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SERVICE MANUAL

2000
JEEP
CHEROKEE
To order the speci al servi ce tool s used and
i l l ustrated, pl ease refer to the i nstructi ons on
i nsi de back cover.
NO PART OF THI S PUBLI CATI ON MAY BE
REPRODUCED, STORED I N A RETRI EVAL
SYSTEM, OR TRANSMI TTED, I N ANY FORM OR
BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONI C, MECHANI CAL,
PHOTOCOPYI NG, RECORDI NG, OR OTHERWI SE,
WI THOUT THE PRI OR WRI TTEN PERMI SSI ON
OF DAI MLERCHRYSLER CORPORATI ON.
DaimlerChrysler Corporation reserves the right to make changes in design or
to make additions to or improvements in its products without imposing any
obligations upon itself to install them on its products previously manufac-
tured.
FOREWORD
The i nformati on contai ned i n thi s servi ce manual has been prepared for the professi onal automoti ve tech-
ni ci an i nvol ved i n dai l y repai r operati ons. I nformati on descri bi ng the operati on and use of standard and
opti onal equi pment i s i ncl uded i n the Owners Manual provi ded wi th the vehi cl e.
I nformati on i n thi s manual i s di vi ded i nto groups. These groups contai n general i nformati on, di agnosi s,
testi ng, adjustments, removal , i nstal l ati on, di sassembl y, and assembl y procedures for the systems and compo-
nents. To assi st i n l ocati ng a group ti tl e page, use the Group Tab Locator on the fol l owi ng page. The sol i d bar
after the group ti tl e i s al i gned to a sol i d tab on the fi rst page of each group. The fi rst page of the group has
a contents secti on that l i sts major topi cs wi thi n the group. I f you are not sure whi ch Group contai ns the i nfor-
mati on you need, l ook up the Component/System i n the al phabeti cal i ndex l ocated i n the rear of thi s manual .
A Servi ce Manual Comment form i s i ncl uded at the rear of thi s manual . Use the form to provi de
Dai ml erChrysl er Corporati on wi th your comments and suggesti ons.
Ti ghteni ng torques are provi ded as a speci fi c val ue throughout thi s manual . Thi s val ue represents the
mi dpoi nt of the acceptabl e engi neeri ng torque range for a gi ven fastener appl i cati on. These torque val ues are
i ntended for use i n servi ce assembl y and i nstal l ati on procedures usi ng the correct OEM fasteners. When
repl aci ng fasteners, al ways use the same type (part number) fastener as removed.
Dai ml erChrysl er Corporati on reserves the ri ght to change testi ng procedures, speci fi cati ons, di agnosi s,
repai r methods, or vehi cl e wi ri ng at any ti me wi thout pri or noti ce or i ncurri ng obl i gati on.
GROUP TAB LOCATOR
Introduction
0
Lubrication and Maintenance
2
Suspension
3
Differential and Driveline
5
Brakes
6
Clutch
7
Cooling System
8A
Battery
8B
Starting System
8C
Charging System
8D
Ignition System
8E
Instrument Panel Systems
8F
Audio Systems
8G
Horn Systems
8H
Vehicle Speed Control System
8J
Turn Signal and Hazard Warning Systems
8K
Wiper and Washer Systems
8L
Lamps
8M
Passive Restraint Systems
8N
Electrically Heated Systems
8O
Power Distribution System
8P
Power Lock Systems
8Q
Vehicle Theft/Security Systems
8R
Power Seats Systems
8S
Power Window Systems
8T
Power Mirror Systems
8U
Chime/Buzzer Warning Systems
8V
Overhead Console Systems
8W
Wiring Diagrams
9
Engine
11
Exhaust System
13
Frame and Bumpers
14
Fuel System
19
Steering
21
Transmission and Transfer Case
22
Tires and Wheels
23
Body
24
Heating and Air Conditioning
25
Emission Control Systems
Component and System Index
Service Manual Comment Forms (Rear of Manual)
LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
LUBRICANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
JUMP STARTING, TOWING AND HOISTING . . . . . 9
LUBRICANTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
SERVICE PROCEDURES
PARTS AND LUBRICANT
RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
CLASSIFICATION OF LUBRICANTS. . . . . . . . . . . . 1
SPECIFICATIONS
FLUID CAPACITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
SERVICE PROCEDURES
PARTS AND LUBRICANT RECOMMENDATIONS
RECOMMENDATIONS
When servi ce i s requi red, Dai ml erChrysl er Corpo-
rati on recommends that onl y Mopar brand parts,
l ubri cants and chemi cal s be used. Mopar provi des
the best engi neered products for servi ci ng Dai ml er-
Chrysl er Corporati on vehi cl es.
INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLS
Dai ml erChrysl er Corporati on uses i nternati onal
symbol s to i denti fy engi ne compartment l ubri cant
and fl ui d i nspecti on and fi l l l ocati ons (Fi g. 1).
CLASSIFICATION OF LUBRICANTS
Onl y l ubri cants beari ng desi gnati ons defi ned by
the fol l owi ng organi zati on shoul d be used to servi ce a
Dai ml erChrysl er Corporati on vehi cl e.
Soci ety of Automoti ve Engi neers (SAE)
Ameri can Petrol eum I nsti tute (API ) (Fi g. 2)
Nati onal Lubri cati ng Grease I nsti tute (NLGI )
(Fi g. 3)
ENGINE OIL
SAE VISCOSITY RATING INDICATES ENGINE OIL VISCOSITY
An SAE vi scosi ty grade i s used to speci fy the vi s-
cosi ty of engi ne oi l . SAE 30 speci fi es a si ngl e vi scos-
i ty engi ne oi l . Engi ne oi l s al so have mul ti pl e
vi scosi ti es. These are speci fi ed wi th a dual SAE vi s-
cosi ty grade whi ch i ndi cates the col d-to-hot tempera-
ture vi scosi ty range.
SAE 30 = si ngl e grade engi ne oi l .
SAE 10W-30 = mul ti pl e grade engi ne oi l .
Dai ml erChrysl er Corporati on onl y recommends
mul ti pl e grade engi ne oi l s.
Fig. 1 International Symbols
XJ LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE 0 - 1
API QUALITY CLASSIFICATION
Thi s symbol (Fi g. 2) on the front of an oi l contai ner
means that the oi l has been certi fi ed by the Ameri -
can Petrol eum I nsti tute (API ) to meet al l the l ubri -
cati on requi rements speci fi ed by Dai l ml erChrysl er
Corporati on.
Refer to Group 9, Engi ne for gasol i ne engi ne oi l
speci fi cati on.
GEAR LUBRICANTS
SAE rati ngs al so appl y to mul ti pl e grade gear
l ubri cants. I n addi ti on, API cl assi fi cati on defi nes the
l ubri cants usage.
LUBRICANTS AND GREASES
Lubri cati ng grease i s rated for qual i ty and usage
by the NLGI . Al l approved products have the NLGI
symbol (Fi g. 3) on the l abel . At the bottom NLGI
symbol i s the usage and qual i ty i denti fi cati on l etters.
Wheel beari ng l ubri cant i s i denti fi ed by the l etter
G. Chassi s l ubri cant i s i denti fi ed by the l atter L.
The l etter fol l owi ng the usage l etter i ndi cates the
qual i ty of the l ubri cant. The fol l owi ng symbol s i ndi -
cate the hi ghest qual i ty.
Fig. 2 API Symbol
Fig. 3 NLGI Symbol
1 WHEEL BEARINGS
2 CHASSIS LUBRICATION
3 CHASSIS AND WHEEL BEARINGS
0 - 2 LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
FLUID CAPACITIES
FUEL TANK
Al l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76.4 L (20.2 gal .)
ENGINE OIL W/FILTER CHANGE
2.5L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 L (4.0 qts.)
4.0L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 L (6.0 qts.)
COOLING SYSTEM
2.5L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 L (10 qts.)*
4.0L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 L (12 qts.)**
*I ncl udes 2.2 L (2.3 qts) for cool ant recovery reser-
voi r.
**I ncl udes 0.9 L (1.0 qt) for cool ant recovery reser-
voi r.
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION
Dry fi l l capaci ty*
AW4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8 L (16.5 pts.)
30RH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.67 L (9.86pts.)
*Dependi ng on type and si ze of i nternal cool er,
l ength and i nsi de di ameter of cool er l i nes, or use of an
auxi l i ary cool er, these fi gures may vary. Refer to
Group 21, Transmi ssi on for proper fl ui d fi l l procedure.
MANUAL TRANSMISSION
AX5 (4X2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 L (3.7 qts.)
AX5 (4X4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 L (3.5 qts.)
AX15 (4X2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 L (3.3 qts.)
AX15 (4X4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.15 L (3.3 qts.)
TRANSFER CASE
SELEC-TRAC 242 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 L (2.85 pts.)
COMMAND-TRAC 231 . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 L (2.2 pts.)
FRONT AXLE
181FBI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.48 L (3.13 pts.)
186FBI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.18L (2.5pts.)
REAR AXLE
194RBI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.66 L (3.5 pts.*)
8-1/4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08 L (4.4 pts.**)
* When equi pped wi th TRAC-LOK, i ncl ude 3.5
ounces of Fri cti on Modi fi er Addi ti ve.
** When equi pped wi th TRAC-LOK, i ncl ude 4
ounces of Fri cti on Modi fi er Addi ti ve.
POWER STEERING
Power steeri ng fl ui d capaci ti es are dependent on
engi ne/chassi s opti ons as wel l as steeri ng gear/cool er
opti ons. Dependi ng on type and si ze of i nternal
cool er, l ength and i nsi de di ameter of cool er l i nes, or
use of an auxi l i ary cool er, these capaci ti es may vary.
Refer to Secti on 19 of the servi ce manual for proper
fi l l and bl eed procedures.
XJ LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE 0 - 3
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
SERVICE PROCEDURES
DESCRIPTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
UNSCHEDULED INSPECTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
SERVICE PROCEDURES
DESCRIPTION
Servi ce and mai ntenance procedures for compo-
nents and systems l i sted i n Schedul e A or B can
be found by usi ng the Group Tab Locator i ndex at
the front of thi s manual . I f i t i s not cl ear whi ch
group contai ns the i nformati on needed, refer to the
i ndex at the back of thi s manual .
There are two mai ntenance schedul es that show
proper servi ce based on the condi ti ons that the vehi -
cl e i s subjected to.
Schedul e A, l i sts schedul ed mai ntenance to be
performed when the vehi cl e i s used for general trans-
portati on.
Schedul e B, l i sts mai ntenance i nterval s for vehi -
cl es that are operated under the condi ti ons l i sted at
the begi nni ng of that schedul e secti on.
Use the schedul e that best descri bes the dri vi ng
condi ti ons.
Where ti me and mi l eage are l i sted, fol l ow the
i nterval that occurs fi rst.
UNSCHEDULED INSPECTION
At Each Stop For Fuel
Check engi ne oi l l evel , add as requi red.
Check wi ndshi el d washer sol vent and add i f
requi red.
Once A Month
Check ti re pressure and l ook for unusual wear
or damage.
I nspect battery and cl ean and ti ghten termi nal s
as requi red. Check el ectrol yte l evel and add water as
needed.
Check fl ui d l evel s of cool ant reservoi r, power
steeri ng, brake master cyl i nder, and transmi ssi on
and add as needed.
Check al l l i ghts and al l other el ectri cal i tems for
correct operati on.
At Each Oil Change
I nspect exhaust system.
I nspect brake hoses.
Rotate the ti res at each oi l change i nterval
shown on Schedul e A (7,500 mi l es) or every other
i nterval shown on Schedul e B (6,000 mi l es).
Check cool ant l evel , hoses, and cl amps.
After compl eti on of off-road operati on, the
undersi de of the vehi cl e shoul d be thoroughl y
i nspected. Exami ne threaded fasteners for l ooseness.
EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
The schedul ed emi ssi on mai ntenance l i sted i n bold
type on the Mai ntenance Schedul es, must be done at
the mi l eage speci fi ed to assure the conti nued proper
functi oni ng of the emi ssi on control system. These,
and al l other mai ntenance servi ces i ncl uded i n thi s
manual , shoul d be done to provi de the best vehi cl e
performance and rel i abi l i ty. More frequent mai nte-
nance may be needed for vehi cl es i n severe operati ng
condi ti ons such as dusty areas and very short tri p
dri vi ng.
FLUID FILL LOCATIONS AND LUBRICATION
POINTS
The fl ui d fi l l /check l ocati ons and l ubri cati on poi nts
are l ocated i n each appl i cabl e group.
SCHEDULE A
7,500 Miles (12 000 km) or at 6 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage (4x4 onl y).
15,000 Miles (24 000 km) or at 12 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
22,500 Miles (36 000 km) or at 18 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage (4x4 onl y).
0 - 4 LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE XJ
30,000 Miles (48 000 km) or at 24 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Replace air cleaner element.
Replace spark plugs.
I nspect dri ve bel t, adjust tensi on as necessary.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l transfer case fl ui d.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
37,500 Miles (60 000 km) or at 30 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage (4x4 onl y).
Drai n and refi l l manual transmi ssi on fl ui d.
45,000 Miles (72 000 km) or at 36 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Fl ush and repl ace engi ne cool ant at 36 months,
regardl ess of mi l eage.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
52,500 Miles (84 000 km) or at 42 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Fl ush and repl ace engi ne cool ant i f not done at
36 months.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage (4x4 onl y).
60,000 Miles (96 000 km) or at 48 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Replace engine air cleaner element.
Replace ignition cables.
Replace spark plugs.
I nspect dri ve bel t, adjust tensi on as necessary.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l transfer case fl ui d.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
67,500 Miles (108 000 km) or at 54 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage (4x4 onl y).
75,000 Miles (120 000 km) or at 60 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Fl ush and repl ace engi ne cool ant i f i t has been
30,000 mi l es (48 000 km) or 24 months si nce l ast
change.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
Drai n and refi l l manual transmi ssi on fl ui d.
82,500 Miles (133 000 km) or at 66 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Fl ush and repl ace engi ne cool ant i f i t has been
30,000 mi l es (48 000 km) or 24 months si nce l ast
change.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage (4x4 onl y).
90,000 Miles (144 000 km) or at 72 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Replace engine air cleaner element.
Replace spark plugs.
I nspect dri ve bel t, adjust tensi on as necessary.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l transfer case fl ui d.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
97,500 Miles (156 000 km) or at 78 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage (4x4 onl y).
105,000 Miles (168 000 km) or at 84 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Fl ush and repl ace engi ne cool ant i f i t has been
30,000 mi l es (48 000 km) or 24 months si nce l ast
change.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
112,500 Miles (180 000 km) or at 90 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Fl ush and repl ace engi ne cool ant i f i t has been
30,000 mi l es (48 000 km) or 24 months si nce l ast
change.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage (4x4 onl y).
Drai n and refi l l manual transmi ssi on fl ui d.
120,000 Miles (192 000 km) or at 96 months
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Replace engine air cleaner element.
Replace ignition cables.
Replace spark plugs.
I nspect dri ve bel t, adjust tensi on as necessary.
XJ LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE 0 - 5
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l transfer case fl ui d.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
Important: I nspecti on and servi ce shoul d al so be
performed any ti me a mal functi on i s observed or sus-
pected.
SCHEDULE B
Fol l ow Schedul e B i f the vehi cl e i s usual l y oper-
ated under one or more of the fol l owi ng condi ti ons.
Frequent short tri ps dri vi ng l ess than 5 mi l es (8
km).
Frequent dri vi ng i n dusty condi ti ons.
Frequent trai l er towi ng.
Extensi ve i dl i ng.
More than 50% of dri vi ng i s at sustai ned hi gh
speeds duri ng hot weather, above 90F (32C).
Off-road dri vi ng.
Desert operati on.
3,000 Miles (5 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
6,000 Miles (10 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
9,000 Miles (14 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
12,000 Miles (19 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l front and rear axl es.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
15,000 Miles (24 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Inspect engine air cleaner element, replace
as necessary.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
18,000 Miles (29 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
Drai n and refi l l manual transmi ssi on fl ui d.
21,000 Miles (34 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
24,000 Miles (38 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l front and rear axl es.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
27,000 Miles (43 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
30,000 Miles (48 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Replace engine air cleaner element.
Replace spark plugs.
I nspect dri ve bel t, adjust tensi on as necessary.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l transfer case fl ui d.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
33,000 Miles (53 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
36,000 Miles (58 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l front and rear axl es.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
Drai n and refi l l manual transmi ssi on fl ui d.
39,000 Miles (62 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
42,000 Miles (67 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
0 - 6 LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
45,000 Miles (72 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Inspect engine air cleaner element, replace
as necessary.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
48,000 Miles (77 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l front and rear axl es.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
51,000 Miles (82 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Fl ush and repl ace engi ne cool ant.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
54,000 Miles (86 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
Drai n and refi l l manual transmi ssi on fl ui d.
57,000 Miles (91 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
60,000 Miles (96 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Replace engine air cleaner element.
Replace ignition cables.
Replace spark plugs.
I nspect dri ve bel t, adjust tensi on as necessary.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l transfer case fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l front and rear axl es.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
63,000 Miles (101 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
66,000 Miles (106 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
69,000 Miles (110 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
72,000 Miles (115 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l front and rear axl es.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
Drai n and refi l l manual transmi ssi on fl ui d.
75,000 Miles (120 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Inspect engine air cleaner element, replace
as necessary.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
78,000 Miles (125 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
81,000 Miles (130 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Fl ush and repl ace engi ne cool ant i f i t has been
30,000 mi l es (48 000 km) si nce l ast change.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
84,000 Miles (134 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l front and rear axl es.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
XJ LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE 0 - 7
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
87,000 Miles (139 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
90,000 Miles (144 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Replace engine air cleaner element.
Replace spark plugs.
I nspect dri ve bel t, adjust tensi on as necessary.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l transfer case fl ui d.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
Drai n and refi l l manual transmi ssi on fl ui d.
93,000 Miles (149 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
96,000 Miles (154 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l front and rear axl es.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
99,000 Miles (158 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
102,000 Miles (163 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
105,000 Miles (168 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Inspect engine air cleaner element, replace
as necessary.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
108,000 Miles (173 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l front and rear axl es.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
Drai n and refi l l manual transmi ssi on fl ui d.
111,000 Miles (178 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Fl ush and repl ace engi ne cool ant i f i t has been
30,000 mi l es (48 000 km) si nce l ast change.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
114,000 Miles (182 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
117,000 Miles (187 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
120,000 Miles (192 000 km)
Change engi ne oi l .
Repl ace engi ne oi l fi l ter.
Replace engine air cleaner element.
Replace ignition cables.
Replace spark plugs.
I nspect dri ve bel t, adjust tensi on as necessary.
Lubri cate steeri ng l i nkage.
Drai n and refi l l automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l transfer case fl ui d.
Drai n and refi l l front and rear axl es.
I nspect brake l i ni ngs.
Lubri cate steeri ng and suspensi on bal l joi nts.
Off-hi ghway operati on, trai l er towi ng, taxi , l i mou-
si ne, bus, snow pl owi ng, or other types of commerci al
servi ce or prol onged operati on wi th heavy l oadi ng,
especi al l y i n hot weather, requi re front and rear axl e
servi ce i ndi cated wi th a i n Schedul e B. Perform
these servi ces i f the vehi cl e i s usual l y operated under
these condi ti ons.
Important: I nspecti on and servi ce shoul d al so be
performed any ti me a mal functi on i s observed or sus-
pected.
0 - 8 LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
J UMP STARTING, TOWING AND HOISTING
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
SERVICE PROCEDURES
JUMP STARTING PROCEDURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
TWO-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLE TOWING . . . . . . . 10
FOUR-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLE TOWING . . . . . . 10
EMERGENCY TOW HOOKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
HOISTING RECOMMENDATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
SERVICE PROCEDURES
JUMP STARTING PROCEDURE
WARNING: REVIEW ALL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
AND WARNINGS IN GROUP 8A, BATTERY/START-
ING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS. DO NOT
JUMP START A FROZEN BATTERY, PERSONAL
INJURY CAN RESULT. DO NOT JUMP START WHEN
MAINTENANCE FREE BATTERY INDICATOR DOT IS
YELLOW OR BRIGHT COLOR. DO NOT JUMP
START A VEHICLE WHEN THE BATTERY FLUID IS
BELOW THE TOP OF LEAD PLATES. DO NOT
ALLOW JUMPER CABLE CLAMPS TO TOUCH
EACH OTHER WHEN CONNECTED TO A BOOSTER
SOURCE. DO NOT USE OPEN FLAME NEAR BAT-
TERY. REMOVE METALLIC JEWELRY WORN ON
HANDS OR WRISTS TO AVOID INJURY BY ACCI-
DENTAL ARCING OF BATTERY CURRENT. WHEN
USING A HIGH OUTPUT BOOSTING DEVICE, DO
NOT ALLOW BATTERY VOLTAGE TO EXCEED 16
VOLTS. REFER TO INSTRUCTIONS PROVIDED
WITH DEVICE BEING USED.
CAUTION: When using another vehicle as a
booster, do not allow vehicles to touch. Electrical
systems can be damaged on either vehicle.
TO JUMP START A DISABLED VEHICLE:
(1) Rai se hood on di sabl ed vehi cl e and vi sual l y
i nspect engi ne compartment for:
Battery cabl e cl amp condi ti on, cl ean i f necessary.
Frozen battery.
Yel l ow or bri ght col or test i ndi cator, i f equi pped.
Low battery fl ui d l evel .
Generator dri ve bel t condi ti on and tensi on.
Fuel fumes or l eakage, correct i f necessary.
CAUTION: If the cause of starting problem on dis-
abled vehicle is severe, damage to booster vehicle
charging system can result.
(2) When usi ng another vehi cl e as a booster
source, turn off al l accessori es, pl ace gear sel ector i n
park or neutral , set park brake and operate engi ne at
1200 rpm.
(3) On di sabl ed vehi cl e, pl ace gear sel ector i n park
or neutral and set park brake. Turn off al l accesso-
ri es.
(4) Connect jumper cabl es to booster battery. RED
cl amp to posi ti ve termi nal (+). BLACK cl amp to neg-
ati ve termi nal (-). DO NOT al l ow cl amps at opposi te
end of cabl es to touch, el ectri cal arc wi l l resul t.
Revi ew al l warni ngs i n thi s procedure.
(5) On di sabl ed vehi cl e, connect RED jumper cabl e
cl amp to posi ti ve (+) termi nal . Connect BLACK
jumper cabl e cl amp to engi ne ground as cl ose to the
ground cabl e attachi ng poi nt as possi bl e (Fi g. 1).
Fig. 1 Jumper Cable ConnectionsTypical
1 POSITIVE CABLE CONNECTION
2 BOOSTER BATTERY
3 NEGATIVE OR GROUND CABLE CONNECTION
XJ LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE 0 - 9
CAUTION: Do not crank starter motor on disabled
vehicle for more than 15 seconds, starter will over-
heat and could fail.
(6) Al l ow battery i n di sabl ed vehi cl e to charge to
at l east 12.4 vol ts (75% charge) before attempti ng to
start engi ne. I f engi ne does not start wi thi n 15 sec-
onds, stop cranki ng engi ne and al l ow starter to cool
(15 mi n.), before cranki ng agai n.
DISCONNECT CABLE CLAMPS AS FOLLOWS:
Di sconnect BLACK cabl e cl amp from engi ne
ground on di sabl ed vehi cl e.
When usi ng a Booster vehi cl e, di sconnect
BLACK cabl e cl amp from battery negati ve termi nal .
Di sconnect RED cabl e cl amp from battery posi ti ve
termi nal .
Di sconnect RED cabl e cl amp from battery posi -
ti ve termi nal on di sabl ed vehi cl e.
TWO-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLE TOWING
TOWING-REAR END LIFTED (SLING-TYPE)
WARNING: WHEN TOWING A DISABLED VEHICLE
AND THE DRIVE WHEELS ARE SECURED IN A
WHEEL LIFT OR TOW DOLLIES, ENSURE THE
TRANSMISSION IS IN THE PARK POSITION (AUTO-
MATIC TRANSMISSION) OR A FORWARD DRIVE
GEAR (MANUAL TRANSMISSION).
CAUTION: Do not use steering column lock to
secure steering wheel during towing operation.
2WD XJ vehi cl es can be towed wi th the front
wheel s on the surface for extended di stances at
speeds not exceedi ng 48 km/h (30 mph). I f the vehi cl e
i s equi pped wi th a factory i nstal l ed trai l er tow pack-
age, use a SAE approved wheel l i ft devi ce.
(1) Attach J-hooks around the axl e shaft tube out-
board of the shock absorber.
(2) Pl ace the sl i ng crossbar under and forward of
the bumper.
(3) Attach safety chai ns around the frame rai l s.
(4) Turn the i gni ti on swi tch to the OFF posi ti on to
unl ock the steeri ng wheel .
(5) Secure steeri ng wheel i n the strai ght ahead
posi ti on wi th a cl amp devi ce desi gned for towi ng.
(6) Veri fy that steeri ng components are i n good
condi ti on.
(7) Shi ft the transmi ssi on to NEUTRAL.
TOWING-REAR END LIFTED (WHEEL LIFT)
(1) Rai se front of vehi cl e off ground and i nstal l tow
dol l i es under front wheel s.
(2) Attach wheel l i ft to rear wheel s.
(3) Pl ace transmi ssi on i n neutral .
(4) Rai se vehi cl e to towi ng hei ght.
(5) Pl ace transmi ssi on i n park (automati c trans-
mi ssi on) or fi st gear (manual transmi ssi on).
TOWING-FRONT END LIFTED
To prevent damage to front fasci a components, use
onl y a Wheel -Li ft type towi ng devi ce or Fl at-Bed
haul i ng equi pment.
I f usi ng the wheel -l i ft towi ng method:
(1) Rai se rear of vehi cl e off ground and i nstal l tow
dol l i es under rear wheel s.
(2) Attach wheel l i ft to front wheel s.
(3) Pl ace transmi ssi on i n neutral .
(4) Rai se vehi cl e to towi ng hei ght.
(5) Pl ace transmi ssi on i n park (automati c trans-
mi ssi on) or fi st gear (manual transmi ssi on).
FOUR-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLE TOWING
Dai ml erChrysl er Corporati on recommends that a
4WD vehi cl e be transported on a fl at bed devi ce. A
wheel l i ft or sl i ng type devi ce can be used provi ded
al l wheel s are l i fted off the ground usi ng tow dol l i es.
I f the vehi cl e i s equi pped wi th a factory i nstal l ed
trai l er tow package, use a SAE approved wheel l i ft
devi ce.
WARNING: WHEN TOWING A DISABLED VEHICLE
AND THE DRIVE WHEELS ARE SECURED IN A
WHEEL LIFT OR TOW DOLLIES, ENSURE THE
TRANSMISSION IS IN THE PARK POSITION (AUTO-
MATIC TRANSMISSION) OR A FORWARD DRIVE
GEAR (MANUAL TRANSMISSION).
TOWING-REAR END LIFTED (SLING TYPE)
(1) Rai se front of vehi cl e off ground and i nstal l tow
dol l i es under front wheel s.
(2) Attach J-hooks around rear axl e shaft tube out-
board of shock absorber.
(3) Pl ace sl i ng crossbar under and forward of
bumper.
(4) Attach safety chai ns around frame rai l s.
(5) Turn i gni ti on swi tch to OFF posi ti on to unl ock
steeri ng wheel .
(6) Secure steeri ng wheel i n the strai ght ahead
posi ti on wi th a cl amp devi ce desi gned for towi ng.
(7) Shi ft transfer case to neutral .
0 - 10 LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
TOWING-REAR END LIFTED (WHEEL LIFT)
(1) Rai se front of vehi cl e off ground and i nstal l tow
dol l i es under front wheel s.
(2) Attach wheel l i ft to rear wheel s.
(3) Pl ace transmi ssi on i n neutral .
(4) Rai se vehi cl e to towi ng hei ght.
(5) Pl ace transmi ssi on i n park (automati c trans-
mi ssi on) or fi rst gear (manual transmi ssi on).
TOWING-FRONT END LIFTED
To prevent damage to front fasci a components, use
onl y a Wheel -Li ft type towi ng devi ce or Fl at-Bed
haul i ng equi pment.
(1) Rai se the rear of the vehi cl e off the ground and
i nstal l tow dol l i es under rear wheel s.
(2) Attach wheel l i ft to front wheel s.
(3) Pl ace transmi ssi on i n neutral .
(4) Rai se vehi cl e to towi ng hei ght.
(5) Pl ace transmi ssi on i n park (automati c trans-
mi ssi on) or fi rst gear (manual transmi ssi on).
EMERGENCY TOW HOOKS
WARNING: REMAIN AT A SAFE DISTANCE FROM A
VEHICLE THAT IS BEING TOWED VIA ITS TOW
HOOKS. THE TOW STRAPS/CHAINS COULD BREAK
AND CAUSE SERIOUS INJURY.
Some Jeep vehi cl es are equi pped wi th front and
rear emergency tow hooks. The tow hooks shoul d be
used for EMERGENCY purposes onl y.
CAUTION: DO NOT use emergency tow hooks for
tow truck hook-up or highway towing.
HOISTING RECOMMENDATIONS
Refer to the Owners Manual for emergency vehi cl e
l i fti ng procedures.
FLOOR JACK
When properl y posi ti oned, a fl oor jack can be used
to l i ft a Jeep vehi cl e (Fi g. 2) and (Fi g. 3). Support the
vehi cl e i n the rai sed posi ti on wi th jack stands at the
front and rear ends of the frame rai l s.
Fig. 2 Vehicle Lifting Locations
XJ LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE 0 - 11
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
CAUTION: Do not attempt to lift a Jeep vehicle with
a floor jack positioned under:
An axl e tube.
A body si de si l l .
A steeri ng l i nkage component.
A dri ve shaft.
The engi ne or transmi ssi on oi l pan.
The fuel tank.
A front suspensi on arm.
NOTE: Use the correct sub-frame rail or frame rail
lifting locations only.
HOIST
A vehi cl e can be l i fted wi th:
A si ngl e-post, frame-contact hoi st.
A twi n-post, chassi s hoi st.
A ramp-type, dri ve-on hoi st.
NOTE: When a frame-contact type hoist is used,
verify that the lifting pads are positioned properly.
WARNING: THE HOISTING AND JACK LIFTING
POINTS PROVIDED ARE FOR A COMPLETE VEHI-
CLE. WHEN A CHASSIS OR DRIVETRAIN COMPO-
NENT IS REMOVED FROM A VEHICLE, THE
CENTER OF GRAVITY IS ALTERED MAKING SOME
HOISTING CONDITIONS UNSTABLE. PROPERLY
SUPPORT OR SECURE VEHICLE TO HOISTING
DEVICE WHEN THESE CONDITIONS EXIST.
Fig. 3 Correct Vehicle Lifting Locations
1 SUB-FRAME RAIL LOCATION
2 SUB-FRAME RAIL LOCATION
0 - 12 LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
SUSPENSION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
ALIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
FRONT SUSPENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
REAR SUSPENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
ALIGNMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
WHEEL ALIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
SUSPENSION AND STEERING SYSTEM. . . . . . . . 3
SERVICE PROCEDURES
PRE-ALIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
WHEEL ALIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
SPECIFICATIONS
ALIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
WHEEL ALIGNMENT
DESCRIPTION
Wheel al i gnment i nvol ves the correct posi ti oni ng of
the wheel s i n rel ati on to the vehi cl e. The posi ti oni ng
i s accompl i shed through suspensi on and steeri ng
l i nkage adjustments. An al i gnment i s consi dered
essenti al for effi ci ent steeri ng, good di recti onal stabi l -
i ty and to mi ni mi ze ti re wear. The most i mportant
measurements of an al i gnment are caster, camber
and toe posi ti on (Fi g. 1).
CAUTION: Never attempt to modify suspension or
steering components by heating or bending.
CAUTION: Components attached with a nut and
cotter pin must be torqued to specification. Then if
the slot in the nut does not line up with the cotter
pin hole, tighten nut until it is aligned. Never loosen
the nut to align the cotter pin hole.
NOTE: Periodic lubrication of the front suspension/
steering system components may be required. Rub-
ber bushings must never be lubricated. Refer to
Group 0, Lubrication And Maintenance for the rec-
ommended maintenance schedule.
OPERATION
CASTER i s the forward or rearward ti l t of the
steeri ng knuckl e from verti cal . Ti l ti ng the top of the
knuckl e rearward provi des posi ti ve caster. Ti l ti ng the
top of the knuckl e forward provi des negati ve caster.
Caster i s a di recti onal stabi l i ty angl e. Thi s angl e
enabl es the front wheel s to return to a strai ght
ahead posi ti on after turns.
CAMBER i s the i nward or outward ti l t of the
wheel rel ati ve to the center of the vehi cl e. Ti l ti ng the
top of the wheel i nward provi des negati ve camber.
Ti l ti ng the top of the wheel outward provi des posi ti ve
camber. I ncorrect camber wi l l cause wear on the
i nsi de or outsi de edge of the ti re. The angl e i s not
adjustabl e, damaged component(s) must be repl aced
to correct the camber angl e.
WHEEL TOE POSITION i s the di fference
between the l eadi ng i nsi de edges and trai l i ng i nsi de
edges of the front ti res. I ncorrect wheel toe posi ti on
i s the most common cause of unstabl e steeri ng and
uneven ti re wear. The wheel toe posi ti on i s the final
front wheel al i gnment adjustment.
STEERING AXIS INCLINATION ANGLE i s
measured i n degrees and i s the angl e that the steer-
i ng knuckl es are ti l ted. The i ncl i nati on angl e has a
fi xed rel ati onshi p wi th the camber angl e. I t wi l l not
change except when a spi ndl e or bal l stud i s dam-
aged or bent. The angl e i s not adjustabl e, damaged
component(s) must be repl aced to correct the steeri ng
axi s i ncl i nati on angl e.
XJ SUSPENSION 2 - 1
THRUST ANGLE i s the angl e of the rear axl e
rel ati ve to the centerl i ne of the vehi cl e. I ncorrect
thrust angl e can cause off-center steeri ng and exces-
si ve ti re wear. Thi s angl e i s not adjustabl e, damaged
component(s) must be repl aced to correct the thrust
angl e.
Fig. 1 Wheel Alignment Measurements
1 WHEEL CENTERLINE
2 NEGATIVE CAMBER ANGLE
3 PIVOT CENTERLINE
4 SCRUB RADIUS
5 TRUE VERTICAL
6 KING PIN
7 VERTICAL
8 POSITIVE CASTER
2 - 2 SUSPENSION XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
SUSPENSION AND STEERING SYSTEM
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
FRONT END NOISE 1. Loose or worn wheel bearings. 1. Adjust or replace wheel bearings.
2. Loose or worn steering or
suspension components.
2. Tighten or replace components as
necessary.
EXCESSIVE PLAY IN
STEERING
1. Loose or worn wheel bearings. 1. Adjust or replace wheel bearings.
2. Loose or worn steering or
suspension components.
