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Let me introduce you to the cassette course you have chosen to study. In it you will find the basic phrases needed for communication in this language. There are two important things to remember about learning a new language:

Be interested in the people, their country and language.VVantto learn the language.

Practice it as often as you can. Nothing is more effective in creating a friendly atmosphere and nothing flatters people more than when a foreigner tries to speak their language.

The voice on these cassettes will say a phrase in English. Then you will hear the translation of the phrase repeated twice. During the pause after the second repetition, repeat the phrase aloud. Try to imitate the pronunciation as nearly as you can.

Read the words as they are spoken on the cassette and use the guide to help you remember the words and pronounce them during the pauses. Remember, knowing the language is the best way of knowing the country and enjoying it more.

Charles Berlitz

Phrase Dictionary and Study Guide


ISBN 0-910542-86-4





Educational Services Washington, D.C.

Russian Editor Inna Dubinsky, Ph.D.


Annie Scarborough

Produced by Brian J. Wright

Recorded by Evan Haning, Inna Dubinsky, and Val Golovskoy

Published by Educational Services Corporation 1725 K Street, N.W., Suite 408 Washington, D.C. 20006

© 1995 Educational Services Corporation, Washington, D.C. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher.

All LANGUAGE/30 components produced in the U.S.A.





THE RUSSIAN ALPHABET (Side 1) . . . . . .. iii


Salutations .

Everyday Expressions 1

Introductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Inquiries on the Street 8


Numbers... . . . . . . 9

(Side2) 9

Time 10

Days of the Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11 Months of the Year. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12 The Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13

Colors 14


At the Hotel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15

Money. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 18

Food and Drink (Side 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19

At the Restaurant 21

Shopping 24

Leisure 26


The Post Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 28

At the Office (Side 4) 29

The Telephone . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 30


Places of Interest 31

A Trip 32

In the Car 34

At the Airport 35

At Customs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 36



BASIC RUSSIAN GRAMMAR (not recorded) 42

IMPORTANT SIGNS (not recorded) 46



Read the Introduction before turning on cassette side 1.


Until 1990, when the USSR (the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or Sayooz Savyetskikh Satsi/isteechiskikh RispOoplik) became the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Russian was the official language of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic (RSFSR), and the second official language in the national republics and autonomous regions of the USSR.

Today, Russian is the native language of some 160 million people in the former Soviet territory. It is the official language of the Russian Republic, and is one of the six official languages of the United Nations Organization. Russian is also spoken by millions of descendants of Russian immigrants throughout the world.

Russian belongs to the Slavic branch of the Indo-European group of languages. Other languages of the Slavic branch include Ukrainian, Byelorussian, Bulgarian, Slovak, Slovene, Polish, Czech, Serbian and Croatian. A knowledge of Russian will help you to communicate with speakers of these languages which are much more similar to Russian than French or Spanish, for example, are to English.

English has borrowed a number of words from Russian, including balalaika (a stringed musical instrument), troika (a sled pulled by three horses; or a group of three), and babushka (meaning grandmother in Russian - with the accent on the first syllable - but often used in English with the accent on the second syllable to refer to a woman's headscarf).

Russian is written in the Cyrillic alphabet and many of its thirty-three letters closely resemble Greek letters on which the Cyrillic alphabet was originally based.

When you start the cassette player, you will hear the sounds of the Russian vowels and consonants. You will then hear English phrases immediately translated into Russian. Each Russian phrase is repeated, then followed by a pause. During the pause, say the Russian phrase aloud.


Tests show that a word spoken ten to twenty times is remembered more readily than a word seen fifty to one hundred times, so say the phrases aloud as often as possible. When you hear words spoken by Russian-speaking people, in conversation and on television or radio, say them to yourself. Try to pronounce words you see on signs and in books, magazines, and newspapers.


Russian is a phonetic language, meaning that each letter or combination of letters has, by and large, only one sound. There are exceptions to rules of pronunciation in every language, but in Russian these exceptions are few. This makes Russian quite easy to pronounce once you remember the basic principles (see the pronunciation chart).

Note that, throughout the text, sounds that are written alike may vary in pronunciation depending on adjacent sounds (or even on the social situation). Training your ear to detect these variations will sharpen not only your pronunciation skills but also your understanding of spoken Russian.

Only one syllable is stressed in each word. Most of the Russian vowel sounds are only heard distinctly when they occur within the stressed syllable. Thus, unstressed 0 sounds like a, unstressed H and unstressed e sound like i. In the pronunciation column in this course, words of more than one syllable have an accent over the stressed vowel. You will notice that the 9 sound (r) is pronounced as a v in words such as ero (yevo) and qero (chevo), and that the ch sound (q) is pronounced as sh in the word qTO (shto).

The Key to Pronunciation which follows will help you to read and pronounce Russian. Listen to the sounds of the Russian letters as they are pronounced for you. The guide uses systematic approximations of Russian vowels and consonants based on sounds familiar to a speaker of American English. This guide should serve to help you learn the Russian alphabet and sound system. The best way to perfect your pronunciation is to listen closely to the Russian speakers, and imitate their pronunciation.

Now start the cassette on side 1.


Side 1


AEBr)J,EE)K3MHKJlMHOnpCTY «D X u q III ui b bI b 3 10 51



:2 .!p




e Q,


aM as y.- in fly'- ay 'laM chay
eM as~ in pr~ ey lleTeM dee-tyey
HM as ee in see iy PYCCKHM roo-skiy
OM as 9'i in boy oy MOM moy
YM as uoy in buoy ooy HapHcYM na-ri-sooy
blM similar to curry iy qepHblM chor-niy
without the r
a when stressed, ah KapTe kahr-tye
as a in father
when unstressed, a apriya ar-boos
as a in hat
e when stressed, ye allTeKa ap-tye-ka
or in the final
syllable, as ~
when unstressed, ee KapTe kahr-tee
as ee in green • Diphthongs are combinations of two vowel sounds within one syllable.


I t:: t:: e t::
J!Lt:: :8 s J!!.r:: :8 s
a~i: .~ .!1 a~c:: .!1 .!1
t:: .... 1:1) CII Q t::..!!! Q t:: ~ OJ..!!! Q t::"!!! Q
. !1 .. ~,ff "i t:: .!1 Q. § .!1 .. o,ff§ t:: .!1 t:l. s
:1 &;; .... §.~ '" 12 t:: :1 &;; .... g~ :12 t::
Q,vj :;, [g~ e t:l.QJ' :;, o .... :;,~ e
j!J ~::i,ff a:& :;, CII ~::i,ff a:&
tt4i Q. tt..., tt4i Q.
e similar to yo C3MoneT sa-ma-Iyot B as v in van v BHHO vee-no
~in~re before a f RTOpHHK ftor-nik
when stressed, ee ITHBa pee-va voiceless sound,
or at the end of
as ee in green a word, as f in !it
when unstressed, i H310M iz-yoom
as i in pin r as 9 in get g rJle gdye
as ~ in boy Moil moy before a voice- k CHer snyek
il y less sound, or
0 when stressed, 0 HOMep no-meer at the end of a
as 0 in or word, as ~ in ~it
when unstressed, a 3TO e-ta ----------- -
as a in hat as 9 in 909 d Jla dah
before a BHHOrpaJl vee-na-
y as 00 in book 00 xypc koors voiceless sound, graht
as e in let e e-ta or at the end of a
3 3TO word, as t in top
as in YQ!:! yoo 61Opo byoo-ro ---
10 as s in measure zh zhi-voo
ya-bla-ki - -
51 when stressed, ya 5I5nOKH before a sh HO)K nosh
as ~ in y~rd voiceless sound,
when unstressed, ye 5I3hlKe ye-zi-kye or at the end of
as~ in~t a word, as sh
say 00 in boot, Kpa6hl krah-bi in show
hI ----- --- - --~
but spread lips 3 as z in zoo z 'maIO znah-yoo
and arch back of ------------- -
tongue upwards K as k in kit k KTO kto
~--~ .. ----_ ..• _--
CONSONANTS n as I in middle najana lahm-pa
- - ----

as b in bat b 51Opo byoo-ro M as m in man m MeHIO meen-yoo
6 ~-------'--. --.----~-
before a P rapJJ:epo6 gar-dee- H as n in note n nora na-gah
voiceless** r~p ---._-- ---- .. -_ ... - --~--
sound, or at the IT as Q in Qin p 1l5lTh pyat'
end of a word, p as a rolled r PYCCKHti roo-skiy
as Q in Qit as s in sit s cpeJla sri-dah
** Voiceless sounds are K, n, c, T, cp, X, u, 4, ill, and LIJ,. ~--.~--.
iv v ----
.$J~ :8 :2
8~c: .!! .!!
e ~ I:J)..!! (j c:..!! (j GENERAL EXPRESSIONS
c: .!! Q. s
.!!! .. o,ff§ g.~
#~ a CI)' "5 #E c:
:::r E
&~ ~::it8" tf& 0:1I.i Q. SALUTATIONS npUBETCTBUR
T as! in top TaM tahm 3npaBCTBYMTe! 1
Hello! zdrahst-vooy-tye!
(jJ as f in fit Ko(jJe ko-fye Welcome! da-bro )].o6po
x as ch in the kh X04Y kha-choo pa-zhah-Io-vat' nozcanoaa'rs.
German "Bach" Good morning. do-bra-ye oo-tra. )].o6poe yrpo,

1\ as ts in hats ts 1\BeT tsvyet Good day. do-brTy dyen'.
)].06pbIW neHb.
q as ch in chop ch qaM chay Good evening. do-brTy vye-cheer.
)].06pbIM eexep.
III as sh in short sh IlIeCTb shyest' Goodbye.
dah svee-dah-ni-ya. )].0 CB~naH~SI.
m as shch in shch 60pm borshch See you. dah fstre-chi.
push-chair )].0 scrpeva.

b The hard sign has EVERYDAY nOBCEllHEB-
no sound value EXPRESSIONS HhlE "PA3hI
b The soft sign Honb nol' Yes. dah. )].a.
adds a slight y ceMbSI seem'-ya
sound to the No. nyet. HeT.
preceding OK. kha-ra-sho. Xopouro,
consonant Really? nye-oo-zhe-li?
Please. pa-zhah-Ioc-sta. Ilozcanyacra.
Thank you. spa-see-ba. CnacM60.
Thank you very bal'-sho-ye Eonsuroe
much. spa-see-be. cnacnrio,
You're welcome. or pa-zhah-Ioo-sta. Ilozcanysicra.
Don't mention it. I don't know.

ya nye znah-yoo.

