect which would hazard the safe operation of the aircraft must be
rectified before the aircraft can fly. The defect must be assessed by
appropriately qualified certifying staff and must either be rectified before further
flight or deferred in accodance with the approved minimum equipment list.
Any defect not hazarding the aircrafts safety must be rectified as soon as
practicable after the time that the defect was first identified and within any limit
specified in the maintenance data.

M.A.602 Performance of Maintenance


All maintenance must be carried out by qualified personnel using the appropriate tools, equipment and maintenance data specified. The work should be
carried out in accordance with the instructions issued by the manufacturer and
employing aircraft standard practices.
The work must be carried out in an area which is, as far as possible, free from
dirt and contamination and protected from the weather.
At the completion of maintenance there must be a check to ensure no tools,
equipment or other foreign bodies are present in the aircraft before it is
returned to service.

M.A.401 Maintenance Data


The organisation carrying out maintenance must have access to approved
maintenance data for all the work which it carries out and must use that data.
Maintenance data was defined in Part 145 and the requirements are the same
for Part M

SUBPART D MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 53

M.A. 504 Control of Unserviceable Components


Part M defines a component as unserviceable if it meets any of the following
criteria;
its service life has expired or
an AD or other mandatory action has not been complied with or
there is not enough information to prove the component serviceable or
there is evidence of defect or malfunction or
it has been involved in an incident or accident which could have affected its
serviceability.
Any component deemed by the certifying staff to be unserviceable must be
clearly labelled as such. This is normally done by attaching a tag to the

M.A.503 Service Life Limited Components


No component fitted to an aircraft may stay in service longer than its approved
service life as laid down in the approved maintenance programme and
airworthiness directives.

M.A.502 Component Maintenance


Component maintenance off the aircraft may only be carried out by an
organisation approved for that maintenance under either Part 145 or Part M
Subpart F.
Maintenance by aircraft certifying staff is only permitted while the component is
fitted to the aircraft. The exception to this is that, when it is permitted by the
maintenance manual, it is sometimes acceptable to remove a component from
the aircraft to improve access to do a particular task.

The certifying staff involved in installing the component must carry out certain
checks prior to the installation. A check must be made to ensure that the
component is eligible to be fitted to the particular type of aircraft or equipment
in question, this must take into account the possibility of there being different
modification standards. He must verify the general condition of the component
and ensure that it has not received any damage or been exposed to any
condition which could affect its serviceability. He must also check that the
component was received in the correct type of packaging and that all protective
plugs and caps are present. Also, a check should be made to ensure that the
shelf life of the component has not been reached.

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For Training Purposes Only

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Jan 2011

M.A.803 Pilot owner maintenance


Maintenance may be carried out by the pilot owner if he has a pilots licence
with the type rating for that type, the aircraft is of simple construction and is
less than 2730kg MTOM. The tasks carried out must be specified in the
maintenance programme for that aircraft.

M.A.802 Component certification


The certification of a component is made on an EASA Form 1 as described in
Part 145.

M.A.801 Aircraft certification of release to service


The certification of maintenance under Part M must be made by appropriately
authorised certifying staff holding Part 66 licences or in some cases by the pilot
owner of the aircraft. Pilot owner maintenance is limited to certain simple
tasks.
The Certificate of Release to Service must contain basic details of the work
carried out as well as details of who made the certification.
A certification must not be made if there is any known defect which would
hazard the flight safety.

SUBPART H CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE TO SERVICE (CRS)

component. This tag should contain all relevant information about the
component including; in service time, any defects, involvement in any accident
or incident etc.
The component will then be forwarded to an organisation where it will be stored
as either unserviceable or unsalvageable.
Unserviceable means that the component can be repaired or somehow
reworked and restored to a serviceable condition and put back into service.
Unsalvageable means that the component is not recoverable and cannot be
returned to service. In this case the component is scrap. In the past there
have been problems with scrap components returning to service with bogus
paperwork claiming that the component is serviceable. This must be avoided
so when components are scrapped they must be mutilated in some way to
ensure that they cannot possibly be reused. The exception to this is when the
component is released to an organisation for training or research.
In some cases unsalvageable components will be securely stored as
sometimes a repair scheme will become available in the future.

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 54

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General
When an aircraft or aircraft product has been found to be satisfactory then this
is indicated by the issue of a Type Certificate. An aircraft product is an aircraft
engine or propeller. Before an aircraft can be awarded type certification the
engines and propellers to be fitted to the aircraft must first gain type
certification. Once this has been achieved then the aircraft is eligible for a
Certificate of Airworthiness.
The Type certificate is issued by the NAA responsible for the approval of the
design of the aircraft. In the UK this is covered by BCAR Section A.
Along with the Type Certificate, a Type Certificate Data Sheet is issued. This is
a document which details the specification of the aircraft including the exact
type and mark, the dimensions and weight of the aircraft, type of engines and
equipment fitted etc.

General
Before an aircraft can be given clearance to fly, every aspect surrounding that
aircraft must be approved in the interests of air safety. The design,
manufacture, continued airworthiness, operation and maintenance
arrangements must all be approved before the aircraft can be allowed to fly.
Each of these areas is covered by specific legislation.