2. Tighten or replace components as
necessary.
3. Loose or worn steering gear. 3. Adjust or replace steering gear.
FRONT WHEELS SHIMMY 1. Loose or worn wheel bearings. 1. Adjust or replace wheel bearings.
2. Loose or worn steering or
suspension components.
2. Tighten or replace components as
necessary.
3. Tires worn or out of balance. 3. Replace or balance tires.
4. Alignment. 4. Align vehicle to specifications.
5. Leaking steering dampener. 5. Replace steering dampener.
VEHICLE INSTABILITY 1. Loose or worn wheel bearings. 1. Adjust or replace wheel bearings.
2. Loose or worn steering or
suspension components.
2. Tighten or replace components as
necessary.
3. Tire pressure. 3. Adjust tire pressure.
4. Alignment. 4. Align vehicle to specifications.
EXCESSIVE STEERING
EFFORT
1. Loose or worn steering gear. 1. Adjust or replace steering gear.
2. Power steering fluid low. 2. Add fluid and repair leak.
3. Column coupler binding. 3. Replace coupler.
4. Tire pressure. 4. Adjust tire pressure.
5. Alignment. 5. Align vehicle to specifications.
VEHICLE PULLS TO ONE
SIDE DURING BRAKING
1. Uneven tire pressure. 1. Adjust tire pressure.
2. Worn brake components. 2. Repair brakes as necessary.
3. Air in brake line. 3. Repair as necessary.
VEHICLE LEADS OR
DRIFTS FROM STRAIGHT
AHEAD DIRECTION ON
UNCROWNED ROAD
1. Radial tire lead. 1. Cross front tires.
2. Brakes dragging. 2. Repair brake as necessary.
3. Weak or broken spring. 3. Replace spring.
4. Uneven tire pressure. 4. Adjust tire pressure.
5. Wheel Alignment. 5. Align vehicle.
6. Loose or worn steering or
suspension components.
6. Repair as necessary.
7. Cross caster out of spec. 7. Align vehicle.
XJ SUSPENSION 2 - 3
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
KNOCKING, RATTLING
OR SQUEAKING
1. Worn shock bushings. 1. Replace shock.
2. Loose, worn or bent steering/
suspension components.
2. Inspect, tighten or replace components
as necessary.
3. Shock valve. 3. Replace shock.
IMPROPER TRACKING 1. Loose, worn or bent track bar. 1. Inspect, tighten or replace component as
necessary.
2. Loose, worn or bent steering/
suspension components.
2. Inspect, tighten or replace components
as necessary.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
PRE-ALIGNMENT
Before starti ng wheel al i gnment, the fol l owi ng
i nspecti on and necessary correcti ons must be com-
pl eted. Refer to Suspensi on and Steeri ng System
Di agnosi s Chart for addi ti onal i nformati on.
(1) I nspect ti res for si ze and tread wear.
(2) Set ti re ai r pressure.
(3) I nspect front wheel beari ngs for wear.
(4) I nspect front wheel s for excessi ve radi al or l at-
eral runout and bal ance.
(5) I nspect bal l studs, l i nkage pi vot poi nts and
steeri ng gear for l ooseness, roughness or bi ndi ng.
(6) I nspect suspensi on components for wear and
noi se.
WHEEL ALIGNMENT
Before each al i gnment readi ng, the vehi cl e shoul d
be jounced (rear fi rst, then front). Grasp each
bumper at the center and jounce the vehi cl e up and
down several ti mes. Al ways rel ease the bumper i n
the down posi ti on. Set the front end al i gnment to
speci fi cati ons wi th the vehi cl e at i ts NORMAL RI DE
HEI GHT.
CAMBER
The wheel camber angl e i s preset. Thi s angl e i s not
adjustabl e and cannot be al tered.
CASTER
Before checki ng the caster of the front axl e for cor-
rect angl e, be sure the axl e i s not bent or twi sted.
Road test the vehi cl e, make l eft and ri ght turns. I f
the steeri ng wheel returns to the center posi ti on
unassi sted, the caster angl e i s correct. I f steeri ng
wheel does not return toward the center posi ti on
unassi sted, an i ncorrect caster angl e i s probabl e.
Caster can be adjusted by i nstal l i ng the appropri -
ate si ze shi ms (Fi g. 2).
NOTE: Changing caster angle will also change the
front propeller shaft angle. The propeller shaft
angle has priority over caster. Refer to Group 3 Dif-
ferential & Driveline for additional information.
TOE POSITION (LHD)
NOTE: The wheel toe position adjustment is the
final adjustment. The engine must remain running
during the entire toe position adjustment.
(1) Start the engi ne and turn wheel s both ways
before strai ghteni ng the wheel s. Secure the steeri ng
wheel wi th the front wheel s i n the strai ght-ahead
posi ti on.
(2) Loosen the adjustment sl eeve cl amp bol ts (Fi g.
3).
(3) Adjust the ri ght wheel toe posi ti on wi th the
drag l i nk. Turn the sl eeve unti l the ri ght wheel i s at
correct TOE-I N speci fi cati ons. Posi ti on the cl amp
Fig. 2 Caster Adjustment
1 SHIM
2 SUSPENSION ARM
2 - 4 SUSPENSION XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
bol ts as shown (Fi g. 4) and ti ghten to 49 Nm (36 ft.
l bs.).
NOTE: Make sure the toe setting does not change
during clamp tightening.
(4) Adjust the l eft wheel toe posi ti on wi th the ti e
rod. Turn the sl eeve unti l the l eft wheel i s at speci fi -
cati ons. Posi ti on the cl amp bol ts as shown (Fi g. 4)
and ti ghten to 27 Nm (20 ft. l bs.).
NOTE: Make sure the toe setting does not change
during clamp tightening.
(5) Veri fy the ri ght toe setti ng and turn off engi ne.
(6) Road test the vehi cl e on a fl at l evel road to ver-
i fy the steeri ng wheel i s centered.
NOTE: Once the toe setting is correct, the steering
wheel can be re-centered by adjusting only the drag
link.
TOE POSITION (RHD)
NOTE: The wheel toe position adjustment is the
final adjustment. The engine must remain running
during the entire toe position adjustment.
(1) Start the engi ne and turn wheel s both ways
before strai ghteni ng the wheel s. Secure the steeri ng
wheel wi th the front wheel s i n the strai ght-ahead
posi ti on.
(2) Loosen the adjustment sl eeve cl amp bol ts (Fi g.
5).
(3) Adjust the l eft wheel toe posi ti on wi th the drag
l i nk. Turn the sl eeve unti l the l eft wheel i s at the
correct TOE-I N speci fi cati ons. Posi ti on the cl amp
bol ts to thei r ori gi nal posi ti on and ti ghten to 49 Nm
(36 ft. l bs.).
Fig. 3 Steering Linkage (LHD)
1 PITMAN ARM
2 ADJUSTMENT SLEEVE
3 DRAG LINK
4 TIE ROD
5 STEERING DAMPENER
Fig. 4 Drag Link and Tie Rod Clamp (LHD)
1 TIE ROD CLAMP
2 DRAG LINK CLAMPS
XJ SUSPENSION 2 - 5
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
NOTE: Make sure the toe setting does not change
during clamp tightening.
(4) Adjust the ri ght wheel toe posi ti on wi th the ti e
rod. Turn the sl eeve unti l the ri ght wheel i s at cor-
rect TOE-I N speci fi cati ons. Posi ti on the cl amp bol ts
to thei r ori gi nal posi ti on and ti ghten to 27 Nm (20
ft. l bs.).
NOTE: Make sure the toe setting does not change
during clamp tightening.
(5) Veri fy the ri ght toe setti ng and turn off engi ne.
(6) Road test the vehi cl e on a fl at l evel road to ver-
i fy the steeri ng wheel i s centered.
NOTE: Once the toe setting is correct, the steering
wheel can be re-centered by adjusting only the drag
link.
SPECIFICATIONS
ALIGNMENT
NOTE: All alignment specifications are in degrees.
ANGLE PREFERRED RANGE MAX RT/LT DIFFERENCE
CASTER + 7.0 + 5.25to + 8.5 1.25
CAMBER
(fixed angle)
0.25 0.75to + 0.5 1.0
TOTAL TOE-IN + 0.25 0to + 0.45 .05
THRUST ANGLE 0 0.15
Fig. 5 Steering Linkage (RHD)
1 PITMAN ARM
2 DRAG LINK
3 STEERING DAMPNER
4 TIE ROD
5 ADJUSTMENT SLEEVE
2 - 6 SUSPENSION XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
FRONT SUSPENSION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
SUSPENSION COMPONENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
SHOCK ABSORBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
JOUNCE BUMPER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
COIL SPRINGS AND ISOLATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
LOWER SUSPENSION ARMS AND BUSHINGS . . . 8
UPPER SUSPENSION ARMS AND BUSHINGS . . . 8
STABILIZER BAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
TRACK BAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
HUB/BEARING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
SHOCK DIAGNOSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
SHOCK ABSORBER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
COIL SPRING/JOUNCE BUMPER . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
STEERING KNUCKLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
LOWER SUSPENSION ARM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
UPPER SUSPENSION ARM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
FRONT AXLE BUSHING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
STABILIZER BAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
TRACK BAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
HUB BEARING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
WHEEL MOUNTING STUDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE CHART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
SPECIAL TOOLS
FRONT SUSPENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
SUSPENSION COMPONENTS
The front suspensi on i s a l i nk/coi l desi gn (Fi g. 1).
Thi s suspensi on i s use on Left Hand Dri ve (LHD)
and Ri ght Hand Dri ve (RHD) vehi cl es. The suspen-
si on i s compri sed of:
Dri ve axl e (4WD), tube axl e (2WD)
Dual -acti on shock absorbers
Coi l spri ngs
Upper and l ower suspensi on arms
Stabi l i zer bar
Track bar
Jounce bumpers
CAUTION: Components attached with a nut and
cotter pin must be torqued to specification. Then if
the slot in the nut does not line up with the cotter
pin hole, tighten nut until it is aligned. Never loosen
the nut to align the cotter pin hole.
CAUTION: Suspension components with rubber/
urethane bushings (except stabilizer bar) should be
tightened with the vehicle at normal ride height. It is
important to have the springs supporting the weight
of the vehicle when the fasteners are torqued. If
springs are not at their normal ride position, vehicle
ride comfort could be affected and premature bush-
ing wear may occur.
NOTE: Periodic lubrication of the front suspension/
steering system components may be required. Rub-
ber bushings must never be lubricated. Refer to
Group 0, Lubrication And Maintenance for the rec-
ommended maintenance schedule.
SHOCK ABSORBERS
DESCRIPTION
The top of the shock absorbers are bol ted to a
frame bracket. The bottom of the shocks are bol ted to
the axl e brackets.
OPERATION
The shock absorbers dampen jounce and rebound
moti on of the vehi cl e over vari ous road condi ti ons
and l i mi t suspensi on rebound travel .
JOUNCE BUMPER
DESCRIPTION
The jounce bumpers are mounted under the frame
rai l i nsi de of the coi l spri ng.
OPERATION
The jounce bumpers are used to l i mi t suspensi on
travel i n compressi on.
XJ SUSPENSION 2 - 7
COIL SPRINGS AND ISOLATORS
DESCRIPTION
The coi l spri ngs mount up i n the wheel house whi ch
i s part of the uni ti zed body bracket. A rubber dough-
nut i sol ator i s l ocated between the top of the spri ng
and the bracket. The bottom of the spri ng seats on a
axl e pad and retai ned wi th a cl i p.
OPERATION
The coi l spri ngs control ri de qual i ty and mai ntai n
proper ri de hei ght. The i sol ators provi de road noi se
i sol ati on.
LOWER SUSPENSION ARMS AND BUSHINGS
DESCRIPTION
The l ower suspensi on arms are steel and use bush-
i ngs at one end of the arm. The arms mount to the
frame rai l bracket and the axl e brackets.
OPERATION
The arm and bushi ngs provi de l ocati on and react
to l oads from the axl e. The bushi ngs provi de i sol ati on
from the axl e. The l ower suspensi on arms can be
used to adjust caster and pi ni on angl e, through the
use of shi ms at the frame rai l bracket.
UPPER SUSPENSION ARMS AND BUSHINGS
DESCRIPTION
The upper suspensi on arms are steel and use rub-
ber bushi ngs at each end of the arm. The arms
mount to the frame rai l bracket and the axl e brack-
ets.
OPERATION
The arm and bushi ngs provi de l ocati on and react
to l oads from the axl e. The bushi ngs provi de i sol ati on
from the axl e.
Fig. 1 Suspension Components (LHD)
1 LINKS
2 SHOCK ABSORBER
3 UPPER SUSPENSION ARM
4 STABILIZER BAR
5 COIL SPRING
6 JOUNCE BUMPER
7 LOWER SUSPENSION ARM
8 TRACK BAR
9 AXLE
2 - 8 SUSPENSION XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
STABILIZER BAR
DESCRIPTION
The spri ng steel bar extends across the undersi de
of the chassi s frame rai l s. Li nks are connected from
the bar to the axl e brackets. The stabi l i zer bar and
l i nks are i sol ated by rubber bushi ngs.
OPERATION
The stabi l i zer bar i s used to control vehi cl e body
rol l duri ng turns. The bar hel ps to control the vehi cl e
body i n rel ati onshi p to the suspensi on.
TRACK BAR
DESCRIPTION
The bar i s attached to a frame rai l bracket wi th a
bal l stud and an axl e bracket wi th a bushi ng. The
bar i s forged and has non repl aceabl e i sol ator bush-
i ng and bal l stud.
OPERATION
The track bar i s used to control front axl e l ateral
movement and provi des cross car l ocati on of the axl e
assembl y.
HUB/BEARING
DESCRIPTION
The beari ng used on the front hub of thi s vehi cl e i s
the combi ned hub and beari ng uni t type assembl y.
Thi s uni t assembl y combi nes the front wheel mount-
i ng hub (fl ange) and the front wheel beari ng i nto a
one pi ece uni t. The wheel mounti ng studs are the
onl y repl aceabl e component of the hub/beari ng
assembl y.
OPERATION
The hub/beari ng assembl y i s mounted to the steer-
i ng knuckl e and i s retai ned by three mounti ng bol ts
accessi bl e from the back of the steeri ng knuckl e. The
hub/beari ng uni t i s not servi ceabl e and must be
repl aced as an assembl y i f the beari ng or the hub i s
determi ned to be defecti ve.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
SHOCK DIAGNOSIS
A knocki ng or rattl i ng noi se from a shock absorber
may be caused by movement between mounti ng
bushi ngs and metal brackets or attachi ng compo-
nents. These noi ses can usual l y be stopped by ti ght-
eni ng the attachi ng nuts. I f the noi se persi sts,
i nspect for damaged and worn bushi ngs, and attach-
i ng components. Repai r as necessary i f any of these
condi ti ons exi st.
A squeaki ng noi se from the shock absorber may be
caused by the hydraul i c val vi ng and may be i ntermi t-
tent. Thi s condi ti on i s not repai rabl e and the shock
absorber must be repl aced.
The shock absorbers are not refi l l abl e or adjust-
abl e. I f a mal functi on occurs, the shock absorber
must be repl aced. To test a shock absorber, hol d i t i n
an upri ght posi ti on and force the pi ston i n and out of
the cyl i nder four or fi ve ti mes. The acti on throughout
each stroke shoul d be smooth and even.
The shock absorber bushi ngs do not requi re any
type of l ubri cati on. Do not attempt to stop bushi ng
noi se by l ubri cati ng them. Grease and mi neral oi l -
base l ubri cants wi l l deteri orate the bushi ng.
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
SHOCK ABSORBER
REMOVAL
(1) Remove the nut, retai ner and grommet from
the upper stud i n the engi ne compartment (Fi g. 2).
(2) Remove the l ower nuts and bol ts from the axl e
bracket.
(3) Remove the shock absorber.
INSTALLATION
(1) Posi ti on the l ower retai ner and grommet on the
shock stud. I nsert the shock absorber through the
shock tower hol e.
(2) I nstal l the l ower bol ts and nuts. Ti ghten nuts
to 23 Nm (17 ft. l bs.).
(3) I nstal l the upper grommet and retai ner on the
stud. I nstal l the nut and ti ghten to 22 Nm (16 ft.
l bs.).
COIL SPRING/JOUNCE BUMPER
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e. Posi ti on a
hydraul i c jack under the axl e to support i t.
(2) Remove the wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(3) Mark and di sconnect the front propel l er shaft
from the axl e.
(4) Remove l ower suspensi on arms mounti ng nuts
and bol ts from the axl e (Fi g. 2).
(5) Remove the stabi l i zer bar l i nk and shock
absorber from the axl e.
(6) Remove the track bar from the body rai l
bracket.
(7) Remove the drag l i nk from the pi tman arm.
XJ SUSPENSION 2 - 9
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
(8) Lower the axl e unti l the spri ng i s free from the
upper mount. Remove the coi l spri ng cl i p and remove
the spri ng.
(9) Pul l jounce bumper out of mount.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l jounce bumper i nto mount.
(2) Posi ti on the coi l spri ng on the axl e pad. I nstal l
the spri ng cl i p and bol t. Ti ghten bol t to 21 Nm (16
ft. l bs.).
(3) Rai se the axl e i nto posi ti on unti l the spri ng
seats i n the upper mount.
(4) I nstal l the stabi l i zer bar l i nks and shock
absorbers to the axl e bracket.
(5) I nstal l the track bar to the body rai l bracket.
(6) I nstal l the l ower suspensi on arms to the axl e.
I nstal l mounti ng bol ts and nuts fi nger ti ght.
(7) I nstal l the front propel l er shaft to the axl e.
(8) I nstal l the wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(9) Remove the supports and l ower the vehi cl e.
(10) Ti ghten l ower suspensi on arms nuts to 115
Nm (85 ft. l bs.).
STEERING KNUCKLE
For servi ce procedures on the steeri ng knuckl e and
bal l joi nts refer to Group 3 Di fferenti al s And Dri v-
el i ne.
LOWER SUSPENSION ARM
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove the l ower suspensi on arm nut and bol t
from the axl e bracket.
(3) Remove the nut and bol t from the rear bracket
and remove the l ower suspensi on arm (Fi g. 3).
INSTALLATION
(1) Posi ti on the l ower suspensi on arm at the axl e
bracket and rear bracket.
(2) I nstal l the bol ts and fi nger ti ghten the nuts.
(3) Remove support and l ower the vehi cl e.
(4) Ti ghten the front and rear nuts to 115 Nm (85
ft. l bs.).
Fig. 2 Coil Spring & Shock Absorber
1 SPRING
2 SCREW
3 SPRING RETAINER
4 NUT
5 RETAINER
6 GROMMET
7 ISOLATOR
8 BUMPER
9 SPRING
10 NUT
11 SCREW
12 SHOCK ABSORBER
13 RETAINER
14 GROMMET
15 FRAME
16 CONTROL ARM
2 - 10 SUSPENSION XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
UPPER SUSPENSION ARM
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove the upper suspensi on arm nut and bol t
at the axl e bracket.
(3) Remove the nut and bol t at the frame rai l and
remove the upper suspensi on arm (Fi g. 3).
INSTALLATION
(1) Posi ti on the upper suspensi on arm at the axl e
and frame rai l .
(2) I nstal l the bol ts and fi nger ti ghten the nuts.
(3) Remove the supports and l ower the vehi cl e.
(4) Ti ghten the nut at the axl e to 75 Nm (55 ft.
l bs.). Ti ghten the nut at the frame bracket to 90 Nm
(66 ft. l bs.).
FRONT AXLE BUSHING
REMOVAL
(1) Remove the upper suspensi on arm from axl e.
(2) Posi ti on Spacer 7932-3 over the axl e bushi ng
on a 4x2 vehi cl e and ri ght si de on a 4x4 vehi cl e.
(3) Pl ace Recei ver 7932-1 over fl anged end of the
bushi ng. (Fi g. 4).
(4) Pl ace smal l end of Remover/I nstal l 7932-2
agai nst other si de of the bushi ng.
(5) I nstal l bol t 7604 through remover, bushi ng and
recei ver.
(6) I nstal l Long Nut 7603 and ti ghten nut too pul l
bushi ng out of the axl e bracket.
(7) Remove nut, bol t, recei ver, remover and bush-
i ng.
NOTE: On 4x2 vehicle and right side of 4x4 vehicle,
leave Spacer 7932-3 in position for bushing instal-
lation.
INSTALLATION
(1) Pl ace Recei ver 7932-1 on the other si de of the
axl e bracket.
(2) Posi ti on new bushi ng up to the axl e bracket.,
and l arge end of Remover/I nstal l 7932-2 agai nst the
bushi ng (Fi g. 5).
(3) I nstal l bol t 7604 through recei ver, bushi ng and
i nstal l er.
(4) I nstal l Long Nut 7603 and ti ghten nut to draw
the bushi ng i nto the axl e bracket.
(5) Remove tool s and i nstal l the upper suspensi on
arm.
Fig. 3 Upper and Lower Suspension Arms
1 BOLT
2 UPPER ARM
3 NUT
4 BOLT
5 NUT
6 FRAME RAIL
7 LOWER ARM
8 NUT
9 BOLT
10 NUT
Fig. 4 Bushing Removal
1 RECEIVER
2 AXLE BRACKET
3 BOLT
4 REMOVER/INSTALLER
5 LONG NUT
XJ SUSPENSION 2 - 11
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
STABILIZER BAR
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove nuts, retai ners and grommets from the
l i nks at the stabi l i zer bar (Fi g. 6).
(3) Remove the l i nks mounti ng nuts and bol ts
from the axl e brackets.
(4) Remove the stabi l i zer bar cl amps from the
body rai l s. Remove the stabi l i zer bar.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nspect stabi l i zer bar bushi ngs. Repl ace bush-
i ngs i f cracked, cut, di storted, or worn.
(2) Posi ti on the stabi l i zer bar on the body rai l and
i nstal l the bushi ngs and cl amps. Ensure the bar i s
centered wi th equal spaci ng on both si des. Ti ghten
the bol ts to 75 Nm (40 ft. l bs.).
(3) I nstal l the l i nks and grommets onto the stabi -
l i zer bar and axl e brackets.
(4) Ti ghten the l i nk nuts at the axl e bracket to 95
Nm (70 ft. l bs.).
(5) Ti ghten the l i nk nuts at the stabi l i zer bar to 36
Nm (27 ft. l bs.).
(6) Remove the supports and l ower the vehi cl e.
TRACK BAR
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove the cotter pi n and nut from the bal l
stud end at the body rai l bracket.
(3) Use a uni versal pul l er tool to separate the bal l
stud from the frame rai l bracket.
(4) Remove the bol t and fl ag nut from the axl e
shaft tube bracket (Fi g. 7).
(5) Remove the track bar.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l the track bar at axl e tube bracket.
Loosel y i nstal l the retai ni ng bol t and fl ag nut.
(2) I t may be necessary to pry the axl e assembl y
over to i nstal l the track bar at the body rai l . I nstal l
track bar at the body rai l bracket. I nstal l the retai n-
i ng nut on the stud.
(3) Remove the supports and l ower the vehi cl e.
(4) Ti ghten the retai ni ng bol t at the axl e shaft
tube bracket to 54 Nm (40 ft. l bs.).
(5) Ti ghten the bal l stud nut to 81 Nm (60 ft.
l bs.). I nstal l a new cotter pi n.
HUB BEARING
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove the wheel and ti re assembl y.
(3) Remove the brake cal i per, rotor and ABS wheel
speed sensor, refer to Group 5 Brakes.
(4) Remove the cotter pi n, nut retai ner and axl e
hub nut (Fi g. 8).
Fig. 5 Bushing Installation
1 REMOVER/INSTALLER
2 AXLE BRACKET
3 BOLT
4 RECEIVER
5 LONG NUT
Fig. 6 Stabilizer Bar (LHD)
1 RETAINER
2 GROMMET
3 BUSHING
4 CLAMP
5 STABILIZER BAR
6 LINK
2 - 12 SUSPENSION XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(5) Remove the hub beari ng mounti ng bol ts from
the back of the steeri ng knuckl e. Remove hub bear-
i ng from the steeri ng knuckl e and off the axl e shaft.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l the hub beari ng and brake dust shi el d
to the knuckl e.
(2) I nstal l the hub beari ng to knuckl e bol ts and
ti ghten to 102 Nm (75 ft. l bs.).
(3) I nstal l the hub washer and nut. Ti ghten the
hub nut to 237 Nm (175 ft. l bs.). I nstal l the nut
retai ner and a new cotter pi n.
(4) I nstal l the brake rotor, cal i per and ABS wheel
speed sensor, refer to Group 5 Brakes.
(5) I nstal l the wheel and ti re assembl y.
(6) Remove support and l ower the vehi cl e.
WHEEL MOUNTING STUDS
CAUTION: Do not use a hammer to remove wheel
studs.
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support vehi cl e.
(2) Remove wheel and ti re assembl y.
(3) Remove brake cal i per, cal i per adapter and
rotor, refer to Group 5 Brakes for procedure.
(4) Remove stud from hub wi th Remover C-4150A
(Fi g. 9).
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l new stud i nto hub fl ange.
(2) I nstal l three washers onto stud, then i nstal l
l ug nut wi th the fl at si de of the nut agai nst the
washers.
(3) Ti ghten l ug nut unti l the stud i s pul l ed i nto
the hub fl ange. Veri fy that the stud i s properl y
seated i nto the fl ange.
(4) Remove l ug nut and washers.
(5) I nstal l the brake rotor, cal i per adapter, and cal -
i per, refer to Group 5 Brakes for procedure.
(6) I nstal l wheel and ti re assembl y, use new l ug
nut on stud or studs that were repl aced.
(7) Remove support and l ower vehi cl e.
Fig. 7 Track Bar (LHD)
1 NUT
2 SUPPORT BRACKET
3 LEFT FRAME RAIL
4 STUD
5 SCREW
6 COTTER PIN
7 NUT
8 FRAME BRACKET
9 NUT PLATE
10 TRACK BAR
11 BALL STUD END
12 NUT
XJ SUSPENSION 2 - 13
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE CHART
DESCRIPTION TORQUE
Shock Absorber
Upper Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Nm (16 ft. l bs.)
Lower Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Nm (17 ft. l bs.)
Suspension ArmUpper
Front Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Nm (55 ft. l bs.)
Rear Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Nm (66 ft. l bs.)
Suspension ArmLower
Front Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Nm (85 ft. l bs.)
Rear Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Nm (85 ft. l bs.)
Stabilizer Bar
Cl amp Bol t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Nm (40 ft. l bs.)
Li nk Upper Nut . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Nm (27 ft. l bs.)
Li nk Lower Nut . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Nm (70 ft. l bs.)
Track Bar
Bal l Stud Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Nm (60 ft. l bs.)
Axl e Bracket Bol t . . . . . . . . . . 54 Nm (40 ft. l bs.)
Fig. 8 Hub Bearing & Knuckle
1 BRAKE SHIELD
2 WASHER
3 RETAINER
4 COTTER PIN
5 NUT
6 HUB AND BEARING ASSEMBLY
7 STEERING KNUCKLE
8 BOLT
9 TONE WHEEL (ABS)
Fig. 9 Wheel Stud Removal
1 REMOVER
2 WHEEL STUD
2 - 14 SUSPENSION XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
DESCRIPTION TORQUE
Track Bar Bracket
Bol ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Nm (92 ft. l bs.)
Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Nm (74 ft. l bs.)
Support Bol ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Nm (31 ft. l bs.)
Hub/Bearing
Bol ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Nm (75 ft. l bs.)
Axl e Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Nm (175 ft. l bs.)
SPECIAL TOOLS
FRONT SUSPENSION
Remover/Installer Suspension Bushing 7932
Nut, Long 7603
Bolt, Special 7604
Remover C-4150A
XJ SUSPENSION 2 - 15
SPECIFICATIONS (Continued)
REAR SUSPENSION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
SUSPENSION COMPONENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
SHOCK ABSORBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
JOUNCE BUMPERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
STABILIZER BAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
COIL SPRINGS AND ISOLATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
SPRING AND SHOCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
SHOCK ABSORBER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
STABILIZER BAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
LEAF SPRING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
LEAF SPRING AND SHACKLE BUSHING. . . . . . . 18
SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE CHART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
SUSPENSION COMPONENT
The rear suspensi on i s compri sed of:
Shock Absorbers
Jounce Bumpers
Stabi l i zer Bar (opti onal )
Leaf Spri ngs
Dri ve Axl e
CAUTION: A vehicle should always be loaded so
the vehicle weight center-line is located immedi-
ately forward of the rear axle. Correct vehicle load-
ing provides proper front tire-to-road contact. This
results in maximum vehicle handling stability and
safety. Incorrect vehicle weight distribution can
cause excessive tire tread wear, spring fatigue or
failure, and erratic steering.
CAUTION: Suspension components with rubber/
urethane bushings (except stabilizer bar) should be
tightened with the vehicle at normal ride height. It is
important to have the springs supporting the weight
of the vehicle when the fasteners are torqued. If
springs are not at their normal ride position, vehicle
ride comfort could be affected and premature bush-
ing wear may occur.
SHOCK ABSORBERS
DESCRIPTION
The top of the shock absorbers are bol ted to the
body crossmember. The bottom of the shocks are
bol ted to the axl e brackets.
OPERATION
The shock absorbers dampen jounce and rebound
moti on of the vehi cl e over vari ous road condi ti ons
and l i mi t suspensi on rebound travel .
JOUNCE BUMPERS
DESCRIPTION
The jounce bumpers are bol ted to the bottom of the
frame rai l .
OPERATION
The jounce bumpers are used to l i mi t suspensi on
travel i n compressi on.
STABILIZER BAR
DESCRIPTION
The spri ng steel bar extends across the axl e and
mounts to l eaf spri ng brackets. Li nks are connected
from the bar to the undersi de of the frame rai l . The
stabi l i zer bar and l i nks are i sol ated by rubber bush-
i ngs.
OPERATION
The stabi l i zer bar i s used to control vehi cl e body
rol l duri ng turns. The bar hel ps to control the vehi cl e
body i n rel ati onshi p to the suspensi on.
COIL SPRINGS AND ISOLATORS
DESCRIPTION
The front of the mul ti -l eaf spri ngs mount to frame
rai l brackets. The rear of the spri ng mounts to shack-
l es whi ch mount the frame. The spri ngs and shackl es
have bushi ng at the mounti ng poi nts.
2 - 16 SUSPENSION XJ
OPERATION
The l eaf spri ngs control ri de qual i ty and mai ntai n
proper ri de hei ght. The shackl es al l ow the spri ngs to
change thei r l ength as the vehi cl e moves over vari ous
road condi ti ons. The bushi ngs are used to i sol ate
axl e/road noi se.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
SPRING AND SHOCK
A knocki ng or rattl i ng noi se from a shock absorber
may be caused by movement between mounti ng
bushi ngs and metal brackets or attachi ng compo-
nents. These noi ses can usual l y be stopped by ti ght-
eni ng the attachi ng nuts. I f the noi se persi sts,
i nspect for damaged and worn bushi ngs, and attach-
i ng components. Repai r as necessary i f any of these
condi ti ons exi st.
A squeaki ng noi se from the shock absorber may be
caused by the hydraul i c val vi ng and may be i ntermi t-
tent. Thi s condi ti on i s not repai rabl e and the shock
absorber must be repl aced.
The shock absorbers are not refi l l abl e or adjust-
abl e. I f a mal functi on occurs, the shock absorber
must be repl aced. To test a shock absorber, hol d i t i n
an upri ght posi ti on and force the pi ston i n and out of
the cyl i nder four or fi ve ti mes. The acti on throughout
each stroke shoul d be smooth and even.
The spri ng eye and shock absorber bushi ngs do not
requi re any type of l ubri cati on. Do not attempt to
stop spri ng bushi ng noi se by l ubri cati ng them.
Grease and mi neral oi l -base l ubri cants wi l l deteri o-
rate the bushi ng rubber.
I f the vehi cl e i s used for severe, off-road operati on,
the spri ngs shoul d be exami ned peri odi cal l y. Check
for broken and shi fted l eafs, l oose and mi ssi ng cl i ps,
and broken center bol ts. Refer to Spri ng and Shock
Absorber Di agnosi s chart for addi ti onal i nformati on.
SPRING AND SHOCK ABSORBER
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
SPRING SAGS 1. Broken leaf. 1. Replace spring.
2. Spring fatigue. 2. Replace spring.
SPRING NOISE 1. Loose spring clamp bolts. 1. Tighten to specification.
2. Worn bushings. 2. Replace bushings.
3. Worn or missing spring tip inserts. 3. Replace spring tip inserts.
SHOCK NOISE 1. Loose mounting fastener. 1. Tighten to specification.
2. Worn bushings. 2. Replace shock.
3. Leaking shock. 3. Replace shock.
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
SHOCK ABSORBER
REMOVAL
(1) Remove the shock absorber upper bol ts from
the body bracket (Fi g. 1).
(2) Remove l ower attachi ng nut and washer from
the bracket stud. Remove the shock absorber.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l the shock absorber l ower eye on the
spri ng bracket stud. I nstal l the shock absorber and
upper bol ts on the body bracket.
(2) Ti ghten the l ower nut to 62 Nm (46 ft. l bs.).
(3) Ti ghten the upper bol ts to 23 Nm (17 ft. l bs.).
STABILIZER BAR
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Di sconnect stabi l i zer bar l i nks from spri ng
brackets (Fi g. 2).
(3) Di sconnect the stabi l i zer bar brackets from the
body rai l s. Remove the stabi l i zer bar and l i nks.
INSTALLATION
(1) Posi ti on the stabi l i zer bar l i nks at the spri ng
brackets. I nstal l the attachi ng bol ts and nuts and
ti ghten to 74 Nm (55 ft. l bs.).
(2) Attach the stabi l i zer bar to the body rai l brack-
ets wi th the bol ts. Ti ghten to 54 Nm (40 ft. l bs.).
(3) Remove the supports and l ower the vehi cl e.
XJ SUSPENSION 2 - 17
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
LEAF SPRING
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se vehi cl e at body rai l s.
(2) Remove the wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(3) Support axl e wi th hydraul i c jack to rel i eve axl e
wei ght.
(4) Di sconnect the stabi l i zer bar l i nk from the
spri ng bracket stud.
(5) Remove nuts, U-bol ts and spri ng bracket from
axl e.
(6) Remove nut and bol t attachi ng spri ng front eye
to shackl e.
(7) Remove nut and bol t from spri ng rear eye.
(8) Remove spri ng from vehi cl e.
INSTALLATION
(1) Posi ti on the spri ng front eye i n the bracket.
Loosel y i nstal l the attachi ng bol t and nut. Do not
ti ghten at thi s ti me.
(2) Posi ti on the rear eye i n the shackl e bracket.
Loosel y i nstal l the attachi ng bol t and nut. Do not
ti ghten at thi s ti me.
