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Stainless Steels are iron-base alloys containing Chromium. Stainless steels usually contain
less than 30% Cr and more than 50% Fe. They attain their stainless characteristics because of
the formation of an invisible and adherent chromium-rich oxide surface film. This oxide
establishes on the surface and heals itself in the presence of oxygen. Some other alloying
elements added to enhance specific characteristics include nickel, molybdenum, copper,
titanium, aluminum, silicon, niobium, and nitrogen. Carbon is usually present in amounts
ranging from less than 0.03% to over 1.0% in certain martensitic grades. Corrosion
resistance and mechanical properties are commonly the principal factors in selecting a grade
of stainless steel for a given application.
Stainless steels are commonly divided into five groups:
Martensitic stainless steels
Ferritic stainless steels
Austenitic stainless steels
Duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels
Precipitation-hardening stainless steel
MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEELS are essentially alloys of chromium and carbon that
possess a martensitic crystal structure in the hardened condition. They are ferromagnetic,
hardenable by heat treatments, and are usually less resistant to corrosion than some other
grades of stainless steel. Chromium content usually does not exceed 18%, while carbon
content may exceed 1.0 %. The chromium and carbon contents are adjusted to ensure a
martensitic structure after hardening. Excess carbides may be present to enhance wear
resistance or as in the case of knife blades, to maintain cutting edges.
FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL are chromium containing alloys with Ferritic, body centered
cubic (bcc) crystal structures. Chromium content is typically less than 30%. The ferritic
stainless steels are ferromagnetic. They may have good ductility and formability, but high-
temperature mechanical properties are relatively inferior to the austenitic stainless steels.
Toughness is limited at low temperatures and in heavy sections.
AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL have a austenitic, face centered cubic (fcc) crystal
structure. Austenite is formed through the generous use of austenitizing elements such as
nickel, manganese, and nitrogen. Austenitic stainless steels are effectively nonmagnetic in
the annealed condition and can be hardened only by cold working. Some ferromagnetism
may be noticed due to cold working or welding. They typically have reasonable cryogenic
and high temperature strength properties. Chromium content typically is in the range of 16 to
26%; nickel content is commonly less than 35%.
DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL are a mixture of bcc ferrite and fcc austenite crystal
structures. The percentage each phase is a dependent on the composition and heat treatment.
Most Duplex stainless steels are intended to contain around equal amounts of ferrite and
austenite phases in the annealed condition. The primary alloying elements are chromium and
nickel. Duplex stainless steels generally have similar corrosion resistance to austenitic alloys
except they typically have better stress corrosion cracking resistance. Duplex stainless steels
also generally have greater tensile and yield strengths, but poorer toughness than austenitic
stainless steels.
Precipitation-hardening stainless steels may be either austenitic or martensitic in the annealed
condition. In most cases, precipitation hardening stainless steels attain high strength by
precipitation hardening of the martensitic structure.

Selecting a Stainless Steel
There are a large number of stainless steels produced. Corrosion resistance, physical
properties, and mechanical properties are generally among the properties considered when
selecting stainless steel for an application. A more detailed list of selection criteria is listed
Corrosion resistance
Resistance to oxidation and sulfidation
Cryogenic strength
Resistance to abrasion and erosion
Resistance to galling and seizing
Surface finish
Magnetic properties
Retention of cutting edge Ambient strength
Elevated temperature strength
Suitability for intended cleaning procedures
Stability of properties in service
Thermal conductivity
Electrical resistivity
Suitability for intended fabrication techniques

CONCERNED the whole thing is totally based on the 3 important issues
By stainless steels