EC Regulation No 1702/2003
This regulation deals with the airworthiness and environmental certification ofaircraft and aircraft products. It is divided into several parts called certificationspecifications (CS) each dealing with a specific area. These regulations detail
the standards to which the aircraft must be built. For example, the safety
features which must be designed in, the performance of the aircraft at all
phases of flight, the safety margins for weight and balance and fuel loading etc.
CS 23 Deals with the certification specifications for small aeroplanes.
CS 25 Covers the certification specifications for large aeroplanes.
CS 27 and 29 cover the specifications for small and large helicopters
respectively

TYPE CERTIFICATION

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PART 66

EASA REGULATIONS

AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

For Training Purposes Only

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Jan 2011

Also included under EC Regulation No 1702/2003 is Part 21. This covers the
approval of companies involved in the design and production of aircraft or
components. There are a variety of different approvals under Part 21 and a
company may apply for one or more of them.
If an organisation successfully carries out the design of an aircraft which gains
type approval then that organisation becomes the type certificate holder and is
the only agency which can apply to change the type design.
If an organisation receives approval to design a modification to an aircraft for
which it is not the type certificate holder, then it can become a supplementary
type certificate holder. An example is where a company can carry out the
design of special VIP fits to aircraft. The manufacturer (eg Airbus) would be the
type certificate holder but another company could obtain approval to fit special
interiors for very rich clients. The design of these interiors would have to be
approved as everything is on aircraft but the design need not necessarily
belong to Airbus but can belong to the design company which becomes the
supplementary type certificate holder.

PART 21

A Supplemental Type Certificate is issued by the NAA to indicate that a


modification to an aircraft or aircraft product is approved. In the UK this is done
by the UK Civil Aviation Authority on behalf of EASA.

SUPPLEMENTAL TYPE CERTIFICATION

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M10.6 PART M

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Restricted Certificate of Airworthiness


Under the current Part 21, orphan(1) aircraft cannot be issued a Certificate of
Airworthiness, which requires that a Type Certificate (TC) holder takes
responsibility for the continued oversight of the design. They can therefore only
continue to be operated if they hold a restricted certificate of airworthiness or a
permit to fly. These documents can only be issued on the basis of a design
approved by the Agency.
(1)An aircraft becomes orphan when:
S The legal person holding the TC has ceased to exist. The TC automatically
becomes invalid by law because there is no one to be in compliance with
the TC holders responsibilities;
S The TC holder no longer complies with his regulatory obligations. A typical
case is when the TC holder loses his DOA, or fails to comply with 21.A.14
before 28.09.05. This makes the TC invalid (21A.51 (a) 1) The TC holder
has surrendered the TC. This also makes the TC invalid.

Certificate of Airworthiness
This document is the internationally recognised document certifying an aircrafts suitability to enter service. It is a requirement of ICAO and is issued by
the National Authority to an individual aircraft. The aircraft s Flight Manual is
also covered by the certification and forms part of the certificate. To qualify for
C of A the design must be approved and the individual aircraft must be shown
to have been manufactured in accordance with the design. The Certificate is
issued for one aircraft only and the aircraft serial number is shown on the
certificate which is held by the aircraft operator. The presence of a C of A does
not mean that the aircraft is automatically fit to fly, the C of A is only valid if the
aircraft has been maintained in accordance with the maintenance schedule and
any action deemed essential by the NAA for continued airworthiness has been
carried out.

General
Once an aircraft has received type certification it is still not yet allowed to fly.
Before entering service it must qualify for various certifications regarding itssafety, environmental impact and radio equipment.

AIRCRAFT DOCUMENTS

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.6 PART M

Page: 57

Certificate of Registration
Before an aircraft can enter service anywhere in the world it must have a serial
number from its home country and some evidence of its registration. This
registration is shown by the issue of a Certificate of Registration which comes
from the NAA of the country of registration. The certificate carries details of the
aircraft and it s serial number as well as the owner s name. The C of R has
no expiry date but is only valid whilst the aircraft is held by one owner, it
becomes invalid with change of ownership.
An aircraft can only be registered in one country and so can have only one
Certificate of Registration. If the aircraft is sold abroad then the C of R must be
returned to the issuing authority before it can be registered in it s new country
of registration.

Permit to Fly
A Permit to Fly is generally issued when a certificate of airworthiness is
temporarily invalid, for example as the result of a damage, or when a certificate
of airworthiness cannot be issued because the aircraft does not comply with
the essential requirements for airworthiness or when compliance with those
requirements has not yet been shown, but the aircraft is nevertheless capable
of performing a safe flight.
EASA is responsible for the approval of the flight conditions on the basis of
which a permit to fly can be issued by the Competent Authority of the Member
State of Registry, or of the Member State prescribing the identification marks.
The Agency approves the Flight Conditions in cases related to the safety of the
design, defined as follows:
S the aircraft does not conform to an approved design
S an Airworthiness Limitation, a Certification Maintenance Requirement or an
Airworthiness Directive has not been complied with;
S the intended flight(s) are outside the approved envelope.
This new Agency responsibility is exercised for aircraft registered in the EU
Member States, Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, for which a
permit to fly is required, except for the aircraft excluded by Annex II of the
Basic Regulation 216/2008, or by its Article 1.2 (products engaged in military,
customs, police or similar services, even if other aircraft of the same type, that
are not engaged in such activities, are subject to regulation by EASA.).

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Radio Station Licence and Approval


Radio equipment is very important to the safe operation of the aircraft and
consequently must be approved and certified.
The radio equipment itself must be investigated and approved for use by the
NAA before it can be put into service. Not only that but the radios installation in
that particular aircraft must be proven to be safe and must be approved by the
NAA. This is because radio signals can cause interference with other systems
and this effect on one type of aircraft would be different to its effect on another.
A change of radio equipment on an aircraft is treated as a major modification
and requires the appropriate procedure including air test. When the radio
equipment on the aircraft has been proven to be satisfactory, an aircraft radio
station licence is issued which covers all of the aircraft s radio equipment.
The installation of the radio equipment is covered by the issue of a radio
licence issued under the Wireless Telegraphy Act Radio Licence which is
issued by the Office of Communications.

Weight Schedule
Every individual aircraft has to be weighed and have its centre of gravity
established when it is manufactured, two years later and then every five years
after that. Additionally, the aircraft must be weighed after any process which
has the potential to change the weight of the aircraft for example, after aircraft
painting, after major structural modification, etc.
The weight and balance data is held by the operator.