(3) Posi ti on the axl e. I nstal l the spri ng bracket,
U-bol ts and nuts. Ti ghten the nuts to 70 Nm (52 ft.
l bs.).
(4) Connect the stabi l i zer bar l i nk to the spri ng
bracket.
(5) Remove the hydraul i c jack.
(6) Lower the vehi cl e.
(7) Ti ghten the spri ng front eye attachi ng bol ts to
156 Nm (115 ft. l bs.).
(8) Ti ghten the spri ng rear eye attachi ng bol ts to
108 Nm (80 ft. l bs.).
(9) Ti ghten the stabi l i zer bar l i nk to 74 Nm (55 ft.
l bs.).
LEAF SPRING AND SHACKLE BUSHING
For front bushi ngs bend tabs DOWN before
removal . Use an appropri ate dri ver tool and force the
ori gi nal bushi ng out of the spri ng eye.
Fig. 1 Rear Suspension Components
1 SHOCK ABSORBER
2 SPRING BRACKET
3 NUT
4 BUSHING
5 BUMPER
6 BRACKET
7 NUT
8 RETAINER
9 SHOCK ABSORBER
10 SPRING
11 U-BOLTS
12 BUSHING
13 SHACKLE
2 - 18 SUSPENSION XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(1) Assembl e tool s shown (Fi g. 3). Ti ghten nut at
the socket wrench end of the threaded rod unti l the
bushi ng i s forced out.
(2) Assembl e and al i gn the bushi ng i nstal l ati on
tool s.
(3) Al i gn the bushi ng wi th the spri ng eye or
shackl e eye and ti ghten the nut at the socket wrench
end of the threaded rod. Ti ghten unti l the bushi ng i s
forced i nto the spri ng eye.
NOTE: The bushing must be centered in the spring
eye. The ends of the bushing must be flush or
slightly recessed within the end surfaces of the
spring eye.
(4) For front bushi ngs bend tabs up after i nstal l a-
ti on.
SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE CHART
DESCRIPTION TORQUE
Shock Absorber
Upper Bol t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Nm (17 ft. l bs.)
Lower Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Nm (46 ft. l bs.)
Stabilizer Bar
Cl amp Bol t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Nm (40 ft. l bs.)
Li nk Upper Bol t . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Nm (9 ft. l bs.)
Li nk Lower Nut . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Nm (55 ft. l bs.)
Spring
U-Bol t Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Nm (52 ft. l bs.)
Front Pi vot Bol t . . . . . . . . . 156 Nm (115 ft. l bs.)
Upper Shackl e Bol t . . . . . . 156 Nm (115 ft. l bs.)
Lower Shackl e Bol t . . . . . . . 108 Nm (80 ft. l bs.)
Fig. 2 Stabilizer Bar
1 LINK
2 BUSHING
3 GROMMET
4 FRAME RAIL
5 CLAMP
6 SCREW
7 NUT
8 SPRING BRACKET
9 BOLT
10 SWAY BAR
11 SCREW
Fig. 3 Spring Eye Bushing Removal
1 NUT
2 PIPE
(RECEIVER)
3 SPRING EYE
4 NUT
5 THREADED ROD
6 FLAT WASHER
7 SOCKET WRENCH
(DRIVER)
XJ SUSPENSION 2 - 19
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
PROPELLER SHAFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
194 RBI AXLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
8 1/4 REAR AXLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
PROPELLER SHAFTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
PROPELLER SHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
PROPELLER SHAFT JOINTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
PROPELLER SHAFT JOINT ANGLE. . . . . . . . . . . . 3
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
VIBRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
UNBALANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
RUNOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
SERVICE PROCEDURES
DRIVELINE ANGLE MEASUREMENT
PREPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
PROPELLER SHAFT ANGLE MEASUREMENT. . . . 6
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
FRONT PROPELLER SHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
REAR PROPELLER SHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
SINGLE CARDAN UNIVERSAL JOINT . . . . . . . . . . 9
DOUBLE CARDAN JOINT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
PROPELLER SHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
ADJUSTMENTS
REAR AXLE PINION INPUT ANGLE . . . . . . . . . . . 15
FRONT AXLE PINION INPUT ANGLE . . . . . . . . . . 15
SPECIFICATIONS
PROPELLER SHAFTS AND UJOINTS. . . . . . . . . 15
SPECIAL TOOLS
PROPELLER SHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
PROPELLER SHAFT
DESCRIPTION
A propel l er shaft (Fi g. 2) i s the shaft whi ch con-
nects the transmi ssi on/transfer case to the axl e di f-
ferenti al . Thi s i s the l i nk through whi ch the engi ne
power i s transmi tted to the axl e.
The propel l er shaft i s desi gned and bui l t wi th the
yoke l ugs i n l i ne wi th each other whi ch i s cal l ed zero
phasi ng. Thi s desi gn produces the smoothest runni ng
condi ti on, an out-of-phase shaft can cause a vi bra-
ti on.
Tubul ar propel l er shafts are bal anced by the man-
ufacturer wi th wei ghts spot wel ded to the tube.
PRECAUTIONS
Use the exact repl acement parts when i nstal l i ng
the propel l er shafts. The use of the correct repl ace-
ment parts hel ps to ensure safe operati on. Al l fasten-
ers must be torqued to the speci fi ed val ues for safe
operati on.
Al so make al i gnment reference marks (Fi g. 1) on
the propel l er shaft yoke and axl e, or transmi ssi on,
yoke pri or to servi ci ng. Thi s hel ps to el i mi nate possi -
bl e vi brati on.
CAUTION: Do not allow the propeller shaft to drop
or hang from any propeller shaft joint during
removal. Attach the propeller shaft to the vehicle
underside with wire to prevent damage to the joints.
OPERATION
The propel l er shaft must operate through con-
stantl y changi ng rel ati ve angl es between the trans-
mi ssi on and axl e when goi ng over vari ous road
surfaces. I t must al so be capabl e of changi ng l ength
whi l e transmi tti ng torque. The axl e ri des suspended
by spri ngs i n a fl oati ng moti on.Thi s i s accompl i shed
through uni versal joi nts, whi ch permi t the propel l er
XJ DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 - 1
shaft to operate at di fferent angl es. The sl i p joi nts (or
yokes) permi t contracti on or expansi on (Fi g. 2).
Before undercoating a vehicle, the propeller
shaft and the U-joints should be covered to pre-
vent an out-of-balance condition and driveline
vibration.
CAUTION: Use original equipment replacement
parts for attaching the propeller shafts. The speci-
fied torque must always be applied when tightening
the fasteners.
PROPELLER SHAFT JOINTS
DESCRIPTION
Two di fferent types of propel l er shaft joi nts are
used:
Si ngl e cardan uni versal joi nt (Fi g. 3)
Doubl e cardan (CV) uni versal joi nt (Fi g. 4)
None of the uni versal joi nts are servi ceabl e. I f one
becomes worn or damaged, the compl ete uni versal
joi nt assembl y must be repl aced.
Fig. 2 Propeller Shafts
1 FRONT AXLE
2 FRONT PROPELLER SHAFT
3 TRANSFER CASE
4 BOOT
5 REAR AXLE
6 STRAP
7 REAR PROPELLER SHAFT
8 STRAP
Fig. 1 Reference Marks on Yokes
1 REFERENCE MARKS
3 - 2 PROPELLER SHAFTS XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
PROPELLER SHAFT JOINT ANGLE
DESCRIPTION
When two shafts come together at a common joi nt,
the bend that i s formed i s cal l ed the operati ng angl e.
The l arger the angl e, the l arger the amount of angu-
l ar accel erati on and decel erati on of the joi nt. Thi s
speedi ng up and sl owi ng down of the joi nt must be
cancel l ed to produce a smooth power fl ow.
OPERATION
Thi s cancel l ati on i s done through the phasi ng of a
propel l er shaft and ensuri ng that the proper propel -
l er shaft joi nt worki ng angl es are mai ntai ned.
A propel l er shaft i s properl y phased when the yoke
ends are i n the same pl ane, or i n l i ne. A twi sted
shaft wi l l make the yokes out of phase and cause a
noti ceabl e vi brati on.
When taki ng propel l er shaft joi nt angl e measure-
ments, or checki ng the phasi ng, of two pi ece shafts,
consi der each shaft separatel y.
I deal l y the dri vel i ne system shoul d have;
Angl es that are equal or opposi te wi thi n 1
degree of each other.
Have a 3 degree maxi mum operati ng angl e.
Have at l east a 1/2 degree conti nuous operati ng
(propel l er shaft) angl e.
Fig. 4 Double Cardan (CV) Universal Joint
Fig. 3 Single Cardan Universal Joint
1 NEEDLE BEARING 6 BEARING CAP
2 BEARING CAP 7 RETAINING CLIP
3 SEAL 8 YOKE
4 SPIDER 9 SEAL
5 NEEDLE BEARING
XJ PROPELLER SHAFTS 3 - 3
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Propel l er shaft speed (rpm) i s the mai n factor i n
determi ni ng the maxi mum al l owabl e operati ng angl e.
As a gui de to the maxi mum normal operati ng angl es
refer to (Fi g. 5).
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
VIBRATION
Ti res that are out-of-round, or wheel s that are
unbal anced, wi l l cause a l ow frequency vi brati on.
Refer to Group 22, Ti res and Wheel s, for addi ti onal
i nformati on.
Brake drums that are unbal anced wi l l cause a
harsh, l ow frequency vi brati on. Refer to Group 5,
Brakes, for addi ti onal i nformati on.
Dri vel i ne vi brati on can al so resul t from l oose or
damaged engi ne mounts. Refer to Group 9, Engi nes,
for addi ti onal i nformati on.
Propel l er shaft vi brati on i ncreases as the vehi cl e
speed i s i ncreased. A vi brati on that occurs wi thi n a
speci fi c speed range i s not usual l y caused by a pro-
pel l er shaft bei ng unbal anced. Defecti ve uni versal
joi nts, or an i ncorrect propel l er shaft angl e, are usu-
al l y the cause of such a vi brati on.
DRIVELINE VIBRATION
Drive Condition Possible Cause Correction
Propeller Shaft Noise 1) Undercoating or other foreign
material on shaft.
1) Clean exterior of shaft and wash
with solvent.
2) Loose U-joint clamp screws. 2) Install new clamps and screws
and tighten to proper torque.
3) Loose or bent U-joint yoke or
excessive runout.
3) Install new yoke.
4) Incorrect driveline angularity. 4) Measure and correct driveline
angles.
5) Rear spring center bolt not in
seat.
5) Loosen spring u-bolts and seat
center bolt.
6) Worn U-joint bearings. 6) Install new U-joint.
7) Propeller shaft damaged or out
of balance.
7) Installl new propeller shaft.
8) Broken rear spring. 8) Install new rear spring.
9) Excessive runout or unbalanced
condition.
9) Re-index propeller shaft, test,
and evaluate.
10) Excessive drive pinion gear
shaft runout.
10) Re-index propeller shaft and
evaluate.
11) Excessive axle yoke deflection. 11) Inspect and replace yoke if
necessary.
12) Excessive transfer case runout. 12) Inspect and repair as necessary.
Universal Joint Noise 1) Loose U-joint clamp screws. 1) Install new clamps and screws
and tighten to proper torque.
2) Lack of lubrication. 2) Replace as U-joints as
necessary.
PROPELLER SHAFT MAX. NORMAL
R.P.M. OPERATING ANGLES
5000 3
4500 3
4000 4
3500 5
3000 5
2500 7
2000 8
1500 11
Fig. 5 Maximum Angles And Propeller Shaft Speed
3 - 4 PROPELLER SHAFTS XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
UNBALANCE
NOTE: Removing and re-indexing the propeller
shaft 180 relative to the yoke may eliminate some
vibrations.
I f propel l er shaft i s suspected of bei ng unbal anced,
i t can be veri fi ed wi th the fol l owi ng procedure:
(1) Rai se the vehi cl e.
(2) Cl ean al l the forei gn materi al from the propel -
l er shaft and the uni versal joi nts.
(3) I nspect the propel l er shaft for mi ssi ng bal ance
wei ghts, broken wel ds, and bent areas. If the pro-
peller shaft is bent, it must be replaced.
(4) I nspect the uni versal joi nts to ensure that they
are not worn, are properl y i nstal l ed, and are cor-
rectl y al i gned wi th the shaft.
(5) Check the uni versal joi nt cl amp screws torque.
(6) Remove the wheel s and ti res. I nstal l the wheel
l ug nuts to retai n the brake drums or rotors.
(7) Mark and number the shaft si x i nches from the
yoke end at four posi ti ons 90 apart.
(8) Run and accel erate the vehi cl e unti l vi brati on
occurs. Note the i ntensi ty and speed the vi brati on
occurred. Stop the engi ne.
(9) I nstal l a screw cl amp at posi ti on 1 (Fi g. 6).
(10) Start the engi ne and re-check for vi brati on. I f
there i s l i ttl e or no change i n vi brati on, move the
cl amp to one of the other three posi ti ons. Repeat the
vi brati on test.
(11) I f there i s no di fference i n vi brati on at the
other posi ti ons, the source of the vi brati on may not
be propel l er shaft.
(12) I f the vi brati on decreased, i nstal l a second
cl amp (Fi g. 7) and repeat the test.
(13) I f the addi ti onal cl amp causes an addi ti onal
vi brati on, separate the cl amps (1/4 i nch above and
bel ow the mark). Repeat the vi brati on test (Fi g. 8).
(14) I ncrease di stance between the cl amp screws
and repeat the test unti l the amount of vi brati on i s
at the l owest l evel . Bend the sl ack end of the cl amps
so the screws wi l l not l oosen.
(15) I f the vi brati on remai ns unacceptabl e, appl y
the same steps to the front end of the propel l er shaft.
(16) I nstal l the wheel and ti res. Lower the vehi cl e.
RUNOUT
(1) Remove di rt, rust, pai nt, and undercoati ng
from the propel l er shaft surface where the di al i ndi -
cator wi l l contact the shaft.
(2) The di al i ndi cator must be i nstal l ed perpendi c-
ul ar to the shaft surface.
(3) Measure runout at the center and ends of the
shaft suffi ci entl y far away from wel d areas to ensure
that the effects of the wel d process wi l l not enter i nto
the measurements.
Fig. 6 Clamp Screw At Position 1
1 CLAMP
2 SCREWDRIVER
Fig. 7 Two Clamp Screws At The Same Position
Fig. 8 Clamp Screws Separated
1
1
2 INCH
XJ PROPELLER SHAFTS 3 - 5
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
(4) Refer to Runout Speci fi cati ons chart.
(5) I f the propel l er shaft runout i s out of speci fi ca-
ti on, remove the propel l er shaft, i ndex the shaft 180,
and re-i nstal l the propel l er shaft. Measure shaft
runout agai n.
(6) I f the propel l er shaft runout i s now wi thi n
speci fi cati ons, mark the shaft and yokes for proper
ori entati on.
(7) I f the propel l er shaft runout i s not wi thi n spec-
i fi cati ons, veri fy that the runout of the transmi ssi on/
transfer case and axl e are wi thi n speci fi cati ons.
Correct as necessary and re-measure propel l er shaft
runout.
(8) Repl ace the propel l er shaft i f the runout sti l l
exceeds the l i mi ts.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
DRIVELINE ANGLE MEASUREMENT
PREPARATION
Before measuri ng uni versal joi nt angl es, the fol -
l owi ng must be done;
I nfl ate al l ti res to correct pressure.
Check the angl es i n the same l oaded or
unl oaded condi ti on as when the vi brati on occurred.
Propel l er shaft angl es change accordi ng to the
amount of l oad i n the vehi cl e.
Check the condi ti on of al l suspensi on compo-
nents and veri fy al l fasteners are torqued to speci fi -
cati ons.
Check the condi ti on of the engi ne and transmi s-
si on mounts and veri fy al l fasteners are torqued to
speci fi cati ons.
PROPELLER SHAFT ANGLE MEASUREMENT
To accuratel y check dri vel i ne al i gnment, rai se and
support the vehi cl e at the axl es as l evel as possi bl e.
Al l ow the wheel s and propel l er shaft to turn.
(1) Remove any external beari ng snap ri ngs, i f
equi pped, from uni versal joi nt so protractor base si ts
fl at.
(2) Rotate the shaft unti l transmi ssi on/transfer
case output yoke beari ng i s faci ng downward.
Always make measurements from front to
rear. Also, be sure to take all measurements
while working from the same side of the vehi-
cle.
(3) Pl ace I ncl i nometer on yoke beari ng (A) paral l el
to the shaft (Fi g. 9). Center bubbl e i n si ght gl ass and
record measurement.
This measurement will give you the transmis-
sion or Output Yoke Angle (A).
(4) Rotate propel l er shaft 90 degrees and pl ace
I ncl i nometer on yoke beari ng paral l el to the shaft
(Fi g. 10). Center bubbl e i n si ght gl ass and record
measurement. Thi s measurement can al so be taken
at the rear end of the shaft.
This measurement will give you the Propeller
Shaft Angle (C).
(5) Subtract smal l er fi gure from l arger (C mi nus
A) to obtai n Transmi ssi on Output Operati ng Angl e.
(6) Rotate propel l er shaft 90 degrees and pl ace
I ncl i nometer on pi ni on yoke beari ng paral l el to the
shaft (Fi g. 11). Center bubbl e i n si ght gl ass and
record measurement.
RUNOUT SPECIFICATIONS
Front of Shaft 0.020 in. (0.50 mm)
Center of Shaft 0.025 in. (0.63 mm)
Rear of Shaft 0.020 in. (0.50 mm)
Measure front/rear runout approximately 3 inches
(76 mm) from the weld seam at each end of the shaft
tube for tube lengths over 30 inches. For tube lengths
under 30 inches, the maximum allowed runout is
0.020 in. (0.50 mm) for the full length of the tube.
Fig. 9 Front (Output) Angle Measurement (A)
1 SLIP YOKE BEARING CAP
2 SPECIAL TOOL 7663 (J-23498A)
3 - 6 PROPELLER SHAFTS XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
This measurement will give you the pinion
shaft or Input Yoke Angle (B).
(7) Subtract smal l er fi gure from l arger (C mi nus
B) to obtai n axl e I nput Operati ng Angl e.
Refer to rul es gi ven bel ow and the exampl e i n
(Fi g. 12) for addi ti onal i nformati on.
Fig. 11 Rear (Input) Angle Measurement (B)
1 PINION YOKE BEARING CAP
2 SPECIAL TOOL 7663 (J-23498A)
Fig. 12 Universal Joint Angle Example
1 4.9Angle (C)
2 3.2Angle (B)
3 Input Yoke
4 3.0Angle (A)
5 Output Yoke
Fig. 10 Propeller Shaft Angle Measurement (C)
1 SHAFT YOKE BEARING CAP
2 SPECIAL TOOL 7663 (J23498A)
XJ PROPELLER SHAFTS 3 - 7
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Good cancel l ati on of Ujoi nt operati ng angl es
(wi thi n 1).
Operati ng angl es l ess than 3.
At l east 1/2 of one degree conti nuous operati ng
(propel l er shaft) angl e.
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
FRONT PROPELLER SHAFT
REMOVAL
(1) Hoi st and support vehi cl e on safety stands.
(2) Remove the crossmember/ski d pl ate as neces-
sary to gai n access to the propel l er shaft.
(3) Shi ft the transmi ssi on and transfer case, i f nec-
essary, i nto the Neutral posi ti on.
(4) Usi ng a sui tabl e marker, mark a l i ne across
the yoke at the transfer case, the l i nk yoke, and pro-
pel l er shaft yoke at the rear of the front propel l er
shaft for i nstal l ati on reference (Fi g. 13).
(5) Mark a l i ne across the propel l er shaft yoke and
the pi ni on shaft yoke for i nstal l ati on reference.
(6) Remove the U-joi nt strap bol ts at the pi ni on
shaft yoke (Fi g. 14).
(7) Remove bol ts hol di ng rear uni versal joi nt to
the transfer case yoke.
(8) Separate the rear uni versal joi nt from the
transfer case yoke.
(9) Push rear of propel l er shaft upward to cl ear
transfer case yoke.
(10) Separate front uni versal joi nt from front axl e.
(11) Separate propel l er shaft from vehi cl e.
INSTALLATION
(1) Posi ti on front propel l er shaft under vehi cl e
wi th rear uni versal joi nt over the transfer case yoke.
(2) Pl ace front uni versal joi nt i nto the axl e pi ni on
yoke.
(3) Al i gn mark on the rear l i nk yoke and uni versal
joi nt to the mark on the transfer case yoke (Fi g. 13).
(4) Loosel y i nstal l bol ts to hol d uni versal joi nt to
transfer case yoke.
(5) Al i gn mark on front uni versal joi nt to the mark
on the axl e pi ni on yoke.
(6) Ti ghten the U-joi nt strap/cl amp bol ts at the
axl e yoke to 19 Nm (14 ft. l bs.) torque.
(7) Ti ghten the uni versal joi nt to transfer case
bol ts to 27 Nm (20 ft. l bs.) torque.
(8) Lower the vehi cl e.
REAR PROPELLER SHAFT
REMOVAL
(1) Shi ft the transmi ssi on and transfer case i nto
Neutral .
(2) Hoi st and support vehi cl e on safety stands.
(3) Scri be al i gnment marks at the pi ni on shaft and
at each end of the propel l er shaft. These marks wi l l
be used for i nstal l ati on reference.
(4) Remove the U-joi nt strap bol ts at the pi ni on
shaft yoke.
(5) Pry open cl amp hol di ng the dust boot to propel -
l er shaft yoke (Fi g. 15).
(6) Sl i de the sl i p yoke off of the transmi ssi on/
transfer case output shaft and remove the propel l er
shaft (Fi g. 16).
Fig. 13 Reference Marks on Yokes
1 REFERENCE MARKS
Fig. 14 Front Propeller Shaft
1 FRONT AXLE
2 BOOT
3 PROPELLER SHAFT
4 CV-JOINT
5 TRANSFER CASE
6 BOOT
7 SLINGER
8 CLAMP
9 YOKE
3 - 8 PROPELLER SHAFTS XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
INSTALLATION
(1) Sl i de the sl i p yoke on the transmi ssi on/transfer
case output shaft. Al i gn the i nstal l ati on reference
marks at the axl e yoke and i nstal l the propel l er shaft
(Fi g. 16).
(2) Ti ghten the U-joi nt strap/cl amp bol ts at the
axl e yoke to 19 Nm (14 ft. l bs.) torque.
(3) Cri mp cl amp to hol d dust boot to propel l er
shaft yoke (Fi g. 17).
(4) Lower the vehi cl e.
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
SINGLE CARDAN UNIVERSAL JOINT
DISASSEMBLY
I ndi vi dual components of cardan uni versal joi nts
are not servi ceabl e. I f worn or l eaki ng, they must be
repl aced as an assembl y.
(1) Remove the propel l er shaft.
(2) Usi ng a soft dri ft, tap the outsi de of the bear-
i ng cap assembl y to l oosen snap ri ng.
(3) Remove snap ri ngs from both si des of yoke
(Fi g. 18).
Fig. 15 Dust Boot Clamp
1 SLINGER
2 BOOT
3 AWL
4 TRANSFER CASE
Fig. 16 Rear Propeller Shaft
1 CLAMP
2 YOKE
3 PROPELLER SHAFT
4 AXLE YOKE
5 CLAMP
6 OUTPUT SHAFT
7 BOOT
Fig. 17 Crimping Dust Boot Clamp
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-4975A
2 SLINGER
3 BOOT
4 CLAMP
Fig. 18 Remove Snap Ring
1 SNAP RING
XJ PROPELLER SHAFTS 3 - 9
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(4) Set the yoke i n an arbor press or vi se wi th a
socket whose i nsi de di ameter i s l arge enough to
recei ve the beari ng cap posi ti oned beneath the yoke.
(5) Posi ti on the yoke wi th the grease fi tti ng, i f
equi pped, poi nti ng up.
(6) Pl ace a socket wi th an outsi de di ameter
smal l er than the upper beari ng cap on the upper
beari ng cap and press the cap through the yoke to
rel ease the l ower beari ng cap (Fi g. 19).
(7) I f the beari ng cap wi l l not pul l out of the yoke
by hand after pressi ng, tap the yoke ear near the
beari ng cap to di sl odge the cap.
(8) To remove the opposi te beari ng cap, turn the
yoke over and strai ghten the cross i n the open hol e.
Then, careful l y press the end of the cross unti l the
remai ni ng beari ng cap can be removed (Fi g. 20).
CAUTION: If the cross or bearing cap are not
straight during installation, the bearing cap will
score the walls of the yoke bore and damage can
occur.
ASSEMBLY
(1) Appl y extreme pressure (EP) N.L.G.I . Grade 1
or 2 grease to i nsi de of yoke bores to ai d i n i nstal l a-
ti on.
(2) Posi ti on the cross i n the yoke wi th i ts l ube fi t-
ti ng, i f equi pped, poi nti ng up (Fi g. 21).
(3) Pl ace a beari ng cap over the trunni on and
al i gn the cap wi th the yoke bore (Fi g. 22). Keep the
needl e beari ngs upri ght i n the beari ng assembl y. A
needl e beari ng l yi ng at the bottom of the cap wi l l
prevent proper assembl y.
Fig. 19 Press Out Bearing
1 PRESS
2 SOCKET
Fig. 20 Press Out Remaining Bearing
1 CROSS
2 BEARING CAP
Fig. 21 Install Cross In Yoke
1 CROSS
2 YOKE
3 - 10 PROPELLER SHAFTS XJ
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(4) Press the beari ng cap i nto the yoke bore
enough to i nstal l a snap ri ng.
(5) I nstal l a snap ri ng.
(6) Repeat Step 3 and Step 4to i nstal l the opposi te
beari ng cap. I f the joi nt i s sti ff or bi ndi ng, stri ke the
yoke wi th a soft hammer to seat the needl e beari ngs.
(7) Add grease to l ube fi tti ng, i f equi pped.
(8) I nstal l the propel l er shaft.
DOUBLE CARDAN JOINT
DISASSEMBLY
I ndi vi dual components of cardan uni versal joi nts
are not servi ceabl e. I f worn or l eaki ng, they must be
repl aced as an assembl y.
(1) Remove the propel l er shaft.
(2) Usi ng a soft dri ft, tap the outsi de of the bear-
i ng cap assembl y to l oosen snap ri ng.
(3) Remove al l the beari ng cap snap ri ngs (Fi g. 23).
(4) Set the joi nt i n an arbor press or vi se wi th a
socket whose i nsi de di ameter i s l arge enough to
recei ve the beari ng cap posi ti oned beneath the l i nk
yoke.
(5) Pl ace a socket wi th an outsi de di ameter
smal l er than the upper beari ng cap on the upper
beari ng cap and parti al l y press one beari ng cap from
the outboard si de of the l i nk yoke enough to grasp
the beari ng cap wi th vi se jaws (Fi g. 24). Be sure to
remove grease fi tti ngs that i nterfere wi th removal .
(6) Grasp the protrudi ng beari ng by vi se jaws. Tap
the l i nk yoke wi th a mal l et and dri ft to di sl odge the
beari ng cap from the yoke (Fi g. 25).
(7) Fl i p assembl y and repeat Step 4, Step 5, and
Step 6 to remove the opposi te beari ng cap. Thi s wi l l
then al l ow removal of the cross centeri ng ki t assem-
bl y and spri ng (Fi g. 26).
(8) Press the remai ni ng beari ng caps out the other
end of the l i nk yoke as descri bed above to compl ete
the di sassembl y.
Fig. 22 Install Bearing On Trunnion
1 BEARING CAP
2 TRUNNION
Fig. 23 Remove Snap Rings
Fig. 24 Press Out Bearing
XJ PROPELLER SHAFTS 3 - 11
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
ASSEMBLY
During assembly, ensure that the alignment
marks on the link yoke and propeller shaft
yoke are aligned.
(1) Appl y extreme pressure (EP) N.L.G.I . Grade 1
or 2 grease to i nsi de of yoke bores to ai d i n i nstal l a-
ti on.
(2) Fi t a cross i nto the propel l er shaft yoke (Fi g. 27).
(3) Pl ace a beari ng cap over the trunni on and
al i gn the cap wi th the yoke bore (Fi g. 28). Keep the
needl e beari ngs upri ght i n the beari ng assembl y. A
needl e beari ng l yi ng at the bottom of the cap wi l l
prevent proper assembl y.
(4) Press the beari ng cap i nto the yoke bore
enough to i nstal l a snap ri ng (Fi g. 29).
(5) I nstal l a snap ri ng.
Fig. 25 Remove Bearing From Yoke
Fig. 26 Remove Centering Kit
Fig. 27 Install Cross In Yoke
Fig. 28 Install Bearing Cap
3 - 12 PROPELLER SHAFTS XJ
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(6) Fl i p the propel l er shaft yoke and i nstal l the
beari ng cap onto the opposi te trunni on. I nstal l a
snap ri ng (Fi g. 30).
(7) Fi t the l i nk yoke on the remai ni ng two trun-
ni ons and press both beari ng caps i nto pl ace (Fi g.
31).
(8) I nstal l snap ri ngs.
(9) I nstal l the centeri ng ki t assembl y i nsi de the
l i nk yoke maki ng sure the spri ng i s properl y posi -
ti oned (Fi g. 32).
Fig. 29 Press In Bearing Cap
Fig. 30 Press In Bearing Cap
Fig. 31 Install Link Yoke
Fig. 32 Install Centering Kit
XJ PROPELLER SHAFTS 3 - 13
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(10) Pl ace two beari ng caps on opposi te trunni ons
of the remai ni ng cross. Fi t the open trunni ons i nto
the l i nk yoke bores and the beari ng caps i nto the
centeri ng ki t (Fi g. 33).
(11) Press the remai ni ng two beari ng caps i nto
pl ace and i nstal l snap ri ngs (Fi g. 34).
(12) Tap the snap ri ngs to al l ow them to seat i nto
the grooves (Fi g. 35).
(13) Check for proper assembl y. Fl ex the joi nt
beyond center, i t shoul d snap over-center i n both
di recti ons when correctl y assembl ed (Fi g. 36).
(14) I nstal l the propel l er shaft.
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
PROPELLER SHAFT
(1) Cl ean al l uni versal joi nt bores wi th cl eani ng
sol vent and a wi re brush.
(2) I nspect the yokes for di storti on, cracks, and
worn beari ng cap bores.
Fig. 33 Install Remaining Cross
Fig. 34 Press In Bearing Cap
Fig. 35 Seat Snap Rings In Groove
Fig. 36 Check Assembly
3 - 14 PROPELLER SHAFTS XJ
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
ADJ USTMENTS
REAR AXLE PINION INPUT ANGLE
Adjust the rear axl e pi ni on i nput angl e on vehi cl es
equi pped wi th l eaf spri ngs wi th tapered shi ms (Fi g.
37). I nstal l tapered shi ms between the spri ngs and
axl e pad to correct the angl e. Refer to Group 2, Sus-
pensi on, for addi ti onal i nformati on.
FRONT AXLE PINION INPUT ANGLE
Adjust the front axl e pi ni on i nput angl e at the
l ower suspensi on arms wi th shi ms (Fi g. 38). Addi ng
shi ms wi l l decrease the pi ni on shaft angl e but wi l l
al so i ncrease the caster angl e. The pi ni on shaft angl e
has pri ori ty over the caster angl e. Refer to Group 2,
Suspensi on, for addi ti onal i nformati on.
SPECIFICATIONS
PROPELLER SHAFTS AND UJOINTS
DESCRIPTION TORQUE
Bol ts, Transfer Case Yoke . . . . . 27 Nm (20 ft. l bs.)
Bol ts, Axl e Yoke . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Nm (14 ft. l bs.)
Bol ts, Axl e Yoke . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Nm (14 ft. l bs.)
SPECIAL TOOLS
PROPELLER SHAFT
Fig. 37 Pinion Angle Adjustment at Leaf Springs
1 WEDGE
Fig. 38 Front Axle Angle Adjustment
1 SHIM
2 SUSPENSION ARM
Inclinometer7663
Boot Clamp InstallerC-4975-A
XJ PROPELLER SHAFTS 3 - 15
TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
181 FBI AXLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
186 FBI AXLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
LUBRICANT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
GEAR NOISE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
BEARING NOISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
LOW SPEED KNOCK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
VIBRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
DRIVELINE SNAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
SERVICE PROCEDURES
LUBRICANT CHANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
DRIVE AXLE ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
TUBE AXLE ASSEMBLY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
AXLE SHAFTCARDAN U-JOINT . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
181 FBI PINION SHAFT SEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
186 FBI PINION SHAFT SEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
COLLAPSIBLE SPACER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
HUB BEARING AND AXLE SHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
STEERING KNUCKLE AND BALL STUDS. . . . . . . 31
AXLE BUSHING REPLACEMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
DIFFERENTIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
AXLE SHAFT OIL SEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
181 FBI PINION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
186 FBI PINION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
RING GEAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
FINAL ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
CARDAN U-JOINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
AXLE COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
ADJUSTMENTS
181 FBI PINION GEAR DEPTH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
186 FBI PINION GEAR DEPTH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
181 FBI DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD
AND GEAR BACKLASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
186 FBI DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD
AND GEAR BACKLASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
GEAR CONTACT PATTERN ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . 59
SPECIFICATIONS
181 FBI AXLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
186 FBI AXLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
TORQUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
SPECIAL TOOLS
181 and 186 FBI AXLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
181 FBI AXLE
DESCRIPTION
The 181 Front Beam-desi gn I ron (FBI ) axl e con-
si sts of a cast i ron di fferenti al housi ng wi th axl e
shaft tubes extendi ng from ei ther si de. The tubes are
pressed i nto the di fferenti al housi ng and wel ded.
The i ntegral type housi ng, hypoi d gear desi gn has
the centerl i ne of the pi ni on set above the centerl i ne
of the ri ng gear.
The axl e has a fi tti ng for a vent hose used to
rel i eve i nternal pressure caused by l ubri cant vapor-
i zati on and i nternal expansi on.
The axl es are equi pped wi th semi fl oati ng axl e
shafts, meani ng that l oads are supported by the hub
beari ngs. The axl e shafts are retai ned by nuts at the
hub beari ngs. The hub beari ngs are bol ted to the
steeri ng knuckl e at the outboard end of the axl e tube
yoke. The hub beari ngs are servi ced as an assembl y.
For vehi cl es wi th ABS brakes, the ABS wheel
speed sensors are attached to the knuckl e assem-
bl i es. The tone ri ngs for the ABS system are pressed
onto the axl e shaft. Do not damage ABS tone
wheel or the sensor when removing axle shafts.
The stamped steel cover provi des a means for
i nspecti on and servi ci ng the di fferenti al .
The 181 FBI axl e has the assembl y part number
and gear rati o l i sted on a tag. The tag i s attached to
the housi ng cover by a cover bol t. Bui l d date i denti -
fi cati on codes are stamped on the cover si de of the
axl e shaft tube.