The initial design life of nuclear power plants is normally 40 years. During this time
components close to the core, in particular reactor pressure vessel (RPV) internals,
accumulate a relatively high fast neutron fluence. Irradiation by neutrons changes the
properties of the materials; e.g. the ductility and fracture resistance of the material. As
cracking has recently been detected in large and difficult-to-replace RPV internal
components, e. g. core shrouds and top guides of BWRs, the need for representative data
on irradiated material properties have increased. A concern has also been raised that very
high neutron doses could cause void-swelling and associated void-induced embrittlement
in PWR internals, as has been observed previously in stainless steels after irradiation to
high fluences in fast breeder reactors.
The objectives are to generate materials property data for
irradiated austenitic stainless steels of LWR internals as a function of fluence that can then
be used for structural integrity and remaining lifetime assessments. The data will consist of
validated initiation fracture toughness, JIc, and fracture resistance curves (J-R), as well as
tensile properties and information on microstructural changes caused by neutron
irradiation. Irradiated austenitic stainless steels from both BWR and PWR RPV internals
will be considered.
The approach to achieve these objectives is to:
validate a procedure for fracture resistance determination using sub-size specimens,
i. e. measure the effect of specimen size and test type on fracture resistance using
unirradiated reference materials with mechanical properties similar to irradiated
stainless steels, and set criteria for specimen size and testing procedures in order to
provide relevant fracture resistance data
determine fracture resistance and tensile properties for irradiated austenitic stainless
steels of LWR internals as a function of fluence
determine microstructural and microchemical changes as a function of fluence (at
estimated fluence levels from 0 to 70 dpa) of a PWR thimble tube

Hence this was about nuclear power plant

Hydro power plants, which are a form of clean energy on par with nuclear power, have been
or are now being constructed in great numbers in India and the Asian countries.It shares
19% of total energy supplied to the country. High strength steel plates are used in penstocks
for hydro power generation, and in cases where the head is large, ultra-high strength steel
with 980N/mm2 grade tensile strength may be used. At the same time, high toughness is
also required in these plates, and high weldability is necessary because welding work is
performed under difficult environments. Stainless Steel supplies the intact character, which
possess high toughness and weldability, in a wide strength range including tensile strengths
from 570 to 980N/mm2, which pursues economy and safety in welding work, for
applications where weldability is particularly important. In dams and gates, stainless and
clad steel are used in outlet conduits. There are also numerous actual results of use of high
strength 780N/mm2 grade steel in the casing and rim plate around generators.
a hydro power plant
Protection against dirt and contamination is needed because of the nature of the
construction site . hence austenitic stainless steel are used as excavators to clean the river
When a DAM is formed.

Stainless steel material
Steam Turbine Blades
Coal, gas and nuclear powerplants produce electricity by heating water to create steam.
The steam is driven through turbine blades at very highpressure. The blades drive the
which generates electricity.
The typical operating temperature of the steam is around 600 C. The blades must be tough
and resistant to stress, cracking and corrosion. The super-martensitic stainless steels used
in these blades are perfect for use in this application.
Machined from bars or forged and
machined, depending on size
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Thermal power accounts for approximately half (57%)of Indias generated output, and steel
tubes using Cr-Mo based high temperature materials, including modified 9%Cr steel, are
frequently adopted in boiler-related applications. Depending on the fuel used, dew point
corrosion may occur in flues and stacks if sulfuric oxides change into sulfuric acid. In this
case, JFE Steel's sulfuric acid resistant steel and Ti clad, etc. show high corrosion resistance.
There is no such specifications for stainless steels in this area but things used made of
stainless steel are..
1)coal burnertips
2)coal burner nozzle
3)impeller water pumps
4)turbine blades
5)turbine diaphragm
Actually stainless steel prevents them from heat,erosion, abrasion, breakage etc.

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Stainless steel frames for solar-thermal panels
Whatever material is used to make the solar-thermal
panels, they need a resistant frame. Stainless steel
is again the preferred option. Stainless steel frames
withstand the robust conditions on a building site.
Although stainless steel has a higher density than
other metals, it also has much higher mechanical
strength. Therefore, the wall thickness of stainless
steel frames can often be reduced to a point where
they are of a similar weight to light metal options
(Figure 16).
Because of their unique mechanical properties,
stainless steel frames can be quite thin. This is useful
from an architectural point of view. The stainless
steel frames also resist high wind and snow loads an
advantage in parts of the world where the panels are
exposed to these elements.
Stainless steel is selected for use in solar panels primarily because of its superior corrosion
resistance. So-called light metals,
although they are often considered to be corrosion resistant, can in fact suffer corrosion.
However, as the corrosion
products are white, they are less visible. Stainless steel is corrosion-resistant through and
through. Even if the material is
damaged, its intrinsic self-healing capability ensures that the surface does not discolour or
corrode. This unique property
is called passivation.1 It is the reason why stainless steel does not need any coatings or other
forms of surface protection to
remain bright and shiny.

# Because of their high mechanical properties, stainless steel sections for frames can be
much thinner than their
conventional counterparts. The fabricated frame can be as light as other light metal