Noise Certificate
Another certificate required before the aircraft can go into service is the Noise
Certificate, this certifies that the aircraft complies with the noise regulations of
the issuing country. In these days of increased sensitivity to environmental
matters the acceptable noise levels are always being reduced making the noise
certification of aircraft harder all the time. Noise levels are generally set by
international agreement and thus, in most developed countries the noise
regulations will be the same and qualification in each individual country is not
necessary.

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M10.6 PART M

Page: 58

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These publications are produced by the aircraft manufacturer or design


organisation and must be approved by the national authority. This is done at
the time of initial certification of the aircraft when copies of the manuals are
sent to the CAA for their inspection. The aircraft manuals may be in microfilm,
microfiche, CD rom or paper format but in each case the breakdown of and
usage of the manuals is the same. As the documents are revised, the
revisions will be annotated on the documents so as to be easily checked out by
the user against a current list of revisions. The revisions and the list must be
provided by the manufacturer or design authority to all operators of the
particular aircraft. Sometimes the list is published online on the internet and
thus can be kept absolutely up to date. If there is a discrepancy between the
revision status of two documents then the latest revision status must be used
but this situation should be rare as the latest revision status should be always
available.

AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL MANUALS

In order to carry out maintenance and repair of aircraft, a number of different


documents are required. As well as the aircraft manuals, there are a number
of documents detailing when certain tasks must be carried out, there are
documents released by the aircraft manufacturers to advise on changes to
aircraft or procedures and there are documents produced by the national
airworthiness authorities.

GENERAL

MAINTENANCE DOCUMENTS

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.7 APPLICABLE NATIONAL AND
INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Page: 59

Typical Set of Aircraft Documents


The documents produced by the aircraft manufacturer would cover all aspects
of the maintenance and repair of the aircraft as well as a comprehensive parts
catalogue and documents detailing the minimum equipment required to operate
the aircraft. A typical set of documents would include some or all of the
following.
AMM - Aircraft Maintenance Manual.
IPC - Illustrated Parts Catalogue.
WDM - Wiring Diagram Manual.
ASM - Aircraft Schematics Manual.
TSM - Trouble Shooting Manual.
MPD - Maintenance Planning Document.
SRM - Structural Repair Manual.
CMM - Component Maintenance Manual.
MEL - Minimum Equipment List.
All of the above documents will be laid out in a system of chapters and page
blocks in accordance with a convention laid down by the Air Transport
Association of America.

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AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.7 APPLICABLE NATIONAL AND
INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

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Specification ATA 100 is the industrys recommended format for the layout of
aircraft technical manuals. The system has been adopted by all major aircraft
manufacturers and others in the industry and is familiar to all aircraft engineers
the world over.
The maintenance documents for almost all aircraft and aircraft components are
divided into the so called ATA chapters in accordance with ATA 100. These
chapters run from 1 to 91 and the chapters always contain the same
information for, example chapter 27 will cover flying controls in the various
manuals for all aircraft types.
Each chapter is further sub divided into systems and sub-systems to help to
further identify a particular area or component. Chapter 27, for example, could
be further sub divided to give a reference in the format 27--23--00. This
indicates chapter 27, section 23, sub section 00 and can be used as a
reference to direct someone clearly to a particular procedure or can be used as
a reference on a workcard entry.

The Air Transport Association of America (ATA) was formed in 1936 in Chicago
by a group of fourteen airlines and has played a major role in the US
government decisions regarding aviation matters including the creation of the
Civil Aeronautics Board and the creation of the air traffic control system. The
purpose of the ATA is to promote knowledge of the air transport industry and to
attempt to increase efficiency and cost effectiveness and safety within the
industry.

ATA Specifications
As part of its work, the ATA has set up certain specifications regarding aircraft
maintenance, training and documentation. A selection is listed below.
ATA 100
Manufacturers Technical Data.
ATA 104
Guidelines for Aircraft Maintenance Training.
ATA 105
Guidelines for training and and qualification of personnel for
non destructive testing.
ATA 106
Qualification guidelines for approved parts and sources.
ATA 300
Packaging of aircraft spares.
ATA 2000
Integrated data processing material management.
ATA iSpec 2200 Information standards for aviation maintenance.
MSG 3
Maintenance program development program.
WASG
World Airline and Suppliers Guide.

ATA 100 MANUFACTURERS TECHNICAL DATA

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AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA

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Figure 12

ATA Chapters
Page: 62

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Normal Revision
Normal revision of technical documentation is issued by the aircraft
manufacturer or design authority and has the same approved status as the
original manual. Normally these revisions are released quarterly but may also
be released at the time of major change to the manual. Dates on the amended
pages will be changed to reflect the date of amendment but the remaining
pages will be reprinted with their original date.
Each revision will be consecutively numbered and the revision will carry the
same date of issue as the amended pages. The revision will be accompanied
by a letter of transmittal which will carry details of the revision number, effective
date and instructions for the removal and replacement of pages. In the case of
paper books, they are normally in a loose leaf form and amendment is made by
the removal and insertion of pages. In the case of microfiche, microfilm or CD
rom then amendment is made by the replacement of the fiche, film or disc.
The manuals all have a record page for the revisions to recorded on and this
will have areas for recording the revision numbers, the date of incorporation
and who incorporated the revision. The revisions should be transmitted from
the manufacturer or design organisation within ten days of the revision date
printed on the pages and the revision should be incorporated into the manuals
as soon as possible by the receiving organisation.

REVISION OF DOCUMENTATION

AVIATION LEGISLATION
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Page: 63

Temporary Revision
If there is an instance where the manufacturer decides to release an
amendment at short notice and there is not time to prepare a complete revision
then a temporary revision may be released. These are normally printed on
yellow paper to draw the users attention to the revision.
Each temporary revision has its own unique reference number within a
particular ATA chapter and they are released consecutively. The temporary
revision will be accompanied by instructions for the insertion of pages and for
the removal of superseded temporary revisions if applicable. Temporary
revisions may not themselves be revised, if there is a change to a temporary
revision then it must be replaced in its entirety by another temporary revision
with a new number.
An overview of all temporary revisions for a particular document is published on
the Record of Temporary Revisions for that document. In the case of
documents on microfiche, microfilm or CD rom the temporary revisions must be
kept in a file adjacent to the reader or computer and the fiche, film or CD will be
annotated to draw attention to the presence of the temporary revisions.
The temporary revisions are normally replaced by being fully incorporated in
the next normal revision.