51 He 3HaIO.

I think so.

doo-mah-yoo, shto dah.

1 This may be said at any time of the day, but only once a day to anyone person.





doo-mah-yoo, shto nyet.

-- -------- ---

shto VI doo-mah-ye-tye?

I don't think so.

)J.YMalO, 'ITO HeT.

What do you think?

4TO RbI nyvaere?



Why not?

pa-chee-moo nyet? nOtJeMY HeT'?

----- -

vloo-vye-ree-nl? BbI yacpeuu?

Are you sure? It's fine.

fsyo kha-ra-sho,

- - ----------

Bee XopOWO.

Yes, certainly.




Of course.

dah, ka-nyesh-na. )J.a, KOHetJHO.




- -- ----


Is it possible?

------ - -------

e-ta ree-ahl' -na?

3TO peam.no?

It doesn't matter. nye sto-it.


Be careful.



--- -------- ----_ .. _----

Look at this!

pa-sma-tree-tye! nOCMOTpYlTe!


pa-sloo-shay-tye! Flocnymasire!

Listen to this!

---------------- --- ----

Come with me!

id-yom-tye sa mnoy!


co MHOti!

What is this? What is that?

shto e-ta?


shto tahm?

l.J:ro 3TO?

--- ... -----.-~"
What is it like? shto e-ta ta-ko-ye? 4TO 3TO 'raxoe?
- -- ---
Do you like it? vam nrah-vi-tsa? BaM HpaRYlTCH?
It is beautiful. pree-krahs-na. Ilpexpacno.
It is delicious. fkoos-na. Bxycno.
It is wonderful. za-mee-chah- 3aMe4aTeJlbHO.
teel' na.
It is interesting. in-tee-ryes-na. MHTepecHo. 2

It is exciting. oo-vlee-kah- YRJIeKaTeJlbHO.
Where is the gdye ga-stra~nom? rile raCTQoHoM'l
grocery store?
bathroom too-a-Iyet TyaJI\;~T
What is the shto 4TO
matter? sloo-chee-Ias'? CJIYlJYlJIOCb'?
Are you all right? fsyo kha-ra-sho? Bee XOPOIIIO'?
- ~ __ . ____ ' ___ 0 ____
I'm~. ya kha-choo yest'. 51 XOlJY ecrr..
thirsty peet' II 11Th
I'm tired. (ms) ya oo-stahl. 51 ycran.
or (fs) ya oo-stah-Ia. 51 y cran a.
I'm happy. (ms) ya raht. 51 pan,
or (fs) ya rah-da, 51 pana.
I'm sad. mnye groos-na. Mile rpycruo.
I'm cold. mnye kho-Iad-na. Mile XOJIOnHO.
I'm fine.2 fsyo kha-ra-sho. Bee x opouro.
Please do not pa-zhah-Ioos-ta, nO)f(aJIyticTa.
disturb me. nye bee-spa- He fiecnoxoji're
koy-tee meen-ya. MeHH.
My name is meen-ya za-voot MeHSI 'JORyT
Vanya. vahn-ya. BaHSI.
What is your kahk vahs KaK Rac
name? za-voot? 30RYT'?
his name ye-vo era
her name ye-yo ee
Are you Basil VI va-see-liy BhI Bacnnaa
Yesenin? ye-sye-nin? ECeHI1H? 2 Literally: Everything is fine.


l1li"""'" -
Please meet pa-zna-kom' -tyes', I103HaKoMbTecb, Please speak pa-zhah-Ioo-sta, I10)KaJIyt!CTa,
Sasha Gorkov. pa-zhah-Ioo-sta, noxcanyjicra, more slowly. ga-va-ree-tye rOBOpl1Te
S sah-shey C Camet! myed-Iee-ney. MeAneHHeii .
gor-ka-vim. rOpKOBbIM.
Do you vi pa-nee-mah- Bbi IlOHI1MaeTe?
my colleague ma-yeem MOI1M understand? ee-tye?
kaHye-gay xonneron
my friend ma-yeem MOI1M I don't ya nye }I He nOHI1MalO.
droo-gam npyrosr understand. pa-nee-mah-yoo.
Pleased to o-cheen' 04eHb I'm sorry. eez-vee-nee-tye. J1'3Bl1HI1Te.
meet you. pree-yaht-na. npl151THO. Could you repeat pa-fta-ree-tye, I1oBTOpl1Te,
or pree-yaht-na pa- I1pl151THO it, please? pa-zhan-loo-sta. IlO)KaJIyt!CTa.
zna-ko-mee-t'sya. n03HaKOMI1TbCH.
How are things? kahg dee-lah? KaK nena? Where are you gdye vi Tne Bbi )KI1BeTe'?
stayinq?" zhi-vyo-tye?

I'm fine, thanks. fsyo kha-ra-sho, Bee xopouro, I am staying at ya zhi-voo v }I )KilBY B
spa-see-ba. cnacnfio.
the Siavanskaya ga-stee-ni-tsye fOCTl1Hl1ue
Where are at-koo-da vi? OTKYAa BbI? Hotel. sla-vyan-ska-ya "CnaBHHCKaH".
you from? Have you been vi rahn'-shye bi-li Bbi paasure
I am from ya iz a-m~e-ri-ki. }I l13 AMepI1KI1. to Russia v ra-see-i? 6bInl1 B
the USA. before? POCCI1I1?
Great Britain ahng-li-i AHfn1111 This is my first e-ta moy pyer-viy 3TO MOt! nepnun
Canada ka-nah-di KaHaAbI
Australia af-strah-I i-i ABCTpanl111 visit to Russia. vi-zeet vra-see- BI1311T B
yoo. POCCI1IO.

Where do gdye vi rne BbI Are you married? vi zhee-nah-ti? BbI )KeHaTbI?
you live? zhi-vyo-tye? )KI1BeTe? (said to a male)
I live in ya zhi-voo v 51. )KilBY B or (said to a vi zah-moo-zheem? BbI '3aMY)KeM?
Washington, DC. va-shink-to-nye. BaWI1HfTOHe female)
How do you say kak ska-zaht' KaK CKa3aTb How is your wife? kak vah-sha KaK aaura )KeHa?
~ .. ~-
it in Russian? pa roo-ski? no-pyccxn? zhee-nah?
your husband vahsh moosh
Do you speak vi ga-va-ree-tye Bbi fOBOp"Te Barn My)K
English? pa-ahn-glee-ski? no-anr nl1t1cKI1? your mother vah-sha maht' Barna MaTb
your father vahsh a-tyets BaIIl oreu
Yes, a little. dah, neem-no-ga. Ua, HeMHoro. your daughter vah-sha doch' Barna A04b
I don't speak ya plo-kha ga-va- 51. nnoxo rOBOplO your son vahsh sin Barn cun
Russian well. ryoo pa roo-ski. no-pyccxn. 3 Literally: Where are you living?





your sister vah-sha


your brother vahsh braht

-"----- .---,-".~----.-

My best wishes pri-vyet

to your family. seem'-ye.

Would you like to come to my house on Saturday?"


Would you like to come for lunch?

dinner coffee

What are you doing?

Where are you going?

I'm going

to work. shopping


Could I go with you?

I have to be back by

seven o'clock.

Please wait for me.

ya kha-choo pri-gla-seet' vas k sib-ye f soo-bo-too.

ya kha-choo pri-gla-seet' vas na lahnch. a-byet


shto vi dye-Iaee-tye?

koo-dah vi id-yo-tye?

ya i-doo na ra-bo-too.

v ma-ga-zeen


mozh-na ya paydoc s vah-mi?

mnye nah-da veernoot' -sa k seemee cha-sahm.

pa-zhah-loc-sta, pa-dazh-dee-tye meen-ya.


We are in a hurry. mY ta-ro-pim-sya. Is Basil at home? va-see-liy do-ma? He's not at home. ye-vo nyet do-rna. She's not at home. ye-yo nyet do-mao

saui 6paT

ITpMReT cewse.

He's not here. ye-vo nyet.

}I XOllY nparnacar s sac K ce6e R cy66OTY·

She's not here. ye-yo nyet.


When will he kag-dah on

return? veer-nyo-tsa?

kag-dah a-nah veer-nyo-tsa?


pa-zhah-Ioo-sta, fkha-dee-tye.

Make yourself at home.

Would you like something to eat?

to drink peet'


Do you smoke? vi koo-ree-tye?

Do you mind vi ni vaz-ra-zhah- Bu He

if I smoke? ye-tye, ya aoapazcaere.

za-koo-ryoo? 51 'laKYplO?


00 vas yest' Y sac ecr s

speech-~? cnM4KH?

}I X04Y npurnactrr s sac na naas. o6ell


When will she return?

Please come in.

LITO RbI ne.naere?

Please sit down.

Kyna RbI MAeTe?

}I HAY Ha pa60TY·

R Mara'lHH

MO)l(HO 51 1I0HAY cRaMM?

MHe nano RepHYTbCSI K CeMI1 4acaM.

ITO)l(anyHCTa. 1I0l.\O)l(I.\I1Te MeH5I.

Do you have a light?


Msr cenxac YXOAMM.

I don't smoke.


He xypnre.

We're leaving rni see-chahs

right now. oo-kho-deem.

Are you ready? vi ga-to-vi?


Would you mind not smoking, please?

4 Literally: I would like to invite you to my (house) on Saturday.

Bbl rOTORbl?

sa-dee-tyes' , pa-zhah-Ioo-sta.

bood'-ti kag do-mao

kha-tee-tye YI!!it'?


BaCI1J1I1H nOMa?

Era HeT AOMa.

Ee HeT nova.

Era HeT.

Ee HeT.

Kama OH BepHeTC5I'?

Korna OHa RepHeTC5I?




no scanyjic'ra.

6YAbTe KaK nOMa.

Xonrre eCTb?


-----_. -----


ya nye koo-ryoo.

}I He KYplO.

pa-zhah-loo-sta, nye koo-ree-tye.


