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INSTALLATION, CALIBRATION AND TESTING OF LOW

SPEED WIND TUNNEL



INDEPENDENT PROJECT BASED COURSE IN791




Under Supervision of
DR. VINOD NARAYANAN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING




Submitted By
RAVI KANT (13310029)
&
RAVI PATEL (13310028)
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



TABLE OF CONTENT

1) INTRODUCTION .3
2) COMPONENTS AND SETUP OF WIND TUNNEL.......4
3) EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS ..............9
4) CFD SIMULATION OF WIND TUNNEL.17
5) RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS................................20
6) CONCLUSION......................................................22

















1. INTRODUCTION

Wind tunnel is an apparatus used to study the flow behaviour and effects of air over the test
solid object. In the tunnel, one can control the flow conditions which affect forces on the
test object. Through the measurements of the forces on the model, one can predict the
forces on the full scale test object. In early days the wind tunnels were used to understand
and improve the performance of an aircraft only, but later several things such as, car body,
buildings, bridges etc. are also being tested in the wind tunnel.
The following classification of a typical wind tunnel is done on the basis of working speed:
(a) Subsonic wind tunnel (M < 0.4)
(b) High subsonic wind tunnels (0.4 < M < 0.75)
(c) Transonic wind tunnel (0.75 < M < 1.2)
(d) Supersonic wind tunnel (1.2 < M < 5)
(e) Hypersonic wind tunnel (5 < M < 15)






FIG-1: TYPICAL BLOWER DIRVEN LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL








2. COMPONENTS

(a) BLOWER

FIG-2: CAD REPRESENTATION OF BLOWER SECTION OF WIND TUNNEL

(b) BLOWER DIFFUSER

FIG-3: CAD REPRESENTATION OF BLOWER DIFFUSER OF WIND TUNNEL


(c) MESH SECTION

FIG-4: CAD REPRESENTATION OF MESH SECTION OF WIND TUNNEL




(d) BLOWER DIFFUSER

FIG-5: CAD REPRESENTATION OF REDUCER OF WIND TUNNEL









(e) TEST SECTION

FIG-6: CAD REPRESENTATION OF TEST SECTION OF WIND TUNNEL



(f) EXIT DIFFUSER

FIG-7: CAD REPRESENTATION OF EXIT DIFFUSER OF WIND TUNNEL



Assembly setup :





Fig-8: Assembly setup of wind tunnel in our campus IIT Gandhinagar



(a) FULL ASSYMBLY

FIG-9: CAD REPRESENTATION FULL ASSYMBLY OF WIND TUNNEL

FIG-10: 2D DRAFTING OF FULL ASSYMBLY OF WIND TUNNEL

3. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS

Objective of experiments were as follows:
(a) To find the

for given dimension of the flat plate inside the wind tunnel test
section.
(b) To check the uniformity of the flow at the inlet of the test section.
(c) To calculate the velocity profiles at particular section of the test sections.
(d) To calculate the variation of C
f
with x for the test section.
(e) To calculate the variation of (momentum thickness) with x for the test section.
(a) To find the

for given dimension of the flat plate inside the wind tunnel test section.
Given data specifications:
Sr.No Parameters symbol Value
1.
Volume flow rate of
blower
Q 13500 m
3
/Hr
2.
Cross section Area of the
test section
A 330mm X 330mm
3. Length of the flat plate L 1.5 m
4.
Density of air at room
temp
1.205 Kg/m
3

5.
Kinematic Viscosity of air
at room temp
15.68 x10
-6
m
2
/s

Velocity calculation:



We know that, we have laminar region till

. The location of x for region to be


laminar is,

at this point would be calculated as (laminar),


Initial

from this point would be calculated as (turbulent), (with below 1/7


th
power law
formula)



Fig -11: variation of

with location x
Above graph is extrapolated back, till it cuts the x axis (at 0.0369m) (to get the new
reference point x to be chosen),
x = 0.1221m (form origin)
Now

is calculated from this new reference point.


The displacement thickness at the end of the plate.


So, in order to compensate the flow,
We need to increase the height of 4 x 3.23 = 12.92 mm at the end of the section as shown in
the figure below:
y = -0.0013x
6
+ 0.0074x
5
- 0.0163x
4
+ 0.0182x
3
- 0.0111x
2
+ 0.0058x - 0.0002
-0.001
-0.0005
0
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
0.002
0.0025
0.003
0.0035
0.004
-0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6




(
i
n

m
)

x location (in m)
turbulent (

)
turbulent boundry layer Poly. (turbulent boundry layer)

Fig 12: In order to compensate the flow, the given

at respective location is shown over the flat plate.


(b) To check the uniformity of the flow at the inlet of the test section.
- To chech uniformity at various speed, velocity at each point should be measured
at different speeds.
- To track down exact position each time for velocity measurement travese
mechanism would be advisable. But it is costly and complex in installation.
- A simple wooden frame has been suggested to accomplish same task. Easy in
installation and working.
- Schematic of wodden frame is shown below. It consists of 9 rows and 9 columns,
results into 81 velocity measurement points.

Fig-13: wooden frame structure to calculate the velocities at each grid points at the inlet cross
section of the test section

- Velocity is measured with U tube menometer with water as fluid. Pitot tube was
fitted at the centre of cross to match with each position. Other end of
manometer was held alingned with cross and stationary at the bottom of frame.

Fig 14 Placing of U tube manometer at cross centre
- Readings as a height of water column is converted to velocity by


- Below table and plot shows velocity variation at each grid point.