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Figure 13

Revision and Temporary Revision

Temporary Revision

Normal Revision

Page: 64

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Airworthiness Authority Requirements


Airworthiness Directives (AD)

Design Organisation Recommendations


Service Bulletins (SB)
Service Letters (SL)
Service Information Letters (SIL)

Technical Documents
Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM)
Illustrated Parts Catalogue (IPC)
Wiring Diagram Only (WDM)
Aircraft Schematics Manual (ASM)
Component Maintenance Manual (CMM)
Structural Repair Manual (SRM)
Flight Test Manual (FTM)
Trouble Shooting Manual (TSM)
Fault Isolation Manual (FIM)
Minimum Equipment List (MEL)
Configuration Deviation List (CDL)

Maintenance Programs
Maintenance Planning Document (MPD)
Maintenance Schedule (MS)

OVERVIEW OF MAINTENANCE DOCUMENTS

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Page: 65

Light Aircraft Maintenance Schedule (LAMS)


Light aircraft not used for commercial air transport may be maintained under
LAMS. This is a schedule produced by the CAA and is designed to be applied
to light aircraft of any make or mark. It details the frequency at which certain
checks must be carried out. There are two LAMS schedules; one for
aeroplanes and one for helicopters.

The Operator must produce a maintenance program (MP)for each aircraft used
for CAT. It must detail the intervals at which certain components on the aircraft
must be inspected, lubricated or overhauled. It will also detail any mandatory
life limits on components. Also detailed in the MP will be how these
inspections and tasks are to be arranged into packages such as A check, C
check etc.
The MP will normally have a reliability programme to analyse its effectiveness.
It must also show clearly to which aircraft or fleet it applies and must have an
amendment record.
Before the Maintenance Schedule can be used it must be approved by the
national aviation authority (the CAA in the UK). Any change to the
Maintenance Programme must be approved by the CAA prior to being put into
place.

MAINTENANCE PROGRAMMES

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Topic or Subtopic
Description and Operation
Trouble Shooting
Maintenance Practices
Servicing
Removal / Installation
Adjustment / Test
Inspection / Check
Cleaning / Painting
Approved Repairs
Despatch Deviation Guide

Nov 2011

Page Block
001 to 099
101 to 199
201 to 299
301 to 399
401 to 499
501 to 599
601 to 699
701 to 799
801 to 899
901 to 999

General
The Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM) contains the information necessary to
allow the mechanic to carry out correct scheduled maintenance and
rectification on the aircraft and its systems including the engines and, if
applicable, the propellers. The AMM is produced by the aircraft design
authority and is applicable to one aircraft type only. The manuals may then be
customised for a particular operators aircraft. The manual will indicate which
aircraft operator it is applicable to and it will list the effectivity on each page.
The effectivity will allow the user to ensure whether a particular procedure is
applicable to a particular aircraft. If the wrong effectivity or the wrong manual is
used then the work may be illegal and the aircraft should not be released back
to service until the correct procedure has been carried out.
The manuals are configured in accordance with ATA100 and in each chapter
there is a description of the particular system to allow the reader to gain an
understanding of the operation of that system. In each sub-section there will
be information relating to the servicing, repair, replacement, adjustment,
inspection and test of a particular component or system. Each topic or
sub-topic is divided into page blocks and they follow an ATA 100 system as
shown below.

AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE MANUAL

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Preliminary Pages at the Beginning of each AMM Chapter.


Highlights. The highlights provide the reason for revision issues and list
the temporary revisions which are fully incorporated into the chapter at this
revision.
List of Effective Pages (LEP). The LEP lists all effective pages in the
chapter at a given revision issue. The list consists of a table showing each
page number in the whole chapter and the effective date for each page so it
can be cross checked that the pages in the actual manual are of the latest
revision standard and contain the most up-to-date information. New pages
are indicated by N, revised pages by R and deleted pages by D.
Table of Contents (TOC). Each chapter in the AMM begins with the table
of contents which lists every section of the chapter and the subject material
contained in the sections. Here would be listed all of the various page
blocks relevant to every procedure in the chapter. Table of contents should
be the starting point for anyone searching for a particular procedure or
system explanation.

Preliminary Pages at the Beginning of the AMM.


The manual will contain a set of preliminary pages at the very start of the book
containing the following information.
List of Chapters. This is a contents list showing all of the ATA chapters
contained in the manual in numerical order.
Record of Revisions. This is the record of the AMM revision numbers
showing the revision numbers and dates of issue.
List of Temporary Revisions. This list details all of the temporary
revisions which should be removed from the manual and which should
remain effective.
Service Bulletin List. The SB list details all of the Service Bulletins and
Customer Originated Changes (COCs) which are applicable to at least one
aircraft of the fleet.
Deactivation / Reactivation Index. The Deactivation / Reactivation Index
shows in numerical sequence all of the MMEL and CDL items which require
a maintenance action with the corresponding AMM task number.

Manual Structure

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Figure 14

List of Temporary Revisions and SB List


Page: 67

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General
The Illustrated Parts Catalogue (IPC) is produced by the aircraft manufacturer
and is designed to allow the aircraft mechanic to identify replaceable
components on the aircraft. It consists of exploded drawings showing every
area of the aircraft and associated pages listing the illustrated parts and giving
the part numbers of parts, sub-assemblies and assemblies. Every component
on the aircraft which can be replaced should be listed in the IPC, although in
some cases not all of the components will be illustrated. The IPC is a
companion to the AMM, has the same structure as the AMM and is divided into
ATA chapters.
As with the AMM, the IPC may be customised to the particular aircraft operator
but the drawings in the IPC will show all components whether they are
applicable to this operator or not. For this reason it is important to check the
effectivity of the aircraft against the drawing before ordering spares.

