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Vocab

Chemistry:
The study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoes, and the
energy changes that accompany these processes.
Chemical:
Any substance with a definite composition.
Mass:
The measure of the amount of matter in a substance.
Matter:
Anything that takes up space.
Atom:
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element.
Element:
Pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom.
Compound:
Substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances. Each compound is made from the atoms of two
or more elements that are chemically bonded.
Extensive Properties:
Depend on the amount of matter present.
Intensive Properties:
Do not depend on the amount of matter present.
Physical Property:
Characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the substance's identity.
Physical Change:
A change in the substance that does not involve changing the substance's identity.
Change of State:
The physical change of one state to another.
Solid:
Has a definite volume and shape.
Liquid:
Has a definite volume but not a definite shape.
Gas:
Has neither a definite volume nor shape.
Plasma:
High temperature state of matter where the atoms lose their electrons.
Chemical Property:
Relates to a substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances.
Chemical Change or Chemical Reaction:
A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances.
Reactants:
The substances that react in a chemical reaction.
Products:
The substances formed at the end of the chemical reaction.
Mixture:
A blend of two or more kinds of matter that each retains it's own chemical identities.
Homogenous:
Uniform in composition.
Solution:
A homogenous mixture.
Heterogenous:
Mixtures that are not uniform.
Pure Substance:
Fixed composition.
Notes:

=>Types of Chemistry
-Organic
>Deals with mostly carbon-composed compounds
-Inorganic
>Deals with non-living compounds
-Physical
>Deals with the properties and changes of matter and it's relationship to energy
-Biochemistry
>Deals with substances and the processes in living things
-Theoretical
>The use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and
to design and predict the properties of new compounds
=>Types of Research
-Basic
>Carried out for the sake of knowledge
>Discovers things on accident
-Applied
>Carried out to solve a problem
>Purposely discovers things
=>Atoms are the Building Blocks of Matter
-Atoms make up everything that is matter
-A collection of one type of atom is called an element
>Ex: Pure silicon
-Like elements, compounds are made of atoms, but are different kinds
>EX: Sugar
=>All Substances Have Characteristic Properties
-Extensive Properties
>Depends on the amount of matter
>Also depends on the amount of Volume, Mass, and the Amount of Energy
>EX: Water will freeze slower if there is more of it.
-Intensive Properties
>Do not depend on the amount of matter
>Do not depend on the amount of Volume, Mass, and the Amount of Energy
>EX: Water will always begin to freeze at 32 degrees, regardless the amount.
=>Physical Properties
-Changes that do not affect the substance's identity.
-EX: Changes of state
>Solids
>Particles are bound by strong attractive forces, and so the solid keeps it's shape
>Liquids
>Particles are still bound, but not as much, so they flow around each other
>Gas
>Particles are no longer bound together, and move freely colliding with each other
>Plasma
>Particles that have lost their electrons through extreme heat become this
=>Chemical Properties
-Chemicals can undergo changes that cause them to turn into other substances
>This is called either a chemical change or reaction
>EX: Sunlight + 6CO2 + 6H20 --> C6H12O6 (glucose)+ 6O2
>In that example, the 6 carbon dioxide and water molecules are the reactants
>In that example, the molecule of glucose, and the 6 water molecules are the products
-IMPORTANT: In order for a chemical reaction to occur, energy has to start the process in some way
=>Mixtures and Pure Substances
-Matter can exist as a mixture or a pure substance
>In a mixture, the chemicals can be separated out
-Heterogenous mixtures
>the two parts are either too saturated or the materials differ in density too much
>EX: Salt accumulating at the bottom of a glass of salt water
>EX: clay sinking to the bottom of a glass of water
-Homogenous mixtures
>Have the same proportions of components throughout
>EX: Ocean salt water
>AKA a solution
-Pure substance
>Always homogenous
>Always exactly the same characteristic properties throughout
>Every sample always has the exact composition
>EX: Water is always 11.2% hydrogen, and 88.5% oxygen