10 Bacterial Genetics 1

Genetics – science concerned with heredity & variation
• Bacteria are haploid
Asexual mode
• most common & important in bacterial growth cycle (e.g. fission)
• no genetic recombination
genetic recombination – exchange of genes between !"A molecules to form
combination of genes in a chromosome
• changes arise through mutations
mutation – change in the base se#uence of a cell$organism w$c may occur naturally or through
induction by agents
%&exual' mode
• bacteria are not differentiated to somatic or gametic cells
• functional$mating types(
a. donor ()male*)
b. recipient (female*)
• involves a unidirectional transfer of a portion of !"A from donor to recipient
• gene transfer + genetic recombination
genetic recombination + changes
changes + variations
"atural methods of genetic transfer
A. ,on-ugation – transfer of genetic information via cell.to.cell contact
plasmids . small/ circular !"A that can exist independently of host chromosome0 found in bacteria0
also in yeast
episome – plasmid that can exist with or w$o being integrated into host's chromosome
con-ugative plasmids – have genes for 1 factor
1 factor – )fertility* factor
. genes for cell attachment/ sex pili/ transfer
x 1
+ contains extrachromosomal 1 factor (donor)
+ no 1 factor (recipient)
3fr x 1
3fr strain + high fre#uency of recombination
+ 1 factor integrated into bacterial chromosome
+ donor
MCB 1 - wtcruz
10 Bacterial Genetics 2
4. 5ransduction – transfer of bacterial genes by viruses . most common mechanism
6inds of transduction
1. Generali7ed
. occurs during the lytic cycle of the virulent & temperate viruses
. host !"A derived from any portion of the host genome becomes a part of the !"A of
the virion in place of the virus' genome
. &peciali7ed or restricted
. occurs only in some temperate viruses
. involves the transfer of specific region of the host chromosome into the virus replacing
some of the viral genes
,. 5ransformation
. the upta8e by a cell of a na8ed DNA molecule (cell.free) or fragment from the medium
and the incorporation of this molecule into the recipient chromosome
. contact with competent cell (one that is able to ta8e up !"A)
9rotoplast 1usion
• use in microorganisms with ": 8nown con-ugation system
• en7ymes are used to digest cell wall to produce protoplasts
MCB 1 - wtcruz