ILLUSTRATED PARTS CATALOGUE

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Figure 15

Typical IPC Pages


Page: 69

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Customisation and Effectivity


The WDM only contains information applicable to an operator or group of
operators and will only carry information applicable to these particular aircraft.
The manual will be annotated with the customer code and the revision date and
each page will be annotated with the its own effectivity. The effectivity must be
checked before the work is carried out to ensure that the correct drawings are
used.

Contents
Aircraft Schematic Manual (ASM)
Aircraft Wiring Manual (AWM)
Aircraft Wiring List (AWL)

General
The wiring diagram manual (WDM) covers the documentation of all aspects of
the wiring on the aircraft, engine and components. The purpose of the manual
is to permit a full understanding of electrical and electronic systems, operation,
troubleshooting and maintenance.
The wiring diagram manual is sub divided into three parts.

WIRING DIAGRAM MANUAL

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Figure 16

Wiring List

Wiring Manual

Wiring Diagram Manual Breakdown

Schematics Manual

Page: 71

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CMM Introductory Material


Title Page
Record of Revisions
Record of Temporary Revisions
List of Effective Pages
Service Bulletin List
List of Materials
Table of Contents
Introduction
This information in the CMM is similar to the information in the AMM
introductory pages and can be followed and cross checked in the same way.

Manual Organisation
The manual will contain sufficient information to return the component to a
serviceable condition. Also included are the test and inspection techniques to
verify the condition of the component.

General
The Component Maintenance Manual (CMM) contains the information required
for the maintenance,repair and overhaul of aircraft components. The manual is
intended for use in a workshop environment by overhaul technicians rather
than by aircraft mechanics but the information is useful to the aircraft mechanic
because it provides detailed information on the assembly and operation of the
particular component.

COMPONENT MAINTENANCE MANUAL

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Page: 72

Technical Content
Later on, in the main body of the manual, the CMM contains a Necessary
Information section containing all of the technical information that should be
required by the overhaul technician to carry out the necessary work in the
workshop after the component has been removed from the aircraft. The
section contains the following;
Description and Operation
Testing and Fault Isolation/Automated Test Requirements
Disassembly
Cleaning
Check
Repair
Assembly
Fits and Clearances
Special Tools
Fixtures and Equipment
Illustrated Parts List (IPL)
The presence of all of these sections means that there should be no need for
further manuals in order to complete the work.

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Figure 17

CMM Example Pages

Typical IPL Page

Title Page

Page: 73

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General
The purpose of the Trouble Shooting Manual (TSM) is to allow the systematic
identification, isolation and rectification of aircraft faults. The book details the
most likely faults on the aircraft and gives the procedure to isolate and rectify
the fault. Normally this is in the form of a flow chart which follows a logical
progression through isolation of the fault with references made to the relevant
AMM chapters and sub-sections as necessary. The TSM is the title given to
this book by Airbus and Fault Identification Manual (FIM) is the Boeing name.

TROUBLE SHOOTING MANUAL

SRM Organisation
The SRM is divided into chapters in line with ATA 100.
Chapter 51
Structures -- General
Chapter 52
Doors
Chapter 53
Fuselage
Chapter 54
Nacelles / Pylons
Chapter 55
Stabilizers
Chapter 56
Windows
Chapter 57
Wings

General
The Structural Repair Manual (SRM) contains all the information necessary to
carry out identification and repair of damage to the aircrafts structure. The
information contained will allow the tradesman to assess the damage to the
aircraft, identify the allowable limits for damage at that particular point, and to
carry out the appropriate repair if necessary.
The SRM contains information for all aircraft of the particular type and is not
customised to a particular operator.

STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

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Page: 74

Configuration Deviation List


The CDL details any airframe component which may be missing at time of
despatch. Any part not listed must be present at time of despatch.

Operations with Multiple Unserviceabilities


In most cases, multiple unserviceabilities of unrelated aircraft systems cannot
be addressed by the MMEL nor consequently by the MEL. The decision as to
whether or not to dispatch with multiple unserviceabilities, which individually
would be allowed by the MEL, will ultimately rest with the Aircraft Commander,
taking into consideration advice from the operators specialists where available.

Minimum Equipment Lists


A Minimum Equipment List (MEL) is a document detailing any airworthiness
significant items or systems unserviceable or inoperative at the time of aircraft
dispatch. The book will be arranged in ATA 100 chapter order and will detail
any maintenance actions or operational limitations which will apply to the
aircraft whilst it is operating with the defective system or component. If a
component of airworthiness significance is not listed in the MEL then it must be
serviceable prior to dispatch. The defect which is being deferred will be
recorded in the technical log and in some cases the cockpit must be placarded
to remind the crew of the limitation.
The MEL must be compiled by the operator and approved by the CAA. The
MEL must only be used on the aircraft to which it applies and not on any other
aircraft even aircraft of the same type and mark.
The MEL will be compiled with reference to the Master MEL (MMEL) which is
produced by the aircraft manufacturer. The MEL is tailored to the operators
own needs and may be more restrictive than the MMEL but never less
restrictive. In exceptional circumstances, the CAA may grant permission for
the operator to operate outside the terms of the MEL but this will never be
outside the limits In the MMEL.

MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST / CONFIGURATION DEVIATION


LIST

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Figure 18

Typical Trouble Shooting Procedure


Page: 75

Module 10 (B1/B2)

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Foreign Airworthiness Directives (FADs) are ADs released by foreign


airworthiness authorities relating to aircraft which originate in that country. The
CAA will automatically adopt the foreign AD and distribute it as necessary to
UK operators of the relevant aircraft type. If the aircraft is on the UK register
then it is mandatory to carry out the actions detailed in the FAD to ensure
continued airworthiness. FADs are recorded in three volumes by the CAA, the
first two being concerned with aircraft and equipment of US origin and the third
part with aircraft and equipment of foreign, non US origin.

