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Proximately Analysis of Banana - Embul (Mysore, AAB)

Variety in Sri Lanka


Food Analysis & Food Structures 361 1.0
3
rd
Year 1
st
Semester




CHARINDU MAKAWITA
AS 2008708
AS 60409
(2007/2008)
BSc. (Spec)





Department of Food Science & Technology
University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Proximately Analysis of Banana - Embul

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Contents
1. Abstract ................................................................................................................................................. 3
2. Background ............................................................................................................................................ 3
History ...................................................................................................................................................... 3
3. Scientific Classification .......................................................................................................................... 3
Banana Varieties in Sri Lanka: .................................................................................................................. 4
Medicinal Values / Uses: .......................................................................................................................... 4
Major Growing Areas: .............................................................................................................................. 4
Nature of cultivation: ............................................................................................................................... 4
4. Methodology ......................................................................................................................................... 5
Proximate Analysis of Banana Embul (Mysore, AAB) variety of Sri Lanka ............................................... 5
Sample and Sample Collection ................................................................................................................. 5
Determination of Moisture ...................................................................................................................... 5
Determination of Total Ash ...................................................................................................................... 6
Determination of Free Fat ........................................................................................................................ 8
Determination of Total Fat ....................................................................................................................... 9
Determination of Crude Protein............................................................................................................. 10
Determination of Crude Fiber ................................................................................................................ 12
5. Conclusion: .......................................................................................................................................... 14
6. Discussion: ........................................................................................................................................... 14
7. References: .......................................................................................................................................... 17

Proximately Analysis of Banana - Embul

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1. Abstract
This research is design to get an overall idea about the nutritional value of banana Embul (Mysore,
AAB) variety of Sri Lanka. Gross compositions of Moisture Content, Total Ash, Free Fat, Total fat,
Crude Protein & Crude Fiber are being proximately analyzed by this analysis.
This study revealed that Moisture Content, Total Ash, Free Fat, Total fat, Crude Protein & Crude
Fiber of the banana Embul (Mysore, AAB) variety in Sri Lanka are 72.85, 0.883, 0.199, 0.5, 0.073,
2.7 in dry basis respectively.
2. Background
Banana (Musa spp.) is the most widely cultivated and consumed fruit in Sri Lanka. It is also an
attractive perennial fruit crop for farmers due to its high economic gains throughout the year.
Currently, nearly 60,000 ha (20000ha and 40000 ha in wet zone and dry + intermediate zones
respectively) of land is under banana cultivation in Sri Lanka. Annual banana production is around
780,000 metric tons and average yield is 13 Mt/ha. From the total production there are about 35-
45 % under post harvest losses and export amount is 5 %. When consider the production it is the 4th
important crop in the world as well as 2nd important fruit crop in the world.
History
Origin of banana was Southwest Asia. Musa accuminata and Musa balbesiana were the ordinary
wild species and modern varieties were formed with mixing that two species. Those are 2n, 3n, 4n.

3. Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Seitamineae
Family: Musaceae
Genus: Musa
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Species: M. paradisiaca
Wild varieties Musa coccinea
fiber varieties Musa textiles
fruit varieties Musa sapientum
plantain varieties Musa paradisiana

Banana Varieties in Sri Lanka:
(Reference: Department of Agriculture Sri Lanka)
There were 24 varieties, but in current situation only a few varieties can be found.
Ambun Rath Kehel
Ambul Nethrappalam
Kolikuttu Bing Kehel
Suwandel Puwalu
Anamalu Alu Keselare
Seeni are the types available in Sri Lanka.
Embul, Kolikuttu, Anamalu, Seen kesel ,Rathambala, Embon are the recommended varieties
by the Sri Lankan Agriculture Department.
Medicinal Values / Uses:
Ripe Fruit : Good source of energy; readily digestible fruit useful for feeding children
suffering from diarrhea Useful for treatment z of gastro intestinal disorders,
constipation, arthritis, anemia and allergies.
Unripe fruit: Useful for urinary tract disorders, obesity, and disorders of menstruation.
Major Growing Areas:
All islands except very high cultivations
Nature of cultivation:
Large, medium, small scale orchards and home gardens.
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Some of the value added products of the banana are salad, chips and flours.
In economic and marketing aspect banana is available in year around.

