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Important Definitions of Linear Algebra...used for a more theoretical course in linear algebra.

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Important Definitions

Linear combination: Let V be a vector space and S a nonempty subset of V. A vector is

called a linear combination of vectors of S if there exists a finite number of vectors

1

,

2

, ,

and scalars

1

,

2

, ,

such that

=

1

1

+

2

2

++

.

Span: Let S be a nonempty subset of vector space V. The span of S, denoted span(S), is the set

consisting of all linear combinations of the vectors in S. For convenience, we define span()=

{0}.

Linear Transformation: Let and be vector spaces over F. We call a function : a

linear transformation from V to W if , , we have (closure under linear

combination)

1. ( +) = () + ()

2. () = ()

We will often state that T is linear if the above conditions are satisfied.

Null space (kernel) and Nullity: Let V and W be vector spaces, and let : be linear. We

define the null space (or kernel ) N(T) to be the set of all vectors x in V s.t. T(x) = 0; that is,

() = { () = 0}

Nullity is dim(N(T)).

Image (Range) and Rank: We define the image R(T) of T to be the subset of W consisting of

all images (under the linear transformation T) of vectors in V; that is, () = { (): }. x

is also a basis vector of V.

The Rank is dim(R(T)).

Onto: If : is a function with range of B, that is, () = then f is called onto. So f is

onto if and only if the range of f equals the codomain of f.

One to One: : is one to one if () = () implies = or equivalently, if

implies () ()

2

Subspace: Let V be a vector space and W a subset of V. Then W is a subspace of V iff. the

following three conditions hold for the operations defined in V.

1. 0

2. + whenever and

3. whenever and

Linearly Independent /Linearly Depended: A subset S of a vector space V is called linearly

dependent if there exists a finite number of distinct vectors

1

,

2

, ,

and scalars

1

,

2

, ,

1

+

2

2

++

= 0

in this case we also say that the vectors of S are linearly dependent- if not then the Subset of

Vectors is linearly independent.

Basis: A basis for a vector space V is a linearly independent subset of V that generates (spans)

V. If is a basis for V, we also say that the vectors of form a basis for V.

Dimension: A vector space is called finite-dimensional if it has a basis consisting of a finite

number of vectors. The unique number of vectors in each basis for V is called the dimension of

V and is denoted by dim(V). A vector space that is not finite-dimensional is called infinite-

dimensional.

Coordinates: If = {

1

,

2

, . . . ,

of with respect to is the vector

given by

[]

= (

) =

=1

Determinant: If

= (

)

is a 2x2 matrix with entries from a field F, then we define the determinant of , denoted det(A) or

|A| to be the scalar ad-bc. Thus the determinant is a transformation : () .

Useful Properties of Determinants:

det(AB) = det(A)det(B)

Adding a multiple of a row to another row of the matrix does not change the determinant.

If A is an nxn matrix, it is invertible if and only if det(A) is NOT = 0.

The determinant of an upper triangular matrix is the product of its diagonal.

3

If a row is the sum of two rows, then the resulting determinant of the matrix that includes

the sum is the determinant of one part of the sum with the rest of the matrix untouched

and the determinant of the other part of the sum with the rest of the matrix untouched.

Eigenvector and Eigenvalue:

Let T be a linear operator on a vector space V. A nonzero vector is called an

eigenvector of T if there exists a scalar s.t. () = v. The scalar is called the eigenvalue

corresponding to the eigenvector v.

Let A be in Mmxn (F). A nonzero vector

is called an eigenvector of A if v is an

eigenvector of LA; that is if = v for some scalar . The scalar is also called the eigenvalue

of A corresponding to the eigenvector v.

Isomorphism: Let V and W be vector spaces. We say that V s isomorphic to W if there exists a

linear transformation : that is invertible. Such a linear transformation is called an

isomorphism from V onto W. Isomorphisms are one to one and onto (bijective).

Transpose: If

():

()

()

Thus the transform takes all entries Aij and makes the entries Aji for all entries.

Trace:

() =

= 1,2, ,

Thus ()

()

Rank Nullity Theorem: If : is linear and dim(V)< then the following equality

holds:

() +() = dim()

Inverse: Let : be linear and : U is an inverse of T if U(T) = IW and T(U) = IV

If these conditions are satisfied, then the we say that T is invertible.

Algebraic Multiplicity: If is a eigenvalue of : the algebraic multiplicity of is the

largest positive integer M s.t. ( )

4

Geometric Multiplicity: The geometric multiplicity of an eigenvalue is the dimension of its

Eigenspace.

Invariant Subspace: If is a vector space and : is a linear operator, then a subspace

is an invariant subspace if the following hold:

()

That is for each ()

T-Invariant Cyclic Subspace: Fix a vector in and let the t-cyclic subspace be generated

by this vector. The subspace is

= { , ( ),

2

( ), }

clearly { , ( ),

2

( ), } is a basis for . (If you restricted W to a finite dimension, say k,

then the T-Cyclic Subspace generated by v, would have a basis v and k-1 transforms of v).