The di fferenti al case i s a onepi ece desi gn. The di f-
ferenti al pi ni on mate shaft i s retai ned wi th a rol l
pi n. Di fferenti al beari ng prel oad and ri ng gear back-
l ash i s adjusted by the use of shi ms (sel ect thi ck-
ness). The shi ms are l ocated between the di fferenti al
beari ng cones and case. Pi ni on beari ng prel oad i s set
and mai ntai ned by the use of shi ms (sel ect thi ck-
ness).
3 - 16 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
OPERATION
The axl e recei ves power from the transfer case
through the front propel l er shaft. The front propel l er
shaft i s connected to the pi ni on gear whi ch rotates
the di fferenti al through the gear mesh wi th the ri ng
gear bol ted to the di fferenti al case. The engi ne power
i s transmi tted to the axl e shafts through the pi ni on
mate and si de gears. The si de gears are spl i ned to
the axl e shafts.
186 FBI AXLE
DESCRIPTION
The 186 Front Beam-desi gn I ron (FBI ) axl e con-
si sts of a cast i ron di fferenti al housi ng wi th axl e
shaft tubes extendi ng from ei ther si de. The tubes are
pressed i nto the di fferenti al housi ng and wel ded.
The i ntegral type housi ng, hypoi d gear desi gn has
the centerl i ne of the pi ni on set bel ow the centerl i ne
of the ri ng gear.
The axl e has a fi tti ng for a vent hose used to
rel i eve i nternal pressure caused by l ubri cant vapor-
i zati on and i nternal expansi on.
The axl es are equi pped wi th semi fl oati ng axl e
shafts, meani ng that l oads are supported by the hub
beari ngs. The axl e shafts are retai ned by nuts at the
hub beari ngs. The hub beari ngs are bol ted to the
steeri ng knuckl e at the outboard end of the axl e tube
yoke. The hub beari ngs are servi ced as an assembl y.
For vehi cl es wi th ABS brakes, the ABS wheel
speed sensors are attached to the knuckl e assem-
bl i es. The tone ri ngs for the ABS system are pressed
onto the axl e shaft. Do not damage ABS tone
wheel or the sensor when removing axle shafts.
The stamped steel cover provi des a means for
i nspecti on and servi ci ng the di fferenti al .
The 186 FBI axl e has the assembl y part number
and gear rati o l i sted on a tag. The tag i s attached to
the housi ng cover by a cover bol t. Bui l d date i denti -
fi cati on codes are stamped on the cover si de of the
axl e shaft tube.
The di fferenti al case i s a onepi ece desi gn. The di f-
ferenti al pi ni on mate shaft i s retai ned wi th a rol l
pi n. Di fferenti al beari ng prel oad and ri ng gear back-
l ash i s adjusted by the use of shi ms (sel ect thi ck-
ness). The shi ms are l ocated between the di fferenti al
beari ng cones and case. Pi ni on beari ng prel oad i s set
and mai ntai ned by the use of a col l apsi bl e spacer.
OPERATION
The axl e recei ves power from the transfer case
through the front propel l er shaft. The front propel l er
shaft i s connected to the pi ni on gear whi ch rotates
the di fferenti al through the gear mesh wi th the ri ng
gear bol ted to the di fferenti al case. The engi ne power
i s transmi tted to the axl e shafts through the pi ni on
mate and si de gears. The si de gears are spl i ned to
the axl e shafts.
LUBRICANT
DESCRIPTION
A mul ti purpose, hypoi d gear l ubri cant whi ch con-
forms to the fol l owi ng speci fi cati ons shoul d be used.
Mopar Hypoi d Gear Lubri cant conforms to al l of
these speci fi cati ons.
The l ubri cant shoul d have MI LL2105C and
API GL 5 qual i ty speci fi cati ons.
Lubri cant i s a thermal l y stabl e SAE 80W90
gear l ubri cant.
Lubri cant for axl es i ntended for heavy-duty or
trai l er tow use i s SAE 75W140 SYNTHETI C gear
l ubri cant.
The 181 FBI axl e l ubri cant capaci ty i s 1.2 L (2.5
pts.). The 186 FBI axl e l ubri cant capaci ty i s 1.18 L
(2.5 pts.).
CAUTION: If axle is submerged in water, lubricant
must be replaced immediately to avoid possible
premature axle failure.
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 17
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL
DESCRIPTION
The di fferenti al gear system di vi des the torque
between the axl e shafts. I t al l ows the axl e shafts to
rotate at di fferent speeds when turni ng corners.
Each di fferenti al si de gear i s spl i ned to an axl e
shaft. The pi ni on gears are mounted on a pi ni on
mate shaft and are free to rotate on the shaft. The
pi ni on gear i s fi tted i n a bore i n the di fferenti al case
and i s posi ti oned at a ri ght angl e to the axl e shafts.
OPERATION
I n operati on, power fl ow occurs as fol l ows:
The pi ni on gear rotates the ri ng gear
The ri ng gear (bol ted to the di fferenti al case)
rotates the case
The di fferenti al pi ni on gears (mounted on the
pi ni on mate shaft i n the case) rotate the si de gears
The si de gears (spl i ned to the axl e shafts) rotate
the shafts
Duri ng strai ght-ahead dri vi ng, the di fferenti al pi n-
i on gears do not rotate on the pi ni on mate shaft. Thi s
occurs because i nput torque appl i ed to the gears i s
di vi ded and di stri buted equal l y between the two si de
gears. As a resul t, the pi ni on gears revol ve wi th the
pi ni on mate shaft but do not rotate around i t (Fi g. 1).
When turni ng corners, the outsi de wheel must
travel a greater di stance than the i nsi de wheel to
compl ete a turn. The di fference must be compensated
for to prevent the ti res from scuffi ng and ski ddi ng
through turns. To accompl i sh thi s, the di fferenti al
al l ows the axl e shafts to turn at unequal speeds (Fi g.
2). I n thi s i nstance, the i nput torque appl i ed to the
pi ni on gears i s not di vi ded equal l y. The pi ni on gears
now rotate around the pi ni on mate shaft i n opposi te
di recti ons. Thi s al l ows the si de gear and axl e shaft
attached to the outsi de wheel to rotate at a faster
speed.
Fig. 1 Differential OperationStraight Ahead Driving
1 IN STRAIGHT AHEAD DRIVING EACH WHEEL ROTATES AT
100% OF CASE SPEED
2 PINION GEAR
3 SIDE GEAR
4 PINION GEARS ROTATE WITH CASE
Fig. 2 Differential OperationOn Turns
1 PINION GEARS ROTATE ON PINION SHAFT
3 - 18 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
GENERAL INFORMATION
Axl e beari ng probl em condi ti ons are usual l y caused
by:
I nsuffi ci ent or i ncorrect l ubri cant.
Forei gn matter/water contami nati on.
I ncorrect beari ng prel oad torque adjustment.
I ncorrect backl ash.
Axl e gear probl em condi ti ons are usual l y the resul t
of:
I nsuffi ci ent l ubri cati on.
I ncorrect or contami nated l ubri cant.
Overl oadi ng (excessi ve engi ne torque) or exceed-
i ng vehi cl e wei ght capaci ty.
I ncorrect cl earance or backl ash adjustment.
Axl e component breakage i s most often the resul t
of:
Severe overl oadi ng.
I nsuffi ci ent l ubri cant.
I ncorrect l ubri cant.
I mproperl y ti ghtened components.
Di fferenti al housi ng bores not square to each
other.
DIAGNOSTIC CHART
Condition Possible Causes Correction
Wheel Noise 1. Wheel loose. 1. Tighten loose nuts.
2. Faulty, brinelled wheel bearing. 2. Replace bearing.
Axle Shaft
Noise
1. Misaligned axle tube. 1. Inspect axle tube alignment. Correct as
necessary.
2. Bent or sprung axle shaft. 2. Inspect and correct as necessary.
3. End-play in pinion bearings. 3. Refer to pinion pre-load information and correct
as necessary.
4. Excessive gear backlash between
the ring gear and pinion.
4. Check adjustment of the ring gear and pinion
backlash. Correct as necessary.
5. Improper adjustment of pinion gear
bearings.
5. Adjust the pinion bearings pre-load.
6. Loose pinion yoke nut. 6. Tighten the pinion yoke nut.
7. Scuffed gear tooth contact surfaces. 7. Inspect and replace as necessary.
Axle Shaft
Broke
1. Misaligned axle tube. 1. Replace the broken shaft after correcting tube
mis-alignment.
2 Vehicle overloaded. 2. Replace broken shaft and avoid excessive weight
on vehicle.
3. Erratic clutch operation. 3. Replace broken shaft and avoid or correct erratic
clutch operation.
4. Grabbing clutch. 4. Replace broken shaft and inspect and repair
clutch as necessary.
Differential
Cracked
1. Improper adjustment of the
differential bearings.
1. Replace case and inspect gears and bearings for
further damage. Set differential bearing pre-load
properly.
2. Excessive ring gear backlash. 2. Replace case and inspect gears and bearings for
further damage. Set ring gear backlash properly.
3. Vehicle overloaded. 3. Replace case and inspect gears and bearings for
further damage. Avoid excessive vehicle weight.
4. Erratic clutch operation. 4. Replace case and inspect gears and bearings for
further damage. Avoid erratic use of clutch.
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 19
Condition Possible Causes Correction
Differential
Gears Scored
1. Insufficient lubrication. 1. Replace scored gears. Fill differential with the
correct fluid type and quantity.
2. Improper grade of lubricant. 2. Replace scored gears. Fill differential with the
correct fluid type and quantity.
3. Excessive spinning of one wheel/tire. 3. Replace scored gears. Inspect all gears, pinion
bores, and shaft for damage. Service as necessary.
Loss Of
Lubricant
1. Lubricant level too high. 1. Drain lubricant to the correct level.
2. Worn axle shaft seals. 2. Replace seals.
3. Cracked differential housing. 3. Repair as necessary.
4. Worn pinion seal. 4. Replace seal.
5. Worn/scored yoke. 5. Replace yoke and seal.
6. Axle cover not properly sealed. 6. Remove, clean, and re-seal cover.
Axle
Overheating
1. Lubricant level low. 1. Fill differential to correct level.
2. Improper grade of lubricant. 2. Fill differential with the correct fluid type and
quantity.
3. Bearing pre-loads too high. 3. Re-adjust bearing pre-loads.
4. Insufficient ring gear backlash. 4. Re-adjust ring gear backlash.
Gear Teeth
Broke
1. Overloading. 1. Replace gears. Examine other gears and bearings
for possible damage.
2. Erratic clutch operation. 2. Replace gears and examine the remaining parts
for damage. Avoid erratic clutch operation.
3. Ice-spotted pavement. 3. Replace gears and examine remaining parts for
damage.
4. Improper adjustments. 4. Replace gears and examine remaining parts for
damage. Ensure ring gear backlash is correct.
Axle Noise 1. Insufficient lubricant. 1. Fill differential with the correct fluid type and
quantity.
2. Improper ring gear and pinion
adjustment.
2. Check ring gear and pinion contact pattern.
3. Unmatched ring gear and pinion. 3. Replace gears with a matched ring gear and
pinion.
4. Worn teeth on ring gear and/or
pinion.
4. Replace ring gear and pinion.
5. Loose pinion bearings. 5. Adjust pinion bearing pre-load.
6. Loose differential bearings. 6. Adjust differential bearing pre-load.
7. Mis-aligned or sprung ring gear. 7. Measure ring gear run-out. Replace components
as necessary.
8. Loose differential bearing cap bolts. 8. Inspect differential components and replace as
necessary. Ensure that the bearing caps are torqued
tot he proper specification.
9. Housing not machined properly. 9. Replace housing.
3 - 20 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
GEAR NOISE
Axl e gear noi se can be caused by i nsuffi ci ent l ubri -
cant, i ncorrect backl ash, tooth contact, worn/damaged
gears, or the carri er housi ng not havi ng the proper
offset and squareness.
Gear noi se usual l y happens at a speci fi c speed
range. The noi se can al so occur duri ng a speci fi c type
of dri vi ng condi ti on. These condi ti ons are accel era-
ti on, decel erati on, coast, or constant l oad.
When road testi ng, fi rst warm-up the axl e fl ui d by
dri vi ng the vehi cl e at l east 5 mi l es and then accel er-
ate the vehi cl e to the speed range where the noi se i s
the greatest. Shi ft out-of-gear and coast through the
peaknoi se range. I f the noi se stops or changes
greatl y:
Check for i nsuffi ci ent l ubri cant.
I ncorrect ri ng gear backl ash.
Gear damage.
Di fferenti al si de gears and pi ni ons can be checked
by turni ng the vehi cl e. They usual l y do not cause
noi se duri ng strai ghtahead dri vi ng when the gears
are unl oaded. The si de gears are l oaded duri ng vehi -
cl e turns. A worn pi ni on mate shaft can al so cause a
snappi ng or a knocki ng noi se.
BEARING NOISE
The axl e shaft, di fferenti al and pi ni on beari ngs can
al l produce noi se when worn or damaged. Beari ng
noi se can be ei ther a whi ni ng, or a growl i ng sound.
Pi ni on beari ngs have a constantpi tch noi se. Thi s
noi se changes onl y wi th vehi cl e speed. Pi ni on beari ng
noi se wi l l be hi gher pi tched because i t rotates at a
faster rate. Dri ve the vehi cl e and l oad the di fferen-
ti al . I f beari ng noi se occurs, the rear pi ni on beari ng
i s the source of the noi se. I f the beari ng noi se i s
heard duri ng a coast, the front pi ni on beari ng i s the
source.
Worn or damaged di fferenti al beari ngs usual l y pro-
duce a l ow pi tch noi se. Di fferenti al beari ng noi se i s
si mi l ar to pi ni on beari ng noi se. The pi tch of di fferen-
ti al beari ng noi se i s al so constant and vari es onl y
wi th vehi cl e speed.
Axl e shaft beari ngs produce noi se and vi brati on
when worn or damaged. The noi se general l y changes
when the beari ngs are l oaded. Road test the vehi cl e.
Turn the vehi cl e sharpl y to the l eft and to the ri ght.
Thi s wi l l l oad the beari ngs and change the noi se
l evel . Where axl e beari ng damage i s sl i ght, the noi se
i s usual l y not noti ceabl e at speeds above 30 mph.
LOW SPEED KNOCK
Low speed knock i s general l y caused by a worn
Ujoi nt or by worn si degear thrust washers. A worn
pi ni on shaft bore wi l l al so cause l ow speed knock.
VIBRATION
Vi brati on at the rear of the vehi cl e i s usual l y
caused by a:
Damaged dri ve shaft.
Mi ssi ng dri ve shaft bal ance wei ght(s).
Worn or outofbal ance wheel s.
Loose wheel l ug nuts.
Worn Ujoi nt(s).
Loose/broken spri ngs.
Damaged axl e shaft beari ng(s).
Loose pi ni on gear nut.
Excessi ve pi ni on yoke run out.
Bent axl e shaft(s).
Check for l oose or damaged frontend components
or engi ne/transmi ssi on mounts. These components
can contri bute to what appears to be a rearend
vi brati on. Do not overl ook engi ne accessori es, brack-
ets and dri ve bel ts.
Al l dri vel i ne components shoul d be exami ned
before starti ng any repai r.
Refer to Group 22, Wheel s and Ti res, for addi ti onal
vi brati on i nformati on.
DRIVELINE SNAP
A snap or cl unk noi se when the vehi cl e i s shi fted
i nto gear (or the cl utch engaged), can be caused by:
Hi gh engi ne i dl e speed.
Transmi ssi on shi ft operati on.
Loose engi ne/transmi ssi on/transfer case mounts.
Worn Ujoi nts.
Loose spri ng mounts.
Loose pi ni on gear nut and yoke.
Excessi ve ri ng gear backl ash.
Excessi ve si de gear to case cl earance.
The source of a snap or a cl unk noi se can be deter-
mi ned wi th the assi stance of a hel per. Rai se the vehi -
cl e on a hoi st wi th the wheel s free to rotate. I nstruct
the hel per to shi ft the transmi ssi on i nto gear. Li sten
for the noi se, a mechani cs stethoscope i s hel pful i n
i sol ati ng the source of a noi se.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
LUBRICANT CHANGE
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove the l ubri cant fi l l hol e pl ug from the
di fferenti al housi ng cover.
(3) Remove the di fferenti al housi ng cover and
drai n the l ubri cant from the housi ng.
(4) Cl ean the housi ng cavi ty wi th a fl ushi ng oi l ,
l i ght engi ne oi l or l i nt free cl oth. Do not use water,
steam, kerosene or gasoline for cleaning.
(5) Remove the seal ant from the housi ng and cover
surfaces. Use sol vent to cl ean the mati ng surfaces.
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 21
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
(6) Appl y a bead of Mopar Si l i cone Rubber Seal -
ant, or equi val ent, to the housi ng cover (Fi g. 3).
Install the housing cover within 5 minutes
after applying the sealant.
(7) I nstal l the cover and any i denti fi cati on tag.
Ti ghten the cover bol ts i n a cri sscross pattern to 41
Nm (30 ft. l bs.) torque.
(8) Refi l l the di fferenti al wi th Mopar Hypoi d
Gear Lubri cant, or equi val ent, to bottom of the fi l l
pl ug hol e. Refer to the Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons i n
thi s group for the quanti ty necessary.
(9) I nstal l the fi l l hol e pl ug and l ower the vehi cl e.
Ti ghten fi l l pl ug to 34 Nm (25 ft. l bs.).
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
DRIVE AXLE ASSEMBLY
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Posi ti on a sui tabl e l i fti ng devi ce under the
axl e.
(3) Secure axl e to devi ce.
(4) Remove the wheel s and ti res.
(5) Remove the brake rotors and cal i pers from the
axl e. Refer to Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(6) Di sconnect the wheel sensor wi ri ng harness
from the vehi cl e wi ri ng harness, i f necessary.
(7) Di sconnect the vent hose from the axl e shaft
tube.
(8) Mark the propel l er shaft and yoke for i nstal l a-
ti on al i gnment reference.
(9) Remove propel l er shaft.
(10) Di sconnect stabi l i zer bar l i nks at the axl e.
(11) Di sconnect shock absorbers from axl e brack-
ets.
(12) Di sconnect track bar.
(13) Di sconnect the ti e rod and drag l i nk from the
steeri ng knuckl e. Refer to Group 2, Suspensi on, for
proper procedures.
(14) Di sconnect the steeri ng damper from the axl e
bracket.
(15) Di sconnect the upper and l ower suspensi on
arms from the axl e brackets.
(16) Lower the l i fti ng devi ce enough to remove the
axl e. The coi l spri ngs wi l l drop wi th the axl e.
(17) Remove the coi l spri ngs from the axl e.
INSTALLATION
CAUTION: The weight of the vehicle must be sup-
ported by the springs before suspension arms and
track bar fasteners can be tightened. If the springs
are not at their normal ride position, ride height and
handling could be affected.
(1) I nstal l the spri ngs and retai ner cl i ps. Ti ghten
the retai ner bol ts to 21 Nm (16 ft. l bs.) torque.
(2) Support the axl e on a sui tabl e l i fti ng devi ce
and posi ti on axl e under the vehi cl e.
(3) Rai se the axl e and al i gn i t wi th the spri ng
pads.
(4) Posi ti on the upper and l ower suspensi on arms
i n the axl e brackets. Loosel y i nstal l bol ts and nuts to
hol d suspensi on arms to the axl e brackets.
(5) Connect the vent hose to the axl e shaft tube.
(6) Connect the track bar to the axl e bracket.
Loosel y i nstal l the bol t to hol d the track bar to the
axl e bracket.
(7) I nstal l the shock absorbers and ti ghten the
bol ts to 23 Nm (17 ft. l bs.) torque.
(8) I nstal l the stabi l i zer bar l i nks to the axl e
brackets. Ti ghten the nut to 95 Nm (70 ft. l bs.)
torque.
(9) I nstal l the drag l i nk and ti e rod to the steeri ng
knuckl es. Refer to Group 2, Suspensi on, for proper
procedures.
(10) I nstal l the steeri ng damper to the axl e
bracket and ti ghten the nut to 75 Nm (55 ft. l bs.)
torque.
(11) I nstal l the brake rotors and cal i pers. Refer to
Group 5, Brakes, for the proper procedures.
(12) Connect the wheel speed sensor wi ri ng har-
ness to the vehi cl e wi ri ng harness, i f necessary.
Fig. 3 Typical Housing Cover With Sealant
1 SEALING SURFACE
2 CONTOUR OF BEAD
3 BEAD THICKNESS 6.35mm (1/4)
3 - 22 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
(13) Al i gn the previ ousl y made marks on the pro-
pel l er shaft and the yoke.
(14) I nstal l the straps and bol ts to hol d the propel -
l er shaft to the yoke.
(15) Check and fi l l axl e l ubri cant. Refer to the
Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons i n thi s group for the quan-
ti ty necessary.
(16) I nstal l the wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(17) Remove the l i fti ng devi ce from the axl e and
l ower the vehi cl e.
(18) Ti ghten the upper suspensi on arm nuts to 75
Nm (55 ft. l bs.) torque. Ti ghten the l ower suspensi on
arm nuts to 115 Nm (85 ft. l bs.) torque.
(19) Ti ghten the track bar bol t at the axl e bracket
to 100 Nm (74 ft. l bs.) torque.
(20) Check the front wheel al i gnment.
TUBE AXLE ASSEMBLY
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Posi ti on a sui tabl e l i fti ng devi ce under the
axl e.
(3) Secure axl e to devi ce.
(4) Remove the wheel s and ti res.
(5) Remove the brake rotors and cal i pers from the
axl e. Refer to Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(6) Di sconnect the wheel sensor wi ri ng harness
from the vehi cl e wi ri ng harness, i f necessary.
(7) Di sconnect stabi l i zer bar l i nks at the axl e.
(8) Di sconnect shock absorbers from axl e brackets.
(9) Di sconnect track bar.
(10) Di sconnect the ti e rod and drag l i nk from the
steeri ng knuckl e. Refer to Group 2, Suspensi on, for
proper procedures.
(11) Di sconnect the steeri ng damper from the axl e
bracket.
(12) Di sconnect the upper and l ower suspensi on
arms from the axl e brackets.
(13) Lower the l i fti ng devi ce enough to remove the
axl e. The coi l spri ngs wi l l drop wi th the axl e.
(14) Remove the coi l spri ngs from the axl e.
INSTALLATION
CAUTION: The weight of the vehicle must be sup-
ported by the springs before suspension arms and
track bar fasteners can be tightened. If the springs
are not at their normal ride position, ride height and
handling could be affected.
(1) I nstal l the spri ngs and retai ner cl i ps. Ti ghten
the retai ner bol ts to 21 Nm (16 ft. l bs.) torque.
(2) Support the axl e on a sui tabl e l i fti ng devi ce
and posi ti on axl e under the vehi cl e.
(3) Rai se the axl e and al i gn i t wi th the spri ng
pads.
(4) Posi ti on the upper and l ower suspensi on arms
i n the axl e brackets. Loosel y i nstal l bol ts and nuts to
hol d suspensi on arms to the axl e brackets.
(5) Connect the track bar to the axl e bracket.
Loosel y i nstal l the bol t to hol d the track bar to the
axl e bracket.
(6) I nstal l the shock absorbers and ti ghten the
bol ts to 23 Nm (17 ft. l bs.) torque.
(7) I nstal l the stabi l i zer bar l i nks to the axl e
brackets. Ti ghten the nut to 95 Nm (70 ft. l bs.)
torque.
(8) I nstal l the drag l i nk and ti e rod to the steeri ng
knuckl es. Refer to Group 2, Suspensi on, for proper
procedures.
(9) I nstal l the steeri ng damper to the axl e bracket
and ti ghten the nut to 75 Nm (55 ft. l bs.) torque.
(10) I nstal l the brake rotors and cal i pers. Refer to
Group 5, Brakes, for the proper procedures.
(11) Connect the wheel speed sensor wi ri ng har-
ness to the vehi cl e wi ri ng harness, i f necessary.
(12) I nstal l the wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(13) Remove the l i fti ng devi ce from the axl e and
l ower the vehi cl e.
(14) Ti ghten the upper suspensi on arm nuts to 75
Nm (55 ft. l bs.) torque. Ti ghten the l ower suspensi on
arm nuts to 115 Nm (85 ft. l bs.) torque.
(15) Ti ghten the track bar bol t at the axl e bracket
to 100 Nm (74 ft. l bs.) torque.
(16) Check the front wheel al i gnment.
AXLE SHAFT CARDAN U-JOINT
Si ngl e cardan Ujoi nt components are not servi ce-
abl e. I f defecti ve, they must be repl aced as a uni t. I f
the beari ngs, seal s, spi der, or beari ng caps are dam-
aged or worn, repl ace the compl ete Ujoi nt.
REMOVAL
CAUTION: Clamp only the narrow forged portion of
the yoke in the vise. Also, to avoid distorting the
yoke, do not over tighten the vise jaws.
(1) Remove axl e shaft.
(2) Remove the beari ng cap retai ni ng snap ri ngs
(Fi g. 4).
It can be helpful to saturate the bearing caps
with penetrating oil prior to removal.
(3) Locate a socket where the i nsi de di ameter i s
l arger i n di ameter than the beari ng cap. Pl ace the
socket (recei ver) agai nst the yoke and around the
peri meter of the beari ng cap to be removed.
(4) Locate a socket where the outsi de di ameter i s
smal l er i n di ameter than the beari ng cap. Pl ace the
socket (dri ver) agai nst the opposi te beari ng cap.
(5) Posi ti on the yoke wi th the sockets i n a vi se
(Fi g. 5).
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 23
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(6) Compress the vi se jaws to force the beari ng cap
i nto the l arger socket (recei ver).
(7) Rel ease the vi se jaws. Remove the sockets and
beari ng cap that was parti al l y forced out of the yoke.
(8) Repeat the above procedure for the remai ni ng
beari ng cap.
(9) Remove the remai ni ng beari ng cap, beari ngs,
seal s and spi der from the propel l er shaft yoke.
INSTALLATION
(1) Pack the beari ng caps 1/3 ful l of wheel beari ng
l ubri cant. Appl y extreme pressure (EP), l i thi umbase
l ubri cant to ai d i n i nstal l ati on.
(2) Posi ti on the spi der i n the yoke. I nsert the seal s
and beari ngs. Tap the beari ng caps i nto the yoke
bores far enough to hol d the spi der i n posi ti on.
(3) Pl ace the socket (dri ver) agai nst one beari ng
cap. Posi ti on the yoke wi th the socket wrench i n a
vi se.
(4) Compress the vi se to force the beari ng caps
i nto the yoke. Force the caps enough to i nstal l the
retai ni ng cl i ps.
(5) I nstal l the beari ng cap retai ni ng cl i ps.
(6) I nstal l axl e shaft.
181 FBI PINION SHAFT SEAL
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(3) Remove brake rotors and cal i pers. Refer to
Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(4) Mark the propel l er shaft and pi ni on yoke for
i nstal l ati on reference.
(5) Remove the propel l er shaft from the yoke.
(6) Rotate the pi ni on gear three or four ti mes.
(7) Measure the amount of torque necessary to
rotate the pi ni on gear wi th a (i n. l bs.) di al -type
torque wrench. Record the torque readi ng for i nstal -
l ati on reference.
(8) Usi ng Hol der 6958 to hol d the pi ni on yoke,
remove the pi ni on nut and washer.
(9) Use Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to
remove the pi ni on yoke (Fi g. 6).
(10) Use a sui tabl e pry tool or a sl i de hammer
mounted screw to remove the pi ni on shaft seal .
INSTALLATION
(1) Appl y a l i ght coati ng of gear l ubri cant on the
l i p of pi ni on seal . I nstal l seal wi th I nstal l er C-3972-A
and Handl e C-4171 (Fi g. 7).
(2) I nstal l yoke on the pi ni on gear wi th I nstal l er
W-162D, Cup 8109, and Hol der 6958 (Fi g. 8).
Fig. 4 Axle Shaft Outer UJoint
1 SHAFT YOKE
2 BEARING CAP
3 SNAP RINGS
4 BEARING CAP
5 SPINDLE YOKE
6 BEARING
7 BEARING CAP
8 SNAP RINGS
9 BEARING CAP
Fig. 5 Yoke Bearing Cap Removal
1 LARGE-DIAMETER SOCKET WRENCH
2 VISE
3 SMALL-DIAMETER SOCKET WRENCH
3 - 24 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
CAUTION: Do not exceed the minimum tightening
torque when installing the pinion yoke retaining nut
at this point. Damage to the pinion bearings may
result.
(3) I nstal l the pi ni on washer and a new nut on the
pi ni on gear. Tighten the nut only enough to
remove the shaft end play.
(4) Ti ghten pi ni on nut to 217 Nm (160 ft. l bs.).
(5) Rotate the pi ni on shaft usi ng a (i n. l bs.) torque
wrench. Rotati ng torque shoul d be equal to the read-
i ng recorded duri ng removal , pl us an addi ti onal 0.56
Nm (5 i n. l bs.) (Fi g. 9).
(6) I f the rotati ng torque i s l ow, use Hol der 6958 to
hol d the pi ni on yoke, and ti ghten the pi ni on shaft
nut i n 6.8 Nm (5 ft. l bs.) i ncrements unti l proper
rotati ng torque i s achi eved.
(7) Al i gn the i nstal l ati on reference marks on the
propel l er shaft and yoke, and i nstal l the propel l er
shaft.
(8) Check and fi l l the gear l ubri cant. Refer to the
Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons for gear l ubri cant requi re-
ments.
(9) I nstal l the brake rotors and cal i pers. Refer to
Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(10) I nstal l wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(11) Lower the vehi cl e.
Fig. 6 Pinion Yoke Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-3281
2 YOKE
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-452
Fig. 7 Pinion Seal Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-4171
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-3972A
Fig. 8 Pinion Yoke Installation
1 PINION YOKE
2 AXLE HOUSING
Fig. 9 Check Pinion Rotation Torque
1 PINION YOKE
2 INCH POUND TORQUE WRENCH
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 25
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
186 FBI PINION SHAFT SEAL
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(3) Remove brake rotors and cal i pers. Refer to
Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(4) Mark the propel l er shaft and pi ni on yoke for
i nstal l ati on reference.
(5) Remove the propel l er shaft from the yoke.
(6) Rotate the pi ni on gear three or four ti mes.
(7) Measure the amount of torque necessary to
rotate the pi ni on gear wi th a (i n. l bs.) di al -type
torque wrench. Record the torque readi ng for i nstal -
l ati on reference.
(8) Usi ng Hol der 6958 to hol d the pi ni on yoke,
remove the pi ni on nut and washer.
(9) Use Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to
remove the pi ni on yoke (Fi g. 10).
(10) Use a sui tabl e pry tool or a sl i de hammer
mounted screw to remove the pi ni on seal .
INSTALLATION
(1) Appl y a l i ght coati ng of gear l ubri cant on the
l i p of pi ni on seal . I nstal l seal wi th I nstal l er C-3972-A
and Handl e C-4171 (Fi g. 11).
(2) I nstal l yoke on the pi ni on gear wi th I nstal l er
W-162D, Cup 8109, and Hol der 6958 (Fi g. 12).
CAUTION: Do not exceed the minimum tightening
torque when installing the pinion yoke retaining nut
at this point. Damage to collapsible spacer or bear-
ings may result.
(3) I nstal l the pi ni on washer and a new nut on the
pi ni on gear. Tighten the nut only enough to
remove the shaft end play.
(4) Rotate the pi ni on shaft usi ng a (i n. l bs.) torque
wrench. Rotati ng torque shoul d be equal to the read-
i ng recorded duri ng removal , pl us an addi ti onal 0.56
Nm (5 i n. l bs.) (Fi g. 13).
(5) I f the rotati ng torque i s l ow, use Hol der 6958 to
hol d the pi ni on yoke (Fi g. 14), and ti ghten the pi ni on
shaft nut i n 6.8 Nm (5 ft. l bs.) i ncrements unti l
proper rotati ng torque i s achi eved.
CAUTION: If the maximum tightening torque is
reached prior to reaching the required rotating
torque, the collapsible spacer may have been dam-
aged. Replace the collapsible spacer.
(6) Al i gn the i nstal l ati on reference marks on the
propel l er shaft and yoke and i nstal l the propel l er
shaft.
Fig. 10 Pinion Yoke Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-3281
2 YOKE
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-452
Fig. 11 Pinion Seal Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-4171
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-3972A
Fig. 12 Pinion Yoke Installation
1 PINION YOKE
2 AXLE HOUSING
3 - 26 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(7) Check and fi l l the gear l ubri cant. Refer to the
Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons for gear l ubri cant requi re-
ments.
(8) I nstal l the brake rotors and cal i pers. Refer to
Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(9) I nstal l wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(10) Lower the vehi cl e.
COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
REMOVAL W/PINION INSTALLED
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(3) Remove brake rotors and cal i pers. Refer to
Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(4) Mark the propel l er shaft and pi ni on yoke for
i nstal l ati on reference.
(5) Remove the propel l er shaft from the yoke.
(6) Rotate the pi ni on gear three or four ti mes.
(7) Measure the amount of torque necessary to
rotate the pi ni on gear wi th a (i n. l bs.) di al -type
torque wrench. Record the torque readi ng for i nstal -
l ati on reference.
(8) Usi ng Hol der 6958 to hol d the pi ni on yoke,
remove the pi ni on nut and washer.
(9) Use Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to
remove the pi ni on yoke (Fi g. 15).
(10) Use a sui tabl e pry tool or a sl i de hammer
mounted screw, remove the pi ni on seal .
(11) Remove the front pi ni on beari ng usi ng a pai r
of sui tabl e pi ck tool s to pul l the beari ng strai ght off
the pi ni on gear shaft. I t may be necessary to l i ghtl y
tap the end of the pi ni on gear wi th a rawhi de or rub-
ber mal l et i f the beari ng becomes bound on the pi n-
i on shaft.
(12) Remove the col l apsi bl e spacer.
Fig. 13 Check Pinion Rotation Torque
1 PINION YOKE
2 INCH POUND TORQUE WRENCH
Fig. 14 Tightening Pinion Shaft NutTypical
1 PINION FLANGE
2 FRONT AXLE
3 TOOL 6958
Fig. 15 Pinion Yoke Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-3281
2 YOKE
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-452
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 27
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
REMOVAL W/PINION REMOVED
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(3) Remove brake rotors and cal i pers. Refer to
Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(4) Mark the propel l er shaft and pi ni on yoke for
i nstal l ati on reference.
(5) Remove the propel l er shaft from the yoke.
(6) Rotate the pi ni on gear three or four ti mes.
(7) Measure the amount of torque necessary to
rotate the pi ni on gear wi th a (i n. l bs.) di al -type
torque wrench. Record the torque readi ng for i nstal -
l ati on reference.
(8) Remove di fferenti al assembl y from axl e hous-
i ng.
(9) Usi ng Hol der 6958 to hol d yoke, remove the
pi ni on nut and washer.