Thanks for a mi pree-krahs-na Mbl npexpacao Please show pa-zhah-Ioo-sta, Flo x anyjic'ra,
wonderful time. pra-vee-Iee vrye- npoaenn BpeMH, me where pa-ka-zhee-tye na noxascrrre na
mya, spa-see-ba. cnacnrio. we are on kahr-tye, gdye mi xapre, rne Mbl
Have a safe zhee-Iah-yoo )KenalO this map. na-kho-dim-sya. HaXOAHMCH.
trip home. bla-ga-pa-Iooch- 6narononYQHO Please write pa-zhah-Ioo-sta, Ilo.xanyacra,
na da- braht'-sa A06paTbC5! it down. na-pi-shee-tye. aannunrre.
da-moy. AOMOH. Turn right. pa-veer-nee-tye IIOBepHI1Te
Come see pree-kha-dee-tye IIPllxoAIITe euie. na-prah-va. uanpaao.
us again. ye-shchyo. Turn left. pa-veer-nee-tye IIoRepHI1Te
INQUIRIES ON BOIIPOCbl na-Iye-va. naneso.
THE STREET HA YflHQE Go straight ahead. i-dee-tye prya-ma. HAliTe npauo.
Could you tell me kak mnye da- KaK MHe NUMBERS, TIME, COLORS
the way to the braht' -sa do a- A06paTbcSI AO
U.S. Embass~? meer-i-kahn-ska- AMeQIIKaHcKoro NUMBERS 1.JHCJ1A
va Qa-sol' stva? noconscrna?
the main square da glahv-noy AO rnaaaoa zero nol' HOJlb
plo-shcha-di nJlOmaAII one a-deen OAIIH
Where is the gdye tsy~!-kaf'? I'ne uepKOBb? two dvah ABa
church? three tree TpH
the cathedral sa-bor c060p four chee-ti-rye QeTblpe
the park pahrk five pyat' nHTb
napx six shyest'
What is the ka-kah-ya e-ta Kaxas 3TO seven syem' ceMb
name of this oo-li-tsa? y J111I~a? eight yo-seem' nocexn,
street? nine dye-vit' J{eRSlTb
How far is it to kak da-Iee-ko KaK AaJleKO ten dye-sit' J{eCSlTb
the Historical i-sta-ree-chee-skiy IICTOplI'leCKllii Side 2
Museum? moo-zey? MY3eii?

Which way gdye sye-veer? rAe ceBep? eleven a-dee-na-tsat' °AIIHHaAuaTb
is north? twelve dvee-nah-tsat' ABeHaAuaTb
south yook thirteen tree-nah-tsat' Tp"HaAUaTb
lOr fourteen chee-tir-nah-tsat'
east va-stok BOCTOK QeTblpHaAuaTb
west zah-pat 3anaA fifteen pyet-nah-tsat' nSlTHaAuaTb
sixteen sheest-nah-tsat' urecrnanuar s
I'm lost. (ms) ya za-bloo-deel-sya. 51 3a6J1YAIIJlC5!. seventeen seem-nah-tsat' ceuuannari,
or (fs) ya za-bloo-dee-Ias'. 51 3a6J1YAIIJlacb. eighteen va-seem-nah-tsat' aocewaanuars
8 9 ....


nineteen dee-vyet-nah-tsat' JleBSITHaJl,l\aTb It's ten to five, byes dee-sya-tee De'] lleCSlTI1
twenty dvah-tsat' naanua'rs pyat', IIS1Tb,
twenty-one dvah-tsat' a-deen naanuars OJl,I1H It's twenty-five tree dvaht-sat' Tpl1 AR3AuaTb
twenty-two dvah-tsat' dvah AB3Al\3Tb Jl,R3 past three, pyat', IIS1Tb,
thirty tree-tsat' Tpl1AUaTb It's a quarter chyet-veert' 4eTRepTb
forty so-rak COpOK past six, seed-mo-va. CeJl,bMOrO,
fifty pyet '-dees-yat' l1S1TbJl,eCSlTb --~----
sixty sheest' -dees-yat' WeCTbJl,eCSlTb It's half pa-Ia-vee-na nOJlORI1Ha
seventy syem' -dees-yet' ceMbJ\eCSlTb past one, na-ro-va aropo ro.
eighty vo-seem'-dees-yet' ROCeMbJl,eCSlTb It's early, see-chahs rah-na. CeH43C paHO,
ninety deev-ya -no-sta Jl,eBSIHOCTO late poz-na f10'lJ\HO
a hundred sto CTO Shall we meet fstrye-tim-sya BCrpeTI1MCSI ft
two hundred dvye-stee J\BeCTI1 at noon? LPQI-deen'? 1I0JlneHb?

a thousand ti-sye-cha Tb1C5I4a at eight in yo-seem' B aocev s yTpa
the morning oo-trah
first pyer-viy f1epBblH at four exactly rov-na f PORHO R
second fta-roy BTOPOti chee-ti-rye uersrpe
third trye-tiy TpeTl1ti tomorrow at ten zahf-tra vdye-sit' 'J3BTp3 B J\eCSlTb
fourth cheet-vyor-tiy 4eTBePTblH this afternoon see-vod-nya cerOJ\H5I
--~---- dnyom AHeM
once a-deen rahs OAI1H p3'l
twice dva rah-za ABa paaa this evening see-vod-nya cerOJ\H5I
------ or tonight vye-chee-rom aeuepov
ten percent dye-sit' pra-tsen-taf J\eC5ITb "pOl\eHTOB -,_._-- -----
a second see-koon-da ceKYHJ\3
Howald skol'-ka vam CKOJlbKO
are you? Iyet? BaM rrer? a minute mi-noo-ta MI1HyTa
---~---~- -~---.---
I am 34, mnye tree-tsat' MHe rpannars an hour chahs 'lac
chee-tt-rye. xersrpe. DAYSOFTHE

What time is it? 5 ka-to-rty chahs? KOTOPblH 4ac? Monday pa-nee-dyel-nik 1I0HeJ\eJlbHI1K
Tuesday ftor-nik BTOpHI1K
It's one o'clock, see-chahs chahs. Cel1'13C 43C, Wednesday sree-dah cpeJla
It's two o'clock, see-chahs dvah CeH43C nsa Thursday cheet-vyerk 4eTRepr
cha-sah. uaca. Friday pyat-ni-tsa f151THI1l\a
Saturday soo-bo-ta cy560Ta
5 For one o'clock, simply say chahs, after the numbers 2, 3, and Sunday vas-kree-syen' -ye aocxpecense
4, say chi-sah, After the numbers 5 through 20, say chi-sof,
10 11 ...
every day kahzh-diy dyen' Ka)!C).~blil nens It is the sixth shee-sto-ye Hlecroe MaSl.
I leave today. ya oo-ye-zhah-yoo .H yeaacaio of May. mah-ya.
si-vod-nya. cerOIlHSI. this month ve-tam mye-sits-ye 8 3TOM Mecs,,~e
tomorrow zahf-tra 3a8Tpa this week na e-toy na 3TOil aenene
the day after chye-reez dyen' xepea neas nee-dyel-ye
tomorrow this year v e-tam ga-doo 8 3TOM rony
next week na slyed-oo-yoo- aa cneny IOLQeil last year f prosh-Iam
shchey ni-dye-Ie He):lene 8 npoumov
ga-doo rony
I arrived ya pri-ye-khal .H npnex an next year v boo-doo-shcheem s tiynyureu
yesterday. (ms) fchee-rah. 84epa. ga-doo rony

or (fs) ya pri-ye-kha-Ia .H npnexana spring vees-nah 8eCHa
fchee-rah. 84epa. summer Iye-ta
the day before pa-za-fchee-rah neTO
n03084epa autumn o-seen' oceHb
yesterday winter zi-rnah 311Ma
last week na pro-shloy sa rrpomnoji
nee-dye-Iye Henene THE WEATHER nOrO,!1,A

a day dyen' neHb How is the ka-kah-ya Kaxas
MONTHS OF MEOIQbI weather see-vod-nya ceronaa
THE YEAR rO,!1,A today? pa-go-da? norona?
It's cold. kho-Iad-na.
January yan-vahr' SlHBapb XOJIOIlHO.
February fee-vrahl' q,e8panb It's fine. pree-krahs-na-ya Ilpexpacaas
March mahrt MapT pa-go-da. no rona.
April a-pryel' anpenb It's hot. zhahr-ka. )i(apKo.
May may Mati
June ee-yoon' I1IOHb It's sunny. sol-neech-na. ConHe4HO.
July ee-yool' moru, It's windy. vye- t ree-na.
August ahv-goost aBrYCT Berpeno.
September seen-tyahbr' ceHTSlopb It's raining. i-dyot dosht' . l1):1eT ):IO)Knb.
October ak-tyahbr' OKTSlOPb Is it snowing? i-dyot snyek? l1):1eT cner-?
November na-yahbr' HOSlOPb
December dee-kahbr' neKaopb How will the ka-kah-ya zahf-tra Kaxas aaarpa
What is the ka-ko-ye see-vod- Kaxoe CerO)l;HSI weather be pa-go-da? noro):la?
date today? nya chi-slo? 4l1cno? tomorrow? 12









It will be clo.u_cJy. cool frosty foggy humid

boo-deet o-blach-na.



rna-roz-na too-mahn vlahzh-na

EYJln 06JlallHO. IlpOXnallHO MOP03HO TYMaH Bna.lKHO




Is there a Service zdyes' vest' 31leCb ec rt, 61Opo

Bureau?" byoo-ro cos-took? Ycnyr?


I'd like to reserve a room.

What color is it?

It is black.

It is dark blue.

ka-koye-ta tsvyet?

----~ ---





I have reserved a room.


Do you have i.! double room?

It is light blue. ga-Ioo-boy. rOJly60H.

It is brown. ka-reech-nee-viy. KopH4HeBbltl.

a single room

It is green.

It is gray. se-riy. Cepbltl.



Do you have a room with a bath?

a shower

air conditioning

It is lilac. It is pink.


It is red.

It is white. It is yellow.

~--- ~ ..... ~--------




krahs-n7y. bye-liy.



I like this color.



mnye nrah-vit-sa e-tat tsvyet.



twin beds




ya kha-choo 51 X()IIY

za-bra-nee-ra-vat' '3a6poHHpoRaTb

no-meer. HOMep.