4. Methodology
Proximate Analysis of Banana Embul (Mysore, AAB) variety of Sri Lanka
Sample and Sample Collection
Random sampling method was used to collect sample for the analysis.
Embul banana sample was collected from different areas and homogenized sample was made using
those samples.

Determination of Moisture
Principle: Sample will be kept at 105
0
C in as oven and the weight loss will be the moisture present
in the sample.
Materials:
Moisture dishes
Oven maintained at 105
o
C
Weighing Balance
Banana sample

Method:
A Banana fruit was taken and the peel and seeds were removed. Then it was cut into small cubes
and the cubes were mixed well in order to select a homogenized sample. To the nearest milligram,
about 5g of the Banana cubes were weighed into a moisture dish which was cleaned, dried and
weighed previously. The uncovered dish with the lid along the side was dried at 105
o
C for 3 hours.
After that, the dish was covered and transferred to the desiccator and the weight was measured
quickly as soon as the dish is cool. The heating and weighing was repeated until successive weights
do not differ by more than one milligram. The same procedure was repeated twice.


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Data:
Number
of the
dish(g)
Weight
of the
moistur
e dish
(g)
Weight of
the (dish +
sample) (g)
Final
weight of
the (dish
+sample)
(g)
Weight
of the
wet
sample
(g)
Weight of
the dry
Sample
(g)
1 20.90 25.87 22.24 4.97 3.63
2 22.23 27.23 23.58 5.00 3.65
3 45.45 50.52 46.85 5.07 3.67
Mean Weight 5.01 3.65
Calculation:
Percentage of Moisture =
=
m
1 =
Weight of the empty dish
m
2
= Weight of dish & sample before drying
m
3
= Weight of dish & sample after drying

Percentage of Moisture =
= 72.85 %
Determination of Total Ash
Principle: Sample will be incinerated a 550
0
C or two hours and the weight remaining residue will
be the total ash present in the sample.
Materials:
Muffle furnace
Crucibles
Weighing balance
Desiccator
Tongs
Method:
A Banana fruit was taken and the peel and seeds were removed. Then it was cut into small cubes
and the cubes were mixed well in order to select a homogenized sample. A clean dry pre weighed
Weight lost *100%
Weight of sample
m
2
- m
3
*100%
m
2
- m
1

3.65 *100%
5.01
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crucible was taken and accurately 5g the Banana sample was weighed into it. Then it was ignited
slowly over a flame until no more fumes were evolved. Then the crucible was transferred to muffle
furnace set at 550
0
C and it was incinerated until it is free of black carbon particles and it is white in
color. After that the dish was removed carefully and allowed to cool in a desiccator. The weight of
the dish was measured. This process of ashing, cooling and weighing was repeated till no further
loss in weight was indicated. The same procedure was repeated twice.
Data:
No. of
the
crucible
Weight of the
empty crucible
(g)
Weight of
the(crucible
+sample)
(g)
Final weight
of the
(crucible +
ash) (g)
Weight of
the wet
sample
(g)
Weight of
the ash
sample (g)
1 47.53 52.54 47.57 5.01 0.040
2 46.89 52.04 46.94 5.18 0.050
Mean weight 5.095 0.045
Calculation:
Ash percentage =

=
m
0
= Weight of empty crucible
m
1
= Weight of empty crucible & sample before ashing
m
2
= Weight of empty crucible & ash

Ash percentage =
= 0.883%
% of nutrient on wet basis =

% of Ash on wet basis =
= 0.239 %
Weight of Ash *100%
Weight of sample
(m
2 -
m
o
)