Airworthiness Directives (AD) are released by the EASA when it is decided that
a particular maintenance action is required to ensure continued airworthiness of
a particular aircraft type. The information contained in the AD will be at least; a
description of the dangerous condition, the aircraft affected by the AD and the
action required to make the aircraft airworthy. The information normally
originates from the aircraft manufacturer in the form of a Service Bulletin or
Emergency Service Bulletin and if EASA deem it necessary for continued
airworthiness then they will release an AD stating that the work must be carried
out by a certain date or number of flight cycles in order for the aircraft to remain
in service. If the actions are not carried out in time then the aircraft must be
removed from service until the action is carried out except in exceptional
circumstances when an extension to this time limit may be granted. If the
requirement for the work is deemed to be urgent and a short timescale is
essential then EASA will issue an Emergency AD (EAD) which will be sent
immediately to all owners and operators of the aircraft type. Additionally, EASA
will advise all airworthiness authorities of ICAO states in which the relevant
aircraft is operated so that the information can be distributed in that country via
the local arrangements. These requirements for ADs was laid down in Joint
Airworthiness Requirement (JAR 39) which came into effect in the UK on 1 July
2003.
These ADs are recorded in a register in the UK known as CAP 747. Previously
the ADs issued by the CAA (before EASA) were recorded in a book entitled
Mandatory Aircraft Modifications and Inspections Summary (MAMIS) which is a
CAA publication. This book still exists as a record of ADs issued but it will no
longer be added to. MAMIS is a distinctive red book and each page has a red
band along the top.

Page: 76

Service Bulletins (SB) are released by the aircraft design authority and detail
recommendations concerning the maintenance or operation of the aircraft.
They may include technical or procedural information which has been found to
be advantageous to the aircraft or to the operator or maintenance organisation.
The information is not mandatory and it is up to the operator whether he carries
out the work. Only if the national authority decides that the action has an effect
on airworthiness will it make the action mandatory by the issue of an AD (see
previous paragraph).

SERVICE BULLETINS

FOREIGN AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES

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AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES

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Figure 19

Example Service Bulletin


Page: 77

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Commercial Air Transport Aircraft


As a modification is a change to the original design of the aircraft then it is
logical that it could come from the Type Certificate (TC) holder for that type of
aircraft.
It is also possible for an organisation other than the TC holder to design a
modification. The organisation must have approval to do this under Part 21.
Under this system the organisation will make the design and will then gain
approval for it from the NAA. This organisation now becomes the
Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) holder for that design.
A typical example of this is the design of new passenger entertainment
systems. If a company designs a new system for an existing type of aircraft
then it is a modification and must gain approval. The company designing the
system can gain the approval and they become STC holder for that
modification.

General
A modification is a change made to an aircraft from its original state. This can
take the form of change to the stricture or systems or can be the replacement
of a component with a different one. For example, the removal of one type of
radio and the fitting of a different one would be classed as a modification.
As we have already seen, the aircraft gains certification for its design and build
at a certain standard, any change to the aircraft would be a departure from that
standard so the modification itself must be approved.

AIRCRAFT MODIFICATIONS

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Page: 78

Minor Modifications
If a modification is classed as minor, the design can be certified by the CAA
and this approval is given on form AD 261.

Major Modifications
A major modification must have a design certified by an approved design
organisation and this design must satisfy all of the criteria laid down at the time
the aircraft was originally certified as well as any criteria laid down by the CAA
for that particular case. Once a modification has been designed and certified,
application is made to the CAA on form AD 282 and this must be forwarded,
along with the certificate of design for the modification and any necessary
changes to the flight manual or operations manual, to the CAA. The CAA will
then carry out an investigation of the modification and if they are satisfied then
they will give approval by the issue of an Airworthiness Approval Note
(AAN).
Only after receipt of this approval can the modification go ahead.

Types of Modification
A modification will be classified as major or minor depending on its effect on
the aircraft. If the modification would have an effect on aircraft safety then it
will always be classified as major, if the modification is classified as minor then
it has no bearing on airworthiness.

Non Commercial Air Transport Aircraft


Modifications for non CAT aircraft are made under the system detailed in
BCAR Section A as shown below.

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Non-involvement of EASA
When the approval of flight conditions is not related to the safety of the design,
the Agency is not involved, but only the Competent Authority of the Member
State of Registry, or of the Member State prescribing the identification marks.
Examples of such conditions are:
S production flight testing for the purpose of conformity establishment;
S delivery/export flight of a new aircraft the design of which is approved;
S demonstrating continuing conformity with the standard previously accepted
by the Agency for the aircraft or type of aircraft to qualify or re--qualify for a
(restricted ) certificate of airworthiness.

Aircraft affected
EASA responsibility is exercised for aircraft registered in the EU Member
States, Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, for which a permit to fly
is required, except for the aircraft excluded by the Annex II of the Basic
Regulation 216/2008, or by its Article 1.2 (products engaged in military,
customs, police or similar services).

EASA Responsibility
A Permit to Fly is generally issued when a certificate of airworthiness is
temporarily invalid, for example as the result of a damage, or when a certificate
of airworthiness cannot be issued for instance when the aircraft does not
comply with the essential requirements for airworthiness or when compliance
with those requirements has not yet been shown, but the aircraft is still capable
of performing a safe flight.
EASA is responsible for the approval of the flight conditions on the basis of
which a permit to fly can be issued by the Competent Authority of the Member
State of Registry, or of the Member State prescribing the identification marks.
The Agency approves the Flight Conditions in cases related to the safety of the
design, defined as follows:
S the aircraft does not conform to an approved design; or
S an Airworthiness Limitation, a Certification Maintenance Requirement or an
Airworthiness Directive has not been complied with; or
S the intended flight(s) are outside the approved envelope.