00 meen-ya za-bra-nee-ra-van no-meer.

Y MeH51 '3a6poHHpoBaH HOMep.

Y sac ecn, HOMep Ha llROMX? (YrJleJlbHbltl


00 vas vest' no-meer na

- ---- .. _---------


at-dyel'-niy no-meer

00 vas vest' Y sac ec n, HOMep

no-meer s C RaHHOH?


doo-sheem AYlIleM

kan-di-tsi-a- KOHJlIfUIfOHepOM


ad-nas-pal'-ni-mi )\HOCnaJlbHblMM

kra-va-tya-mi KpORaTSlMH

What is the rate skol'-ka sto-it no- CKOJlbKO CTOIfT
per day? meer f soot-kee? HOMep R CyTKIf?
Is breakfast zahf-trak fkho-dit 3aRTpaK RXOAIfT
included? f sto-i-most'? A CTOIfMOCTb?
I'll be staying for ya pra-boo-doo 51 npo6y I-IY aaoe
two nights. dvo-ye soo-tak. CYTOK. 6 Many hotels have Service Bureaus to help you book tours or trips, order tickets for planes and trains, and help you with travel visas inside Russia.




Is there a better vest' no-meer ECTb HOMep an electric fan veen-ti-Iyah-tar nenranarop
room? ~a-Iooch-shye? non Yl.lllie ? a heater a-ba-gree- o6orpeBaTenb
cheaper pa-dee-shyev-Iye noneuresne vah-tyel'
larger pa-bol'-shye nooonsme an iron oo-tyook yrtor
smaller pa-myen'-shye nojaeusure a pillow pa-doosh-koo nOAYWKY
quieter pa-spa-koy-nee-ye nocnoKotiHee some shampoo sham-poon' waMnYHb
some soap rnl-la MblnO
What is your yah-she eem-ya, Baure I1MSI, some toilet too-a-Iyet-noo-yoo TyaneTHYIO
name, please? pa-zhah-Ioo-sta. no xanyacra. paper boo-mah-goo 6YMary
your address vahsh ah-dryes aaui aApec a towel pa-Ia-tyen-tsye norioreaue
May I have a raz-boo-dee-tye Pa36YAl1TC MeHSI What time is va skol'-ka Bo CKonbKO
wake-up call at meen-ya f shyest' B meers yrpa, breakfast zahf-trak? 3aBTpaK?
6 a.rn., please? oo-trah, rroxcanyacra, served?
pa-zhah-lco-sta. May I have mnye noozh-na MHe HY)KHO
Could I have my ya ma-goo vzyat' 51 Mory B311Tb these clothes sdaht' a-byezh- CAaTb OAe)KJW
key, please? klyooch? KnlO'I? dry-cleaned? doc f khim- B XI1M4MCTKY.

On what floor na ka-kom Ha KaKOM 3Ta)Ke cheest-koo.
is my room? e-ta-zhye MOti HOMep? washed f steer-koo B CTI1PKY
moy no-meer? ironed pa-glah-dit' nOrnaAI1Tb

Take the ye-zhay-tye na E3)KatiTc na Where is the gdye khim- Fne XI1M4McTKa?
elevator. leef-tee. nl1lPTe. dry cleaner? cheest-ka?
laundromat prah -cheech- npa4e4HaSl
Where is the gdye ~Et!!? rAe nM<in? na-ya
elevator? hairdresser pa-rik-mah- napaxxsaxepcxaa
the entrance fkhot BXO.!l. kheer-ska-ya
the exit vi-khat BbIXOA seamstress g/a-deel'-na-ya rna):ll1JTbHall
Go l.lQ the ~ad-ni-mee-tyes' ilogHI1MI1TeCb When will the kag-dah a-dyezh- Korna one xna
stairs. pa Iyest-ni-tsye. no neCTHHL\e. clothes be da boo-dyet 6Y,!leT rOTOBa?
down spoo-stee-tyes' cnYCTHTeCb ready? ga-to-va.
There is no nyet ga-rya-chey HCT ropaxeji I'm leaving today. ya oo-ee-zhah-yoo 51 yeaxaio
hot water. va-dl, B 0):1 bi. see-vod-nya. cerOAHSI.
May I have some day-tye Iyot, )J.atiTe ~, May I have the schyot, Cue'r,
ice, please. pa-zhah-loo-sta. noacanyacra. bill, please? pa-zhah-Ioo-sta. noxcan ytiCTa.
another yesh-yo eure O):lCllJ10
blanket a-dee-ya-Ia
a drinking glass sta-kahn CTaKaH
I'd like to ya bi kha-tyel 51 6 bI X OTeJl Side 3
speak to the pa-ga-va-reet' nOrOROpJ1Tb
manager. (ms) s ad-mi-ni- C arlMJ1HJ1- FOOD EJJ,A 11
strah-ta-ram. CTpaTopOM. AND DRINK HAnI1TKJ1
or (fs) ya bi kha-tye-Ia 51 6bI XOTeJla
pa-ga-va-reet' IlOrOBOpJ1Tb Where is the gdye ri-nak? file pblHOK?
s ad-mi-ni- C aAMJ1HJ1- market place?
strah-ta-ram. CTpaTopOM. the supermarket ga-stra-nom raC"rpOHOM
Could you please vi-za-vi-tye tak-see, BbI'30RJ1Te TaKCJ1, the bakery boo-Iach-na-ya 6YJI04HaH
call a taxi for pa-zhah-Ioo-sta. no xcanyjic'ra, the delicatessen koo-li-nah-ri-ya KYJlJ1HapJ1H
_______ ··_0. _____ ,,_
me? I'd like to buy ya kha-choo koo- 51 XO'ly KynJ1Tb
vinaigrette.7 peet' vi-nee-gryet. BJ1HerpeT.
MONEY JJ,EHhrl1 roast mutton shchashch-lik III a III Jl bI K
Where is the gdye bahnk? file 6aH K? on a spit
bank? pancakes bli-ni 6JlJ1HhI
stuffed cabbage ga-Ioop-tsi ronyriuu
Where can gdye ya ma-goo Fne H Mory rolls
I change ab-meen-yaht' 06MeHHTb Siberian meat peel'-mye-ni lleJlbMeHJ1
money? val-yoo-too? RaJll(HY? dumplings
What is today's ka-koy see-vod- KaKOM ceronas pastries pi-rozh-ni-ye IlJ1pO)l(Hble
dollar exchange nya ab-mye-niy 06MeHHblM turnovers vi-peech-koo Rblllelj xy
rate? koors do-Ia-ra? KypC noiinapa? Where can gdye mozh-na file MO)l(HO
Could I please ab-meen-yay-ti, OOMeHHMTe, I buy fruit? koo-peet' KynMTb
frook-ti? WPYKTbl?
have this pa-zhah-loo-sta, nozcanyacra, ----- -
changed into na roo-blee. aa py6J1J1. apples ya-bla-ki HOJlOKM
bananas ba-nah-nl oaHaHbI
rubles? blueberries cheer-nee-koo
myel-ki-ye MeJlKMe 4epHJ1KY
cherries veesh-nyoo RJ1IllHIO
small bills koo-pyoo-ri xyruopta
coins man-ye-ti MOHeTbl grapes vi-na-graht RJ1HOrpall
lemons li-mo-ni JlJ1MOHbI
Do you cash vi meen-ya-ee-tye BbI MeHHeTe melon di-nyoo IlbIHKl
traveler's da-rozh-ni-ye rtopo x uue oranges a-peel' -see-ni anenscauu
checks here? chye-ki na 4eKJ1 aa peaches pyer-si-ki nepCJ1KJ1
na-Ieech-ni-ye? HaJlJ14Hble? pears groo-shi rpYWJ1
Do you accept vi pri-ni-mah-yee- Bbl npJ1HJ1MaeTe pineapple a-na-nahs aHaHac
credit cards? tye kree-deet-ni- xpennrnue plums slee-vi CJlJ1Bbl
ye kahr-tach-ki? KapT04KJ1? 7 A salad of boiled potatoes, carrots and beets, with onions and
raisins iz-yoom 11310M stew too-shchyo-na-ye ryurenoe MSiCO
raspberries ma-Iee-noo Mammy mya-sa
strawberries kloob-nee-koo Kny6HI1KY veal tee-Iya-ti-noo 'renarnny
watermelon ar-boos ap6Y3 I like seafood. ya Iyoo-blyoo rib- 51 rnofirno
I prefer ya preet-pa-chi-tah- 51 npenno-nrraio ni-~e bly-oo-da. QbI6HbI!; 6nlOlla.
vegetables. yoo o-va-shchi. osoum. cod tree-skoo TpeCKY
beans fa-sol' q,aconb crab krah-baf Kpa60B
Brussels bryoo-sye I' -skoo- 6plOCCeJIbcKYIO fish rt-boo pbI6y
sprouts yoo ka-poo-stoo KanYCTY lobster a-mah-raf OMapOB
cabbage ka-poo-stoo KanYCTY oysters oo-strits ycrpnu
carrots mar-kof' MOPKOBb salmon la-sa-see-noo nOCOCi-IHY
cauliflower tsveet-noo-yoo QBeTHYIO shrimp kree-vyet-ki KpeBeTKI'I
ka-poo-stoo KanYCTY trout fa-ryel' q,opeJlb
cucumbers a-goar-tsi orYPQbI I need to buy mnye nah-da MHe nano xyrnrrs
eggplant ba-kla-zhahn 6aKnaJKaH bread. koo-peet' kh~. xne6.
green beans strooch-ko-voo- CTPY4KOBYIO bread rolls boo-Iach-ki 6yno4KI'I
yoo fa-sol' q,aconb butter mahs-Ia MaCJ10
leeks zee-Iyo-niy look 3eJ1eHbIH nyx a cake tort
lettuce sa-Iaht TOpT
canar candy kan-fye-t1 KOHq,eTbI
mushrooms gri-bi rpl'l6b! cheese sir
onions ryep-cha-tiy look pen4aTblH J1yK CbIp
ga-rokh chocolate sha-ka-laht III 0 KOJ1 an
peas ropox cookies pi-chyen'-ye neLJeHbe
peppers slaht-kiy pye-ryets cna):lKI'IH nepeu eggs yay-tsa SlHQa
potatoes kar-to-fyel' xaprorpern, nuts a-rye-khee opexl1
tomatoes pa-rni-do-rl
nOMI'I):lOpbI rice rees PI1C
I'd like some ya kha-choo 51 XOLJY MSlCO. a sandwich boo-teer -brot 6YTep6po):l
meat. mya-sa. sour cream smee-tah-noo CMeTaHY
bacon bee-kon 6eKOH vinegar ook-soos YKCYC
beef gav-ya-di-noo rOBSl):lI'lHY
beefsteak bif-shtyeks 6l1q,lllTeKc AT THE B PECTOPAHE
chicken koo-ri-tsoo KYPl1UY RESTAURANT
cold cuts kal-ba-soo Kon6acy Could you pa-sa-vye-too-tye, Ilocoaeryare,
ham veet-chi-noo BeTLJl1HY
lamb ba-rah-nl-noo fiapaunny recommend pa-zhah-loo-sta, noxanyacra,
an inexQensive nee-da-ra-goy- He,gQI20rQH
pork svi-nee-noo CBl1HI1Hy restaurant? ree-sta-rahn.
sausages sa-see-ski COCI'ICKI'I QeCTopaH.
a typical ree-sta-rahn peCTOpaH
Russian roo-skoy PyccKoli
restaurant kookh-ni KyXHI1
20 21 -
I prefer to sit l!! ya preet-pa-chi-tah- 51 npenno-urrato ketchup kye-choop KeT4yn
the non-smoking yoo stol dlya nee~ eTOJl ana sauce so-oos coyc
koo-rya-shchikh. -- .. --------
area. HeKypSlllll1X.
I'd like pri-nee-see-tye, ITpI1HeOlTe,
by the window 00 ak-nah Y OKHa bottled water, pa-zhah-Ioo-sta, no xanyncra.
May I see the mee-nyoo, MeHIO. please. boo-tll-koo vo-di. 0YTbIJlKY ROIlb!.
-- --
menu, please? pa-zhah-Ioo-sta. nozcanyacra, mineral water mi-nee-rahl' - M I1HepaJIbHYIO
wine list mee-nyoo MeHIO nco-yeo voodoo ROilY
na-peet-kaf Hanl1TKOR \ I'd like tea, chliY, 4aii.
A carafe of the gra-feen rpaq,I1H please. pa-zhah-loo-sta no xanyacra.
house wine, feer-mee-na-va q,l1pMeHHoro coffee ko-fye Koq,e
please. vee-nah, RI1Ha. I take my coffee ya p'yoo ko-fee 51 rn.ro Koq,e
pa-zhah-loo-sta, nozcanyacra. with milk. s ma-Ia-kom. C MOHOKOM .
. _.-_ ..
I'm on a diet. ya na di-ye-tye. 51 aa nuere. with cream sa sleef-ka-mi co CJII1RKaMI1
I'm a vegetarian. ya vee-gi-ta-ri- 51 aernrapnaaeu. with sugar s sah-kha-ram c caxapov
(ms) ah-nyets. Would you like kha-tee-tye XOHlTe
or (fs) ya vee-gi-ta-ri- 51 aer-irrapnau xa, lemonade? lee-ma-nahd? JlI1MOHan?
ahn-ka. soda frook-to-voo-yoo q,PYKTORYIO
.- '"-,.,-".,------ voodoo RO,rW
~ Enjoy your meal! pri-yat-na-va ITpl1S1THOro fruit juice sok COK
a-pee-tee-ta! aIIneTI1Ta! lemon tea chay s li-mo-nam 4at! C nl1MOHOM
Could I have a day-tye mnye, Aat!Te MHe, red wine krahs-na-ye vi-no KpaCHoe RHHO
knife, please. pa-zhah-Ioo-sta, no zcanyjic'ra. white wine bye-Ia-ye vi-no 6enoe RI1HO
nosh. HO)l(. I'd like a beer, rIl1RO,
a fork veel-koo pee-va,
RI1JlKY please. pa-zhah-Ioo-sta. no xanyacra.
a spoon losh-koo JlO)l(KY
a teaspoon chay-noo-yoo 4at!HYIO JlO)l(KY I'd like to order ya kha-choo za-ka- 51 X04Y aaxasars
losh-koo f chicken Kiev. zaht' kat-lye-too KOTJleTY
a plate ta-ryel-koo TapeJ1KY pa-ki-yef-ski. nO-KH!:B!;KH.
a bowl gloo-bo-koo-yoo r nyrios yro \ the cold kvass a-krosh-koo OKPOlliKY
ta-ryel-koo rapenxy soup
a cup chahsh-koo xautxy the borsht borshch Dopm
a glass of water sta-kahn va-di CTaKaH ROAbl the fried tsi-plyon-ka- uunneaxa-
a wine glass ba-kahl dli vi-nah OOKan nnSi RHHa Cornish hen ta-ba-ka Ta6aKa
a napkin sal-fyet-koo camperxy an appetizer za-koo-skoo 3aKYCKY
salt sol' conI, a mixed salad mi-snoy sa-Iaht MSiCHOH canar
pepper pye-ryets nepell soup soop cyn
mustard gar-chee-tsoo ropvauy