(10) Usi ng Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281,
remove the pi ni on yoke from pi ni on shaft (Fi g. 15).
(11) Remove the pi ni on gear from housi ng (Fi g.
16). Catch the pi ni on wi th your hand to prevent i t
from fal l i ng and bei ng damaged.
(12) Remove col l apsi bl e spacer from pi ni on shaft.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l a new col l apsi bl e prel oad spacer on pi n-
i on shaft (Fi g. 17).
(2) I f pi ni on gear was removed, i nstal l pi ni on gear
i n housi ng.
(3) I nstal l pi ni on front beari ng, i f necessary.
(4) Appl y a l i ght coati ng of gear l ubri cant on the
l i p of pi ni on seal . I nstal l seal wi th I nstal l er C-3972-A
and Handl e C-4171 (Fi g. 18), i f necessary.
(5) I nstal l yoke wi th I nstal l er W-162-D, Cup 8109,
and hol der 6958 (Fi g. 19).
(6) I f the ori gi nal pi ni on beari ngs are bei ng used,
i nstal l di fferenti al assembl y and axl e shafts, i f neces-
sary.
Fig. 16 Remove Pinion Gear
1 RAWHIDE HAMMER
Fig. 17 Collapsible Preload Spacer
1 COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
2 SHOULDER
3 PINION GEAR
4 OIL SLINGER
5 REAR BEARING
Fig. 18 Pinion Seal Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-4171
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-3972A
3 - 28 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
NOTE: If new pinion bearings were installed, do not
install the differential assembly and axle shafts until
after the pinion bearing preload and rotating torque
are set.
(7) I nstal l the pi ni on washer and a new nut on the
pi ni on gear. Ti ghten the nut to 217 Nm (160 ft. l bs.)
mi ni mum. Do not over-tighten. Maxi mum torque i s
353 Nm (260 ft. l bs.).
CAUTION: Never loosen pinion gear nut to
decrease pinion gear bearing rotating torque and
never exceed specified preload torque. If preload
torque is exceeded, a new collapsible spacer must
be installed. The torque sequence will then have to
be repeated.
(8) Usi ng yoke hol der 6958 and a torque wrench
set at 353 Nm (260 ft. l bs.), crush col l apsi bl e spacer
unti l beari ng end pl ay i s taken up (Fi g. 20). I f more
than 353 Nm (260 ft. l bs.) i s needed to begi n to col -
l apse the spacer, the spacer i s defecti ve and must be
repl aced.
(9) Sl owl y ti ghten the nut i n 6.8 Nm (5 ft. l bs.)
i ncrements unti l the rotati ng torque i s achi eved.
Measure the rotati ng torque frequentl y to avoi d over
crushi ng the col l apsi bl e spacer (Fi g. 21).
(10) Check rotati ng torque wi th an i nch pound
torque wrench (Fi g. 21). The torque necessary to
rotate the pi ni on gear shoul d be:
Ori gi nal Beari ngs The readi ng recorded dur-
i ng removal , pl us an addi ti onal 0.56 Nm (5 i n. l bs.).
New Beari ngs 1.5 to 4 Nm (15 to 35 i n. l bs.).
(11) I nstal l di fferenti al assembl y and axl e shafts, i f
necessary.
(12) Al i gn marks made previ ousl y on yoke and
propel l er shaft and i nstal l propel l er shaft.
(13) I nstal l brake rotors and cal i pers. Refer to
Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
Fig. 19 Pinion Yoke Installation
1 PINION YOKE
2 AXLE HOUSING
Fig. 20 Tightening Pinion Nut
1 PINION FLANGE
2 FRONT AXLE
3 TOOL 6958
Fig. 21 Check Pinion Gear Rotation TorqueTypical
1 PINION YOKE
2 INCH POUND TORQUE WRENCH
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 29
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(14) Add gear l ubri cant, i f necessary. Refer to
Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons of thi s secti on for l ubri cant
requi rements.
(15) I nstal l wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(16) Lower vehi cl e.
HUB BEARING AND AXLE SHAFT
I f the axl e shaft and hub beari ng are bei ng
removed i n order to servi ce another component, the
axl e shaft and hub beari ng can be removed as an
assembl y.
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove the wheel and ti re assembl y.
(3) Remove the brake cal i per and rotor. Refer to
Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(4) Remove ABS wheel speed sensor, i f necessary.
Refer to Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(5) Remove the cotter pi n, nut retai ner, and axl e
hub nut (Fi g. 22), i f necessary.
(6) Remove the hub to knuckl e bol ts (Fi g. 23).
(7) Remove the hub from the steeri ng knuckl e and
axl e shaft, i f necessary.
(8) Remove hub beari ng and axl e shaft assembl y
(Fi g. 24), or axl e shaft from axl e. Avoid damaging
the axle shaft oil seals in the axle housing.
(9) Remove the brake rotor shi el d from the hub
beari ng or knuckl e (Fi g. 22).
Fig. 22 Hub, Knuckle and Axle Shaft
1 BRAKE SHIELD
2 WASHER
3 RETAINER
4 COTTER PIN
5 NUT
6 HUB AND BEARING ASSEMBLY
7 STEERING KNUCKLE
8 BOLT
9 TONE WHEEL (ABS)
Fig. 23 Hub Bearing Bolts
1 AXLE SHAFT
2 AXLE
3 KNUCKLE
4 HUB BEARING
3 - 30 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
INSTALLATION
(1) Thoroughl y cl ean the axl e shaft (Fi g. 22) and
appl y a thi n fi l m of Mopar Wheel Beari ng Grease,
or equi val ent, to the shaft spl i nes, seal contact sur-
face, and hub bore.
(2) I nstal l the brake rotor shi el d to the knuckl e.
(3) I nstal l the hub beari ng and axl e shaft assem-
bl y, or axl e shaft, i nto the housi ng and di fferenti al
si de gears. Avoi d damagi ng the axl e shaft oi l seal s i n
the axl e housi ng.
(4) I nstal l the hub beari ng, i f necessary.
(5) I nstal l the hub to knuckl e bol ts and ti ghten to
102 Nm (75 ft. l bs.) torque.
(6) I nstal l the hub washer and nut, i f necessary.
Ti ghten the hub nut to 237 Nm (175 ft. l bs.) torque.
I nstal l the nut retai ner and a new cotter pi n (Fi g.
22).
(7) I nstal l ABS wheel speed sensor, i f necessary.
Refer to Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(8) I nstal l the brake rotor and cal i per. Refer to
Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(9) I nstal l the wheel and ti re assembl y.
(10) Remove support and l ower the vehi cl e.
STEERING KNUCKLE AND BALL STUDS
Bal l stud servi ce procedures bel ow requi re removal
of the hub beari ng and axl e shaft. Removal and
i nstal l ati on of upper and l ower bal l studs requi re the
use of Tool Ki t 6289.
KNUCKLE REMOVAL
(1) Remove hub beari ng and axl e shaft.
(2) Di sconnect the ti e-rod or drag l i nk from the
steeri ng knuckl e arm. Refer to Group 2, Suspensi on,
for proper procedures.
(3) Remove the cotter pi ns from the upper and
l ower bal l studs.
(4) Remove the upper and l ower bal l stud nuts.
(5) Stri ke the steeri ng knuckl e wi th a brass ham-
mer to l oosen knuckl e from the bal l studs. Remove
knuckl e from bal l studs (Fi g. 25). Fig. 24 Hub Bearing and Axle Assembly
1 AXLE
2 KNUCKLE
3 HUB BEARING
4 AXLE SHAFT
Fig. 25 Steering Knuckle Removal/Installation
1 AXLE YOKE
2 UPPER BALL STUD
3 LOWER BALL STUD
4 STEERING KNUCKLE
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 31
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
UPPER BALL STUD REPLACEMENT
(1) Posi ti on tool s as shown to remove and i nstal l
bal l stud (Fi g. 26).
LOWER BALL STUD REPLACEMENT
(1) Posi ti on tool s as shown to remove and i nstal l
bal l stud (Fi g. 27).
KNUCKLE INSTALLATION
(1) Posi ti on the steeri ng knuckl e on the bal l studs.
(2) I nstal l and ti ghten the bottom retai ni ng nut to
109 Nm (80 ft. l bs.) torque. I nstal l new cotter pi n.
(3) I nstal l and ti ghten the top retai ni ng nut to 101
Nm (75 ft. l bs.) torque. I nstal l new cotter pi n.
(4) I nstal l the hub beari ng and axl e shaft.
(5) Connect the ti e-rod or drag l i nk end to the
steeri ng knuckl e arm. Refer to Group 2, Suspensi on,
for proper procedures.
Fig. 26 Upper Ball Stud Remove/Install
3 - 32 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
AXLE BUSHING REPLACEMENT
Refer to Group 2, Suspensi on, for the proper axl e
bushi ng procedures.
DIFFERENTIAL
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support vehi cl e.
(2) Remove the l ubri cant fi l l hol e pl ug from the
di fferenti al housi ng cover.
(3) Remove the di fferenti al housi ng cover and
al l ow fl ui d to drai n.
(4) Remove hub beari ngs and axl e shafts.
(5) Note the i nstal l ati on reference l etters stamped
on the beari ng caps and housi ng machi ned seal i ng
surface (Fi g. 28).
(6) Loosen the di fferenti al beari ng cap bol ts.
(7) Posi ti on Spreader W129B, uti l i zi ng some
i tems from Adapter Ki t 6987, wi th the tool dowel
pi ns seated i n the l ocati ng hol es (Fi g. 29). I nstal l the
hol ddown cl amps and ti ghten the tool turnbuckl e fi n-
gerti ght.
Fig. 27 Lower Ball Stud Remove/Install
1 SPECIAL TOOL 628912
2 SPECIAL TOOL 62894
3 SPECIAL TOOL 4212F
4 SPECIAL TOOL 4212F
5 SPECIAL TOOL 62891
6 SPECIAL TOOL 62893
Fig. 28 Bearing Cap Identification
1 INSTALLATION REFERENCE LETTERS
2 INSTALLATION REFERENCE LETTERS
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 33
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(8) I nstal l a Gui de Pi n C-3288-B at the l eft si de of
the di fferenti al housi ng. Attach Di al I ndi cator C-3339
to gui de pi n. Load the l ever adapter agai nst the
opposi te si de of the housi ng (Fi g. 30) and zero the
i ndi cator.
CAUTION: Do not spread over 0.50 mm (0.020 in). If
the housing is over-spread, it could be distorted or
damaged.
(9) Spread the housi ng enough to remove the di f-
ferenti al case from the housi ng. Measure the di s-
tance wi th the di al i ndi cator (Fi g. 31).
(10) Remove the di al i ndi cator.
(11) Whi l e hol di ng the di fferenti al case i n posi ti on,
remove the di fferenti al beari ng cap bol ts and caps.
(12) Remove the di fferenti al , and the di fferenti al
prel oad shi ms for the 181FBI axl es, from the hous-
i ng. Ensure that the di fferenti al beari ng cups remai n
i n posi ti on on the di fferenti al beari ngs (Fi g. 32).
(13) Mark or tag the di fferenti al beari ng cups, and
the di fferenti al prel oad shi ms for the 181FBI axl es,
to i ndi cate whi ch si de of the di fferenti al they were
removed from.
(14) Remove spreader from housi ng.
Fig. 29 Install Axle Housing Spreader
1 AXLE HOUSING
2 DOWEL
3 SAFETY HOLD DOWN
4 SPECIAL TOOL
W-129B
5 TURNBUCKLE
Fig. 30 Install Dial Indicator
1 SPECIAL TOOL
C-3339
2 DIAL INDICATOR
3 LEVER ADAPTER
4 SPECIAL TOOL
W-129B
5 SPECIAL TOOL
C-3288B
Fig. 31 Spread Axle Housing
1 SPECIAL TOOL
C-3339
2 SPECIAL TOOL
W-129B
3 - 34 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
INSTALLATION
I f repl acement di fferenti al beari ngs or di fferenti al
case are bei ng i nstal l ed, di fferenti al si de beari ng
shi m requi rements may change. Refer to the Di ffer-
enti al Beari ng Prel oad and Gear Backl ash proce-
dures i n thi s secti on to determi ne the proper shi m
sel ecti on.
(1) Posi ti on Spreader W-129-B, uti l i zi ng some
i tems from Adapter Ki t 6987, wi th the tool dowel
pi ns seated i n the l ocati ng hol es (Fi g. 33). I nstal l the
hol ddown cl amps and ti ghten the tool turnbuckl e fi n-
gerti ght.
(2) I nstal l a Gui de Pi n C-3288-B at the l eft si de of
the di fferenti al housi ng. Attach Di al I ndi cator C-3339
to gui de pi n. Load the l ever adapter agai nst the
opposi te si de of the housi ng (Fi g. 30) and zero the
i ndi cator.
CAUTION: Do not spread over 0.50 mm (0.020 in). If
the housing is over-spread, it could be distorted or
damaged.
(3) Spread the housi ng enough to i nstal l the case
i n the housi ng. Measure the di stance wi th the di al
i ndi cator (Fi g. 31).
(4) Remove the di al i ndi cator.
(5) I nstal l di fferenti al case, and the di fferenti al
prel oad shi ms for the 181FBI axl es, i n the housi ng.
Ensure that the di fferenti al beari ng cups remai n i n
posi ti on on the di fferenti al beari ngs. Tap the di ffer-
enti al case to ensure the beari ngs cups are ful l y
seated i n the housi ng.
(6) I nstal l the beari ng caps at thei r ori gi nal l oca-
ti ons (Fi g. 34).
(7) Loosel y i nstal l di fferenti al beari ng cap bol ts.
(8) Remove axl e housi ng spreader.
(9) Ti ghten the beari ng cap bol ts to 61 Nm (45 ft.
l bs.) torque.
(10) I nstal l the hub beari ngs and axl e shafts.
Fig. 32 Differential Case Removal
1 AXLE HOUSING
2 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
3 BEARING CUPS
Fig. 33 Install Axle Housing Spreader
1 AXLE HOUSING
2 DOWEL
3 SAFETY HOLD DOWN
4 SPECIAL TOOL
W-129B
5 TURNBUCKLE
Fig. 34 Differential Bearing Cap Reference Letters
1 INSTALLATION REFERENCE LETTERS
2 INSTALLATION REFERENCE LETTERS
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 35
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARINGS
REMOVAL
(1) Remove di fferenti al case from axl e housi ng.
(2) Remove the beari ngs from the di fferenti al case
wi th Pul l er/Press C-293-PA, C-293-39 Adapter
Bl ocks, and Pl ug SP-3289 (Fi g. 35).
INSTALLATION
I f repl acement di fferenti al si de beari ngs or di ffer-
enti al case are bei ng i nstal l ed, di fferenti al si de bear-
i ng shi m requi rements may change. Refer to the
Di fferenti al Beari ng Prel oad and Gear Backl ash pro-
cedures i n thi s secti on to determi ne the proper shi m
sel ecti on.
(1) I nstal l di fferenti al si de beari ng shi ms onto di f-
ferenti al case hubs, for 186FBI axl es.
(2) Usi ng I nstal l er C-3716-A and Handl e C-4171,
i nstal l di fferenti al si de beari ngs (Fi g. 36).
(3) I nstal l di fferenti al i n axl e housi ng.
AXLE SHAFT OIL SEAL
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support vehi cl e.
(2) Remove di fferenti al assembl y.
(3) Remove the i nner axl e shaft seal s wi th a pry
bay.
INSTALLATION
(1) Remove any seal er remai ni ng from ori gi nal
seal s.
(2) Remove seal er from axl e tube to housi ng junc-
ti on, i f necessary.
(3) I nstal l oi l seal s wi th Di scs 8110 and Turn-
buckl e 6797 (Fi g. 37). Ti ghten tool unti l di sc bottoms
i n housi ng.
(4) I nstal l di fferenti al assembl y.
181 FBI PINION
The ri ng gear and pi ni on are servi ced as a matched
set. Do not repl ace the pi ni on wi thout repl aci ng the
ri ng gear.
REMOVAL
(1) Remove di fferenti al assembl y from axl e hous-
i ng.
(2) Mark pi ni on yoke and propel l er shaft for
i nstal l ati on al i gnment.
(3) Di sconnect propel l er shaft from pi ni on yoke.
Usi ng sui tabl e wi re, ti e propel l er shaft to underbody.
Fig. 35 Differential Bearing Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C29339
2 BEARING
3 DIFFERENTIAL
4 SPECIAL TOOL SP3289
5 SPECIAL TOOL C293PA
Fig. 36 Differential Side Bearing Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-3716A
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-4171
3 - 36 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(4) Usi ng Hol der 6958 to hol d yoke, remove the
pi ni on nut and washer.
(5) Usi ng Remover C-452 and Hol der C-3281,
remove the pi ni on yoke from pi ni on shaft (Fi g. 38).
(6) Remove the pi ni on gear and prel oad shi ms
from housi ng (Fi g. 39). Catch the pi ni on wi th your
hand to prevent i t from fal l i ng and bei ng damaged.
(7) Remove the front pi ni on beari ng cup, beari ng,
oi l sl i nger, i f equi pped, and pi ni on seal wi th Remover
D-147 and Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 40).
Fig. 37 Axle Seal Installation
1 TURNBUCKLE 6797
2 DISCS 8110
Fig. 38 Pinion Yoke Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-3281
2 YOKE
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-452
Fig. 39 Remove Pinion Gear
1 RAWHIDE HAMMER
Fig. 40 Front Bearing Cup Removal
1 REMOVER
2 HANDLE
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 37
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(8) Remove the rear pi ni on beari ng cup and oi l
sl i nger from the axl e housi ng (Fi g. 41). Use Remover
D-149 and Handl e C4171. Record the thi ckness of
the oi l sl i nger for future reference.
(9) Remove the rear pi ni on beari ng from the pi n-
i on wi th Pul l er/Press C293-PA and Adapters
C-293-39 (Fi g. 42).
Place 4 adapter blocks so they do not damage
the bearing cage.
(10) Remove the pi ni on depth shi m/oi l baffl e from
the pi ni on shaft. Record the thi ckness of the depth
shi m/oi l baffl e.
INSTALLATION
NOTE: A pinion depth shim/oil baffle is placed
between the rear pinion bearing cone and pinion
gear. If the factory installed ring and pinion gears
are reused, the pinion depth shim/oil baffle should
not require replacement. Refer to Pinion Gear Depth
to select the proper thickness shim before installing
pinion gear.
(1) I nstal l a new oi l sl i nger of the same thi ckness
as the ori gi nal i nto the rear pi ni on beari ng bore of
the axl e housi ng.
(2) Appl y Mopar Door Ease, or equi val ent, sti ck
l ubri cant to outsi de surface of rear pi ni on beari ng
cup. I nstal l the beari ng cup wi th I nstal l er D-146 and
Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 43). Veri fy cup i s correctl y
seated.
Fig. 41 Rear Bearing Cup Removal
1 DRIVER
2 HANDLE
Fig. 42 Rear Bearing Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-293PA
2 VISE
3 ADAPTERS
4 DRIVE PINION GEAR SHAFT
Fig. 43 Rear Pinion Bearing Cup Installation
1 INSTALLER
2 HANDLE
3 - 38 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(3) Appl y Mopar Door Ease, or equi val ent, sti ck
l ubri cant to outsi de surface of front pi ni on beari ng
cup. I nstal l the beari ng cup wi th I nstal l er D-144 and
Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 44).
(4) I nstal l front pi ni on beari ng, and oi l sl i nger, i f
equi pped.
(5) Appl y a l i ght coati ng of gear l ubri cant on the
l i p of pi ni on seal . I nstal l seal wi th I nstal l er C-3972-A
and Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 45).
(6) I nstal l the rear pi ni on beari ng and pi ni on
depth shi m/oi l baffl e onto the pi ni on gear wi th
I nstal l er W-262 and a shop press (Fi g. 46).
(7) I nstal l pi ni on beari ng prel oad shi ms onto the
pi ni on gear (Fi g. 47).
(8) I nstal l pi ni on gear i n housi ng.
(9) I nstal l yoke wi th I nstal l er W-162-B, Cup 8109,
and Hol der 6958 (Fi g. 48).
Fig. 44 Pinion Outer Bearing Cup Installation
1 INSTALLER
2 HANDLE
Fig. 45 Pinion Seal Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-4171
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-3972A
Fig. 46 Rear Pinion Bearing Installation
1 PRESS
2 INSTALLATION TOOL
3 PINION DEPTH SHIM/OIL BAFFLE
4 DRIVE PINION
5 DRIVE PINION SHAFT REAR BEARING
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 39
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(10) I nstal l the pi ni on washer and a new nut on
the pi ni on gear. Ti ghten the nut to 217 Nm (160 ft.
l bs.).
CAUTION: Never loosen pinion gear nut to
decrease pinion gear bearing rotating torque and
never exceed specified preload rotating torque.
(11) Check beari ng prel oad torque wi th an i nch
pound torque wrench (Fi g. 49). The torque necessary
to rotate the pi ni on gear shoul d be:
Ori gi nal Beari ngs1 to 2 Nm (10 to 20 i n. l bs.).
New Beari ngs1.5 to 4 Nm (15 to 35 i n. l bs.).
(12) I f rotati ng torque i s above the desi red
amount, remove the pi ni on yoke and i ncrease the
prel oad shi m pack thi ckness. I ncreasi ng the shi m
pack thi ckness 0.025 mm (0.001 i n.) wi l l decrease the
rotati ng torque approxi matel y 0.9 Nm (8 i n. l bs.).
(13) Ti ghten pi ni on shaft nut i n 6.8 Nm (5 ft. l bs.)
i ncrements unti l the maxi mum ti ghteni ng or desi red
rotati ng torque i s reached. Maxi mum ti ghteni ng
torque i s 271 Nm (200 ft.l bs.).
Fig. 47 Pinion Preload ShimsTypical
1 PINION PRELOAD SHIMS
2 FRONT BEARING CUP
3 SLINGER
4 PINION YOKE
5 WASHER
6 PINION NUT
7 PINION OIL SEAL
8 FRONT BEARING CONE
Fig. 48 Pinion Yoke Installation
1 PINION YOKE
2 AXLE HOUSING
3 - 40 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(14) I f the maxi mum ti ghteni ng torque i s reached
pri or to achi evi ng the desi red rotati ng torque, remove
the pi ni on yoke and decrease the thi ckness of the
prel oad shi m pack. Decreasi ng the shi m pack thi ck-
ness 0.025 mm (0.001 i n.) wi l l i ncrease the rotati ng
torque approxi matel y 0.9 Nm (8 i n. l bs.).
(15) I nstal l di fferenti al assembl y.
186 FBI PINION
The ri ng gear and pi ni on are servi ced as a matched
set. Do not repl ace the pi ni on wi thout repl aci ng the
ri ng gear.
REMOVAL
(1) Remove di fferenti al assembl y from axl e hous-
i ng.
(2) Mark pi ni on yoke and propel l er shaft for
i nstal l ati on al i gnment.
(3) Di sconnect propel l er shaft from pi ni on yoke.
Usi ng sui tabl e wi re, ti e propel l er shaft to underbody.
(4) Usi ng Hol der 6958 to the hol d yoke, remove
the pi ni on nut and washer (Fi g. 50).
(5) Usi ng Remover C452 and Hol der C-3281,
remove the pi ni on yoke from pi ni on shaft (Fi g. 51).
Fig. 49 Check Pinion Gear Rotating Torque
1 in. lbs. TORQUE WRENCH
2 PINION YOKE
Fig. 50 Pinion Yoke HolderTypical
1 1 in. PIPE
2 PINION YOKE
3 SPECIAL TOOL
6958
4 LOWER CONTROL ARM
Fig. 51 Pinion Yoke Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-3281
2 YOKE
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-452
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 41
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(6) Remove the pi ni on and col l apsi bl e spacer from
housi ng (Fi g. 52). Catch the pi ni on wi th your hand to
prevent i t from fal l i ng and bei ng damaged.
(7) Remove the front pi ni on beari ng cup, beari ng,
oi l sl i nger, i f equi pped, and pi ni on seal wi th Remover
C-4345 and Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 53).
(8) Remove the rear pi ni on beari ng cup from axl e
housi ng (Fi g. 54). Use Remover D-149 and Handl e
C4171.
(9) Remove the col l apsi bl e prel oad spacer from
pi ni on gear (Fi g. 55).
Fig. 52 Remove Pinion
1 RAWHIDE HAMMER
Fig. 53 Front Bearing Cup Removal
1 REMOVER
2 HANDLE
Fig. 54 Rear Bearing Cup Removal
1 DRIVER
2 HANDLE
Fig. 55 Collapsible Spacer
1 COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
2 SHOULDER
3 PINION
4 PINION DEPTH SHIM
5 REAR BEARING
3 - 42 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(10) Remove the rear pi ni on beari ng from the pi n-
i on wi th Pul l er/Press C293-PA and Adapters
C29339 (Fi g. 56).
Place 4 adapter blocks so they do not damage
the bearing cage.
(11) Remove the depth shi m/oi l sl i nger from the
pi ni on shaft. Record the thi ckness of the depth shi m/
oi l sl i nger.
INSTALLATION
NOTE: A pinion depth shim/oil slinger is placed
between the rear pinion bearing cone and the pin-
ion head to achieve proper ring gear and pinion
mesh. If the factory installed ring gear and pinion
are reused, the pinion depth shim/oil slinger should
not require replacement. Refer to Pinion Gear Depth
to select the proper thickness shim/oil slinger
before installing pinion.
(1) Appl y Mopar Door Ease, or equi val ent, sti ck
l ubri cant to outsi de surface of rear pi ni on beari ng
cup. I nstal l the beari ng cup wi th I nstal l er D-146 and
Dri ver Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 57). Veri fy cup i s cor-
rectl y seated.
(2) Appl y Mopar Door Ease, or equi val ent, sti ck
l ubri cant to outsi de surface of front pi ni on beari ng
cup. I nstal l the beari ng cup wi th I nstal l er D-130 and
Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 58).
(3) I nstal l front pi ni on beari ng, and oi l sl i nger, i f
equi pped.
(4) Appl y a l i ght coati ng of gear l ubri cant on the
l i p of pi ni on seal . I nstal l seal wi th I nstal l er C-3972-A
and Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 59).
(5) I nstal l the rear pi ni on beari ng and the pi ni on
depth shi m/oi l sl i nger onto the pi ni on wi th I nstal l er
W-262 and a shop press (Fi g. 60).
Fig. 56 Inner Bearing Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-293PA
2 VISE
3 ADAPTERS
4 DRIVE PINION GEAR SHAFT
Fig. 57 Rear Pinion Bearing Cup Installation
1 INSTALLER
2 HANDLE
Fig. 58 Pinion Outer Bearing Cup Installation
1 INSTALLER
2 HANDLE
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 43
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(6) I nstal l a new col l apsi bl e prel oad spacer on pi n-
i on shaft and i nstal l pi ni on i n housi ng (Fi g. 61).
(7) I nstal l yoke wi th I nstal l er W-162-B, Cup 8109,
and Hol der 6958 (Fi g. 62).
(8) I nstal l the pi ni on washer and a new nut onto
the pi ni on. Ti ghten the nut to 216 Nm (160 ft. l bs.)
mi ni mum. Do not overtighten. Maxi mum torque
i s 352 Nm (260 ft. l bs.).
CAUTION: Never loosen the pinion nut to decrease
pinion bearing rotating torque and never exceed
specified preload torque. If preload torque is
exceeded a new collapsible spacer must be
installed. The torque sequence will then have to be
repeated.
(9) Usi ng Hol der 6958 and torque wrench (set at
352 Nm (260 ft. l bs.)), crush col l apsi bl e spacer unti l
Fig. 59 Pinion Seal Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-4171
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-3972A
Fig. 60 Rear Pinion Bearing Installation
1 PRESS
2 INSTALLATION TOOL
3 PINION DEPTH SHIM/OIL BAFFLE
4 DRIVE PINION
5 DRIVE PINION SHAFT REAR BEARING
Fig. 61 Collapsible Preload Spacer
1 COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
2 SHOULDER
3 PINION GEAR
4 OIL SLINGER
5 REAR BEARING
Fig. 62 Pinion Yoke Installation
1 PINION YOKE
2 AXLE HOUSING
3 - 44 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
beari ng end pl ay i s taken up (Fi g. 63). I f more than
353 Nm (260 ft. l bs.) i s needed to begi n to col l apse
the spacer, the spacer i s defecti ve and must be
repl aced.
(10) Sl owl y ti ghten the nut i n 6.8 Nm (5 ft. l b.)
i ncrements unti l the rotati ng torque i s achi eved.
Measure the rotati ng torque frequentl y to avoi d over
crushi ng the col l apsi bl e spacer (Fi g. 64).
(11) Check beari ng rotati ng torque wi th an i nch
pound torque wrench (Fi g. 64). The torque necessary
to rotate the pi ni on shoul d be:
Ori gi nal Beari ngs 1 to 2 Nm (10 to 20 i n.
l bs.).
New Beari ngs 1.5 to 4 Nm (15 to 35 i n. l bs.).
(12) I nstal l di fferenti al assembl y.
RING GEAR
NOTE: The ring gear and pinion are serviced as a
matched set. Do not replace the ring gear without
replacing the pinion.
REMOVAL
(1) Remove di fferenti al from axl e housi ng.
(2) Pl ace di fferenti al case i n a sui tabl e vi se wi th
soft metal jaw protectors. (Fi g. 65)
(3) Remove bol ts hol di ng ri ng gear to di fferenti al
case.
(4) Usi ng a soft hammer, dri ve ri ng gear from di f-
ferenti al case (Fi g. 65).
INSTALLATION
CAUTION: Do not reuse the bolts that held the ring
gear to the differential case. The bolts can fracture
causing extensive damage.
Fig. 63 Tightening Pinion NutTypical
1 PINION FLANGE
2 FRONT AXLE
3 TOOL 6958
Fig. 64 Check Pinion Rotation Torque
1 in. lbs. TORQUE WRENCH
2 PINION YOKE
Fig. 65 Ring Gear Removal
1 CASE
2 RING GEAR
3 RAWHIDE HAMMER
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 45
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(1) I nvert the di fferenti al case and start two ri ng
gear bol ts. Thi s wi l l provi de case-to-ri ng gear bol t
hol e al i gnment.
(2) I nvert the di fferenti al case i n the vi se.
(3) I nstal l new ri ng gear bol ts and al ternatel y
ti ghten to 95122 Nm (7090 ft. l bs.) torque (Fi g.
66).
(4) I nstal l di fferenti al i n axl e housi ng and veri fy
gear mesh and contact pattern.
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL
DISASSEMBLY
(1) Remove the ri ng gear.
(2) Usi ng a sui tabl e rol l pi n punch, dri ve out the
rol l pi n hol di ng pi ni on gear mate shaft i n the di ffer-
enti al case (Fi g. 67).
(3) Remove the pi ni on gear mate shaft from the
di fferenti al case and the pi ni on mate gears.
(4) Rotate di fferenti al si de gears and remove the
pi ni on mate gears and thrust washers (Fi g. 68).
(5) Remove the di fferenti al si de gears and thrust
washers.
ASSEMBLY
(1) I nstal l the di fferenti al si de gears and thrust
washers.
(2) I nstal l the pi ni on mate gears and thrust wash-
ers.
Fig. 66 Ring Gear Bolt Installation
1 TORQUE WRENCH
2 RING GEAR BOLT
3 RING GEAR
4 CASE
Fig. 67 Mate Shaft Roll Pin Removal
1 DRIFT
2 LOCKPIN
3 MATE SHAFT
Fig. 68 Pinion Mate Gear Removal
1 THRUST WASHER
2 SIDE GEAR
3 PINION MATE GEAR
3 - 46 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(3) I nstal l the pi ni on gear mate shaft. Al i gn the
rol l pi n hol es i n shaft and the di fferenti al case.
(4) I nstal l the rol l pi n to hol d the pi ni on mate
shaft i n the di fferenti al case (Fi g. 69).
(5) I nstal l the ri ng gear.
(6) Lubri cate al l di fferenti al components wi th
hypoi d gear l ubri cant.
FINAL ASSEMBLY
(1) Scrape the resi dual seal ant from the housi ng
and cover mati ng surfaces. Cl ean the mati ng surfaces
wi th mi neral spi ri ts. Appl y a bead of Mopar Si l i cone
Rubber Seal ant, or equi val ent, on the housi ng cover
(Fi g. 70).
Install the housing cover within 5 minutes
after applying the sealant.
(2) I nstal l the cover on the di fferenti al wi th the
attachi ng bol ts. I nstal l the i denti fi cati on tag. Ti ghten
the cover bol ts to 41 Nm (30 ft. l bs.) torque.
CAUTION: Overfilling the differential can result in
lubricant foaming and overheating.
(3) Refi l l the di fferenti al housi ng wi th gear l ubri -
cant. Refer to the Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons secti on of
thi s group for the gear l ubri cant requi rements.
(4) I nstal l the fi l l hol e pl ug.
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
CARDAN U-JOINT
Cl ean al l the Ujoi nt yoke bores wi th cl eani ng sol -
vent and a wi re brush. Ensure that al l the rust and
forei gn matter are removed from the bores.
I nspect the yokes for di storti on, cracks and worn
beari ng cap bores.
Repl ace the compl ete Ujoi nt i f any of the compo-
nents are defecti ve.
AXLE COMPONENTS
Wash di fferenti al components wi th cl eani ng sol vent
and dry wi th compressed ai r. Do not steam clean
the differential components.
Wash beari ngs wi th sol vent and towel dry, or dry
wi th compressed ai r. DO NOT spi n beari ngs wi th
compressed ai r. Cup and bearing must be
replaced as matched sets only.
Cl ean axl e shaft tubes and oi l channel s i n housi ng.
I nspect for;
Smooth appearance wi th no broken/dented sur-
faces on the beari ng rol l ers or the rol l er contact sur-
faces.
Beari ng cups must not be di storted or cracked.
Machi ned surfaces shoul d be smooth and wi th-
out any rai sed edges.
Rai sed metal on shoul ders of cup bores shoul d
be removed wi th a hand stone.
Fig. 69 Mate Shaft Roll Pin Installation
1 PUNCH
2 PINION MATE SHAFT
3 MATE SHAFT LOCKPIN
Fig. 70 Typical Housing Cover With Sealant
1 SEALING SURFACE
2 CONTOUR OF BEAD
3 BEAD THICKNESS 6.35mm (1/4)
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 47
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
Wear and damage to pi ni on gear mate shaft,
pi ni on gears, si de gears and thrust washers. Repl ace
as a matched set onl y.
Ri ng and pi ni on gear for worn and chi pped
teeth.
Ri ng gear for damaged bol t threads. Repl aced as
a matched set onl y.
Pi ni on yoke for cracks, worn spl i nes, pi tted
areas, and a rough/corroded seal contact surface.
Repai r or repl ace as necessary.
Prel oad shi ms for damage and di storti on. I nstal l
new shi ms, i f necessary.
