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The study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoes, and the
energy changes that accompany these processes.
Any substance with a definite composition.
The measure of the amount of matter in a substance.
Anything that takes up space.
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element.
Pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom.
Substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances. Each compound is made from the atoms of two
or more elements that are chemically bonded.
Extensive Properties:
Depend on the amount of matter present.
Intensive Properties:
Do not depend on the amount of matter present.
Physical Property:
Characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the substance's identity.
Physical Change:
A change in the substance that does not involve changing the substance's identity.
Change of State:
The physical change of one state to another.
Has a definite volume and shape.
Has a definite volume but not a definite shape.
Has neither a definite volume nor shape.
High temperature state of matter where the atoms lose their electrons.
Chemical Property:
Relates to a substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances.
Chemical Change or Chemical Reaction:
A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances.
The substances that react in a chemical reaction.
The substances formed at the end of the chemical reaction.
A blend of two or more kinds of matter that each retains it's own chemical identities.
Uniform in composition.
A homogenous mixture.
Mixtures that are not uniform.
Pure Substance:
Fixed composition.

=>Types of Chemistry
>Deals with mostly carbon-composed compounds
>Deals with non-living compounds
>Deals with the properties and changes of matter and it's relationship to energy
>Deals with substances and the processes in living things
>The use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and
to design and predict the properties of new compounds
=>Types of Research
>Carried out for the sake of knowledge
>Discovers things on accident
>Carried out to solve a problem
>Purposely discovers things
=>Atoms are the Building Blocks of Matter
-Atoms make up everything that is matter
-A collection of one type of atom is called an element
>Ex: Pure silicon
-Like elements, compounds are made of atoms, but are different kinds
>EX: Sugar
=>All Substances Have Characteristic Properties
-Extensive Properties
>Depends on the amount of matter
>Also depends on the amount of Volume, Mass, and the Amount of Energy
>EX: Water will freeze slower if there is more of it.
-Intensive Properties
>Do not depend on the amount of matter
>Do not depend on the amount of Volume, Mass, and the Amount of Energy
>EX: Water will always begin to freeze at 32 degrees, regardless the amount.
=>Physical Properties
-Changes that do not affect the substance's identity.
-EX: Changes of state
>Particles are bound by strong attractive forces, and so the solid keeps it's shape
>Particles are still bound, but not as much, so they flow around each other
>Particles are no longer bound together, and move freely colliding with each other
>Particles that have lost their electrons through extreme heat become this
=>Chemical Properties
-Chemicals can undergo changes that cause them to turn into other substances
>This is called either a chemical change or reaction
>EX: Sunlight + 6CO2 + 6H20 --> C6H12O6 (glucose)+ 6O2
>In that example, the 6 carbon dioxide and water molecules are the reactants
>In that example, the molecule of glucose, and the 6 water molecules are the products
-IMPORTANT: In order for a chemical reaction to occur, energy has to start the process in some way
=>Mixtures and Pure Substances
-Matter can exist as a mixture or a pure substance
>In a mixture, the chemicals can be separated out
-Heterogenous mixtures
>the two parts are either too saturated or the materials differ in density too much
>EX: Salt accumulating at the bottom of a glass of salt water
>EX: clay sinking to the bottom of a glass of water
-Homogenous mixtures
>Have the same proportions of components throughout
>EX: Ocean salt water
>AKA a solution
-Pure substance
>Always homogenous
>Always exactly the same characteristic properties throughout
>Every sample always has the exact composition
>EX: Water is always 11.2% hydrogen, and 88.5% oxygen