the main ga-rya-chee-ye rOpg4ee magazines zhoor-nah-li )l(ypHaJlbl
course blyoo-da 6J1IOAO an English- ga-zye-too na ra'3eTY aa
the dish of kom-pleek-sniy KOMnJleKCHblti language an-gliy-skam aHrJlHticKoM
the day ab-yet o6eA newspaper ye-zi-kye S1'3bIKe
a book knee-goo KHHry
How would yam kahk BaM KaK
you like za-zha-rit' aaacaprrrs I'd like to ya kha-choo 51 X04Y KY"HTb
your steak? mya-sa? MSlCO? buy local koo-peet' iz-d~~ __ ['1'3!1eJlHSI,
handicrafts. lee-ya myest-nikh MeCTHblX
I would like my ya preet-pa-chi-tah- 51 npenno-urraio oo-m~el' -ts:ief. ),MeJlbyeB.
steak rare, yoo nee-da-zhah- He!10JKaQeHoe Russian ma-tryosh-koo MaTpewKY
please. re-na-:ia m:ia-sa. MSICO. nesting dolls
medium sryed-nee- cpenue- Khokhloma" kha-khla-moo XOXJlOMY
zhah-ree-na-ye JKapeHOe ya i-doo f R HAY B
mya-sa MSICO I am going to
well done kha-ra-sho XOPOllIO the florist. tsvee-toch-nT:i YBeTo'lHbIH
zhah-ree-na-ye JKapeHOe ma-ga-zeen. Mara'3HH.
mya-sa MSICO bookstore knee-zhniy KHHJKHblH
ma-ga-zeen Mara3HH
For dessert, ya kha-choo R X04Y pharmacy ap-tye-koo anTeKY
I'd like ma-ro-zhee-na-ye MOQOJKeHOe state liquor vee-nTy BHHHblM
ice cream. na-dee-syert. na necepr. store ma-ga-zeen Mara3HH
yogurt yo-goort HorypT department store oo-ni-veer-mahk YHHBepMar
May I have the shchyot, C4eT. How much skol'-ka e-ta CKOJlbKO 3TO
check, please?" pa-zhah-Ioo-sta. no xanyacra. does it cost? sto-yit? CTOHT?
SHOPPING B MAfA3HHE This costs two e-ta sto-yit 3TO CTOHT
hundred dvye-stee ABeCTl1
How can chyem ma-goo l{eM Mory BaM thousand rubles. ti-syach roo-bley. TblCSl4 py6J1eH.
I help you? yam pa-moch'? nOM04b?
I'm interested in ya ka-choo koo- R X04Y Kynl1Tb
Where can I buy gdye mozh-na I'ne MOJKHO buying a jacket. peet' koort-koo. ~.
souvenirs? koo-peet' Kynl1Tb a bathing suit koo-pahl'-nik xynansaux
soo-vee-nee-ri? c),BeHl1pbl? a blouse bloos-koo 6J1Y3KY
camera film fo-ta-plyon-koo 4>oTonJleHKY aooat pal-to nans'ro
a video vee-dee-o- BI1AeO-KacceTY some mittens vah-reesh-ki aapezcxa
cassette ka-sye-too new pants no-vi-ye bryoo-ki HOBbIe 6PlOKl1
sun tan lotion kryem dlya KpeM AJISI a raincoat plashch nnaut
za-gah-ra 3arapa a pair of shoes o-boot' 06YBb
8 The tip would be from 10 to 15 percent, depending on service. 9 Wooden objects painted with black, red, and gold paints.
24 25 -
a shirt roo-bahsh-koo pyoaurxy We'd like to see rnl kha-teem Mbl XOTtlM
a skirt yoop-koo 106KY a traditi anal oo-vee-dyet' YBtlL\CTb
a sweater svee-tyer CIHlTep dance. na-t si-a-nahl'- nauaouan bl! ste