*100%
(m
1 -
m
o
)
0.045 *100%
5.095
0.883 *(100 - 72.85)
100
Percentage on dry basis x (100 - % of moisture)
100
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Determination of Free Fat
Materials:
Soxhlet extraction apparatus
Round bottom flask
Condenser
Filter papers to make thimbles
Mortar and pestle
Hot water bath
Heating mantle
Weighing scale
Dying oven
Cotton wool
Pumice chips
Anhydrous Sodium Sulphate
Petroleum ether

Method:
Banana sample was taken and about 10g of the sample was added to the mortar and ground with
twice the weight of anhydrous Sodium Sulphate. An extraction thimble was prepared using a filter
paper and all powdered material in the mortar were added to that thimble and covered with cotton
wool. The extraction thimble which containing the sample was placed in the soxhlet apparatus. A
clean and dry round bottom flask was taken and some pumice chips were added to it. Then the
weight of the flask, with the pumice chips was measured. Then 200ml of petroleum ether was added
to the flask. Then the flask was connected to the soxhlet extractor and the condenser was fixed.
While maintaining a low heating rate, it was refluxed for 5 hours. Once the refluxing is over, the
solvent was distilled off and the flask (with the contents) was placed in an oven at 105
o
C for 20
minute. Then it was cooled for 30 minutes and after cooling the weight was measured. The flask
and the contents were dried until a constant weight was observed and the weight was recorded.
Data:
Weight of the flask with and chips = 275.47 g
Weight of sample (dried) = 10.01g
Weight of the flask with fat and chips = 275.49 g


Calculation:
Crude fat percentage =
X - F *100%
W
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X - Weight of the flask with fat and chips
F - Weight of the flask and chips
W - Weight of sample
Free fat percentage =
= 0.199 %

Free fat percentage (wet basis) =
= 0.054%
Determination of Total Fat
Principle: Total lipid extract will be obtained by digesting with the hot hydrochloric acid.
Hydrochloric fat component will be extracted in to ethyl and pet ether and then the organic layer
will be evaporated. The weight of the remaining residue will be the weight of the total fat.
Materials:
Beakers
Mojonnier flasks
Weighing Scale
Hot water bath

Chemicals:
Conc. HCl
Petroleum ether
Diethyl ether
95 % Ethyl alcohol

Method:
Banana sample was taken and 2g of the sample was added to a 100ml beaker. A HCl solution was
prepared by mixing 25ml of Conc. HCl and 11ml of distilled water. Then 10ml of that solution and
2ml of 95% ethyl alcohol were added to the beaker which containing the Banana sample. The
contents were mixed thoroughly and the beaker was placed on a water bath (70-80
o
C) and the
contents were stirred for about 30-40 minutes frequently. After that the beaker was removed from
the water bath and it was cooled until it obtains the room temperature. Then 10ml of ethanol was
added to it and the mixture was transferred in to the Mojonnier flask. The beaker was washed with
25ml of Diethyl ether in three portions and that solution was also added to the flask. The stopper
275.49 - 275.47 *100%
10.01
0.199 *(100 - 72.85)
100
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was fixed to the flask and it was shaken for 1 minute. Then 25ml of pet ether was added to the flask
and it was shaken again for 1 minute. The flask was allowed to stand until the upper ether layer is
clear. The upper ether layer was transferred to a clean, dried and previously weighed beaker. Then
the beaker was dried in a water bath at 80
o
C until a constant weight was obtained.
Data:
Weight of the
sample(g)
Weight of the clean
dry beaker(g)
Final weight of
the complex(g)
2.00 113.25 113.26
Calculation:
% Total fat =