ADJ USTMENTS
181 FBI PINION GEAR DEPTH
GENERAL INFORMATION
Ri ng and pi ni on gears are suppl i ed as matched
sets onl y. The i denti fyi ng numbers for the ri ng and
pi ni on gear are etched i nto the face of each gear (Fi g.
71). A pl us (+) number, mi nus () number or zero (0)
i s etched i nto the face of the pi ni on gear. Thi s num-
ber i s the amount (i n thousandths of an i nch) the
depth vari es from the standard depth setti ng of a
pi ni on etched wi th a (0). The standard setti ng from
the center l i ne of the ri ng gear to the back face of the
pi ni on i s 92.08 mm (3.625 i n.). The standard depth
provi des the best gear tooth contact pattern. Refer to
Backl ash and Contact Pattern Anal ysi s paragraph i n
thi s secti on for addi ti onal i nformati on.
Compensati on for pi ni on depth vari ance i s
achi eved wi th a sel ect shi m/oi l baffl e. The shi ms are
pl aced between the rear pi ni on beari ng and the pi n-
i on gear head (Fi g. 72).
I f a new gear set i s bei ng i nstal l ed, note the depth
vari ance etched i nto both the ori gi nal and repl ace-
ment pi ni on. Add or subtract thi s number from the
thi ckness of the ori gi nal depth shi m/oi l sl i nger to
compensate for the di fference i n the depth vari ances.
Refer to the Depth Vari ance chart.
Note where Ol d and New Pi ni on Marki ng col umns
i ntersect. I ntersecti ng fi gure represents pl us or
mi nus the amount needed.
Note the etched number on the face of the pi ni on
gear head (1, 2, 0, +1, +2, etc.). The numbers rep-
resent thousands of an i nch devi ati on from the stan-
dard. I f the number i s negati ve, add that val ue to the
requi red thi ckness of the depth shi ms. I f the number
i s posi ti ve, subtract that val ue from the thi ckness of
the depth shi m. I f the number i s 0 no change i s nec-
essary.
Fig. 71 Pinion Gear ID Numbers
1 PRODUCTION NUMBERS
2 DRIVE PINION GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE
3 GEAR MATCHING NUMBER (SAME AS RING GEAR
NUMBER)
Fig. 72 Shim Locations
1 PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM/OIL BAFFLE
2 DIFFERENTIAL BEARING SHIM
3 - 48 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
CLEANING AND INSPECTION (Continued)
PINION DEPTH MEASUREMENT AND ADJUSTMENT
Measurements are taken wi th pi ni on beari ng cups
and pi ni on beari ngs i nstal l ed i n the axl e housi ng.
Take measurements wi th Pi ni on Gauge Set and Di al
I ndi cator C-3339 (Fi g. 73).
(1) Assembl e Pi ni on Hei ght Bl ock 6739, Pi ni on
Bl ock 6733, and rear pi ni on beari ng onto Screw 6741
(Fi g. 73).
(2) I nsert assembl ed hei ght gauge components,
rear beari ng and screw i nto axl e housi ng through
pi ni on beari ng cups (Fi g. 74).
(3) I nstal l front pi ni on beari ng and Cone-nut 6740
hand ti ght (Fi g. 73).
(4) Pl ace Arbor Di sc 6732 on Arbor D-115-3 i n posi -
ti on i n axl e housi ng si de beari ng cradl es (Fi g. 75).
I nstal l di fferenti al beari ng caps on Arbor Di scs and
ti ghten cap bol ts to 41 Nm (30 ft. l bs.).
NOTE: Arbor Discs 6732 has different step diame-
ters to fit other axles. Choose proper step for axle
being serviced.
(5) Assembl e Di al I ndi cator C-3339 i nto Scooter
Bl ock D-115-2 and secure set screw.
(6) Pl ace Scooter Bl ock/Di al I ndi cator i n posi ti on
i n axl e housi ng so di al probe and scooter bl ock are
fl ush agai nst the rearward surface of the pi ni on
PINION GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE
Original Pinion
Gear Depth
Variance
Replacement Pinion Gear Depth Variance
4 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4
+4 +0.008 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0
+3 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001
+2 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002
+1 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003
0 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004
1 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005
2 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006
3 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007
4 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008
Fig. 73 Pinion Gear Depth Gauge ToolsTypical
1 DIAL INDICATOR
2 ARBOR
3 PINION HEIGHT BLOCK
4 CONE
5 SCREW
6 PINION BLOCK
7 SCOOTER BLOCK
8 ARBOR DISC
Fig. 74 Pinion Height BlockTypical
1 PINION BLOCK
2 PINION HEIGHT BLOCK
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 49
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
hei ght bl ock (Fi g. 73). Hol d scooter bl ock i n pl ace and
zero the di al i ndi cator face to the poi nter. Ti ghten
di al i ndi cator face l ock screw.
(7) Wi th scooter bl ock sti l l i n posi ti on agai nst the
pi ni on hei ght bl ock, sl owl y sl i de the di al i ndi cator
probe over the edge of the pi ni on hei ght bl ock.
(8) Sl i de the di al i ndi cator probe across the gap
between the pi ni on hei ght bl ock and the arbor bar
wi th the scooter bl ock agai nst the pi ni on hei ght bl ock
(Fi g. 76). When the di al probe contacts the arbor bar,
the di al poi nter wi l l turn cl ockwi se. Bri ng di al
poi nter back to zero agai nst the arbor bar, do not
turn di al face. Conti nue movi ng the di al probe to the
crest of the arbor bar and record the hi ghest readi ng.
I f the di al i ndi cator can not achi eve the zero readi ng,
the rear beari ng cup or the pi ni on depth gauge set i s
not i nstal l ed correctl y.
(9) Sel ect a shi m/oi l baffl e equal to the di al i ndi ca-
tor readi ng pl us the pi ni on depth vari ance number
etched i n the face of the pi ni on (Fi g. 71). For exam-
pl e, i f the depth vari ance i s 2, add +0.002 i n. to the
di al i ndi cator readi ng.
186 FBI PINION GEAR DEPTH
GENERAL INFORMATION
Ri ng gear and pi ni on are suppl i ed as matched sets
onl y. The i denti fyi ng numbers for the ri ng gear and
pi ni on are etched i nto the face of each gear (Fi g. 77).
A pl us (+) number, mi nus () number or zero (0) i s
etched i nto the face of the pi ni on gear head. Thi s
number i s the amount (i n thousandths of an i nch)
the depth vari es from the standard depth setti ng of a
pi ni on etched wi th a (0). The standard setti ng from
the center l i ne of the ri ng gear to the back face of the
pi ni on i s 92.08 mm (3.625 i n.). The standard depth
provi des the best gear tooth contact pattern. Refer to
Backl ash and Contact Pattern Anal ysi s paragraph i n
thi s secti on for addi ti onal i nformati on.
Compensati on for pi ni on depth vari ance i s
achi eved wi th a sel ect shi m/oi l sl i nger. The shi m/oi l
sl i nger i s pl aced between the rear pi ni on beari ng and
the pi ni on gear head (Fi g. 78).
I f a new gear set i s bei ng i nstal l ed, note the depth
vari ance etched i nto both the ori gi nal and repl ace-
ment pi ni on. Add or subtract the thi ckness of the
ori gi nal depth shi ms to compensate for the di fference
i n the depth vari ances. Refer to the Depth Vari ance
chart.
Fig. 75 Gauge Tools In HousingTypical
1 ARBOR DISC
2 PINION BLOCK
3 ARBOR
4 PINION HEIGHT BLOCK
Fig. 76 Pinion Gear Depth MeasurementTypical
1 ARBOR
2 SCOOTER BLOCK
3 DIAL INDICATOR
Fig. 77 Pinion Gear ID Numbers
1 PRODUCTION NUMBERS
2 DRIVE PINION GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE
3 GEAR MATCHING NUMBER (SAME AS RING GEAR
NUMBER)
3 - 50 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
Note where Ol d and New Pi ni on Marki ng col umns
i ntersect. I ntersecti ng fi gure represents pl us or
mi nus the amount needed.
Note the etched number on the face of the dri ve
pi ni on (1, 2, 0, +1, +2, etc.). The numbers repre-
sent thousands of an i nch devi ati on from the stan-
dard. I f the number i s negati ve, add that val ue to the
requi red thi ckness of the depth shi m/oi l sl i nger. I f
the number i s posi ti ve, subtract that val ue from the
thi ckness of the depth shi m/oi l sl i nger. I f the number
i s 0 no change i s necessary.
PINION DEPTH MEASUREMENT AND ADJUSTMENT
Measurements are taken wi th pi ni on beari ng cups
and pi ni on beari ngs i nstal l ed i n the axl e housi ng.
Take measurements wi th Pi ni on Gauge Set 6774 and
Di al I ndi cator C-3339 (Fi g. 79).
PINION GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE
Original Pinion
Gear Depth
Variance
Replacement Pinion Gear Depth Variance
4 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4
+4 +0.008 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0
+3 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001
+2 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002
+1 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003
0 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004
1 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005
2 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006
3 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007
4 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008
Fig. 78 Shim Locations
1 PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM/OIL BAFFLE
2 DIFFERENTIAL BEARING SHIM
Fig. 79 Pinion Gear Depth Gauge ToolsTypical
1 DIAL INDICATOR
2 ARBOR
3 PINION HEIGHT BLOCK
4 CONE
5 SCREW
6 PINION BLOCK
7 SCOOTER BLOCK
8 ARBOR DISC
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 51
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
(1) Assembl e Pi ni on Hei ght Bl ock 6739, Pi ni on
Bl ock 6733, and rear pi ni on beari ng onto Screw 6741
(Fi g. 79).
(2) I nsert assembl ed hei ght gauge components,
rear beari ng and screw i nto axl e housi ng through
pi ni on beari ng cups (Fi g. 80).
(3) I nstal l front pi ni on beari ng and Cone-nut 6740
hand ti ght (Fi g. 79).
(4) Pl ace Arbor Di sc 6732 on Arbor D-115-3 i n posi -
ti on i n axl e housi ng si de beari ng cradl es (Fi g. 81).
I nstal l di fferenti al beari ng caps on Arbor Di scs and
ti ghten cap bol ts to 41 Nm (30 ft. l bs.).
NOTE: Arbor Discs 6732 has different step diame-
ters to fit other axles. Choose proper step for axle
being serviced.
(5) Assembl e Di al I ndi cator C-3339 i nto Scooter
Bl ock D-115-2 and secure set screw.
(6) Pl ace Scooter Bl ock/Di al I ndi cator i n posi ti on
i n axl e housi ng so di al probe and scooter bl ock are
fl ush agai nst the rearward surface of the pi ni on
hei ght bl ock (Fi g. 79). Hol d scooter bl ock i n pl ace and
zero the di al i ndi cator face to the poi nter. Ti ghten
di al i ndi cator face l ock screw.
(7) Wi th scooter bl ock sti l l i n posi ti on agai nst the
pi ni on hei ght bl ock, sl owl y sl i de the di al i ndi cator
probe over the edge of the pi ni on hei ght bl ock.
(8) Sl i de the di al i ndi cator probe across the gap
between the pi ni on hei ght bl ock and the arbor bar
wi th the scooter bl ock agai nst the pi ni on hei ght bl ock
(Fi g. 82). When the di al probe contacts the arbor bar,
the di al poi nter wi l l turn cl ockwi se. Bri ng di al
poi nter back to zero agai nst the arbor bar, do not
turn di al face. Conti nue movi ng the di al probe to the
crest of the arbor bar and record the hi ghest readi ng.
I f the di al i ndi cator can not achi eve the zero readi ng,
the rear beari ng cup or the pi ni on depth gauge set i s
not i nstal l ed correctl y.
(9) Sel ect a shi m/oi l sl i nger equal to the di al i ndi -
cator readi ng pl us the dri ve pi ni on depth vari ance
number etched i n the face of the pi ni on (Fi g. 77). For
exampl e, i f the depth vari ance i s 2, add +0.002 i n.
to the di al i ndi cator readi ng.
181 FBI DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD
AND GEAR BACKLASH
INTRODUCTION
Di fferenti al si de beari ng prel oad and gear backl ash
i s achi eved by sel ecti ve shi ms posi ti oned behi nd the
Fig. 80 Pinion Height BlockTypical
1 PINION BLOCK
2 PINION HEIGHT BLOCK
Fig. 81 Gauge Tools In HousingTypical
1 ARBOR DISC
2 PINION BLOCK
3 ARBOR
4 PINION HEIGHT BLOCK
Fig. 82 Pinion Gear Depth MeasurementTypical
1 ARBOR
2 SCOOTER BLOCK
3 DIAL INDICATOR
3 - 52 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
di fferenti al si de beari ng cones. The proper shi m
thi ckness can be determi ned usi ng sl i p-fi t dummy
beari ngs D-348 i n pl ace of the di fferenti al si de bear-
i ngs and a di al i ndi cator C-3339. Before proceedi ng
wi th the di fferenti al beari ng prel oad and gear back-
l ash measurements, measure the pi ni on gear depth
and prepare the pi ni on for i nstal l ati on. Establ i shi ng
proper pi ni on gear depth i s essenti al to establ i shi ng
gear backl ash and tooth contact patterns. After the
overal l shi m thi ckness to take up di fferenti al si de
pl ay i s measured, the pi ni on i s i nstal l ed, and the
gear backl ash shi m thi ckness i s measured. The over-
al l shi m thi ckness i s the total of the di al i ndi cator
readi ng and the prel oad speci fi cati on added together.
The gear backl ash measurement determi nes the
thi ckness of the shi m used on the ri ng gear si de of
the di fferenti al case. Subtract the gear backl ash shi m
thi ckness from the total overal l shi m thi ckness and
sel ect that amount for the pi ni on gear si de of the di f-
ferenti al (Fi g. 83). Di fferenti al shi m measurements
are performed wi th axl e spreader W-129-B removed.
SHIM SELECTION
NOTE: It is difficult to salvage the differential side
bearings during the removal procedure. Install
replacement bearings if necessary.
(1) Remove di fferenti al si de beari ngs from di ffer-
enti al case.
(2) Remove factory i nstal l ed shi ms from di fferen-
ti al case.
(3) I nstal l ri ng gear on di fferenti al case and
ti ghten bol ts to speci fi cati on.
(4) I nstal l dummy si de beari ngs D-348 on di fferen-
ti al case.
(5) I nstal l di fferenti al case i n axl e housi ng.
(6) I nstal l the marked beari ng caps i n thei r correct
posi ti ons. I nstal l and snug the bol ts (Fi g. 84).
(7) Usi ng a dead-bl ow type mal l et, seat the di ffer-
enti al dummy beari ngs to each si de of the axl e hous-
i ng (Fi g. 85) and (Fi g. 86).
(8) Thread gui de stud C-3288-B i nto rear cover
bol t hol e bel ow ri ng gear (Fi g. 87).
Fig. 83 Axle Adjustment Shim Locations
1 PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM/OIL BAFFLE
2 DIFFERENTIAL BEARING SHIM
Fig. 84 Tighten Bolts Holding Bearing Caps
1 BEARING CAP
2 AXLE HOUSING
3 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
Fig. 85 Seat Pinion Gear Side Differential Dummy
Side Bearing
1 MALLET
2 AXLE HOUSING
3 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 53
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
(9) Attach a di al i ndi cator C-3339 to gui de stud.
Posi ti on the di al i ndi cator pl unger on a fl at surface
between the ri ng gear bol t heads (Fi g. 87).
(10) Push and hol d di fferenti al case to pi ni on gear
si de of axl e housi ng (Fi g. 88).
(11) Zero di al i ndi cator face to poi nter (Fi g. 88).
(12) Push and hol d di fferenti al case to ri ng gear
si de of the axl e housi ng (Fi g. 89).
(13) Record di al i ndi cator readi ng (Fi g. 89).
(14) Add 0.008 i n. (0.2 mm) to the zero end pl ay
total . Thi s new total represents the thi ckness of
shi ms to compress, or prel oad the new beari ngs when
the di fferenti al i s i nstal l ed.
(15) Rotate di al i ndi cator out of the way on the
gui de stud.
(16) Remove di fferenti al case and dummy beari ngs
from axl e housi ng.
Fig. 86 Seat Ring Gear Side Differential Dummy
Side Bearing
1 AXLE HOUSING
2 MALLET
3 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
Fig. 87 Differential Side play Measurement
1 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
2 AXLE HOUSING
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-3288B
4 SPECIAL TOOL C-3339
Fig. 88 Hold Differential Case and Zero Dial
Indicator
1 FORCE DIFFERENTIAL CASE TO PINION GEAR SIDE
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-3288B
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-3339
4 ZERO DIAL INDICATOR FACE
Fig. 89 Hold Differential Case and Read Dial
Indicator
1 READ DIAL INDICATOR
2 FORCE DIFFERENTIAL CASE TO RING GEAR SIDE
3 AXLE HOUSING
3 - 54 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
(17) I nstal l the pi ni on gear i n axl e housi ng. I nstal l
the pi ni on yoke and establ i sh the correct pi ni on
rotati ng torque.
(18) I nstal l di fferenti al case and dummy beari ngs
D-348 i n axl e housi ng (wi thout shi ms), i nstal l bear-
i ng caps and ti ghten bol ts snug.
(19) Seat ri ng gear si de dummy beari ng (Fi g. 86).
(20) Posi ti on the di al i ndi cator pl unger on a fl at
surface between the ri ng gear bol t heads. (Fi g. 87).
(21) Push and hol d di fferenti al case toward pi ni on
gear (Fi g. 90).
(22) Zero di al i ndi cator face to poi nter (Fi g. 90).
(23) Push and hol d di fferenti al case to ri ng gear
si de of the axl e housi ng (Fi g. 91).
(24) Record di al i ndi cator readi ng (Fi g. 91).
(25) Subtract 0.002 i n. (0.05 mm) from the di al
i ndi cator readi ng to compensate for backl ash between
ri ng and pi ni on gears. Thi s total i s the thi ckness
shi m requi red to achi eve proper backl ash.
(26) Subtract the backl ash shi m thi ckness from
the total prel oad shi m thi ckness. The remai nder i s
the shi m thi ckness requi red on the pi ni on si de of the
axl e housi ng.
(27) Rotate di al i ndi cator out of the way on gui de
stud.
(28) Remove di fferenti al case and dummy beari ngs
from axl e housi ng.
(29) I nstal l the sel ected si de beari ng shi ms onto
the di fferenti al case hubs.
(30) I nstal l si de beari ngs and cups on di fferenti al
case.
(31) I nstal l spreader W-129-B, uti l i zi ng some i tems
from Adapter Set 6987, on axl e housi ng and spread
axl e openi ng enough to recei ve di fferenti al case.
(32) I nstal l di fferenti al case i nto the axl e housi ng.
(33) Remove spreader from axl e housi ng.
(34) Rotate the di fferenti al case several ti mes to
seat the si de beari ngs.
(35) Posi ti on the i ndi cator pl unger agai nst a ri ng
gear tooth (Fi g. 92).
(36) Push and hol d ri ng gear upward whi l e not
al l owi ng the pi ni on gear to rotate.
(37) Zero di al i ndi cator face to poi nter.
(38) Push and hol d ri ng gear downward whi l e not
al l owi ng the pi ni on gear to rotate. Di al i ndi cator
readi ng shoul d be between 0.12 mm (0.005 i n.) and
0.20 mm (0.008 i n.). I f backl ash i s not wi thi n speci fi -
cati ons transfer the necessary amount of shi m thi ck-
ness from one si de of the axl e housi ng to the other
(Fi g. 93).
(39) Veri fy di fferenti al case and ri ng gear runout
by measuri ng ri ng to pi ni on gear backl ash at ei ght
l ocati ons around the ri ng gear. Readi ngs shoul d not
vary more than 0.05 mm (0.002 i n.). I f readi ngs vary
more than speci fi ed, the ri ng gear or the di fferenti al
case i s defecti ve.
After the proper backl ash i s achi eved, perform
Gear Contact Pattern Anal ysi s procedure.
Fig. 90 Hold Differential Case and Zero Dial
Indicator
1 ZERO DIAL INDICATOR FACE
2 FORCE DIFFERENTIAL CASE TO PINION GEAR SIDE
3 PINION GEAR
4 AXLE HOUSING
5 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
Fig. 91 Hold Differential Case and Read Dial
Indicator
1 READ DIAL INDICATOR
2 FORCE DIFFERENTIAL CASE TO RING GEAR SIDE
3 PINION GEAR
4 AXLE HOUSING
5 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 55
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
186 FBI DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD
AND GEAR BACKLASH
INTRODUCTION
Di fferenti al si de beari ng prel oad and gear backl ash
i s achi eved by sel ecti ve shi ms posi ti oned behi nd the
di fferenti al si de beari ng cones. The proper shi m
thi ckness can be determi ned usi ng sl i p-fi t dummy
beari ngs D-348 i n pl ace of the di fferenti al si de bear-
i ngs and a di al i ndi cator C-3339. Before proceedi ng
wi th the di fferenti al beari ng prel oad and gear back-
l ash measurements, measure the pi ni on gear depth
and prepare the pi ni on for i nstal l ati on. Establ i shi ng
proper pi ni on gear depth i s essenti al to establ i shi ng
gear backl ash and tooth contact patterns. After the
overal l shi m thi ckness to take up di fferenti al si de
pl ay i s measured, the pi ni on i s i nstal l ed, and the
gear backl ash shi m thi ckness i s measured. The over-
al l shi m thi ckness i s the total of the di al i ndi cator
readi ng and the prel oad speci fi cati on added together.
The gear backl ash measurement determi nes the
thi ckness of the shi m used on the ri ng gear si de of
the di fferenti al case. Subtract the gear backl ash shi m
thi ckness from the total overal l shi m thi ckness and
sel ect that amount for the pi ni on gear si de of the di f-
ferenti al (Fi g. 94). Di fferenti al shi m measurements
are performed wi th axl e spreader W-129-B removed.
SHIM SELECTION
NOTE: It is difficult to salvage the differential side
bearings during the removal procedure. Install
replacement bearings if necessary.
(1) Remove di fferenti al si de beari ngs from di ffer-
enti al case.
(2) Remove factory i nstal l ed shi ms from di fferen-
ti al case.
(3) I nstal l ri ng gear on di fferenti al case and
ti ghten bol ts to speci fi cati on.
(4) I nstal l dummy si de beari ngs D-348 on di fferen-
ti al case.
(5) I nstal l di fferenti al case i n axl e housi ng.
Fig. 92 Ring Gear Backlash Measurement
1 DIAL INDICATOR
Fig. 93 Backlash Shim Adjustment
Fig. 94 Axle Adjustment Shim Locations
1 PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM/OIL BAFFLE
2 DIFFERENTIAL BEARING SHIM
3 - 56 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
(6) I nstal l the marked beari ng caps i n thei r correct
posi ti ons. I nstal l and snug the bol ts (Fi g. 95).
(7) Usi ng a dead-bl ow type mal l et, seat the di ffer-
enti al dummy beari ngs to each si de of the axl e hous-
i ng (Fi g. 96) and (Fi g. 97).
(8) Thread gui de stud C-3288-B i nto rear cover
bol t hol e bel ow ri ng gear (Fi g. 98).
(9) Attach a di al i ndi cator C-3339 to gui de stud.
Posi ti on the di al i ndi cator pl unger on a fl at surface
between the ri ng gear bol t heads (Fi g. 98).
(10) Push and hol d di fferenti al case to pi ni on gear
si de of axl e housi ng (Fi g. 99).
(11) Zero di al i ndi cator face to poi nter (Fi g. 99).
(12) Push and hol d di fferenti al case to ri ng gear
si de of the axl e housi ng (Fi g. 100).
(13) Record di al i ndi cator readi ng (Fi g. 100).
(14) Add 0.008 i n. (0.2 mm) to the zero end pl ay
total . Thi s new total represents the thi ckness of
Fig. 95 Tighten Bolts Holding Bearing Caps
1 BEARING CAP
2 AXLE HOUSING
3 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
Fig. 96 Seat Pinion Gear Side Differential Dummy
Side Bearing
1 MALLET
2 AXLE HOUSING
3 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
Fig. 97 Seat Ring Gear Side Differential Dummy
Side Bearing
1 AXLE HOUSING
2 MALLET
3 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
Fig. 98 Differential Side play Measurement
1 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
2 AXLE HOUSING
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-3288B
4 SPECIAL TOOL C-3339
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 57
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
shi ms to compress, or prel oad the new beari ngs when
the di fferenti al i s i nstal l ed.
(15) Rotate di al i ndi cator out of the way on the
gui de stud.
(16) Remove di fferenti al case and dummy beari ngs
from axl e housi ng.
(17) I nstal l the pi ni on i n the axl e housi ng. I nstal l
the pi ni on yoke and establ i sh the correct pi ni on
rotati ng torque.
(18) I nstal l di fferenti al case and dummy beari ngs
D-348 i n axl e housi ng (wi thout shi ms), i nstal l bear-
i ng caps and ti ghten bol ts snug.
(19) Seat ri ng gear si de dummy beari ng (Fi g. 97).
(20) Posi ti on the di al i ndi cator pl unger on a fl at
surface between the ri ng gear bol t heads. (Fi g. 98).
(21) Push and hol d di fferenti al case toward pi ni on
gear (Fi g. 101).
(22) Zero di al i ndi cator face to poi nter (Fi g. 101).
(23) Push and hol d di fferenti al case to ri ng gear
si de of the axl e housi ng (Fi g. 102).
(24) Record di al i ndi cator readi ng (Fi g. 102).
Fig. 99 Hold Differential Case and Zero Dial
Indicator
1 FORCE DIFFERENTIAL CASE TO PINION GEAR SIDE
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-3288B
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-3339
4 ZERO DIAL INDICATOR FACE
Fig. 100 Hold Differential Case and Read Dial
Indicator
1 READ DIAL INDICATOR
2 FORCE DIFFERENTIAL CASE TO RING GEAR SIDE
3 AXLE HOUSING
Fig. 101 Hold Differential Case and Zero Dial
Indicator
1 ZERO DIAL INDICATOR FACE
2 FORCE DIFFERENTIAL CASE TO PINION GEAR SIDE
3 PINION GEAR
4 AXLE HOUSING
5 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
Fig. 102 Hold Differential Case and Read Dial
Indicator
1 READ DIAL INDICATOR
2 FORCE DIFFERENTIAL CASE TO RING GEAR SIDE
3 PINION GEAR
4 AXLE HOUSING
5 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
3 - 58 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
(25) Subtract 0.002 i n. (0.05 mm) from the di al
i ndi cator readi ng to compensate for backl ash between
ri ng and pi ni on gears. Thi s total i s the thi ckness
shi m requi red to achi eve proper backl ash.
(26) Subtract the backl ash shi m thi ckness from
the total prel oad shi m thi ckness. The remai nder i s
the shi m thi ckness requi red on the pi ni on si de of the
axl e housi ng.
(27) Rotate di al i ndi cator out of the way on gui de
stud.
(28) Remove di fferenti al case and dummy beari ngs
from axl e housi ng.
(29) I nstal l si de beari ng shi ms on di fferenti al case
hubs.
(30) I nstal l si de beari ngs and cups on di fferenti al
case.
(31) I nstal l spreader W-129-B, uti l i zi ng some i tems
from Adapter Set 6987, on axl e housi ng and spread
axl e openi ng enough to recei ve di fferenti al case.
(32) I nstal l di fferenti al case i n axl e housi ng.
(33) Remove spreader from axl e housi ng.
(34) Rotate the di fferenti al case several ti mes to
seat the si de beari ngs.
(35) Posi ti on the i ndi cator pl unger agai nst a ri ng
gear tooth (Fi g. 103).
(36) Push and hol d ri ng gear upward whi l e not
al l owi ng the pi ni on gear to rotate.
(37) Zero di al i ndi cator face to poi nter.
(38) Push and hol d ri ng gear downward whi l e not
al l owi ng the pi ni on gear to rotate. Di al i ndi cator
readi ng shoul d be between 0.12 mm (0.005 i n.) and
0.20 mm (0.008 i n.). I f backl ash i s not wi thi n speci fi -
cati ons transfer the necessary amount of shi m thi ck-
ness from one si de of the axl e housi ng to the other
(Fi g. 104).
(39) Veri fy di fferenti al case and ri ng gear runout
by measuri ng ri ng to pi ni on gear backl ash at ei ght
l ocati ons around the ri ng gear. Readi ngs shoul d not
vary more than 0.05 mm (0.002 i n.). I f readi ngs vary
more than speci fi ed, the ri ng gear or the di fferenti al
case i s defecti ve.
After the proper backl ash i s achi eved, perform
Gear Contact Pattern Anal ysi s procedure.
GEAR CONTACT PATTERN ANALYSIS
The ri ng gear and pi ni on teeth contact patterns
wi l l show i f the pi ni on depth i s correct i n the axl e
housi ng. I t wi l l al so show i f the ri ng gear backl ash
has been adjusted correctl y. The backl ash can be
adjusted wi thi n speci fi cati ons to achi eve desi red
tooth contact patterns.
(1) Appl y a thi n coat of hydrated ferri c oxi de, or
equi val ent, to the dri ve and coast si de of the ri ng
gear teeth.
(2) Wrap, twi st, and hol d a shop towel around the
pi ni on yoke to i ncrease the turni ng resi stance of the
pi ni on. Thi s wi l l provi de a more di sti nct contact pat-
tern.
(3) Usi ng a boxed end wrench on a ri ng gear bol t,
Rotate the di fferenti al case one compl ete revol uti on
i n both di recti ons whi l e a l oad i s bei ng appl i ed from
shop towel .
The areas on the ri ng gear teeth wi th the greatest
degree of contact agai nst the pi ni on teeth wi l l squee-
gee the compound to the areas wi th the l east amount
of contact. Note and compare patterns on the ri ng
gear teeth to Gear Tooth Contact Patterns chart (Fi g.
105) and adjust pi ni on depth and gear backl ash as
necessary.
Fig. 103 Ring Gear Backlash Measurement
1 DIAL INDICATOR
Fig. 104 Backlash Shim Adjustment
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 59
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
Fig. 105 Gear Tooth Contact Patterns
3 - 60 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
181 FBI AXLE
Axl e Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hypoi d
Lubri cantStd. . . . . SAE Thermal l y Stabl e 80W90
Lubri cantHeavy Duty . . . SAE 75W140 Syntheti c
Lube Capaci ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.48 L (3.13 pts.)
Axl e Rati o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.07, 3.55, 3.73, 4.10
Di fferenti al Si de Gear Cl earance . . . 0.120.20 mm
(0.0050.008 i n.)
Ri ng Gear Di ameter . . . . . . . . . 18.09 cm (7.125 i n.)
Backl ash . . . . . . . . . . . 00.15 mm (0.0050.008 i n.)
Pi ni on Std. Depth . . . . . . . . . . . 92.1 mm (3.625 i n.)
Pi ni on Beari ng Rotati ng Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ori gi nal Beari ngs . . . . . . . 12 Nm (1020 i n. l bs.)
New Beari ngs . . . . . . . . . 1.54 Nm (1535 i n. l bs.)
186 FBI AXLE
Axl e Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hypoi d
Lubri cantStd. . . . . SAE Thermal l y Stabl e 80W90
Lubri cantHeavy Duty . . . SAE 75W140 Syntheti c
Lube Capaci ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.18 L (2.5 pts.)
Axl e Rati o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.07, 3.55, 3.73, 4.10
Di fferenti al Si de Gear Cl earance . . . 0.120.20 mm
(0.0050.008 i n.)
Ri ng Gear Di ameter . . . . . . . . . 18.59 cm (7.33 i n.)
Backl ash . . . . . . . . . . . 00.15 mm (0.0050.008 i n.)
Pi ni on Std. Depth . . . . . . . . . . . 92.1 mm (3.625 i n.)
Pi ni on Beari ng Rotati ng Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ori gi nal Beari ngs . . . . . . . 12 Nm (1020 i n. l bs.)
New Beari ngs . . . . . . . . . 1.54 Nm (1535 i n. l bs.)
TORQUE
DESCRIPTION TORQUE
Fi l l Hol e Pl ug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Nm (25 ft. l bs.)
Di ff. Cover Bol t . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Nm (30 ft. l bs.)
Beari ng Cap Bol t . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Nm (45 ft. l bs.)
Ri ng Gear Bol t . . . . . . . 95122 Nm (7090 ft. l bs.)
Axl e Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Nm (175 ft. l bs.)
Hub Brg. Bol t . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Nm (75 ft. l bs.)
Lower Bal l Stud . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Nm (80 ft. l bs.)
Upper Bal l Stud . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Nm (75 ft. l bs.)
SPECIAL TOOLS
181 and 186 FBI AXLE
PullerC-293-PA
PlugSP-3289
AdapterC-293-39
PullerC-452
WrenchC-3281
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 61
Dial IndicatorC-3339
DriverC-3716-A
HandleC-4171
InstallerD-146
RemoverD-149
InstallerW-162-D
Cup8109
Remover/Installer6289
Installer6761
Installer6752
3 - 62 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
Installer Discs8110
Turnbuckle6797
Tool Set, Pinion Depth6774
Gauge Block6733
Spanner6958
InstallerC-3972-A
SpreaderW-129-B
Adapter Kit6987
Pilot StudC-3288-B
RemoverD-147
XJ TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE 3 - 63
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
InstallerD-144
InstallerW-262
3 - 64 TUBE, 181, AND 186 FBI AXLE XJ
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
194 RBI AXLE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
194 RBI AXLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
LUBRICANT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
TRAC-LOK DIFFERENTIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
GEAR NOISE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
BEARING NOISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
LOW SPEED KNOCK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
VIBRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
DRIVELINE SNAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
TRACLOK DIFFERENTIAL NOISE . . . . . . . . . . 70
TRACLOK TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
SERVICE PROCEDURES
LUBRICANT CHANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
REAR AXLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
PINION SHAFT SEAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
COLLAPSIBLE SPACER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
AXLE SHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
AXLE SHAFT SEAL AND BEARING . . . . . . . . . . . 77
DIFFERENTIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
RING GEAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
PINION GEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
FINAL ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
TRAC-LOK DIFFERENTIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
AXLE COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
TRAC-LOK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
ADJUSTMENTS
PINION GEAR DEPTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD AND
GEAR BACKLASH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
GEAR CONTACT PATTERN ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . 97
SPECIFICATIONS
194 RBI AXLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
194 RBI AXLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
SPECIAL TOOLS
194 RBI AXLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
194 RBI AXLE
DESCRIPTION
The 194 Rear Beam-desi gn I ron (RBI ) axl e housi ng
has an i ron center casti ng (di fferenti al housi ng) wi th
axl e shaft tubes extendi ng from ei ther si de. The
tubes are pressed i nto and wel ded to the di fferenti al
housi ng to form a one-pi ece axl e housi ng.
The i ntegral type, hypoi d gear desi gn, housi ng has
the centerl i ne of the pi ni on set bel ow the centerl i ne
of the ri ng gear.
The axl e has a vent hose to rel i eve i nternal pres-
sure caused by l ubri cant vapori zati on and i nternal
expansi on.