Velocity Variation @ 15 Hz
Grid
Points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 11.10 11.78 11.78 11.46 11.10 11.80 11.12 10.39 11.12
2 11.10 11.10 11.78 11.12 11.10 11.12 11.12 11.12 11.12
3 11.10 11.10 11.10 11.12 11.10 10.39 11.12 11.12 11.12
4 11.10 11.10 11.10 11.12 11.10 11.12 11.12 11.12 11.12
5 11.10 11.10 11.10 11.12 11.10 11.12 11.12 11.12 11.12
6 11.10 11.10 11.10 11.12 11.10 11.12 11.12 11.12 11.12
7 11.10 11.10 11.10 11.12 11.10 11.12 11.12 11.12 11.12
8 11.10 11.10 11.10 11.12 11.10 11.12 11.12 11.12 11.12
9 10.74 10.74 11.10 11.12 11.10 11.12 10.39 11.46 11.12

Table No- 1: Variation of velocities over various grid point at the inlet section of test section


Fig 15 Velocity variation as a function of grid point for 15 Hz rotating speed.

- Above shown data represents average of 11.12 m/s with 0.22 standard
deviation, which is 2% of average value.
- Similarly velocity readings were taken for 22.5 Hz and 30 Hz as well. Average
velocity at 22.5 Hz was 16.29 m/s with 1.9% of standard deviation and at 30 Hz
was 20.81 m/s with 1% of standard deviation. Percentage standard deviation
decreases as expected at higher velocity.

(c) Velocity, *, C
f
and measurement at different section of test section.
- To have diferent velocity at test section three different operating frequencies
has beed selescted as operating frequency in Variable Frequency Drive. 15 Hz,
22.5 Hz and 30 Hz has been selected.
- To measure velocity, U tube manometer filled with water has used. One linb of
manometer is connected to bottom of the required section and other linb is
pitot tube.
- Pitot tube position is varied from plate (y=0) to upwards till constant reading
(free stream).
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
g
r
i
d

p
o
i
n
t

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
m
/
s
)

grid point
Velocity at various grid points
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Fig 16 Manometer and pitot tube connected to the test section



Fig 17 Static pressure taps at various locations

Fig 18 Stagnation pressure taps at various locations (along with inserted pitot tube)

- Manometer setup at test section is shown in below schematic.

Fig 19 Schematic of u-tube manometer connected to test section

- As shown in figure, one limb of manometer is connected to pitot tube and other
is connected to bottom hole. Thus resultant water column difference can be
measured and eventually velocity can be found at any location.
- Measurement will be staty at bottom of section (while touching to plate).
Increase pitot tube by 1mm and take measurement again.
- After some measurements, readings will attain a constant value. This indicates
that probe has moved out of boundary layer and measuring free stream. Now
one can move to next location.
- In initial region location for probes are pitched 5 cm. After 5 locations pitch
changes to 10 cm. As boundary layer has changed from laminar to turbulent, 10
cm pitch will be sufficient.
- After measuring h from all location with height variation, velocity can be
computed by

.
- At every section, where u becomes constant, will be consider as free stream
velocity and denoted as U. And that y location will be taken as , boundary layer
thickness.
- Thus velocity can be converted to non dimensionalize form, u/U. By plotting u/U
on x axis vs Vertical distance on y axis, we can see boundary layer profile.
- With the use of

, one can compute * at each location.


- With the use of

, one can compute at each location.


- With the use of

, one can compute C


f
at each location.
4. CFD SIMULATION

CFD simulation is done in ANSYS to check the flow behaviour for the wind tunnel.
Initial and boundary conditions for CFD Simulation are as follows:

Fig: Boundary condition definition

At x =0, Velocity inlet = 4.87 m/s
At x = 6.252 m , p = patm
At all exterior boundaries has no slip wall condition.
Fluid = Air
T ref = 300 K
= 1.789 x 10-5 (dynamic viscosity of air)
= 1.2 kg/m3 (density of air)

Fig: Geometry (Fluid domain) along with the vanes

Fig: Mesh element type Tetrahedron
No of elements 0.3 million


Fig: Velocity streamlines


Fig: Velocity vector plot at 3 locations in test section
For uniformity check (@ x= 3.5, 4, 4.5 m from origin


Fig: Pressure contour at the XY plane section of the wind tunnel


Fig: Velocity contour at the XY plane section of the wind tunnel


Fig: Velocity variation at the mid line(y=z=0 line) of the wind tunnel






5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Figure-20 : C
f
variation with x location

Figure- 21:

variation with x location
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
C
f

c
o
-
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
t

o
f

s
k
i
n

f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

x (in m )
Variation of C
f
with x
15 Hz 22.5 Hz 30 Hz
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1


(
m
o
m
e
n
t
u
m

t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
)

x (in m)
Variation of with x
15 22.5 30

Fig : 22-Boundary Layer Development along Test Section Length


Figure-23 : u/U variation with y
6. CONCLUSION

To compensate the flow reduction, We need to increase the height
*
= 12.92 mm at
the end of the section.
Previously stated data represents average velocity at the inlet of the test section is
11.12 m/s with 0.22 standard deviation, which is 2% of average value. Similarly the
standard deviation for 22.5 Hz (vel 16.29 m/s) was 1.9% and at 30 Hz (vel 20.81 m/s)
was 1% .(as expected)
As depicted in above plots, we were getting the proper velocity profile for u/U at all
the stations.
As show previously the variation of C
f
is decreasing first, then increasing due to
transition and again its decreasing as expected in downstream.