(http://easa.europa.eu/certification/permit--to--fly.php)

TEST FLIGHTS FOR EASA AIRCRAFT (PERMIT TO FLY)

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A Conditions
To qualify to fly under A conditions the aircraft must be a non-EASA aircraft
registered in the UK and had a relevant application approved by the CAA.
Some of the puposes for which an application may be made are:
S To qualify for the issue, renewal or validaion of a C of A.
S To carry out a functional check of a previously approved modification of the
aircraft.
S Proceed to or from a place where any approved work is to be carried out.
S Proceed to or from a place at which the aircraft is to be or has been stored.
S Carry out a functional check, test or in--flight adjustment in connection with
the carrying out of any overhaul, repair, previously approved modification,
inspection or maintenance.
Before the aircraft carries out the test flight it must have a Certificate of
Fitness for Flight issued by the maintenance organisation. It has a maximum
validity period of seven days and is issued in duplicate with one copy being
held off the aircraft. The company issuing the certificate must have specific
approval to do so in their Part 145 approval.

UK Air Navigation Order (CAP 393 Shedule 2).


Non-EASA:- Organisations reponsible for design and production which are
NOT the reponsibility of EASA.
Non-EASA aircraft operating in the United Kingdom (UK) which do not have a
valid or duly issued certificate of airworthiness (C of A) may be permitted to fly,
under certain circumstances laid down in the UK Air Navigation Order (CAP
393 Shedule 2).
This is further broken down into:
S A Conditions.
S B Conditions.

TEST FLIGHTS FOR NON-EASA AIRCRAFT

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Flights under B conditions may also be carried out by non-EASA aircraft which
are not registered in the UK. The aircraft may be flown for the following
purposes;
To test the aircraft and its systems.
To prove a modification.
To qualify for a C of A.
Demonstrating the aircraft for sale.
To fly the aircraft to a place where some mandatory work can be carried out
or to the place of display, C of A qualification, etc.
The flight must be operated by a person approved by the CAA for the purposes
of the listed conditions.
If the aircraft is not registered in the United Kingdom it must be marked in a
manner approved by the CAA for the purpose of these conditions. It must also
comply with various ANO articles as if it were registered in the United Kingdom.
No person may act as pilot in command of the aircraft except a person
approved for the purpose by the CAA.
The aircraft must not carry any cargo, or any persons other than the flight crew
except the following:
S Persons employed by the operator who during the flight carry out duties or
are tested or receive training.
S Persons acting on behalf of the CAA, manufacturer or employed by the
operator who have duties in connection with the purpose.

Non-EASA aircraft operating in the United Kingdom (UK) which have a valid CAA
certificate of airworthiness (C of A) or a permit to fly, may, under certain
circumstances laid down in the UK Air Navigation Order (CAP 393 Shedule 2), be
allowed to:
S experiment with or test aircraft, including engines and equipment.
S enabling the aircraft to quailify or validate its C of A.
S demonstrate and display the aircraft, engines or equipment.
S giving flying training or flight crew testing.
S proceed to or from a place where maintenance or painting takes place.

B Conditions

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For Training Purposes Only

Nov 2011

SUCH NON----STANDARD FLIGHTS MAY ONLY BE UNDERTAKEN


IF THE AIRCRAFTS FLIGHT MANUAL CONTAINS THE
APPROPRIATE PROCEDURES AND ARE AGREED TO BY THE
CAA.

Cotswold Airport AlJ/PeR

NOTE:

Test Flights ---- after maintenance;


Minimum equipment requirements may only be reduced by agreement with the
CAA and normally an operator would have to provide evidence that such flights
change the category of use in accordance with the provisions of the ANO. Any
reference to a reduction in minimum equipment requirements in an MEL must
be clearly labelled as such, together with the type of non----standard flight
applicable.

Non----Standard Operations
Aircraft are often flown for purposes other than those associated with their
most common use. Such non----standard uses may well allow less stringent
minimum equipment requirements.

MINIMUM EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS - TEST FLIGHTS

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.7 APPLICABLE NATIONAL AND
INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Page: 81

Module 10 (B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport AlJ/PeR

Nov 2011

General
ETOPS stands for Extended Twin--engined OPerationS.
Previously, there was always a restriction on the distance that a two engined
aircraft could operate away from a suitable landing field. This was normally one
hours flight time at the normal cruising speed with one engine inoperative. It
was deemed that this was a suitable distance with two engines as to go further
was too risky because of the reliability of the engines. Multi engined aircraft
could however, go further as they had greater redundancy. Nowadays, the
reliability of engines has greatly increased to the point where it has become
acceptable for twin engined aircraft to fly greater distances from suitable
landing fields. These operations are referred to as ETOPS.
These operations cannot just be carried out by any operator, there are very
tight controls on the aircraft, the aircraft maintenance and the operations. Some
of the considerations are quite obvious such as the monitoring of engine health
and the functioning of auxiliary power units but others are not so clear.
Although the engines are a critical element of ETOPS, they are not the only
one, in some aircraft there are systems whose reliability is as critical as, and
not related to the engines and this must be considered. Likewise, there are
unrelated factors such as cargo bay fire containment which have no connection
to engine operation but which have to be considered when approving an
aircraft for ETOPS.
The maintenance requirements for ETOPS can be found in the publication CAP
513 published by the UK CAA.