The axl es are equi pped wi th semi fl oati ng axl e
shafts, meani ng that l oads are supported by the axl e
shaft and beari ngs. The axl e shafts are retai ned by
Ccl i ps i n the di fferenti al si de gears.
The cover provi des a means for servi ci ng the di ffer-
enti al wi thout removi ng the axl e.
For vehi cl es equi pped wi th ABS brakes, the axl es
have a tone ri ng pressed onto the axl e shaft. Use care
when removi ng axl e shafts to ensure that the tone
wheel or the wheel speed sensor are not damaged.
The 194 RBI axl e has the assembl y part number
and gear rati o l i sted on a tag. The tag i s attached to
the di fferenti al housi ng by a cover bol t. Bui l d date
i denti fi cati on codes are stamped on the cover si de of
an axl e shaft tube.
The di fferenti al case i s a one-pi ece desi gn. The di f-
ferenti al pi ni on mate shaft i s retai ned wi th a
threaded pi n. Di fferenti al beari ng prel oad and ri ng
gear backl ash i s adjusted by the use of sel ecti ve
spacer shi ms. Pi ni on beari ng prel oad i s set and
mai ntai ned by the use of a col l apsi bl e spacer (Fi g. 1).
Axl es equi pped wi th a Trac-Lok di fferenti al are
opti onal . A Trac-Lok di fferenti al has a one-pi ece di f-
ferenti al case, and the same i nternal components as
a standard di fferenti al , pl us two cl utch di sc packs.
OPERATION
The axl e recei ves power from the transmi ssi on/
transfer case through the rear propel l er shaft. The
rear propel l er shaft i s connected to the pi ni on gear
whi ch rotates the di fferenti al through the gear mesh
wi th the ri ng gear bol ted to the di fferenti al case. The
engi ne power i s transmi tted to the axl e shafts
through the pi ni on mate and si de gears. The si de
gears are spl i ned to the axl e shafts.
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 65
LUBRICANT
DESCRIPTION
A mul ti -purpose, hypoi d gear l ubri cant whi ch con-
forms to the fol l owi ng speci fi cati ons shoul d be used.
Mopar Hypoi d Gear Lubri cant conforms to al l of
these speci fi cati ons.
The l ubri cant shoul d have MI LL2105C and
API GL 5 qual i ty speci fi cati ons.
Lubri cant i s a thermal l y stabl e SAE 80W90
gear l ubri cant.
Lubri cant for axl es i ntended for heavy-duty or
trai l er tow use i s SAE 75W140 SYNTHETI C gear
l ubri cant.
Trac-l ok di fferenti al s requi re the addi ti on of 3.5 oz.
of fri cti on modi fi er to the axl e l ubri cant. The 194 RBI
axl e l ubri cant capaci ty i s 1.66L (3.50 pts.) total ,
i ncl udi ng the fri cti on modi fi er i f necessary.
CAUTION: If axle is submerged in water, lubricant
must be replaced immediately to avoid possible
premature axle failure.
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL
DESCRIPTION
The di fferenti al gear system di vi des the torque
between the axl e shafts. I t al l ows the axl e shafts to
rotate at di fferent speeds when turni ng corners.
Each di fferenti al si de gear i s spl i ned to an axl e
shaft. The pi ni on gears are mounted on a pi ni on
mate shaft and are free to rotate on the shaft. The
pi ni on gear i s fi tted i n a bore i n the di fferenti al case
and i s posi ti oned at a ri ght angl e to the axl e shafts.
OPERATION
I n operati on, power fl ow occurs as fol l ows:
The pi ni on gear rotates the ri ng gear
The ri ng gear (bol ted to the di fferenti al case)
rotates the case
The di fferenti al pi ni on gears (mounted on the
pi ni on mate shaft i n the case) rotate the si de gears
The si de gears (spl i ned to the axl e shafts) rotate
the shafts
Duri ng strai ght-ahead dri vi ng, the di fferenti al pi n-
i on gears do not rotate on the pi ni on mate shaft. Thi s
occurs because i nput torque appl i ed to the gears i s
di vi ded and di stri buted equal l y between the two si de
gears. As a resul t, the pi ni on gears revol ve wi th the
pi ni on mate shaft but do not rotate around i t (Fi g. 2).
When turni ng corners, the outsi de wheel must
travel a greater di stance than the i nsi de wheel to
compl ete a turn. The di fference must be compensated
for to prevent the ti res from scuffi ng and ski ddi ng
through turns. To accompl i sh thi s, the di fferenti al
al l ows the axl e shafts to turn at unequal speeds (Fi g.
3). I n thi s i nstance, the i nput torque appl i ed to the
pi ni on gears i s not di vi ded equal l y. The pi ni on gears
now rotate around the pi ni on mate shaft i n opposi te
di recti ons. Thi s al l ows the si de gear and axl e shaft
attached to the outsi de wheel to rotate at a faster
speed.
TRAC-LOK DIFFERENTIAL
DESCRIPTION
I n a standard di fferenti al , i f one wheel spi ns, the
opposi te wheel wi l l generate onl y as much torque as
the spi nni ng wheel .
Fig. 1 Shim Locations
1 PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM
2 DIFFERENTIAL BEARING SHIM-PINION GEAR SIDE
3 RING GEAR
4 DIFFERENTIAL BEARING SHIM-RING GEAR SIDE
5 COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
Fig. 2 Differential OperationStraight Ahead Driving
1 IN STRAIGHT AHEAD DRIVING EACH WHEEL ROTATES AT
100% OF CASE SPEED
2 PINION GEAR
3 SIDE GEAR
4 PINION GEARS ROTATE WITH CASE
3 - 66 194 RBI AXLE XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
I n the Trac-l ok di fferenti al , part of the ri ng gear
torque i s transmi tted through cl utch packs whi ch
contai n mul ti pl e di scs. The cl utches wi l l have radi al
grooves on the pl ates, and concentri c grooves on the
di scs or bonded fi ber materi al that i s smooth i n
appearance.
OPERATION
I n operati on, the Trac-l ok cl utches are engaged
by two concurrent forces. The fi rst bei ng the prel oad
force exerted through Bel l evi l l e spri ng washers
wi thi n the cl utch packs. The second i s the separati ng
forces generated by the si de gears as torque i s
appl i ed through the ri ng gear (Fi g. 4).
The Trac-l ok desi gn provi des the di fferenti al
acti on needed for turni ng corners and for dri vi ng
strai ght ahead duri ng peri ods of unequal tracti on.
When one wheel l ooses tracti on, the cl utch packs
transfer addi ti onal torque to the wheel havi ng the
most tracti on. Trac-l ok di fferenti al s resi st wheel
spi n on bumpy roads and provi de more pul l i ng power
when one wheel l ooses tracti on. Pul l i ng power i s pro-
vi ded conti nuousl y unti l both wheel s l oose tracti on. I f
both wheel s sl i p due to unequal tracti on, Trac-l ok
operati on i s normal . I n extreme cases of di fferences
of tracti on, the wheel wi th the l east tracti on may
spi n.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
GENERAL INFORMATION
Axl e beari ng probl em condi ti ons are usual l y caused
by:
I nsuffi ci ent or i ncorrect l ubri cant.
Forei gn matter/water contami nati on.
I ncorrect beari ng prel oad torque adjustment.
I ncorrect backl ash.
Axl e gear probl em condi ti ons are usual l y the resul t
of:
I nsuffi ci ent l ubri cati on.
I ncorrect or contami nated l ubri cant.
Overl oadi ng (excessi ve engi ne torque) or exceed-
i ng vehi cl e wei ght capaci ty.
I ncorrect cl earance or backl ash adjustment.
Axl e component breakage i s most often the resul t
of:
Severe overl oadi ng.
I nsuffi ci ent l ubri cant.
I ncorrect l ubri cant.
I mproperl y ti ghtened components.
Di fferenti al housi ng bores not square to each
other.
Fig. 3 Differential OperationOn Turns
1 PINION GEARS ROTATE ON PINION SHAFT
Fig. 4 Trac-lok Limited Slip Differential Operation
1 CASE
2 RING GEAR
3 DRIVE PINION
4 PINION GEAR
5 MATE SHAFT
6 CLUTCH PACK
7 SIDE GEAR
8 CLUTCH PACK
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 67
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
DIAGNOSTIC CHART
Condition Possible Causes Correction
Wheel Noise 1. Wheel loose. 1. Tighten loose nuts.
2. Faulty, brinelled wheel bearing. 2. Replace bearing.
Axle Shaft Noise 1. Misaligned axle tube. 1. Inspect axle tube alignment. Correct as
necessary.
2. Bent or sprung axle shaft. 2. Inspect and correct as necessary.
3. End-play in pinion bearings. 3. Refer to pinion pre-load information and
correct as necessary.
4. Excessive gear backlash
between the ring gear and pinion.
4. Check adjustment of the ring gear and
pinion backlash. Correct as necessary.
5. Improper adjustment of pinion
gear bearings.
5. Adjust the pinion bearings pre-load.
6. Loose pinion yoke nut. 6. Tighten the pinion yoke nut.
7. Scuffed gear tooth contact
surfaces.
7. Inspect and replace as necessary.
Axle Shaft Broke 1. Misaligned axle tube. 1. Replace the broken shaft after correcting
tube mis-alignment.
2 Vehicle overloaded. 2. Replace broken shaft and avoid excessive
weight on vehicle.
3. Erratic clutch operation. 3. Replace broken shaft and avoid or correct
erratic clutch operation.
4. Grabbing clutch. 4. Replace broken shaft and inspect and
repair clutch as necessary.
Differential Cracked 1. Improper adjustment of the
differential bearings.
1. Replace case and inspect gears and
bearings for further damage. Set differential
bearing pre-load properly.
2. Excessive ring gear backlash. 2. Replace case and inspect gears and
bearings for further damage. Set ring gear
backlash properly.
3. Vehicle overloaded. 3. Replace case and inspect gears and
bearings for further damage. Avoid excessive
vehicle weight.
4. Erratic clutch operation. 4. Replace case and inspect gears and
bearings for further damage. Avoid erratic use
of clutch.
Differential Gears Scored 1. Insufficient lubrication. 1. Replace scored gears. Fill differential with
the correct fluid type and quantity.
2. Improper grade of lubricant. 2. Replace scored gears. Fill differential with
the correct fluid type and quantity.
3. Excessive spinning of one
wheel/tire.
3. Replace scored gears. Inspect all gears,
pinion bores, and shaft for damage. Service
as necessary.
3 - 68 194 RBI AXLE XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Condition Possible Causes Correction
Loss Of Lubricant 1. Lubricant level too high. 1. Drain lubricant to the correct level.
2. Worn axle shaft seals. 2. Replace seals.
3. Cracked differential housing. 3. Repair as necessary.
4. Worn pinion seal. 4. Replace seal.
5. Worn/scored yoke. 5. Replace yoke and seal.
6. Axle cover not properly sealed. 6. Remove, clean, and re-seal cover.
Axle Overheating 1. Lubricant level low. 1. Fill differential to correct level.
2. Improper grade of lubricant. 2. Fill differential with the correct fluid type
and quantity.
3. Bearing pre-loads too high. 3. Re-adjust bearing pre-loads.
4. Insufficient ring gear backlash. 4. Re-adjust ring gear backlash.
Gear Teeth Broke 1. Overloading. 1. Replace gears. Examine other gears and
bearings for possible damage.
2. Erratic clutch operation. 2. Replace gears and examine the remaining
parts for damage. Avoid erratic clutch
operation.
3. Ice-spotted pavement. 3. Replace gears and examine remaining
parts for damage.
4. Improper adjustments. 4. Replace gears and examine remaining
parts for damage. Ensure ring gear backlash
is correct.
Axle Noise 1. Insufficient lubricant. 1. Fill differential with the correct fluid type
and quantity.
2. Improper ring gear and pinion
adjustment.
2. Check ring gear and pinion contact pattern.
3. Unmatched ring gear and pinion. 3. Replace gears with a matched ring gear
and pinion.
4. Worn teeth on ring gear and/or
pinion.
4. Replace ring gear and pinion.
5. Loose pinion bearings. 5. Adjust pinion bearing pre-load.
6. Loose differential bearings. 6. Adjust differential bearing pre-load.
7. Mis-aligned or sprung ring gear. 7. Measure ring gear run-out. Replace
components as necessary.
8. Loose differential bearing cap
bolts.
8. Inspect differential components and replace
as necessary. Ensure that the bearing caps
are torqued tot he proper specification.
9. Housing not machined properly. 9. Replace housing.
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 69
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
GEAR NOISE
Axl e gear noi se can be caused by i nsuffi ci ent l ubri -
cant, i ncorrect backl ash, tooth contact, worn/damaged
gears, or the carri er housi ng not havi ng the proper
offset and squareness.
Gear noi se usual l y happens at a speci fi c speed
range. The noi se can al so occur duri ng a speci fi c type
of dri vi ng condi ti on. These condi ti ons are accel era-
ti on, decel erati on, coast, or constant l oad.
When road testi ng, fi rst warm-up the axl e fl ui d by
dri vi ng the vehi cl e at l east 5 mi l es and then accel er-
ate the vehi cl e to the speed range where the noi se i s
the greatest. Shi ft out-of-gear and coast through the
peaknoi se range. I f the noi se stops or changes
greatl y:
Check for i nsuffi ci ent l ubri cant.
I ncorrect ri ng gear backl ash.
Gear damage.
Di fferenti al si de gears and pi ni ons can be checked
by turni ng the vehi cl e. They usual l y do not cause
noi se duri ng strai ghtahead dri vi ng when the gears
are unl oaded. The si de gears are l oaded duri ng vehi -
cl e turns. A worn pi ni on mate shaft can al so cause a
snappi ng or a knocki ng noi se.
BEARING NOISE
The axl e shaft, di fferenti al and pi ni on beari ngs can
al l produce noi se when worn or damaged. Beari ng
noi se can be ei ther a whi ni ng, or a growl i ng sound.
Pi ni on beari ngs have a constantpi tch noi se. Thi s
noi se changes onl y wi th vehi cl e speed. Pi ni on beari ng
noi se wi l l be hi gher pi tched because i t rotates at a
faster rate. Dri ve the vehi cl e and l oad the di fferen-
ti al . I f beari ng noi se occurs, the rear pi ni on beari ng
i s the source of the noi se. I f the beari ng noi se i s
heard duri ng a coast, the front pi ni on beari ng i s the
source.
Worn or damaged di fferenti al beari ngs usual l y pro-
duce a l ow pi tch noi se. Di fferenti al beari ng noi se i s
si mi l ar to pi ni on beari ng noi se. The pi tch of di fferen-
ti al beari ng noi se i s al so constant and vari es onl y
wi th vehi cl e speed.
Axl e shaft beari ngs produce noi se and vi brati on
when worn or damaged. The noi se general l y changes
when the beari ngs are l oaded. Road test the vehi cl e.
Turn the vehi cl e sharpl y to the l eft and to the ri ght.
Thi s wi l l l oad the beari ngs and change the noi se
l evel . Where axl e beari ng damage i s sl i ght, the noi se
i s usual l y not noti ceabl e at speeds above 30 mph.
LOW SPEED KNOCK
Low speed knock i s general l y caused by a worn
Ujoi nt or by worn si degear thrust washers. A worn
pi ni on shaft bore wi l l al so cause l ow speed knock.
VIBRATION
Vi brati on at the rear of the vehi cl e i s usual l y
caused by a:
Damaged dri ve shaft.
Mi ssi ng dri ve shaft bal ance wei ght(s).
Worn or outofbal ance wheel s.
Loose wheel l ug nuts.
Worn Ujoi nt(s).
Loose/broken spri ngs.
Damaged axl e shaft beari ng(s).
Loose pi ni on gear nut.
Excessi ve pi ni on yoke run out.
Bent axl e shaft(s).
Check for l oose or damaged frontend components
or engi ne/transmi ssi on mounts. These components
can contri bute to what appears to be a rearend
vi brati on. Do not overl ook engi ne accessori es, brack-
ets and dri ve bel ts.
Al l dri vel i ne components shoul d be exami ned
before starti ng any repai r.
Refer to Group 22, Wheel s and Ti res, for addi ti onal
vi brati on i nformati on.
DRIVELINE SNAP
A snap or cl unk noi se when the vehi cl e i s shi fted
i nto gear (or the cl utch engaged), can be caused by:
Hi gh engi ne i dl e speed.
Transmi ssi on shi ft operati on.
Loose engi ne/transmi ssi on/transfer case mounts.
Worn Ujoi nts.
Loose spri ng mounts.
Loose pi ni on gear nut and yoke.
Excessi ve ri ng gear backl ash.
Excessi ve si de gear to case cl earance.
The source of a snap or a cl unk noi se can be deter-
mi ned wi th the assi stance of a hel per. Rai se the vehi -
cl e on a hoi st wi th the wheel s free to rotate. I nstruct
the hel per to shi ft the transmi ssi on i nto gear. Li sten
for the noi se, a mechani cs stethoscope i s hel pful i n
i sol ati ng the source of a noi se.
TRACLOK DIFFERENTIAL NOISE
The most common probl em i s a chatter noi se when
turni ng corners. Before removi ng a Trac-l ok uni t
for repai r, drai n, fl ush and refi l l the axl e wi th the
speci fi ed l ubri cant. Refer to Lubri cant change i n thi s
Group.
A contai ner of Mopar Trac-l ok Lubri cant (fri c-
ti on modi fi er) shoul d be added after repai r servi ce or
duri ng a l ubri cant change.
After changi ng the l ubri cant, dri ve the vehi cl e and
make 10 to 12 sl ow, fi gure-ei ght turns. Thi s maneu-
ver wi l l pump l ubri cant through the cl utches. Thi s
wi l l correct the condi ti on i n most i nstances. I f the
chatter persi sts, cl utch damage coul d have occurred.
3 - 70 194 RBI AXLE XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
TRACLOK TEST
WARNING: WHEN SERVICING VEHICLES WITH A
TRACLOK DIFFERENTIAL DO NOT USE THE
ENGINE TO TURN THE AXLE AND WHEELS. BOTH
REAR WHEELS MUST BE RAISED AND THE VEHI-
CLE SUPPORTED. A TRACLOK AXLE CAN
EXERT ENOUGH FORCE IF ONE WHEEL IS IN CON-
TACT WITH A SURFACE TO CAUSE THE VEHICLE
TO MOVE.
The di fferenti al can be tested wi thout removi ng the
di fferenti al case by measuri ng rotati ng torque. Make
sure brakes are not draggi ng duri ng thi s measure-
ment.
(1) Pl ace bl ocks i n front and rear of both front
wheel s.
(2) Rai se one rear wheel unti l i t i s compl etel y off
the ground.
(3) Engi ne off, transmi ssi on i n neutral , and park-
i ng brake off.
(4) Remove wheel and bol t Speci al Tool 6790 to
studs.
(5) Use torque wrench on speci al tool to rotate
wheel and read rotati ng torque (Fi g. 5).
(6) I f rotati ng torque i s l ess than 22 Nm (30 ft.
l bs.) or more than 271 Nm (200 ft. l bs.) on ei ther
wheel the uni t shoul d be servi ced.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
LUBRICANT CHANGE
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove the l ubri cant fi l l hol e pl ug from the
di fferenti al housi ng cover.
(3) Remove the di fferenti al housi ng cover and
drai n the l ubri cant from the housi ng.
(4) Cl ean the housi ng cavi ty wi th a fl ushi ng oi l ,
l i ght engi ne oi l , or l i nt free cl oth. Do not use water,
steam, kerosene, or gasoline for cleaning.
(5) Remove the ori gi nal seal ant from the housi ng
and cover surfaces.
(6) Appl y a bead of Mopar Si l i cone Rubber Seal -
ant, or equi val ent, to the housi ng cover (Fi g. 6).
Install the housing cover within 5 minutes
after applying the sealant.
(7) I nstal l the cover and any i denti fi cati on tag.
Ti ghten the cover bol ts to 41 Nm (30 ft. l bs.) torque.
(8) For Tracl ok di fferenti al s, a quanti ty of
Mopar Tracl ok l ubri cant (fri cti on modi fi er), or
equi val ent, must be added after repai r servi ce or a
l ubri cant change. Refer to the Lubri cant Speci fi ca-
ti ons secti on of thi s group for the quanti ty necessary.
(9) Fi l l di fferenti al wi th Mopar Hypoi d Gear
Lubri cant, or equi val ent, to bottom of the fi l l pl ug
hol e. Refer to the Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons secti on of
thi s group for the quanti ty necessary.
CAUTION: Overfilling the differential can result in
lubricant foaming and overheating.
(10) I nstal l the fi l l hol e pl ug and l ower the vehi cl e.
(11) Tracl ok di fferenti al equi pped vehi cl es
shoul d be road tested by maki ng 10 to 12 sl ow fi gure-
ei ght turns. Thi s maneuver wi l l pump the l ubri cant
through the cl utch di scs to el i mi nate a possi bl e chat-
ter noi se compl ai nt.
Fig. 5 Trac-lok Test Typical
1 SPECIAL TOOL 6790 WITH BOLT IN CENTER HOLE
2 TORQUE WRENCH
Fig. 6 Apply Sealant
1 SEALANT
2 AXLE HOUSING COVER
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 71
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
REAR AXLE
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Posi ti on a sui tabl e l i fti ng devi ce under the
axl e.
(3) Secure axl e to devi ce.
(4) Remove the wheel s and ti res.
(5) Remove the brake drums from the axl e. Refer
to Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(6) Di sconnect parki ng brake cabl es from brackets
and l ever.
(7) Remove wheel speed sensors, i f necessary.
Refer to Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(8) Di sconnect the brake hose at the axl e juncti on
bl ock. Do not di sconnect the brake hydraul i c l i nes at
the wheel cyl i nders. Refer to Group 5, Brakes, for
proper procedures.
(9) Di sconnect the vent hose from the axl e shaft
tube.
(10) Mark the propel l er shaft and yokes for i nstal -
l ati on al i gnment reference.
(11) Remove propel l er shaft.
(12) Di sconnect stabi l i zer bar l i nks.
(13) Di sconnect shock absorbers from axl e.
(14) Remove the U-bol ts whi ch hol d the axl e to the
spri ng brackets.
(15) Separate the axl e from the vehi cl e.
INSTALLATION
NOTE: The weight of the vehicle must be sup-
ported by the springs before suspension arms and
track bar fasteners can be tightened. If the springs
are not at their normal ride position, vehicle ride
height and handling could be affected.
(1) Rai se the axl e wi th l i fti ng devi ce and al i gn the
spri ng centeri ng bol ts wi th the mati ng hol es i n the
axl e spri ng perch.
(2) I nstal l the U-bol ts whi ch hol d the axl e to the
spri ng brackets. Ti ghten nuts to 70 Nm (52 ft. l bs.).
(3) I nstal l shock absorbers and ti ghten nuts to 60
Nm (44 ft. l bs.) torque.
(4) I nstal l stabi l i zer bar l i nks and ti ghten nuts to
74 Nm (55 ft. l bs.) torque.
(5) I nstal l the wheel speed sensors, i f necessary.
Refer to Group 5, Brakes, for proper procedures.
(6) Connect parki ng brake cabl e to brackets and
l ever.
(7) I nstal l the brake drums. Refer to Group 5,
Brakes, for proper procedures.
(8) Connect the brake hose to the axl e juncti on
bl ock. Refer to Group 5, Brakes, for proper proce-
dures.
(9) I nstal l axl e vent hose.
(10) Al i gn propel l er shaft and pi ni on yoke refer-
ence marks. I nstal l U-joi nt straps and bol ts. Ti ghten
to 19 Nm (14 ft. l bs.) torque.
(11) I nstal l the wheel s and ti res.
(12) Add gear l ubri cant, i f necessary. Refer to
Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons i n thi s secti on for l ubri cant
requi rements.
(13) Remove l i fti ng devi ce from axl e and l ower the
vehi cl e.
PINION SHAFT SEAL
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(3) Remove the brake drums. Refer to Group 5,
Brakes, for proper procedures.
(4) Mark the propel l er shaft and pi ni on yoke for
i nstal l ati on al i gnment reference.
(5) Remove the propel l er shaft from the yoke.
(6) Rotate the pi ni on gear three or four ti mes.
(7) Measure the amount of torque necessary to
rotate the pi ni on gear wi th a (i n. l bs.) di al -type
torque wrench. Record the torque readi ng for i nstal -
l ati on reference.
(8) Usi ng Hol der 6958 to hol d the pi ni on yoke,
remove the pi ni on nut and washer.
(9) Use Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to
remove the pi ni on yoke (Fi g. 7).
Fig. 7 Pinion Yoke Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-3281
2 YOKE
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-452
3 - 72 194 RBI AXLE XJ
(10) Use a sui tabl e pry tool or sl i de hammer
mounted screw to remove the pi ni on gear seal .
INSTALLATION
(1) Appl y a l i ght coati ng of gear l ubri cant on the
l i p of pi ni on seal . I nstal l seal wi th I nstal l er C-3972-A
and Handl e C-4171 (Fi g. 8).
(2) I nstal l yoke on the pi ni on gear wi th Screw
8112, Cup 8109, and Hol der 6958 (Fi g. 9).
CAUTION: Do not exceed the minimum tightening
torque when installing the pinion yoke at this point.
Damage to the collapsible spacer or bearings may
result.
(3) I nstal l the yoke washer and a new nut on the
pi ni on gear and ti ghten the pi ni on nut unti l there i s
zero beari ng end-pl ay.
(4) Ti ghten the nut to 271 Nm (200 ft. l bs.).
CAUTION: Never loosen pinion gear nut to
decrease pinion gear bearing rotating torque and
never exceed specified preload torque. If preload
torque or rotating torque is exceeded a new col-
lapsible spacer must be installed. The torque
sequence will then have to be repeated.
(5) Rotate the pi ni on shaft usi ng a (i n. l bs.) torque
wrench. Rotati ng torque shoul d be equal to the read-
i ng recorded duri ng removal pl us an addi ti onal 0.56
Nm (5 i n. l bs.) (Fi g. 10).
(6) I f the rotati ng torque i s l ow, use Hol der 6958 to
hol d the pi ni on yoke (Fi g. 11), and ti ghten the pi ni on
shaft nut i n 6.8 Nm (5 ft. l bs.) i ncrements unti l the
proper rotati ng torque i s achi eved.
CAUTION: If the maximum tightening torque is
reached prior to reaching the required rotating
torque, the collapsible spacer may have been dam-
aged. Replace the collapsible spacer.
(7) Al i gn the i nstal l ati on reference marks on the
propel l er shaft and yoke and i nstal l the propel l er
shaft.
(8) Add gear l ubri cant to the di fferenti al housi ng,
i f necessary. Refer to the Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons for
gear l ubri cant requi rements.
(9) I nstal l the brake drums. Refer to Group 5,
Brakes, for proper procedures.
(10) I nstal l wheel and ti re assembl i es.
Fig. 8 Pinion Seal Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-4171
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-3972A
Fig. 9 Pinion Yoke Installation
1 PINION YOKE
2 AXLE HOUSING
Fig. 10 Check Pinion Rotation Torque
1 PINION YOKE
2 INCH POUND TORQUE WRENCH
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 73
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(11) Lower the vehi cl e.
COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
REMOVAL W/PINION INSTALLED
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(3) Remove rear brake drums. Refer to Group 5,
Brakes, for proper procedures.
(4) Mark the propel l er shaft and pi ni on yoke for
i nstal l ati on reference.
(5) Remove the propel l er shaft from the yoke.
(6) Rotate the pi ni on gear three or four ti mes.
(7) Measure the amount of torque necessary to
rotate the pi ni on gear wi th a (i n. l bs.) di al -type
torque wrench. Record the torque readi ng for i nstal -
l ati on reference.
(8) Usi ng Hol der 6958 to hol d the pi ni on yoke,
remove the pi ni on nut and washer.
(9) Use Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to
remove the pi ni on yoke (Fi g. 12).
(10) Use a sui tabl e pry tool or a sl i de hammer
mounted screw to remove the pi ni on shaft seal .
(11) Remove the front pi ni on beari ng usi ng a pai r of
sui tabl e pi ck tool s to pul l the beari ng strai ght off the
pi ni on gear shaft. I t may be necessary to l i ghtl y tap the
end of the pi ni on gear wi th a rawhi de or rubber mal l et
i f the beari ng becomes bound on the pi ni on shaft.
(12) Remove the col l apsi bl e spacer.
REMOVAL W/PINION REMOVED
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(3) Remove rear brake drums. Refer to Group 5,
Brakes, for proper procedures.
(4) Mark the propel l er shaft and pi ni on yoke for
i nstal l ati on reference.
(5) Remove the propel l er shaft from the yoke.
(6) Rotate the pi ni on gear three or four ti mes.
(7) Measure the amount of torque necessary to
rotate the pi ni on gear wi th a (i n. l bs.) di al -type
torque wrench. Record the torque readi ng for i nstal -
l ati on reference.
(8) Remove di fferenti al assembl y from axl e hous-
i ng.
(9) Usi ng Hol der 6958 to hol d yoke, remove the
pi ni on yoke nut and washer.
(10) Usi ng Remover C452 and Wrench C3281,
remove the pi ni on yoke from pi ni on shaft (Fi g. 12).
(11) Remove the pi ni on gear from housi ng (Fi g.
13). Catch the pi ni on wi th your hand to prevent i t
from fal l i ng and bei ng damaged.
(12) Remove col l apsi bl e spacer from pi ni on shaft.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l a new col l apsi bl e prel oad spacer on pi n-
i on shaft (Fi g. 14).
(2) I f pi ni on gear was removed, i nstal l pi ni on gear
i n housi ng.
(3) I nstal l pi ni on front beari ng, i f necessary.
(4) Appl y a l i ght coati ng of gear l ubri cant on the
l i p of pi ni on seal . I nstal l seal wi th I nstal l er C-3972-A
and Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 15).
(5) I nstal l yoke wi th Screw 8112, Cup 8109, and
Hol der 6958 (Fi g. 16).
(6) I f the ori gi nal pi ni on beari ngs are bei ng used,
i nstal l di fferenti al assembl y and axl e shafts, i f neces-
sary.
Fig. 11 Tightening Pinion Shaft NutTypical
1 SPECIAL TOOL 6958
2 1 in. PIPE
3 3/4 DRIVE TORQUE WRENCH
Fig. 12 Pinion Yoke Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-3281
2 YOKE
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-452
3 - 74 194 RBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
NOTE: If new pinion bearings were installed, do not
install the differential assembly and axle shafts until
after the pinion bearing preload and rotating torque
are set.
(7) I nstal l the yoke washer and a new nut on the
pi ni on gear. Ti ghten the pi ni on nut unti l there i s zero
beari ng end-pl ay.
(8) Ti ghten the nut to 271 Nm (200 ft. l bs.).
CAUTION: Never loosen pinion gear nut to
decrease pinion gear bearing rotating torque and
never exceed specified preload torque. If preload
torque or rotating torque is exceeded a new col-
lapsible spacer must be installed. The torque
sequence will then have to be repeated.
(9) Usi ng yoke hol der 6958 and a torque wrench
set at 474 Nm (350 ft. l bs.), crush col l apsi bl e spacer
unti l beari ng end pl ay i s taken up (Fi g. 17).
NOTE: If more than 474 Nm (350 ft. lbs.) of torque
is necessary to remove the bearing end play, the
collapsible spacer is defective and must be
replaced.
Fig. 13 Remove Pinion Gear
1 RAWHIDE HAMMER
Fig. 14 Collapsible Preload Spacer
1 COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
2 SHOULDER
3 PINION GEAR
4 OIL SLINGER
5 REAR BEARING
Fig. 15 Pinion Seal Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-4171
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-3972A
Fig. 16 Pinion Yoke Installation
1 PINION YOKE
2 AXLE HOUSING
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 75
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(10) Sl owl y ti ghten the nut i n 6.8 Nm (5 ft. l bs.)
i ncrements unti l the rotati ng torque i s achi eved.
Measure the rotati ng torque frequentl y to avoi d over
crushi ng the col l apsi bl e spacer (Fi g. 18).
(11) Check rotati ng torque wi th a (i n. l bs.) torque
wrench (Fi g. 18). The torque necessary to rotate the
pi ni on gear shoul d be:
Ori gi nal Beari ngs The readi ng recorded dur-
i ng removal , pl us an addi ti onal 0.56 Nm (5 i n. l bs.).
New Beari ngs 1.5 to 4 Nm (15 to 35 i n. l bs.).
(12) I nstal l di fferenti al assembl y and axl e shafts,
i f necessary.
(13) Al i gn marks made previ ousl y on yoke and
propel l er shaft and i nstal l propel l er shaft.
(14) I nstal l rear brake drums. Refer to Group 5,
Brakes, for proper procedures.
(15) Add gear l ubri cant, i f necessary. Refer to
Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons of thi s secti on for l ubri cant
requi rements.
(16) I nstal l wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(17) Lower vehi cl e.
AXLE SHAFT
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support vehi cl e. Ensure that the
transmi ssi on i s i n neutral .
(2) Remove wheel and ti re assembl y.
(3) Remove brake drum. Refer to Group 5, Brakes,
for proper procedure.
(4) Cl ean al l forei gn materi al from housi ng cover
area.
(5) Loosen housi ng cover bol ts. Drai n l ubri cant
from the housi ng and axl e shaft tubes. Remove hous-
i ng cover.
(6) Rotate di fferenti al case so that pi ni on mate
gear shaft l ock screw i s accessi bl e. Remove l ock
screw and pi ni on mate gear shaft from di fferenti al
case (Fi g. 19).
(7) Push axl e shaft i nward and remove axl e shaft
Ccl i p l ock from the axl e shaft (Fi g. 20).
(8) Remove axl e shaft. Use care to prevent damage
to axl e shaft beari ng and seal , whi ch wi l l remai n i n
axl e shaft tube. Al so, exerci se care not to damage the
Fig. 17 Tightening Pinion NutTypical
1 SPECIAL TOOL 6958
2 1 in. PIPE
3 3/4 DRIVE TORQUE WRENCH
Fig. 18 Check Pinion Gear Rotation Torque
1 PINION YOKE
2 INCH POUND TORQUE WRENCH
Fig. 19 Mate Shaft Lock Screw
1 LOCK SCREW
2 PINION GEAR MATE SHAFT
3 - 76 194 RBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
wheel speed sensor on vehi cl es equi pped wi th ABS
brakes.
(9) I nspect axl e shaft seal for l eakage or damage.
(10) I nspect rol l er beari ng contact surface on axl e
shaft for si gns of bri nel l i ng, gal l i ng and pi tti ng. I f
any of these condi ti ons exi st, the axl e shaft and/or
beari ng and seal must be repl aced.
INSTALLATION
(1) Lubri cate beari ng bore and seal l i p wi th gear
l ubri cant. I nsert axl e shaft through seal , beari ng,
and engage i t i nto si de gear spl i nes.