Where do I pay? gdye pla-teet'? rite nnarnr s? nl-ye tahn-ts I. Ta II Itb!.
a rural pra-vin-tsi-yoo npoauuuato
----~-- ---
May I see that, pa-ka-zhee-tye, [loKaJKI1Te, community
please? pa-zhah-loo-sta. nOJKaJIyMcTa. the Russian kan-tsyert KOHUePT
music festival roo-skoy PYCCKOit
LEISURE OT,L1, hi X moo-zi-ki My3bIKtI
Where can we gdye mozh-na the Bolshoi bal'-shoy Eonsurof
rite MOJKHO Theater tee-atr Tearp
play tennis? pa-i-graht' noarpa n,
Ltye-nis? H TeHI1C? Where is the gdye bil-yet-na-ya rL\C 611JlCTI!aSl
go cycling pa-ka-taht' -sa IIOKaTaTbCSI ua ticket office? kah-sa? x acca?
na vee-la-st- BeJlOCl1l1eL\e I'd like two mnye nah-da MHC nano rtna
pye-dye tickets for dvah bil-ye-ta 6t1JlCTa, lIa
go hiking zan-vat' -sa 3aHS!TbCS! the ballet . na bal-yet. 6aJlCT.
bye-gam oerOM concert kan-tsyert KOHIlCPT
go skating pa-ka-taht'-sa na IIOKaTaTbCS!
kan'-kakh ua KOHbKax How much are skol' -ka sto-yat Cxo nsxo CTOSIT
go skiing pa-ka-taht'-sa na nOKaTaTbCS! the tickets? bil-ye-ti? 6~tnCTbI?
li-zhahkh na JlbDKax It is sold out. fsye bil-ye-ti Bee 6t1neTbI
Would you kha-tee-tye XOTI1Te pro-da-ni. npOL\aHbI.
like to go pay-tee na 1I0MHI ua I like to go ya kha-choo 51 X04 Y 1I0HTtI
sightseeing? ek-skoor-si-yoo? 3KCKypCI1IO? tot hetheat er. pay-ti f tee- atr. Il 'rearn.
I'd like to go ya kha-choo 51 X04Y .!! to the movies f ki-no B KtlHO
to the pool. v ba-f3~yn. 6acceMH. to soccer games na foot-bol na q,ymon
to the beach na plyash aa IlJIS! JK to the museum v moo-zey B MY3CH
to the mountains v so-rt B ropsi to the opera na o-pee-roo aa onepy
to the sea k mo-ryoo K MOPIO When does the kag-dah na-chan-Ia Korna sauano
to the country zah-ga-rat 3aropOA ~begin? speek-tah-klya? CIICKTaKJISI?
Would you take sfa-ta-gra-fee- Cqxrrorparpnpyare tour ek-skoor-si-i 3KCKypcHH
a photo of us, raoy-tye nahs, Hac, What films ka-kee-ye feel'-mi i- KaKHe <pHJIbMhI
please? pa-zhah-loo-sta. noxcanyrtcra. are playing doot see-vod-nya ML\yr CerOL\HSl
tonight? vye-chee-ram? aesepoa?
Is there a night pa-blee-zas-ti yest' IIo6mt30CTH ecr s .
clu b nearby? nach-noy kloop? HO'lH08 ':!I~7
a discotheque di-ska-tye-ka L\HCItOTeIta
COMMUNICATIONS This package v e-tay ban-de-ro-li B:noti.
contains pee-chaht-ni-ye 6aHJI,epoJUI
THE POST OFFICE nOQTA printed matter. ma-tee-ri-ah-li. nevarusre
Where is the gdye poeh-ta? r):le no-rra?
post office? This package v e-tay pa-sil-kye B 3TOH nOCblJ1Ke
contains fragile khroop-ki-ye xpynxae seuta.
How much is it skol'-ka sto-yit CKOJ1hKO CTOI1T items. vye-shchi.
to send a letter at-prah-vit' OTnpaBI1Th
to the USA? pis'-mo v nHChMO B Side 4
a-mye-ri-koo? Auepnxy?
How much is skol' -ka sto-yit CKOJ1hKO CTOHT AT THE B Y1.fPIDtmEHHH
the postage? at-prahf-ka? oTnpaBKa? OFFICE
Can I have ya ma-goo 51 Mory nOJ1y'1HTh Where can gdye mozh-na f;w MO)KHO
money wired pa-Ioo-cheet' 3neCh I make zdye-Iat' CJI,eJ1aTh
to me here? zdyes'dye-nee- J\eHe)KHbIH photocopies? fo-to-ko-pi-i? c)JoToKOmll1?
zhniy pee-ree-vot? nepeBoJ\? May I use the mozh-na vas-pol'- MO)KHO
I'd like to buy mnye nah-da MHe HaAO computer? za-vat-sa kam- BOCnOJ1h30-
some stamps, koo-peet' KynHTh I:)'~oo-tee-ram? BaThCS!
please. mahr-ki. MapKH. KOMnhIOTepoM?
an envelope kan-vyert KOHBepT a typewriter pee-chaht-nay nevarnoti
I want to send ma-sheen-kay MalIlHHKOH
ya kha-choo 51 XOllY a tape recorder mag-ni-ta-fo-nam MarHHToc)JoHOM
this air mail. pa-slaht' e-ta nOCJ1aTh 3TO the fax machine fahk-sam c)JaKcoM
a-vee-a-I:)och-tay: . aBl1anOllToH.
parcel post f pa-sil-kye B nOChlJ1Ke How much do skol'-ka sto-it CKOJ1hKO CTOI1T
first class a-bich-nay 06hIlIHOH you charge stra-nee-tsa? crpaanua?
poch-tay nOllTOH per page?
I want to send ya kha-choo pa- 51 XOt.Iy nOCJ1aTh Could I send mozh-na MO)KHO
money. slaht' dye-nee- IleHe)KHhIH a telex? at-prah-vit' OTnpaBJlTh
zhniy pee-ree-vot. ueneaoa. tye-Iyeks? TeJ1eKC?
a telegram tee-Iee-grah-moo TeJ1erpaMMY Where is your gdye vahsh Fne .!illl!!.
When will the kag-dah pri-dyot Korna npnner office? ka-bi-n~et? Ka6J1HeT?
mail arrive? poch-ta? Il.O.':!.TI!.? the supervisor's ka-bi-nyet Ka6HHeT
the mailman pach-tal'-on nOllTaJ1hOH office na-chahl' -ni-ka Ha'IaJ1hHJlKa
Where can I find Mr. Malenov's ka-bi-nyet KaOJlHeT
gdye pach-to-viy Fne nOllTOBhIH office ma-Iye-na-va MaJIeHOBa
a mail box? yah-shchik? S!llII1K?
28 29 --




the legal


the administrative section

yoo-ri-dee-cheeskiy at-dyel ad-mi-ni-strateev-niy at-dyel

~~------------ ~~~-

I need some office station~ry. some plain

letter paper an EnglishRussian dictionary


Do you need

anything else?

mnye noozh-ni Ka_n-tse_~~lyar.: skj::y~i-.!1adIyehzh-rl(l-~ti. pra-stah-ya

boo-mah-ga ahng-Ia-roo-Skiy sla-vahr'

yam ye-shcho shto-ni-bood' noozh-na?


MHe HYJKHbl KaHllemlpCKl1e n p 11 H ann e JKHOCTI1. npOCTaH

fiYMara anrno-pyccxan cnoaaps

BaM euie 4TO-Hl1fiY.LIb HYJKHO?

Here is my business card.

vot mah-ya vi-zeet-na-ya kahr-tach-ka.

BOT MOH RI1311THaH KapT04Ka.



May I use the mozh-na

telephone? paz-va-neet'?

Where is the gdye tee-Iee-fo-niy r.LIe TeneqlOHHblH

phone directory? sprah-vach-nik? cnpaB04HI1K?


How do I make kahk pa-zva-neet' KaK n03ROHI1Tb

a cali to the va-mye-ri-koo? B AMepI1KY']

United States?


I'd like to make a coliect call.

an international call

a long-distance call

mnye nah-da pa-zva-neet'

za schyoJ a-ba-nyen-ta. za-gra-nee-tsoo

pa meezhgo-ra-doo

MHe nano 1I0]BOHI1Tb 3a C4eT a60HCHTa.


no MCJKropo.LIY


What is the ka-koy rneezh-doo- KaKOH MeJKAY-
area code for ga-rod-niy kot roponnsia KO.LI
Moscow? mask-vi? MOCKRbl?
The line is busy. lee-ni-ya za-nya-tah. JlI1HI1H ·3aHHTa.
Hello. a-lo, Anno.
Who's speaking, kto 00 KTO Y
please? tee-Iee-fo-na? renerpoua?
This is Sasha. e-ta sah-sha. 3TO Caura,
May I speak pa-pra-see-tye, I1onpOCIfTe,
to Anya? pa -zhah-loo-sta, rto acanyiicra,
a-nyoo. AHIO.
She's not here. ye-yo nyet. Ee HeT.
He's not here. ye-vo nyet. Ero HeT.
Could you take mozh-na MOJKHO
a message, a-sta-veet' OCTaRI1Tb
please? za - pees-koo? 3anl1cKY?


Moscow Moscow University or

Red Square

mask-vah ma-skof-skiy 00- ni-veer-si-tyet em ge 00 krah-sna-ya plo-shchat' sa-ber va-see-li-ya bla-zhye-na-va kryeml' ki-tay-go-rat