% Total fat of sample =
= 0.5 %

% of Total fat on wet basis =
= 0.135%

Determination of Crude Protein
Principle: Total nitrogen content will be analyzed and protein content will be determined using the
nitrogen.
Materials:
Kjeldhal digestion kit
Titration flasks
Weighing balance
Burette
Chemicals:
4% Boric acid solution
Sodium sulphate solution
Distilled water
0.02M Standard HCl solution
Weight of Fat *100%
Weight of sample
113.26 - 113.25 *100%
2.00
0.5 *(100 - 72.85)
100
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Kjeldhal catalyst tablets
Indicators


Method:
Banana sample was taken and 0.1g of the sample was measured to a tissue paper (1 inch x 1 inch)
and it was transferred to the Kjeldhal digestion flask. One Kjeldhal tablet and 2 ml of Conc. H
2
SO
4

were also added to the flask. Then the flask was connected to the fume trap and it was attached to
the pump. The sample was digested until a clear solution without blank particles is obtained. A
blank digestion was carried out too. A small titration flask was taken and 5ml of 4% boric acid
solution and 3 drops of Kjeldhal indicator were added to it. This indicator was prepared by mixing
two parts of 2% alcoholic methyl red solution with one part of 0.2% alcoholic methylene blue
solution. Then, the digested sample was dissolved with a minimum amount of Ammonia free
distilled water and transferred to a semi micro Kjeldhal apparatus, which has been previously
conditioned by passing steam through it for several minutes slowly. After that, 8 ml of NaOH
solution prepared by dissolving 50g of NaOH pellets and 8g of sodium thiosulphate in 100ml of
distilled water was added to the flask. Then the titration flask which containing 4% boric acid and
the Kjeldhal indicator were kept at the end of the digestion apparatus to trap the ammonia liberated.
Steam was passed through the flask until about 15ml of distillate is received. The solution which
was collected in the titration flask was titrated with a 0.02M Standard HCl solution. A blank
distillation was carried out too.
Data:
Sample No. Weight of the
sample(g)
Volume of 0.02M HCl added (cm3)
1 0.320 0.20
2 0.315 0.15
3 0.318 0.05
Mean of 1,2,3 sample 0.318 0.133
Blank Titration 0.00 0.00
During trapping of NH3 in boric acid, color change was pink to green in color.
During titration color change was (at the end point) green color to pink color.
Calculation:
Nitrogen % =

% Protein = Nitrogen % * 6.25
(Sample titre.. - Blank titre..) * Molarity of HCl x 14 x 100%
1000 * Weight of the sample

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% Nitrogen of the sample =
= 0.0117 %
% Protein on dry basis = 0.0117* 6.25 %
= .073 %

% of protein on wet basis =
= 0.02%
Determination of Crude Fiber
Principle: Crude fiber will be the loss of dried residue remaining after the digestion of the sample
with 1.25 % (w/v) H2SO4 and 1.25 % (w/v) NaOH solution under specific condition.
Materials:
1 liter conical flask
Air condenser
Beakers
Desiccator
Weighing balance
Litmus paper

Chemicals:
Dil, Sulphuric acid
Dil. Sodium hydroxide
Alcohol
Diethyl ether

Method:
Banana sample was taken and 3g of the sample was added to a 1 liter conical flask. Then 200ml of
boiling 1.25% Sulphuric acid was added to the flask and the air condenser was fixed to the flask.
Then the mixture was boiled for 30 minutes. While boiling the mixture, boiling water was added to
the flask whenever necessary to maintain the volume at a constant level. While boiling the flask
was swirled occasionally to remove solids from adhering to the sides of the flask. The hot solution
was decanted through a Buchner funnel fitted with a piece of silk cloth. The flask was rinsed with
boiling water and the entire residue was transferred to the Buchner funnel and filtered. The residue
(0.133 - 0) * 0.02 x 14 x 100 %
1000 * 0.318
.073 * (100 - 72.85)
100
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remaining on the funnel was rinsed with boiling water until it is free from acid. The acidity was
checked using blue litmus papers. Then using 200ml of near boiling 1.25% NaOH solution, the
residue was carefully transferred to 1 liter flask from the silk cloth. The mixture was brought to boil
as quickly as possible and the gentle ebullition was maintained for 30 minutes. Boiling water was
added whenever necessary to maintain the volume. The hot solution was decanted through a
Buchner funnel fitted with a previously weighted ash less filter paper. The entire residue was
transferred quantitatively from the flask to the Buchner funnel. Then it was washed with 1% HCl
until the filtrate was free from alkali, followed by distilled water, 15ml of alcohol and 10ml of
diethyl ether.
A crucible was taken and it was cleaned and dried well. The weight of the crucible was measured
and the ash less filter paper was transferred to the crucible with the residue. It was dried in an oven
at 105
o
C until a constant weight was observed. After drying, the weight was measured and then it
was transferred to the muffle furnace and was incinerated at 550
o
C. The weight was measured after
cooling the crucible using the desiccator.
Data:
Weight of the crucible & residue & Filter paper = 29.99g
Weight of the crucible & ash = 29.5288g
Weight of the filter paper = 0.3796g
Weight of the Sample = 3.02g