Invariant Subspace Characteristic Polynomial: If is a T-invariant Subspace and is

finite dimensional then the characteristic polynomial of TW (the transformation restricted to the

subspace) divides the characteristic polynomial of :

De Moivres Formula:

( +)

= cos() + ()

Theorem 7.5.3: If

22

() with eigenvalues = and eigenvectors { + } and

{ } where

2

then

= (

)

and also

1

= (

)

And by de Moivres formula

1

= (

cos () sin ()

sin () cos ()

)

Theorem 5.22: Let : be a linear transformation and be finite dimensional. Let

and = { , ( ),

2

( ), } and Let dim()

5

1. { , ( ),

2

( ), ,

1

( )} is a basis for .

2. If

0

+

1

() + +

1

1

() +

() = 0

Then () = det(

) = (1)

(

0

+

1

+ +

1

1

+

)

Cayley- Hamilton Theorem: Let : be a linear transformation and the dimension of

to be finite, and let () = ( ) be the characteristic polynomial of T then () =

0

(Zero Transformation) that is that the Transformation satisfies its own characteristic

polynomial.

Change of Coordinate Basis: If

= {

1

,

2

, . . . ,

= {

1

,

2

, . . . ,

}

Then the change of coordinate basis is the matrix that corresponds to the identity transform

relative to the basis above. The coordinate transform in this way changes

coordinates into

coordinates. Below is the formulaic method as well as the diagram method.

Let V be a vectors space generated by either of the bases above.

= [

= (

| |

[

1

]

[

]

| |

)

Where

[

1

]

= (

)

ie

1

=

1

1

+

2

2

++

or rather for

the ith vector in .

=1

6

General Transforms: Let

= {

1

,

2

, . . . ,

= {

1

,

2

, . . . ,

}

A transform : may be represented as two different matrices doing the same

transformation relative to the different bases above.

[]

[]

= [()]

[]

= (

| |

[(

1

)]

[(

)]

| |

)

Where

[(

1

)]

= (

)

ie

(

1

) =

1

1

+

2

2

++

Diagram Method Below:

7

Direct Sum: If

1

and

2

are both subspaces then the direct sum is the normal sum and the

condition that the intersect is zero.

1

2

=

on the condition that

1

+

2

= = {

1

,

2

}

and that

1

2

= {0

}

Direct Sum of Matrices: It is convenient to write the sum of matrices. THE MATRICES MUST

BE SQUARE, and if the matrices are in question

1

,

2

, ,

1

2

= [

0

2

0 0

0 0

0

]

Inner Product: Let V be a vector space over F. An inner prodect on V is a function that assigns,

to every ordered pair of vectors x and y in V, a scalar in F, denoted , , such that for all x, y,

and z in V and for all a in F the following hold.

1. +, = , + ,

2. , = ,

3. ,

4. , > 0 0

Conjugate Transpose: Let

22

() we define the conjugate transpose or adjoint of A to

be the nxm matrix

such that (

Theorem 6.1: Let V be an inner product space ( a space where an inner product is assigned).

Then for , , , and the following statements are true. (follow from definition of

inner product)

1. , + = , + ,

2. , = ,

3. , 0 = 0 , = 0

4. , = 0 if and only if = 0

5. If , = , for all then =

8

Norm or Length: Let V be an inner product space. For , we define the norm or length of

by

= ,

Theorem 6.2: Let V be an inner product space over F. Then for all , , and the

following statements are true.

1. = ||

2. = 0 if and only if = 0 in any case > 0

3. (Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality) |, |

4. (Triangle Inequality) + +

Perpendicular or Orthogonal: If V is an inner product space with vectors , , then

vectors , are orthogonal if , = 0. A Subset S of V is orthogonal if any two distinct

vectors in S are orthogonal. A vector in V is said to be a unit vector if = 1. Finally a

subset S of V is orthonormal if S is orthogonal and consists entirely of unit vectors.

Orthonormal Basis: Let V be an inner product space. A subset of V is an orthonormal basis for

V if it is an ordered basis that is orthonormal.

Theorem 6.4 (The Gram Schmidt Process): Let V be an inner product space and =

{

1

,

2

, ,

} be a linearly independent subset of V. Define

= {

1

,

2

, ,

} where

1

=

1

and

1

=1

2

Then S is an orthogonal set of nonzero vectors such that span(S) = span(S)

Theorem 6.6: Let W be a finite dimensional subspace of an inner product space V, and let

. Then there exists a unique vector and

{

1

,

2

, ,

} is an orthonormal basis for W, then

=

=1

1

9

The vector u is the unique vector in W, that is closest to y. we call u the orthogonal projection of

y. The picture below shows what each vector looks like

Fourier Coefficients: Let be an orthonormal subset (possibly infinite) of an inner product

space V, and let . We define the Fourier Coefficients of relative to to be the scalars

, where .