St. Basil's Cathedral the Kremlin

the Chinese City


Y H I1BepC~1TeT MrY

Kpacaas Ilnoutam, CODOP BaCHJIHII EJIaXeHHOro KPCMJIb Karaa-ropon


St. Petersburg sahnkt pee- Canxr-Ilereptiypr How much is skol'-ka sto-yit CKonbKO CTOHT
teer-boork a one-way bil-yet v a-deen OHneT B OllHH
the Hermitage er-mi-tahsh 3pMHTa)l( ticket? ka-nyets? KOHeu?
Museum round-trip too-dab i ryna 11
the Peter and pye-tra-pahv-Iav- Ilerponaanoa- a-braht-na otiparno
Paul Fortress ska-ya krye- CKaSi tourist-class f too-ri-stee-ches- B Typ11CTH4ec-
past' KpenOCTb kam klah-see KOM xnacce
the Mariinsky ma-ri-in-skiy MapMMHcKMi1 Is there a v vi-khad-nl-ye B nuxonnue
Theater10 tee-atr Tearp
special dn}'l vest' llHI1 ecrs
ATRIP nOE3JlKA weekend rate? skeet-ka? CKI1!1Ka?
mid-week f see-ree-dee-nye B cepenane
Have a good schast-Iee-va-va C4aCTnMBoro nee-dye-li senena
trip! poo-tee! nYTM! May I have ya ma-goo ~ Mory xymm,
Where can gdye mozh-na Fne MO)l(HO a student koo-peet' I'got-niy nbroTHblH
I rent a car? vzyaht' na B3S1Tb na discount? bil-yet dlya OMneT ana
pra-kaht npOKaT stoo-dyen-ta? CTX!1~HTa?
ma-shee-noo? MalllMHX? senior-citizen dlya pin-si-a- !l11S1
a bicycle vi-Ia-si-pyet Be11OCHne!l discount nye-ra neHCMOHepa
Where do I board gdye pri-chahl Tne npaxan Smoking or dla koor-yah- )J.J1S1 KypSlIl\MX
the boat? sood-na? £)'1l!::!1!. ? non-smoking? shchikh ee-Ii dla M11M n11S1
the ferry pa-ro-ma naposra ni-koor-yah- He KYPSlIl\I1X ?
Where do I board gdye a-sta-not-ka Fne OCTaHOBKa shchikh?
the streetcar? tram-vah-ya? rpaanaa? Non-smoking, dla ni-koor-yah- )J.J1S1 HeKypIIIl\MX.
Where is the gdye mee-tro? rne~? please. shchikh, noxanyacra.
metro station? pa-zhah-Ioo-sta.
train station vag-zahl BOK3aJ1 Could you tell ska-zhee-tye, CKa)l(I1Te.
bus stop a-sta-not-ka OCTaHOBKa me when we pa-zheh-loo-sta, noxanyacra,
a-ftc-boo-sa aBTooyca reach my kag-dah boo-dit xorna 6yneT
Where can I buy stop? ma-ya a-sta- MOS!
gdye mozh-na koo- Fne MO)l(HO nof-ka? oCTaHoBKa?
a metro token?" peet' zhee-ton? xyntrrs )l(eTOH?
May I have a Is there a yest'spahl'-niy ECTb cnaJ1bHbdi
pa-zhah-loo-sta, Ilo.xanyacra, sleeping car? va-gon? BarOH?
schedule, day-tye mnye ra- naare MHe
please? spi-sah-ni-ye. pacnncanae. What time does kag-dah at-kho-dit Korna OTXOAKT
10 Formerly the Kirov Theater. the train leave po-yest na noean aa
" A metro token is required to pass through the gates at the metro for Riga? ree-goo? Pary?
32 33 ---
What time does kag-dah pri-bi-vah- Korna npnriuaaer Six liters of shyest' lee-traf WeCTb mrrpon
the train get to yet po-vest v ee- noean B gasoline, been-zee-na, 6eH3MHa,
Ekaterinburg? ka-tee-rin-boork? Exarepantiypr? please. pa-zhah-loo-sta. nO)KaJlyHCTa.
Is it on time? on i-dyot pa OH MlleT no Please fill up pol'-niy bahk, ITOJIHblH 6aK,
ra-spi-sah-ni-yoo? pacnncamuo? the tank. pa-zhah-Ioo-sta. 1I0)KaJlytlCTa.
Does this train po-yest a-sta-nahv- IToe31l CTaHaBJlH- My car needs mnye nah-da MHe nano
make a stop Ii-va-ee-tsa BaeTCS! B oil. da-Ieet' mas-Ia nOJlMTb MaCJlO
in Tver? f tvye-rye? TBepM? dvee-ga-tyel'. B nSMraTeJlb.
How long do skol'-ka mi CKOJlbKO MbI Where is the gdye bli-zhay-sha- I'ne 6JlH)KatirnaS!
we stop here? zdyes' sta-yeem? 3.fleCb CTOMM? closest service ya stahn-tsi-ya CTaHL\MS!
station? af - to- ap-sloo-sh i- aBTo06-
Does this road e-ta da-ro-ga na 3TO nopora na This doesn't e-ta nye 3TO He
lead to Nizhniy neezh-niy HM)KIIMti work. ra-bo-ta-yet. paboraer.
Novgorod? nov-ga-rot? Honropon? Can you repair pa-chi-nee-tye, ITOl.(MHMTe,
How many skor-ka CKOJIbKO the tire, pa-zhah-loo-sta, IIO)KaJIytlCTa,
kilometers is ki-Ia-mye-traf da KMJIOMeTpOB 110 please? ka-Iee-so. xoneco,
it to Vladimir? vla-dee-mi-ra? Brtanasrupa? the headlights fah-ri cflapbl
Can you direct pa-zhah-loo-sta, Iloacanyacra, I need to ma-yoo ma-shee- MOKl MarnMHY
me to the pa ka-zhee-tye nOKa)KHTe have my noo nah-da at- HallO
bridge, please? da-ro-goo na nopory na car towed. book-si-ra-vaht' . oT6YKcMpoBaTb.
most. MOCT. How long skol'-ka CKOJlbKO
the highway sha-sye rnocce will it take? vrye-mee-ni BpeMellM sro
a gas station been-za-ka- 6eH30KoJlOIIKY e-ta zay-myot? 3aHMeT?
the ferry station pa-rom napoxs How much will skol'-ka e-ta CKOJlbKO sro
How often does kahk chah-sta KaK l.(aCTO it cost? boo-deet sto-it'? 6yneT CTOMTb?
the ferry leave? kho-dit pa-rom? xonirr napost? AT THE AIRPORT B A3POnOPTY
Is it far? e-ta da-Iee-ko? 3TO nanexo?
Where is the gdye pa-saht-ka file nocanxa
Can you draw na-ri-sooy-tye Hapncynre gate for na rnY_E!~t-ni-ye na MeCTHble
me a map, kahr-too, KapTY, domestic flights? a-vi-a-rey:-si? aBMap!:ti!;l!!?
please? pa-zhah-Ioo-sta. nozcanyacra. international meezh-doo- Me)KAYHa-
flights na-rod-ni-ye ponnsre
a-vi-a-rey-sl aSlfapeHcbI
34 35 -
Where is the gdye zahl file 3aJ1 I have nothing mnye nye-chee-va MHe aexero
arrival gate? pri-bi-ti-ya? llpI16bITI1S!? to declare. vno-sit' v dee- BHOCI1Tb B
departure at-pra-vlye-nee-ya OTllpaBJ1eHI1S! kla-rah-tsi-yoo. nexnapaumo,
How long will the na-skol'-ka HaCKOJ1bKO I have some 00 meen-ya yest' Y MeHS! ecrs
flight to Moscow at-Io-zhyen revs OTJ10)KeH peiic perfume. doo-khee. Jlll!l.
be delayed? na mask-voo? aa MOCKBY? some cigarettes si-gar-ye-ti carapersi
At what time does kag-dah vi-Iee-tah- Korna BbIJ1eTaeT a gift pa-dah-rak llOAapOK
my personal leech-ni-ye JlI1l{Hble
the plane for yet sa-ma-Iyot CaMOJ1eT
Saint Petersburg f sahnkt B CaHKT- belongings vye-shchi aeuin
leave? pee-teer-boork? Ilerepoypr ? Could you open at-kroy-tye, OTKpOHTe.
Would you please pa-za-vee-tye, ITo30BI1Te, your bag, pa-zhah-Ioo-sta, no xanyacra,
call a flight pa-zhah-Ioo-sta, no.xanyacra, please? soom-koo. CyMKy.
close za-kroy-tye saxpoare
attendant? styoo-ahr-da. CTJOapAa.
or (female pa-za-vee-tye, ITo30BI1Te,
attendant) pa-zhah-Ioo-sta, no xanyacra, Where is the gdye fAe
styoo-ar-dye-soo. crroapneccy. hospital? bal'-neet-sa? OOJlbHI1l\a?
AT CUSTOMS HA T AMO.IKHE Call an vi-za-vee-tye BbI30BI1Te
ambulance! sko-roo-yoo CKOpyJO
I am a tourist. ya too-reest. 5I TYPI1CT. ~o-mashch'! noaoursl
a businessman biz-nees-myen 6113HeCMeH the fire pa-zhah r-noo-yoo nO)KapHYJO
or a business- department ma-shee-noo Mallll1HY
woman Call the police!
a student stoo-dyent paz-va-nee-tye v IT03BOHI1Te B
mi-Ieet-si-yoo. MI1J1I1!.1I:!JO.
Is this duty free? e-ta 3TO 05J1araeTCS! a doctor dok-ta-roo AOKTOpy
a-bla-gah-ye-tsa llOIllJ1I1HOti? Fire! pa-zhahr!
posh-li-noy? Iloxap!

This is !BY e-ta moy 3TO MOti Help! pa-ma-gee-tye! IToMOrl1Te!
luggage. ba-gahsh. 6ara)K. This is an e-ta ek-stree-na-ya 3TO 3KCTpeHHaS!
my suitcase may chee-ma-dan MOti 4eMOAaH emergency! si-too-ah-tsi-ya! cI1Tyal\I1SI.
my briefcase moy part-fyel' MOti noprrpens There has been tahm TaM asapna.
my handbag ma-ya soom-ka MOS! cyMKa
an accident. a-vah-ri-ya.
Do you have 00 vas vest' shto Y aac ecrt, 'ITO It is dangerous.
anything to vnye-sti v di- e-ta a-pahs-na. 3TO onacno,
declare? kla-rah-tsi-yoo? nexnapaumo?
I am sick. (ms) ya bo-Ieen. ~ 60neH. My ankle 00 meen-ya Y MeHSI 60mIT
or (fs) ya bal'-nah. ~ 60JIbHa. hurts. ba-Ieet la-dish-ka. JIOIlbIlKKa.

Can you get me mnye noo-zheen arm roo-kah pyxa
MHe HYJKeH back spi-nah cmlHa
an interpreter? pee-ree-vot-chik. nepeROII,'1I1K.12 eye glahs rna]
I've lost my moy pahs-part MOM naCIlopT foot sta-pah CTOIla
passport. pa-teer-yal-sa. nOTepSlJICSI. hand keest' roo-kee KI1CTb pYKI1
My wallet has moy ka-shee-Iyok head ga-Ia-vah rOJIORa
MOM KOWeJ1eK knee ka-Iye-na KoneHO
been stolen. oo-krah-Ii. yKpaJII1. leg na-gah
I need to go to mnye noozh-na MHe HYJKHO throat gor-Ia ropno
the dentist. na pri-yom k na npI1eM K stomach zhee-Ioo-dak JKeJlynOK
sta-ma-to-Ia-goo. CTOMaTOJlOry. tooth zoop ]y6
Do you have 00 vas vest' Y nac ecrs Thank you for spa-see-ba za CnacI160 aa
any aspirin? a-spi-reen? aCIlI1pI1H? your help. po-mashch'. nOMO~b.
I am allergic 00 meen-ya Y MeHSI
to penicillin. a-Ieer-gee-ya na aJIJIeprI1S1 na
pee-ni-tsi-Ieen. ne HI1UI1JIJII1 H.
this food e-too ye-doo ary eny
shellfish krah-baf Kpa60B
cigarette si-ga-ryet-niy CI1rapeTHbIM
smoke dim II,bIM.
this medicine e-ta li-kahrst-va 3TO neKapCTBO
pollen p7l'-tsoo nbIJIbUY
A bee stung meen-ya oo-koo- MeHSI YKYCI1Jla
me. see-I a pchye-Ia. nxena.
I am diabetic. ya di-a-bye-tik. ~ - II,lIa6eTI1K.
12 Literally: I need an interpreter. 38




In addition to the Russian words and phrases you have learned, there are many polite or customary expressions which, when used appropriately, will show that you understand and respect the social customs of the country.