Calculation:
Percentage of fiber =

=

m
1
= Weight of the crucible & residue & Filter paper
m
2
= Weight of the crucible & ash
m
3
= Weight of the filter paper

% of fiber content of the sample =
= 2.70 %

% of fiber content on wet basis =
= 0.73%
Loss in weight on incineration *100%
Weight of sample
m
1
- (m
2
+ m
3
) *100%
Weight of sample
29.99 - (29.5288 + 0.3796) *100%
3.0200
2.70 * 100 - 72.85)
100
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5. Conclusion:
According to this study the nutrient content of the banana Embul (Mysore, AAB) variety in Sri
Lanka as bellow,

Nutrient content of edible potion
Nutrient % in Dry basis % in Wet basis
Moisture 72.85 72.85
Total Ash 0.883 0.239
Free Fat 0.199 0.054
Total Fat 0.5 0.135
Crude Protein 0.073 0.02
Crude Fibre 2.7 0.73
6. Discussion:
Banana has a great nutritional significance. The fruit is composed mainly of water as well as
carbohydrates which provides energy in the human body. The unripe fruit contains more starch and
less sugar as compared to the ripe fruits; its edible portion, which easily digestible, is about 7%.
Banana contains eleven vitamins; among them are vitamins A, B, and C. Although fat and protein
contents are very low, bananas are rich in some minerals, notably phosphorus which is essential for
bone development, and calcium. Calorific value is 1 calorie per gram.
According to the data of the Department of Agriculture in Sri Lanka, the nutritional content of the
Banana in Sri Lanka are as follow.
(Per edible portion)
Energy 116.0 cal
Moisture 74%
Protein 1.2%
Fat 0.3%
Carbohydrates 27.2%
Fibre 0.8%
Calcium 1.7 %
Phosphorus 3.6%
Iron 0.09%
Carotene 78.0ug
Thiamine 50.0ug
Riboflavin 80.0 ug
Vat. C 7.0 ug