EXTENDED TWIN-- ENGINED OPERATIONS (ETOPS)

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.7 APPLICABLE NATIONAL AND
INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Page: 82

Maintenance and Despatch Requirements


As a large number of airframe and propulsion systems have a bearing on
safety and the aircraft s suitability for ETOPS, the type design must be
reviewed to ensure that it is actually feasible to allow ETOPS certification.
Additionally, there are many considerations to be taken into account by the
operator, these include the flight crew workload, the emergency procedures
and, most relevant to us, the maintenance schedules and procedures.
An operator wishing to hold ETOPS approval must create an ETOPS manual
which will detail all of the company s procedures with respect to ETOPS. This
information will include references to the maintenance schedule, personnel
duties and responsibilities, paperwork system in use and any other information
relevant to the approval. The manual may be a stand alone document or may
be combined with other company documentation. The manual must be
approved by the authority before ETOPS can start.
In order to meet the strict requirements associated with ETOPS the operator
must put in place a program of maintenance training for personnel involved in
ETOPS concentrating on the activities specific to these operations. It is important to note that there may be a different MEL in use on an aircraft when it is
used for ETOPS from when it is used for non ETOPS flights.
Additionally, there must be in place a parts control system to ensure that only
ETOPS certified parts can be used on ETOPS aircraft.
The operator must also put in place a series of systems to ensure the
continued effectiveness of the maintenance program. These would consist of;
Oil Consumption Monitoring, the oil consumption of the engines and APU must
be recorded and the trends analysed as reflected by the engine manufacturers
guidance.
Engine Condition Monitoring, the condition of the engines should be monitored
and the program must detail clearly the parameters to be monitored and the
method of recording.
Propulsion System Monitoring, the information gathered on the reliability of the
propulsion systems must be made available to the CAA at least monthly.

Module 10 (B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport AlJ/PeR

Nov 2011

Minimum equipment
An operator must include in the Operations Manual the minimum equipment
that has to be serviceable at the commencement of a low visibility take----off, a
lower than Standard Category I approach, an Other than Standard Category II
approach, an approach utilising Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), or a
Category II or III approach in accordance with the AFM or other approved
document.
The commander shall satisfy himself/herself that the status of the aeroplane
and of the relevant airborne systems is appropriate for the specific operation to
be conducted.

General
The regulations for all weather operations are laid down in EU AWO. They
detail the requirements for operations where the operator wishes to carry out
landings and take offs in bad visibility. EU AWO is intended for use on aircraft
which were certified in accordance with Part 25 but may be applied to other
aircraft and is divided into four subparts;
S Sub--part 1 deals with certification of automatic landing systems.
S Sub--part 2 deals with certification of aircraft for Category II operations.
S Sub--part 3 is for Category III operations.
S Sub--part 4 covers take offs in low visibility.
An automatic landing system includes all of the components which, together,
control the aircraft and it s powerplants during a pre--programmed landing
using an Instrument Landing System (ILS).
When an automatic landing is carried out, the aircraft is designed to control
itself all the way down to the ground and into the landing roll but the pilot must
make a decision based on what he can see as to whether to carry on with the
landing as the ILS on his aircraft may not be accurate enough to absolutely rely
on. The certification of the system will depend on this accuracy, if the system is
proven to be accurate enough to allow a decision height of as little as 30
metres then the aircraft can be certified to carry out Cat II operations. If the
system can allow a decision height of less than 30 metres or no decision height
(zero visibility) then it can be certified for Cat III operations.
If the aircraft is to be used for these operations then particular attention must
be paid when deferring faults in accordance with the MEL as the certification
status may be effected.

ALL WEATHER OPERATIONS

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.7 APPLICABLE NATIONAL AND
INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Page: 83

Module 10 (B1/B2)

PART 66

For Training Purposes Only

Cotswold Airport AlJ/PeR

Nov 2011

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

AVIATION LEGISLATION
M10.7 APPLICABLE NATIONAL AND
INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Page: 84

Module 10 (B1/B2)

PART 66

35

PART 66 . .

41

48
49
50
50
53
53
54
55

MAINTENANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUBPART F MAINTENANCE ORGANISATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUBPART D MAINTENANCE STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUBPART E COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUBPART H CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE TO SERVICE (CRS) . . .

MAINTENANCE DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46
46

45
45

39
39
40
40

CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


SUBPART C CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUBPART G CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS
MANAGEMENT ORGANISATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUBPART I AIRWORTHINESS REVIEW CERTIFICATE . . . . . . . . . .

GENERAL
45
SUBPART A GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUBPART B ACCOUNTABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

PART M . .

EU OPS . .
39
AIR OPERATORS CERTIFICATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATORS RESPONSIBILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DOCUMENTS TO BE CARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRCRAFT MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

2
2
3
4
4
5
5
7
11

REGULATORY FRAMEWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION (ICAO) . . . . . .
UNITED KINGDOM LEGISLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EUROPEAN CIVIL AVIATION CONFERENCE (ECAC) . . . . . . . . . . . .
JOINT AVIATION AUTHORITIES (JAA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EUROPEAN UNION (EU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EUROPEAN AVIATION SAFETY AGENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EASA REGULATIONS STRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EASA REGULATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

PART 145 .

ATA MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION . . . . .

TABLE OF CONTENTS

61
61
61
64
66
68
70
70
70
72
72
72
74

OVERVIEW OF MAINTENANCE DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


MAINTENANCE PROGRAMMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE MANUAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ILLUSTRATED PARTS CATALOGUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WIRING DIAGRAM MANUAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMPONENT MAINTENANCE MANUAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TROUBLE SHOOTING MANUAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST / CONFIGURATION DEVIATION LIST
AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FOREIGN AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SERVICE BULLETINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRCRAFT MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page i

55
55
57
57
59

GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL MANUALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ATA 100 MANUFACTURERS TECHNICAL DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REVISION OF DOCUMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Figure 18
Figure 19

EASA Regulations Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


AMC and Guidance Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relationship Between EASA Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EASA Form 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approval Class and Rating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approval Class and Rating System Cont. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approval Class and Rating System Cont. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approval Class and Rating System Cont. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 145 Approval Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuing Airworthiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part M Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ATA Chapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Revision and Temporary Revision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Temporary Revisions and SB List . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical IPC Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wiring Diagram Manual Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CMM Example Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Trouble Shooting Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example Service Bulletin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TABLE OF FIGURES
8
10
12
24
26
27
28
29
32
42
44
58
60
63
65
67
69
71
73

Page ii

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