When greeting friends, Russians do not ask How are you? as Americans do. Certain expressions can be used as informal greetings such as Privyet (Hi), or even Kahk deefah? (How's it going?). A more formal expression isZdrahstvooyti. (Hello) This can be used any time, but only once a day to the same person. When you meet someone for the first time, you can say, Priyatna paznak6mitsa or Ochin priyatna, both meaning I'm pleased to meet you.

To address a man you do not know well, use the title Gaspadeen (Mr.) before his last name, for example, Gaspadeen Pitr6v. You would use Gaspazhah (Mrs.) for a woman. However, you will need to say her last name with an added suffix, for example, Gaspazhah Pitr6va. A young woman whose name you do not know is often addressed simply as Dyevooshka (Miss).

If you step in front of someone, or must go through a crowd, you may beg pardon by saying fzvineeti. You will probably hear the response Nichiv6, meaning Never mind or /t's OK.

When you are invited into a Russian home, you may accept by saying S oodav61'stviyem (With pleasure). As you arrive, your host will greet you with Fkhadeeti, pazhahlooysta (Come in, please) and then b6od'ti kak d6ma (Make yourself at home).

When having a drink with Russian friends, you may toast Za vahshe zdar6vye! (To your health!), or if called on to make a toast, you might lift your glass To peace and friendship by saying Zameer idr6ozhboo! When you are ready to eat, wish your companions Priyatnava apiteeta! (Enjoy your meal!). Compliment your host or hostess at the end of your meal by saying Ochln fk60sna (This tastes delicious!). After an enjoyable time, remember to say, 8ila 6chin priyatna (/ enjoyed it very much) and Spaseeba za fsy6 (Thanks for


everything!) When someone thanks you, you may reply Pazhahlooysta (You are welcome).

When dining in a restaurant, say Afitsiahnt to call a waiter and Afitsiahnka to call a waitress. Most Russian restaurants are open for lunch at 12:00 noon, and for dinner from about 5:00 to 11 :00 p.m. or even midnight.

A typical Russian appetizer may be ikrah (caviar) or kapch6naya asitreena (smoked sturgeon). You may also try marinovahniyi gribi (pickled mushrooms).

Before your meal, you might try akr6shkoo, or cold kvass SOup with chopped vegetables and meat, and for the main course, try zhark6ye v garsh6chki, or meat roasted in a pot. Other typical main courses are vareniki (fruit dumplings). and pil'meni (Siberian meat dumplings). As for alcoholic drinks, Russia is of course famous for its vodka (v6tka).

The most important Russian holiday is N6viy g6t (the New Year). On that day, you will be greeted with S n6vim g6dam! which means Happy New Year! To wish someone a Merry Christmas, say S razhdistv6m! and for a Happy Birthday. say z dny6m razhdenya! A general greeting you can use for every holiday including the New Year and Christmas, is sprahznikam! or Happy Holidays!

Many English words have found their way into the Russian language. Listen to the following words and you will see how easy it is to recognize them:

aftam6bil bBhnk

aerapOrt futb61

katastr6fa feelm


tillfon spOrt stop

menument tahksi

Congratulations! - Pazdravlyahim! You are already well on your way to learning Russian! Good luck! - Udahchl vahml



Nouns in Russian are grouped into three genders: the masculine, ending in a consonant, -y or the "soft sign" ('). For example:

stol - table mahy - May kon' - horse

the feminine, ending in -a, -ya or -iya. For example: kneega - book zemlya - earth Itahliya - Italy

and the neuter, ending in -0 or -e. For example:

akn6 - window pOle - field

There are no articles (a, and the in English) in the Russian language. Therefore, kniga can mean the book or a book.

Russian nouns can be in one of six cases. Showing the different cases involves changing the noun's ending:

Nominative (N): usually nouns that are subjects or topics of sentences. For example:

Dyevachka chitahyet. The girl is reading.

Genitive (G): nouns that follow prepositions, "belong to" other persons or things, indicate negation and limitation of time, space, or quantity. For example:

Eta s60mka dyevachki. /2Yevachki zdyes' nee bila.

This is the girl's purse. The girl was not here.

Accusative (A): nouns that are the objects of verbs, or represent duration of time or inanimate destination. For example:

Ya veezhoo cJyAvachkoo.

I see the girl.

Dative (D): nouns that represent the indirect object; someone who or something that experiences something; action over time. For example:

Pyetroo bila kh6ladna. Peter was cold.

(Lit: It was cold to Peter)


Mahma dahla kneegoo cJ~~iJ~hkye. Mother gave the book to the girl.

Mi kh6dim f kino pa ~rJidye"-rJi!<!'m. We go to the movies on Mondays.

Instrumental (I): nouns that are an indirect object; the manner in which or the instrument whith which an action is performed; unspecific time reference. For example:

On pisahl /carandahs!Jam. He wrote with a pencil.

Ya zanimahyoos' ~~tralTf' I study in the morning.

Prepositional (P): nouns which are the indirect object, location, description. For example:

Mi bili f tesmre. We were at the theater.

As shown above, the endings of the nouns indicate the case of the noun, as well as the gender and number.

To form a plural, masculine and feminine nouns generally add -i, and neuter nouns generally drop the final-o and adda in its place. For example:

(m) stol

(f) kneega

(n) akn6

st61i kneegi 6kna

(table, tables) (book, books) (window, windows)

Pronouns: The subject pronouns are as follows:

I ya we mi

you (informal) ti you (formal) vi

he on they ani

she anah

it an6

The form ti is used to address a close friend or a relative or child, and vi is used when addressing a person who is not well known to the speaker, or who is higher in position or older in age.



Adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number, and case. Each of these affects the ending of the adjective.

(m) krahsniy stol, krahsnlY!'!. stali

(red table, red table§) -


krahsn~ kneega, krahsn~ kneegi (red book, red book§) -

krahsn~ akna, krahsn~ akn~ (red window, red window§)

Verbs change their endings according to the person doing the action. There are two types of verbs which are grouped by two different sets of endings, and are known as first and second conjugation. For example:


First conjugation: chitaht' - to read

/ read ya chitahyoo

we read mi chitahyem

you read ti chitahyesh

you read vi chitah yetye

S/he reads on, anah chitah~

they read ani chitahyoot

Second conjugation: gavareet' - to speak

/ speak ya gavar'ao

we speak mi gavareem

you speak ti govoreesl1

you speak vi gavareete

slhe speaks on, anah gavareet

they speak onee gavar'~ -

Russian verbs can also show aspect, indicating whether the speaker sees the action as an ongoing process (in which case the imperfective aspect is used), or the completion of the action (in which case the perfective aspect is used). Perfect aspect verbs are not used when the meaning is in the present tense.


The two verbal aspects, perfective and imperfective, can be identified either by prefixes or suffixes added to the verb. For example:

Ya chitahl etoo kneegoo. / was reading this book.

(using the verb chitat')

Ya prachitahl etoo kneegoo. / read (i.e. completed reading) this book.

(using the verb prachitaht')

Negation in Russian is generally indicated by the word ne (not; a/so ni) which can be placed in front of a word to negate its meaning. For example:

Ya znahyoo. Ya ni znahyoo.

/ know.

/ don't know.

In Russian, several negative words may be necessary in a negative statement, and do not cancel each other out:

Ya nikagdah nikamao ni a chom ni gavareel. I never to nobody not about something not said I never said anything to anyone.

Questions in Russian are marked by intonation. Questions with question words have a falling tone on the stressed part of the final word. For example:

Koodah on pashal? Where did he go?

Questions which invite yes/no answers have a higher pitch on the stressed part of the word. For example:

Ti chitahl kneegoo? Did you read the book?







BenOCllIJeL\WCTbl vi-Ia-si-pi-di-sti Cyclists
BHHHMaHHe, vni-mah-n i-t, Attention:
RnepeL\H fpi-ri-di Roadworks
ReL\YTCSI pafio'rsr vi-doot-sa ra-bo-ti in Progress
BHHwMaHHe, vni-mah-ni-i, Attention:
neurexonu pe-shi-kho-di Pedestrians
Bnepenn fpi-ri-dl Traffic Lights
cserorpop sfi-ta-for Ahead
Bxon fkhot No Admittance
aocnneuien vas-pri-shehon
Bsesn f'yest No Entry
aanpeuren za-pri-shehon
.ll.BW)KeHHe dfi-zhe-ni-i Single Lane
B OL\WH pSlL\ fa-din ryat Traffic
Ilepaorrecs dir-zhi-tis' Keep Left
neBOH CTOPOHbl Iye-vay sta-ra-ni
.ll.ep)KHTeCb dir-zhi-tis' Keep Right
npaaoa CTOPOHbl pra-vay sta-ra-ni
3aKpbITo za-kri-ta Closed
3anaCHblH BbIXOL\ za-pahs-niy vi-khat Emergency Exit
Kypars koo-rit' za-pri- No Smoking
aaupeuraercs shchah-it-sa
He ni za-dyer- No Passing
3aL\ep)KHBaTbCSI zhi-vat-sa
06rOH ab-gon Detour
06'he3A za-pri-shehon
Orpanavenne ag-ra-ni-chye-ni-i Reduce Speed
CKOPOCTH sko-ra-sti 46

OnHocTopoHHee ad-nas-ta-ro-ni-t One-Way Traffic
i1:BH)KeHHe dvi-zhye-ni-i
OnaCHO a-pahs-na Danger
Onac astji a-pahs-niy Dangerous
nOBopOT pa-va-rot Curve
OCTaHOBKa a-sta-nof-ka Bus Stop
aBTo6yca at-to-boo-sa
IIYHKT CKOPOH poonkt sko-roy First Aid Station
nOMOIl\H po-ma-shchi
CTOSlHKa MaWWH sta-yan-ka ma-shin Parking
CTOSlHKa MaWHH sta-yan-ka rna-shin No Parking
aanpeiuena za-pri-shchi-nah
TyaJIeT too-a-Iyet Restroom
TynHK too-pik Dead End 47