Orthogonal Compliment: Let S be a nonempty subset of an inner product space V. We define

(read as S- perp) to be the set of all vectors in V that are orthogonal to every vector in S; that

is

= { , = 0 S}

Theorem 6.7: Suppose that = {

1

,

2

, ,

} is an orthonormal set in a k-dimensional inner

product space V. Then the following are true:

1. S can be extended to an orthonormal basis = {

1

,

2

, ,

,

+1

, ,

} for V.

2. If = (), then

1

= {

+1

,

+2

, ,

} is an orthonormal basis for

3. If W is any subspace of V, then dim() = dim() +dim (

)

Theorem 6.8: Let V be a finite dimensional vector space over F, and let : be a linear

transformation. Then there exists a unique vector such that () = , for all

We may also calculate by the following:

If

= {

1

,

2

, . . . ,

}

a orthonormal basis for V then

= (

=1

10

Theorem 6.9: Let V be a finite dimension inner product space, and let T be a linear operator on

V. Then there exists a unique function

() for all , ,

. Furthermore

is linear.

Theorem 6.10: Let V be a finite dimensional inner product space with an orthonormal basis B. If

T is a linear operator on V. Then

[

= []

Theorem 6.11: Let V be an inner product space, and let T and U be linear operators on V. Then

the following are true:

1. ( +)

2. ()

3. ()

4.

=

5.

=

The same properties hold for nxn matrices, as they represent linear transformations.

Theorem 6.12: Let

() and

. Then

0

s.t. (

)

0

=

and

. Furthermore if () = thern

0

= (

)

1

The Process of Least Squares:

For an abstract space: use theorem 6.6 to find the closest/ orthogonal projection onto the

subspace of interest.

For Theorem 6.12: In the x-y plane with m observations

Let

0

= (

) = (

1

1

1

) = (

)

Theorem 6.13: Let

() and

following statements are true.

a) There exits exactly one minimal solution, , of =

, and (

)

b) The vector is the only solution to = that lies in (

); that is if satisfies

(

) =

, then =

11

Lemma: Let T be a linear operator on a finite dimensional inner product space V. If T has an

eigenvector, then so does T*.

Theorem 6.14 (Schur): Let T be a linear operator on a finite dimensional inner product space V.

Suppose that the characteristic polynomial of T splits. Then there exists an orthonormal basis

for V such that the matrix [T] is upper triangular.

Normal: Let V be an inner product space, and let T be a linear operator on V. We say that T is

normal if

.

Theorem 6.15: Let V be an inner product space, and let T be a normal operator on V. Then the

following statements are true.

a) () =

() for all .

b) T cI is normal for all c in the scalar field.

c) If is an eigenvector of T, then is also an eigenvector of T*. In fact, if ( ) = ,

then

( ) =

d) If

1

and

2

are distinct eigenvalues of T with corresponding eigenvectors

1

and

2

then

the eigenvectors are orthogonal.

Theorem 6.16: Let T be a linear operator on a finite dimensional complex inner product space

V. Then T is normal if and only if there exists an orthonormal basis for V consisting of

eigenvectors of T.

Self-Adjoint: Let T be a linear operator on an inner product space V. We say that T is self-

adjoint if =

.

Lemma: Let T be a self-adjoint operator on a finite dimensional inner product space V. Then

a) Every eigenvalue of T is real.

b) Suppose that V is a REAL inner product space. Then the characteristic polynomial of T

splits.(Complex inner product always splits because of the fundamental theorem of

algebra).

Theorem 6.17: Let T be a linear operator on a finite-dimensional real inner product space V.

Then T is self-adjoint if and only if there exists an orthonormal basis for V consisting of

eigenvectors of T.

12

Thus self adjoint implies there exists an orthonormal basis of eigenvectors

Thus an orthonormal basis of eigenvector of T insures both that T is self adjoint and normal ( as

being self adjoint is sufficient for being normal)

Positive Definite/ Positive Semidefinite: A linear operator T on a finite dimensional inner

product space is called positive definite/positive semidefinite if T is self-adjoint and

(), > 0 0 0

An nxn matrix A with entries from R or C (real or complex field) is called positive

definite/positive semidefinite if LA (the matrix representing the linear transformation) is positive

definite/positive semidefinite.

Problem 17 Consequence of P.D.: T is positive definite if and only if ALL the eigenvalues of T

are positive and T is self adjoint. This also means that all the eigenvalues are positive real.

Unitary/Orthogonal Operator: Let T be a linear operator on a finite dimensional inner product

space V (over F). If () = () for all . We call T a unitary operator if F = C (field

of complex numbers) and an orthogonal operator if F = R.