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There are some small deviations in nutrition values that we find out from this analysis and the
nutritional value that have been given by the above source. According to the geographical area were
this banana has cultivated, the nutrients content can be varied. As well as the banana variety and the
maturity stage also affect to the nutrient content.
Random errors while the experiment can be affected to the final analyzed nutritional values of this
study.
Here, oven drying method is used to done this experiment. We cant remove bound water in the
sample. But it not creates considerable effect on the final value because this bound water amount is
very small compared to the free water content.
Before start the study it is better to prepare a one sample for all the analysis fat, protein, crude fiber
& ash respectively. To do this about 150 g of fresh mature Banana was taken & it was washed well.
Then this sample was cut in to very thin small pieces and this cut sample was spread on a tray & was
transferred in to a (105
0
C) oven for about 6-7 hours (until get well dried sample).
Then this sample was powdered & then it was sealed well by using polythene. The wanted sample
amounts for doing other experiments were taken from this prepared sample.
Here we done this, because we cant get same sample of Banana for all experiments & also we can't
do all experiments in same day.
When digesting the sample, some proteins can be remaining in indigestible levels. So it affect to the
final value. When transferring digested sample in to a semi micro Kjeldhal distillation apparatus
some portions could be remain in the digestion flask, because of the precipitation of salts in the
flask. This could be highly affected for the final result. The main problem was there were some
leakages in the Kjeldhal apparatus & also ammonia gas had been released out when doing this
experiment. When doing titration it should be done very accurately. Because color changes were
came here by adding 2, 3 drops like very small portions of 0.02 M HCl. So this step can also be
affected for giving incorrect results. If the chemicals that have been used in this experiment; were
contaminated, also it could be affected for the final result.
When scraping the residues on the whatman 52 filter paper some parts of the filter paper could be
added to the residues; & it could be affected to the final result, like giving higher value for the fiber
percentage.
The sample is affected if the oil content is over 1 %. So have to treat these types of samples with pet
ether to remove fat. Then should be boiled with diluted Sulfuric acid, then with diluted NaOH &
after should wash with alcohol & ether. Here hadnt been treated with pet ether. Because the Banana
does not contain over 1 % like fat content.
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In this experiment, ethanol was added to dissolve the chlorophyll; which were presented in the food
sample obtained. So have to remove that chlorophyll, before determination of fiber content.
Chlorophyll doesnt dissolve in water. Chlorophyll dissolves in ethanol solution.
When transferring the dried sample from muffle Furner to the desiccator little amount of ash content
can be lost. Because of this error result is giving a lower value for percentage of ash content in
Banana.
(Reference: About.com Nutrition Guide nutrition.about.com )
NUTRIENT UNITS %
PROXIMATES
Water g 87.627
Energy kcal 180.560
Energy kj 454.300
Protein g 1.215
Total Lipid (Fat) g 0.566
Carbohydrate g 27.647
Fiber, Total Dietary g 2.832
Ash g 0.944
MINERALS
Calcium, Ca mg 7.080
Iron, Fe mg 0.366
Magnesium, Mg mg 34.220
Phosphorus, P mg 23.600
Potassium, K mg 467.280
Sodium, Na mg 1.180
Zinc, Zn mg 0.189
Copper, Cu mg 0.123
Manganese, Mn mg 0.179
Selenium, Se mcg 1.298
VITAMINS
Vitamin C mg 10.738
Thiamin mg 0.053
Riboflavin mg 0.118
Niacin mg 0.637
Pantothenic Acid mg 0.307
Vitamin B-6 mg 0.682
Folate mcg 22.538
Vitamin B-12 mcg 0.000
Vitamin A, IU IU 95.580
Vitamin A, RE mcg_RE 9.440
Vitamin E mg_ATE 0.319
LIPIDS
Fatty Acids, Saturated g 0.218
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4:0 g 0.000
6:0 g 0.000
8:0 g 0.000
10:0 g 0.001
12:0 g 0.002
14:0 g 0.004
16:0 g 0.147
18:0 g 0.007
Fatty Acids g 0.048
16:1 g 0.014
18:1 g 0.032
20:1 g 0.000
22:1 g 0.000
Fatty Acids g 0.105
18:2 g 0.066
18:3 g 0.039
AMINO ACIDS
Tryptophan g 0.014
Threonine g 0.040
Isoleucine g 0.039
Leucine g 0.084
Lysine g 0.057
Methionine g 0.013
Cystine g 0.020
Phenylalanine g 0.045
Tyrosine g 0.028
Valine g 0.055
Arginine g 0.055
Histidine g 0.096
Alanine g 0.046

7. References:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/ae216e/ae216e09.htm#TopOfPage
http://www.agridept.gov.lk/more.php?morelink=Introduction%20&pagelink=Banana&heading=Fruits
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantain#Use_of_parts_other_than_the_fruit
http://www.botanical-online.com/platanosangles.htm