Theorem 6.18 Let T be a linear operator on a finite dimensional inner product space V. Then the

following statements are equivalent.

a)

=

b) (), () = , , ,

c) If is an orthonormal basis for V, then T() is an orthonormal basis for V.

d) There exits an orthonormal basis for V such that T() is an orthonormal basis for V.

e) () = ()

A-E all imply each otherso it is sufficient to show only one property above to prove that T is

in fact a unitary or orthogonal operator.

Lemma: Let U be a self-adjoint operator on a finite-dimensional inner product space V. If

(), = 0 for all then =

0

(The zero transformation).

13

Corollary 1: Let T be a linear operator on a finite- dimensional real inner product space V. Then

V has an orthonormal basis of eigenvectors of T with corresponding eigenvalues of absolute

value 1 if and only if T is both self-adjoint and orthogonal.

Corollary 2: Let T be a linear operator on a finite dimensional complex inner product space V.

Then V has an orthonormal basis of eigenvectors of T with corresponding eigenvalues of

absolute value 1 if and only if T is unitary.

Reflection: Let L be a one-dimensional subspace of

2

. We may view L as a line in the plane

through the origin. A linear operator T on

2

is called a reflection of

2

about L if T(x) = -x for

all

Unitary/Orthogonal Matrix: A square matrix A is called an orthogonal matrix if

= and unitary if

=

Theorem 6.19: Let A be a complex nxn matrix. Then A is normal if and only if A is unitarily

equivalent to a diagonal matrix. To be unitarily equivalent we mean:

=

For example if Q were a matrix whose columns are orthonormal eigenvectors of R, ( Q is

unitarily equivalent) then A would be unitarily equivalent to D and so A would be normal. (

think about the rotation matrix, it is not over R but it works)

Theorem 6.20: Let A be a real nxn matrix. Then A is symmetric if and only if A is orthogonally

equivalent to a real diagonal matrix.

Theorem 6.21(Schur): Let

over F.

a) If F = C, then A is unitarily equivalent to a complex upper triangular matrix.

b) If F = R, then A is orthogonally equivalent to a real upper triangular matrix.

14

Rigid Motion: Let V be a real inner product space. A function : is called a rigid motion

if

() () =

Basically the length is persevered for all vectors under the linear transformation. This includes

translations and rotations, all orthogonal operators.

Theorem 6.22: Let : be a rigid motion on a finite dimensional real inner product space

V. Then there exists a unique orthogonal operator T on V and a unique translation g on V such

that

=

Theorem 6.23: Let T be an orthogonal operator on

2

, and let = []

ordered basis for

2

. Then exactly ONE of the following conditions is satisfied.

a) T is a rotation and det(A) = 1.

b) T is a reflection about a line through the origin, and det(A) = -1.

Corollary: Any rigid motion in

2

is either a rotation followed by a translation or a reflection

about a line through the origin followed by a translation.

Conic Sections: We are interested in quadratics of the form:

2

+2 +

2

We may rewrite this in the following matrix notation when we are interested in figuring out what

the quadratic form represents in R

2

.

=

2

+2 +

2

Where

= (

) = (

) = (

)

15

We may rewrite the system as a change of coordinates with respect to the eigenvalues and

eigenvectors of the matrix A. Because the matrix A is symmetric we can diagonalize it with

orthonormal eigenvectors. The diagonal matrix is

= (

1

0

0

2

)

And the form of the quadratic becomes

=

1

(

)

2

+

2

(

)

2

Orthogonal Projection: Let V be an inner product space and let : be a projection. We

say that T is an orthogonal projection if the following two conditions hold.

()

= ()

()

= ()

Theorem 6.24: Let V be an inner product space, and let T be a linear operator on V. Then T is

an orthogonal projection if and only if T has an adjoint T* and T

2

= T = T*.

Theorem 6.25 (The Spectral Theorem): Suppose that T is a linear operator on a finite

dimensional inner product space V over F with the distinct eigenvalues:

1

,

2

, ,

. Assume

that T is normal if F = C and that T is self-adjoint if T = R. For each ( 1 ), let

be

the eigenspace of T corresponding to the eigenvalue

and let

V onto

a) =

1

2

b) If

for , then

c)

for 1 ,

d) =

1

+

2

+ +

e) =

1

1

+

2

2

+ +

Corollary 1: If F = C, then T is normal if and only if T*=g(T) for some polynomial g.

Corollary 2: If F = C then T is unitary if and only if T is normal and |

| = 1 for every

eigenvalue of T.

16

Corollary 3: If F = C and T is normal, then T is self adjoint if and only if every eigenvalue of T

is real.

Corollary 4: Let T be as in the spectral theorem with spectral decomposition =

1

1

+

2

2

+ +

. Then each

is a polynomial in T.

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