NOTE: Use care to prevent shaft splines from dam-
aging axle shaft seal lip. Also, exercise care not to
damage the wheel speed sensor on vehicles
equipped with ABS brakes
(2) I nsert Ccl i p l ock i n end of axl e shaft. Push
axl e shaft outward to seat Ccl i p l ock i n si de gear.
(3) I nsert pi ni on mate shaft i nto di fferenti al case
and through thrust washers and pi ni on gears.
(4) Al i gn hol e i n shaft wi th hol e i n the di fferenti al
case and i nstal l l ock screw wi th Locti te on the
threads. Ti ghten l ock screw to 19 Nm (14 ft. l bs.)
torque.
(5) I nstal l cover and add fl ui d. Refer to Lubri cant
Change procedure i n thi s secti on for procedure and
l ubri cant requi rements.
(6) I nstal l brake drum. Refer to Group 5, Brakes,
for proper procedures.
(7) I nstal l wheel and ti re.
(8) Lower vehi cl e.
AXLE SHAFT SEAL AND BEARING
REMOVAL
(1) Remove the axl e shaft.
(2) Remove the axl e shaft seal from the end of the
axl e shaft tube wi th a smal l pry bar.
NOTE: The seal and bearing can be removed at the
same time with the bearing removal tool.
(3) Remove the axl e shaft beari ng from the axl e
tube wi th Beari ng Removal Tool Set 6310 usi ng
Adapter Foot 6310-5 (Fi g. 21).
(4) I nspect the axl e shaft tube bore for roughness
and burrs. Remove as necessary.
INSTALLATION
Do not install the original axle shaft seal.
Always install a new seal.
(1) Wi pe the axl e shaft tube bore cl ean.
(2) I nstal l axl e shaft beari ng wi th I nstal l er 6436
and Handl e C4171. Ensure that the part number on
the beari ng i s agai nst the i nstal l er.
(3) I nstal l the new axl e shaft seal wi th I nstal l er
6437 and Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 22).
Fig. 20 Axle Shaft CClip Lock
1 C-CLIP LOCK
2 AXLE SHAFT
3 SIDE GEAR
Fig. 21 Axle Shaft Bearing Removal
1 AXLE SHAFT TUBE
2 NUT
3 GUIDE PLATE
4 GUIDE
5 THREADED ROD
6 ADAPTER
7 FOOT
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 77
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(4) I nstal l the axl e shaft.
DIFFERENTIAL
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support vehi cl e.
(2) Remove the l ubri cant fi l l hol e pl ug from the
di fferenti al housi ng cover.
(3) Remove the di fferenti al housi ng cover and
al l ow fl ui d to drai n.
(4) Remove axl e shafts.
(5) Note the i nstal l ati on reference l etters stamped
on the beari ng caps and housi ng machi ned seal i ng
surface (Fi g. 23).
(6) Loosen the di fferenti al beari ng cap bol ts.
(7) Posi ti on Spreader W129B, uti l i zi ng some
i tems from Adapter set 6987, wi th the tool dowel pi ns
seated i n the l ocati ng hol es (Fi g. 24). I nstal l the hol d-
down cl amps and ti ghten the tool turnbuckl e fi nger
ti ght.
(8) I nstal l a Pi l ot Stud C-3288-B at the l eft si de of
the di fferenti al housi ng. Attach Di al I ndi cator C-3339
to pi l ot stud. Load the i ndi cator pl unger agai nst the
opposi te si de of the housi ng (Fi g. 25) and zero the
i ndi cator.
CAUTION: Do not spread over 0.38 mm (0.015 in). If
the housing is overspread, it could be distorted or
damaged.
(9) Spread the housi ng enough to remove the di f-
ferenti al case from the housi ng. Measure the di s-
tance wi th the di al i ndi cator (Fi g. 26).
(10) Remove the di al i ndi cator.
(11) Whi l e hol di ng the di fferenti al case i n posi ti on,
remove the di fferenti al beari ng cap bol ts and caps.
(12) Remove the di fferenti al from the housi ng.
Ensure that the di fferenti al beari ng cups remai n i n
posi ti on on the di fferenti al beari ngs (Fi g. 27).
(13) Mark or tag the di fferenti al beari ng cups to
i ndi cate whi ch si de of the di fferenti al they were
removed from.
Fig. 22 Axle Shaft Seal Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL 6437
2 SEAL
3 AXLE SHAFT TUBE
4 SPECIAL TOOL C-4171
Fig. 23 Bearing Cap Identification
1 INSTALLATION REFERENCE LETTERS
2 INSTALLATION REFERENCE LETTERS
Fig. 24 Install Axle Housing Spreader
1 AXLE HOUSING
2 DOWEL
3 SAFETY HOLD DOWN
4 SPECIAL TOOL W-129B
5 TURNBUCKLE
3 - 78 194 RBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(14) Retri eve di fferenti al case prel oad shi ms from
axl e housi ng. Mark or tag the di fferenti al case pre-
l oad shi ms to i ndi cate whi ch si de of the di fferenti al
they were removed from.
(15) Remove spreader from housi ng.
INSTALLATION
I f repl acement di fferenti al beari ngs or di fferenti al
case are bei ng i nstal l ed, di fferenti al si de beari ng
shi m requi rements may change. Refer to the Di ffer-
enti al Beari ng Prel oad and Gear Backl ash proce-
dures i n thi s secti on to determi ne the proper shi m
sel ecti on.
(1) Posi ti on Spreader W129B, uti l i zi ng some i tems
from Adapter set 6987, wi th the tool dowel pi ns seated
i n the l ocati ng hol es (Fi g. 28). I nstal l the hol ddown
cl amps and ti ghten the tool turnbuckl e fi ngerti ght.
(2) I nstal l a Pi l ot Stud C-3288-B at the l eft si de of
the di fferenti al housi ng. Attach Di al I ndi cator C-3339
to pi l ot stud. Load the i ndi cator pl unger agai nst the
opposi te si de of the housi ng (Fi g. 25) and zero the
i ndi cator.
CAUTION: Do not spread over 0.38 mm (0.015 in). If
the housing is overspread, it could be distorted or
damaged.
(3) Spread the housi ng enough to i nstal l the case
i n the housi ng. Measure the di stance wi th the di al
i ndi cator (Fi g. 26).
(4) Remove the di al i ndi cator.
(5) I nstal l di fferenti al case i n the housi ng. Ensure
that the di fferenti al beari ng cups remai n i n posi ti on
on the di fferenti al beari ngs and that the prel oad
shi ms remai n between the face of the beari ng cup
and the housi ng. Tap the di fferenti al case to ensure
the beari ngs cups and shi ms are ful l y seated i n the
housi ng.
(6) I nstal l the beari ng caps at thei r ori gi nal l oca-
ti ons (Fi g. 29).
(7) Loosel y i nstal l di fferenti al beari ng cap bol ts.
(8) Remove axl e housi ng spreader.
Fig. 25 Install Dial Indicator
1 SPECIAL TOOLC-3339
2 DIAL INDICATOR
3 LEVER ADAPTER
4 SPECIAL TOOL W-129B
5 SPECIAL TOOL C-3288B
Fig. 26 Spread Axle Housing
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-3339
2 SPECIAL TOOL W-129B
Fig. 27 Differential Case Removal
1 AXLE HOUSING
2 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
3 BEARING CUPS
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 79
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(9) Ti ghten the beari ng cap bol ts to 77 Nm (57 ft.
l bs.) torque.
(10) I nstal l the axl e shafts.
DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARINGS
REMOVAL
(1) Remove di fferenti al from axl e housi ng.
(2) Remove the beari ngs from the di fferenti al case
wi th Pul l er/Press C-293-PA, C-293-39 Bl ocks, and
Pl ug SP-3289 (Fi g. 30).
INSTALLATION
(1) Usi ng tool C-3716-A wi th handl e C-4171,
i nstal l di fferenti al si de beari ngs (Fi g. 31).
(2) I nstal l di fferenti al i n axl e housi ng.
RING GEAR
NOTE: The ring gear and pinion are serviced as a
matched set. Do not replace the ring gear without
replacing the pinion.
REMOVAL
(1) Remove di fferenti al from axl e housi ng.
(2) Pl ace di fferenti al case i n a sui tabl e vi se wi th
soft metal jaw protectors. (Fi g. 32)
(3) Remove bol ts hol di ng ri ng gear to di fferenti al
case.
(4) Usi ng a soft hammer, dri ve ri ng gear from di f-
ferenti al case (Fi g. 32).
Fig. 28 Install Axle Housing Spreader
1 AXLE HOUSING
2 DOWEL
3 SAFETY HOLD DOWN
4 SPECIAL TOOL W-129B
5 TURNBUCKLE
Fig. 29 Differential Bearing Cap Reference Letters
1 INSTALLATION REFERENCE LETTERS
2 INSTALLATION REFERENCE LETTERS
Fig. 30 Differential Bearing Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-29339
2 BEARING
3 DIFFERENTIAL
4 SPECIAL TOOL SP-3289
5 SPECIAL TOOL C-293PA
3 - 80 194 RBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
INSTALLATION
CAUTION: Do not reuse the bolts that held the ring
gear to the differential case. The bolts can fracture
causing extensive damage.
(1) I nvert the di fferenti al case and start two ri ng
gear bol ts. Thi s wi l l provi de case-to-ri ng gear bol t
hol e al i gnment.
(2) I nvert the di fferenti al case i n the vi se.
(3) I nstal l new ri ng gear bol ts and al ternatel y
ti ghten to 95122 Nm (7090 ft. l bs.) torque (Fi g.
33).
(4) I nstal l di fferenti al i n axl e housi ng and veri fy
gear mesh and contact pattern.
PINION GEAR
The ri ng and pi ni on gears are servi ced i n a
matched set. Do not repl ace the pi ni on gear wi thout
repl aci ng the ri ng gear.
REMOVAL
(1) Remove di fferenti al from the axl e housi ng.
(2) Mark pi ni on yoke and propel l er shaft for
i nstal l ati on al i gnment.
(3) Di sconnect propel l er shaft from pi ni on yoke.
Usi ng sui tabl e wi re, ti e propel l er shaft to underbody.
(4) Usi ng Hol der 6958 to hol d yoke, remove the
pi ni on yoke nut and washer.
(5) Usi ng Remover C452 and Wrench C3281,
remove the pi ni on yoke from pi ni on shaft (Fi g. 34).
(6) Remove the pi ni on gear from housi ng (Fi g. 35).
Catch the pi ni on wi th your hand to prevent i t from
fal l i ng and bei ng damaged.
Fig. 31 Install Differential Side Bearings
1 HANDLE C-4171
2 DIFFERENTIAL
3 BEARING
4 TOOL C-3716A
Fig. 32 Ring Gear Removal
1 CASE
2 RING GEAR
3 RAWHIDE HAMMER
Fig. 33 Ring Gear Bolt Installation
1 TORQUE WRENCH
2 RING GEAR BOLT
3 RING GEAR
4 CASE
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 81
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(7) Use a sui tabl e pry tool or a sl i de hammer
mounted screw to remove the pi ni on shaft seal .
(8) Remove oi l sl i nger, i f equi pped, and front pi n-
i on beari ng.
(9) Remove the front pi ni on beari ng cup wi th
Remover C-4345 and Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 36).
(10) Remove the rear beari ng cup from housi ng
(Fi g. 37). Use Remover D-149 and Handl e C4171.
(11) Remove the col l apsi bl e prel oad spacer (Fi g.
38).
(12) Remove the rear beari ng from the pi ni on wi th
Pul l er/Press C-293-PA and Adapters C-293-40 (Fi g.
39).
Place 4 adapter blocks so they do not damage
the bearing cage.
Fig. 34 Pinion Yoke Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-3281
2 YOKE
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-452
Fig. 35 Remove Pinion Gear
1 RAWHIDE HAMMER
Fig. 36 Front Bearing Cup Removal
1 REMOVER
2 HANDLE
Fig. 37 Rear Bearing Cup Removal
1 DRIVER
2 HANDLE
3 - 82 194 RBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(13) Remove the depth shi ms from the pi ni on gear
shaft. Record the thi ckness of the depth shi ms.
INSTALLATION
(1) Appl y Mopar Door Ease, or equi val ent, sti ck
l ubri cant to outsi de surface of beari ng cup.
(2) I nstal l the pi ni on rear beari ng cup wi th
I nstal l er D-146 and Dri ver Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 40).
Ensure cup i s correctl y seated.
(3) Appl y Mopar Door Ease, or equi val ent, sti ck
l ubri cant to outsi de surface of beari ng cup.
(4) I nstal l the pi ni on front beari ng cup wi th
I nstal l er D130 and Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 41).
(5) I nstal l pi ni on front beari ng, and oi l sl i nger, i f
equi pped.
(6) Appl y a l i ght coati ng of gear l ubri cant on the
l i p of pi ni on seal . I nstal l seal wi th I nstal l er C-3972-A
and Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 42).
NOTE: Pinion depth shims are placed between the
rear pinion bearing cone and pinion gear to achieve
proper ring and pinion gear mesh. If the factory
installed ring and pinion gears are reused, the pin-
ion depth shim should not require replacement. If
required, refer to Pinion Gear Depth to select the
proper thickness shim before installing rear pinion
bearing.
(7) Pl ace the proper thi ckness depth shi m on the
pi ni on gear.
Fig. 38 Collapsible Spacer
1 COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
2 SHOULDER
3 PINION GEAR
4 OIL SLINGER
5 REAR BEARING
Fig. 39 Rear Bearing Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-293PA
2 VISE
3 ADAPTERS
4 DRIVE PINION GEAR SHAFT
Fig. 40 Pinion Rear Bearing Cup Installation
1 INSTALLER
2 HANDLE
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 83
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(8) I nstal l the rear beari ng and sl i nger, i f
equi pped, on the pi ni on gear wi th I nstal l er W-262
(Fi g. 43).
(9) I nstal l a new col l apsi bl e prel oad spacer on pi n-
i on shaft and i nstal l pi ni on gear i n housi ng (Fi g. 44).
(10) I nstal l pi ni on gear i n housi ng.
(11) I nstal l yoke wi th I nstal l er Screw 8112, Cup
8109, and hol der 6958 (Fi g. 45).
(12) I nstal l the yoke washer and a new nut on the
pi ni on gear and ti ghten the pi ni on nut unti l there i s
zero beari ng end-pl ay.
(13) Ti ghten the nut to 271 Nm (200 ft. l bs.).
CAUTION: Never loosen pinion gear nut to
decrease pinion gear bearing rotating torque and
never exceed specified preload torque. If preload
torque or rotating torque is exceeded a new col-
lapsible spacer must be installed. The torque
sequence will then have to be repeated.
Fig. 41 Pinion Front Bearing Cup Installation
1 INSTALLER
2 HANDLE
Fig. 42 Pinion Seal Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-4171
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-3972A
Fig. 43 Shaft Rear Bearing Installation
1 PRESS
2 INSTALLATION TOOL
3 DRIVE PINION GEAR
4 DRIVE PINION GEAR SHAFT REAR BEARING
Fig. 44 Collapsible Preload Spacer
1 COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
2 SHOULDER
3 PINION GEAR
4 OIL SLINGER
5 REAR BEARING
3 - 84 194 RBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(14) Usi ng yoke hol der 6958 and a torque wrench
set at 474 Nm (350 ft. l bs.), crush col l apsi bl e spacer
unti l beari ng end pl ay i s taken up (Fi g. 46).
NOTE: If the spacer requires more than 474 Nm
(350 ft. lbs.) torque to crush, the collapsible spacer
is defective and must be replaced.
(15) Sl owl y ti ghten the nut i n 6.8 Nm (5 ft. l bs.)
i ncrements unti l the rotati ng torque i s achi eved.
Measure the rotati ng torque frequentl y to avoi d over
crushi ng the col l apsi bl e spacer (Fi g. 47).
(16) Check beari ng rotati ng torque wi th a (i n. l bs.)
torque wrench (Fi g. 47). The torque necessary to
rotate the pi ni on gear shoul d be:
Ori gi nal Beari ngs 1 to 2 Nm (10 to 20 i n.
l bs.).
New Beari ngs 1.5 to 4 Nm (15 to 35 i n. l bs.).
(17) I nstal l di fferenti al i n housi ng.
FINAL ASSEMBLY
(1) Scrape the resi dual seal ant from the housi ng
and cover mati ng surfaces. Cl ean the mati ng surfaces
wi th mi neral spi ri ts. Appl y a bead of Mopar Si l i cone
Rubber Seal ant, or equi val ent, on the housi ng cover
(Fi g. 48).
Install the housing cover within 5 minutes
after applying the sealant.
(2) I nstal l the cover on the di fferenti al wi th the
attachi ng bol ts. I nstal l the i denti fi cati on tag. Ti ghten
the cover bol ts to 41 Nm (30 ft. l bs.) torque.
CAUTION: Overfilling the differential can result in
lubricant foaming and overheating.
(3) Refi l l the di fferenti al housi ng wi th gear l ubri -
cant. Refer to the Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons secti on of
thi s group for the gear l ubri cant requi rements.
(4) I nstal l the fi l l hol e pl ug.
Fig. 45 Pinion Yoke Installation
1 PINION YOKE
2 AXLE HOUSING
Fig. 46 Tightening Pinion NutTypical
1 SPECIAL TOOL 6958
2 1 in. PIPE
3 3/4 DRIVE TORQUE WRENCH
Fig. 47 Check Pinion Gear Rotating Torque
1 PINION YOKE
2 INCH POUND TORQUE WRENCH
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 85
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL
DISASSEMBLY
(1) Remove pi ni on mate shaft l ock screw (Fi g. 49).
(2) Remove pi ni on mate shaft.
(3) Rotate the di fferenti al si de gears and remove
the di fferenti al pi ni on gears and thrust washers (Fi g.
50).
(4) Remove the di fferenti al si de gears and thrust
washers.
ASSEMBLY
(1) I nstal l the di fferenti al si de gears and thrust
washers.
(2) I nstal l the di fferenti al pi ni on gears and thrust
washers.
(3) I nstal l the pi ni on mate shaft.
(4) Al i gn the hol e i n the pi ni on mate shaft wi th
the hol e i n the di fferenti al case and i nstal l the pi ni on
mate shaft l ock screw.
(5) Lubri cate al l di fferenti al components wi th
hypoi d gear l ubri cant.
Fig. 48 Typical Housing Cover With Sealant
1 SEALING SURFACE
2 CONTOUR OF BEAD
3 BEAD THICKNESS 6.35mm (1/4)
Fig. 49 Pinion Mate Shaft Lock Screw
1 LOCK SCREW
2 PINION MATE SHAFT
Fig. 50 Pinion Mate Gear Removal
1 THRUST WASHER
2 SIDE GEAR
3 PINION MATE GEAR
3 - 86 194 RBI AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
TRAC-LOK DIFFERENTIAL
The Tracl ok di fferenti al components are i l l us-
trated i n (Fi g. 51). Refer to thi s i l l ustrati on duri ng
repai r servi ce.
DISASSEMBLY
(1) Cl amp Si de Gear Hol di ng Tool 6965 i n a vi se.
(2) Posi ti on the di fferenti al case on Si de Gear
Hol di ng Tool 6965 (Fi g. 52).
(3) Remove ri ng gear, i f necessary. Ri ng gear
removal i s necessary onl y i f the ri ng gear i s to be
repl aced. The Trac-l ok di fferenti al can be servi ced
wi th the ri ng gear i nstal l ed.
(4) Remove the pi ni on gear mate shaft l ock screw
(Fi g. 53).
(5) Remove the pi ni on gear mate shaft. I f neces-
sary, use a dri ft and hammer (Fi g. 54).
(6) I nstal l and l ubri cate Step Pl ate C-6960-3 (Fi g.
55).
Fig. 51 Traclok Differential Components
1 THRUST WASHER
2 PINION
3 SHAFT LOCK SCREW
4 PINION MATE SHAFT
5 SIDE GEAR
6 RETAINER
7 DISC
8 CLUTCH PACK
9 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
10 RETAINER
Fig. 52 Differential Case Holding Tool
1 SPECIAL TOOL 6965
2 VISE
3 DIFFERENTIAL
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 87
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(7) Assembl e Threaded Adapter C-6960-1 i nto top
si de gear. Thread Forci ng Screw C-6960-4 i nto
adapter unti l i t becomes centered i n adapter pl ate.
(8) Posi ti on a smal l screw dri ver i n sl ot of
Threaded Adapter C-6960-1 (Fi g. 56) to prevent
adapter from turni ng.
(9) Ti ghten forci ng screw tool 122 Nm (90 ft. l bs.)
maxi mum to compress Bel l evi l l e spri ngs i n cl utch
packs (Fi g. 57).
Fig. 53 Mate Shaft Lock Screw
1 LOCK SCREW
2 PINION GEAR MATE SHAFT
Fig. 54 Mate Shaft Removal
1 PINION MATE SHAFT
2 SIDE GEAR
3 DRIFT
4 PINION MATE GEAR
Fig. 55 Step Plate Tool Installation
1 LOWER SIDE GEAR
2 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-69603
Fig. 56 Threaded Adapter Installation
1 SOCKET
2 SLOT IN ADAPTER
3 SCREWDRIVER
4 DISC C-69603
5 THREADED ROD C-69604
6 THREADED ADAPTER DISC C69601
3 - 88 194 RBI AXLE XJ
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(10) Usi ng an appropri ate si ze feel er gauge,
remove thrust washers from behi nd the pi ni on gears
(Fi g. 58).
(11) I nsert Turni ng Bar C-6960-2 i n case (Fi g. 59).
(12) Loosen the Forci ng Screw C-6960-4 i n smal l
i ncrements unti l the cl utch pack tensi on i s rel i eved
and the di fferenti al case can be turned usi ng Turni ng
Bar C-6960-2.
(13) Rotate di fferenti al case unti l the pi ni on gears
can be removed.
(14) Remove pi ni on gears from di fferenti al case.
(15) Remove Forci ng Screw C-6960-4, Step Pl ate
C-6960-3, and Threaded Adapter C-6960-1.
(16) Remove top si de gear, cl utch pack retai ner,
and cl utch pack. Keep pl ates i n correct order duri ng
removal (Fi g. 60).
Fig. 57 Tighten Belleville Spring Compressor Tool
1 TORQUE WRENCH
2 TOOL ASSEMBLED
3 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
Fig. 58 Remove Pinion Gear Thrust Washer
1 THRUST WASHER
2 FEELER GAUGE
Fig. 59 Pinion Gear Removal
1 PINION GEARS
2 TOOL
Fig. 60 Side Gear & Clutch Disc Removal
1 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
2 RETAINER
3 SIDE GEAR AND CLUTCH DISC PACK
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 89
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(17) Remove di fferenti al case from Si de Gear Hol d-
i ng Tool 6965. Remove si de gear, cl utch pack retai ner,
and cl utch pack. Keep pl ates i n correct order duri ng
removal .
ASSEMBLY
NOTE: The clutch discs are replaceable as com-
plete sets only. If one clutch disc pack is damaged,
both packs must be replaced.
Lubri cate each component wi th gear l ubri cant
before assembl y.
(1) Assembl e the cl utch di scs i nto packs and
secure di sc packs wi th retai ni ng cl i ps (Fi g. 61).
(2) Posi ti on assembl ed cl utch di sc packs on the
si de gear hubs.
(3) I nstal l cl utch pack and si de gear i n the ri ng
gear si de of the di fferenti al case (Fi g. 62). Be sure
clutch pack retaining clips remain in position
and are seated in the case pockets.
(4) Posi ti on the di fferenti al case on Si de Gear
Hol di ng Tool 6965.
(5) I nstal l l ubri cated Step Pl ate C-6960-3 i n l ower
si de gear (Fi g. 63).
(6) I nstal l the upper si de gear and cl utch di sc pack
(Fi g. 63).
(7) Hol d assembl y i n posi ti on. I nsert Threaded
Adapter C-6960-1 i nto top si de gear.
(8) I nsert Forci ng Screw C-6960-4.
(9) Ti ghten forci ng screw tool to sl i ghtl y compress
cl utch di scs.
(10) Pl ace pi ni on gears i n posi ti on i n si de gears
and veri fy that the pi ni on mate shaft hol e i s al i gned.
Fig. 61 Clutch Disc Pack
1 CLUTCH PACK
2 RETAINER
3 SIDE GEAR
4 RETAINER
Fig. 62 Clutch Discs & Lower Side Gear Installation
1 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
2 LOWER SIDE GEAR AND CLUTCH DISC PACK
Fig. 63 Upper Side Gear & Clutch Disc Pack
Installation
1 UPPER SIDE GEAR AND CLUTCH DISC PACK
2 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-69603
3 - 90 194 RBI AXLE XJ
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(11) Rotate case wi th Turni ng Bar C-6960-2 unti l
the pi ni on mate shaft hol es i n pi ni on gears al i gn
wi th hol es i n case. I t may be necessary to sl i ghtl y
ti ghten the forci ng screw i n order to i nstal l the pi n-
i on gears.
(12) Ti ghten forci ng screw to 122 Nm (90 ft. l bs.)
maxi mum to compress the Bel l evi l l e spri ngs.
(13) Lubri cate and i nstal l thrust washers behi nd
pi ni on gears and al i gn washers wi th a smal l screw
dri ver. I nsert mate shaft i nto each pi ni on gear to ver-
i fy al i gnment.
(14) Remove Forci ng Screw C-6960-4, Step Pl ate
C-6960-3, and Threaded Adapter C-6960-1.
(15) I nstal l pi ni on gear mate shaft and al i gn hol es
i n shaft and case.
(16) I nstal l the pi ni on mate shaft l ock screw fi nger
ti ght to hol d shaft duri ng di fferenti al i nstal l ati on.
If replacement gears and thrust washers were
installed, it is not necessary to measure the
gear backlash. Correct fit is due to close
machining tolerances during manufacture.
(17) Lubri cate al l di fferenti al components wi th
hypoi d gear l ubri cant.
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
AXLE COMPONENTS
Wash di fferenti al components wi th cl eani ng sol vent
and dry wi th compressed ai r. Do not steam clean
the differential components.
Wash beari ngs wi th sol vent and towel dry, or dry
wi th compressed ai r. DO NOT spi n beari ngs wi th
compressed ai r. Cup and bearing must be
replaced as matched sets only.
Cl ean axl e shaft tubes and oi l channel s i n housi ng.
I nspect for;
Smooth appearance wi th no broken/dented sur-
faces on the beari ng rol l ers or the rol l er contact sur-
faces.
Beari ng cups must not be di storted or cracked.
Machi ned surfaces shoul d be smooth and wi th-
out any rai sed edges.
Rai sed metal on shoul ders of cup bores shoul d
be removed wi th a hand stone.
Wear and damage to pi ni on gear mate shaft,
pi ni on gears, si de gears and thrust washers. Repl ace
as a matched set onl y.
Ri ng and pi ni on gear for worn and chi pped
teeth.
Ri ng gear for damaged bol t threads. Repl aced as
a matched set onl y.
Pi ni on yoke for cracks, worn spl i nes, pi tted
areas, and a rough/corroded seal contact surface.
Repai r or repl ace as necessary.
Prel oad shi ms for damage and di storti on. I nstal l
new shi ms, i f necessary.
TRAC-LOK
Cl ean al l components i n cl eani ng sol vent. Dry com-
ponents wi th compressed ai r. I nspect cl utch pack
pl ates for wear, scori ng or damage. Repl ace both
cl utch packs i f any one component i n ei ther pack i s
damaged. I nspect si de gears and pi ni ons. Repl ace
any gear that i s worn, cracked, chi pped or damaged.
I nspect di fferenti al case and pi ni on shaft. Repl ace i f
worn or damaged.
PRESOAK PLATES AND DISC
Pl ates and di scs wi th fi ber coati ng (no grooves or
l i nes) must be presoaked i n Fri cti on Modi fi er before
assembl y. Soak pl ates and di scs for a mi ni mum of 20
mi nutes.
ADJ USTMENTS
PINION GEAR DEPTH
GENERAL INFORMATION
Ri ng and pi ni on gears are suppl i ed as matched
sets onl y. The i denti fyi ng numbers for the ri ng and
pi ni on gear are etched i nto the face of each gear (Fi g.
64). A pl us (+) number, mi nus () number or zero (0)
i s etched i nto the face of the pi ni on gear. Thi s num-
ber i s the amount (i n thousandths of an i nch) the
depth vari es from the standard depth setti ng of a
pi ni on etched wi th a (0). The standard setti ng from
the center l i ne of the ri ng gear to the back face of the
pi ni on i s 96.850 mm (3.813 i n.). The standard depth
provi des the best teeth contact pattern. Refer to
Backl ash and Contact Pattern Anal ysi s Paragraph i n
thi s secti on for addi ti onal i nformati on.
Fig. 64 Pinion Gear ID Numbers
1 PRODUCTION NUMBERS
2 DRIVE PINION GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE
3 GEAR MATCHING NUMBER (SAME AS RING GEAR
NUMBER)
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 91
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
Compensati on for pi ni on depth vari ance i s
achi eved wi th sel ect shi ms. The shi ms are pl aced
under the i nner pi ni on beari ng cone (Fi g. 65).
I f a new gear set i s bei ng i nstal l ed, note the depth
vari ance etched i nto both the ori gi nal and repl ace-
ment pi ni on gear. Add or subtract the thi ckness of
the ori gi nal depth shi ms to compensate for the di ffer-
ence i n the depth vari ances. Refer to the Depth Vari -
ance charts.
Note where Ol d and New Pi ni on Marki ng col umns
i ntersect. I ntersecti ng fi gure represents pl us or
mi nus amount needed.
Note the etched number on the face of the dri ve
pi ni on gear (1, 2, 0, +1, +2, etc.). The numbers rep-
resent thousands of an i nch devi ati on from the stan-
dard. I f the number i s negati ve, add that val ue to the
requi red thi ckness of the depth shi m(s). I f the num-
ber i s posi ti ve, subtract that val ue from the thi ckness
of the depth shi m(s). I f the number i s 0 no change i s
necessary. Refer to the Pi ni on Gear Depth Vari ance
Chart.
PINION DEPTH MEASUREMENT AND ADJUSTMENT
Measurements are taken wi th pi ni on cups and pi n-
i on beari ngs i nstal l ed i n housi ng. Take measure-
ments wi th a Pi ni on Gauge Set, Pi ni on Bl ock 6735,
Arbor Di scs 6732, and Di al I ndi cator C-3339 (Fi g.
66).
(1) Assembl e Pi ni on Hei ght Bl ock 6739, Pi ni on
Bl ock 6735, and rear pi ni on beari ng onto Screw 6741
(Fi g. 66).
(2) I nsert assembl ed hei ght gauge components,
rear beari ng and screw i nto axl e housi ng through
pi ni on beari ng cups (Fi g. 67).
(3) I nstal l front pi ni on beari ng and Cone 6740
hand ti ght (Fi g. 66).
(4) Pl ace Arbor Di sc 6732 on Arbor D-115-3 i n posi -
ti on i n axl e housi ng si de beari ng cradl es (Fi g. 68).
I nstal l di fferenti al beari ng caps on Arbor Di scs and
ti ghten cap bol ts. Refer to the Torque Speci fi cati ons
i n thi s secti on.
NOTE: Arbor Discs 6732 have different step diame-
ters to fit other axle sizes. Pick correct size step for
axle being serviced.
(5) Assembl e Di al I ndi cator C-3339 i nto Scooter
Bl ock D-115-2 and secure set screw.
Fig. 65 Shim Locations
1 PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM
2 DIFFERENTIAL BEARING SHIM-PINION GEAR SIDE
3 RING GEAR
4 DIFFERENTIAL BEARING SHIM-RING GEAR SIDE
5 COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
PINION GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE
Original Pinion
Gear Depth
Variance
Replacement Pinion Gear Depth Variance
4 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4
+4 +0.008 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0
+3 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001
+2 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002
+1 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003
0 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004
1 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005
2 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006
3 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007
4 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008
3 - 92 194 RBI AXLE XJ
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
(6) Pl ace Scooter Bl ock/Di al I ndi cator i n posi ti on
i n axl e housi ng so di al probe and scooter bl ock are
fl ush agai nst the surface of the pi ni on hei ght bl ock.
Hol d scooter bl ock i n pl ace and zero the di al i ndi ca-
tor face to the poi nter. Ti ghten di al i ndi cator face
l ock screw.
(7) Wi th scooter bl ock sti l l i n posi ti on agai nst the
pi ni on hei ght bl ock, sl owl y sl i de the di al i ndi cator
probe over the edge of the pi ni on hei ght bl ock.
Observe how many revol uti ons countercl ockwi se the
di al poi nter travel s (approxi matel y 0.125 i n.) to the
out-stop of the di al i ndi cator.
(8) Sl i de the di al i ndi cator probe across the gap
between the pi ni on hei ght bl ock and the arbor bar
wi th the scooter bl ock agai nst the pi ni on hei ght bl ock
(Fi g. 69). When the di al probe contacts the arbor bar,
the di al poi nter wi l l turn cl ockwi se. Bri ng di al
poi nter back to zero agai nst the arbor bar, do not
turn di al face. Conti nue movi ng the di al probe to the
crest of the arbor bar and record the hi ghest readi ng.
I f the di al i ndi cator can not achi eve the zero readi ng,
the rear beari ng cup or the pi ni on depth gauge set i s
not i nstal l ed correctl y.
(9) Sel ect a shi m equal to the di al i ndi cator read-
i ng pl us the dri ve pi ni on gear depth vari ance number
etched i n the face of the pi ni on gear (Fi g. 64) usi ng
the opposi te si gn on the vari ance number. For exam-
pl e, i f the depth vari ance i s 2, add +0.002 i n. to the
di al i ndi cator readi ng.
(10) Remove the pi ni on depth gauge components
from the axl e housi ng
Fig. 66 Pinion Gear Depth Gauge ToolsTypical
1 DIAL INDICATOR
2 ARBOR
3 PINION HEIGHT BLOCK
4 CONE
5 SCREW
6 PINION BLOCK
7 SCOOTER BLOCK
8 ARBOR DISC
Fig. 67 Pinion Height BlockTypical
1 PINION BLOCK
2 PINION HEIGHT BLOCK
Fig. 68 Gauge Tools In HousingTypical
1 ARBOR DISC
2 PINION BLOCK
3 ARBOR
4 PINION HEIGHT BLOCK
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 93
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD AND GEAR
BACKLASH
Di fferenti al si de beari ng prel oad and gear backl ash
i s achi eved by sel ecti ve shi ms i nserted between the
beari ng cup and the axl e housi ng. The proper shi m
thi ckness can be determi ned usi ng sl i p-fi t dummy
beari ngs D-348 i n pl ace of the di fferenti al si de bear-
i ngs and a di al i ndi cator C-3339. Before proceedi ng
wi th the di fferenti al beari ng prel oad and gear back-
l ash measurements, measure the pi ni on gear depth
and prepare the pi ni on gear for i nstal l ati on. Estab-
l i shi ng proper pi ni on gear depth i s essenti al to estab-
l i shi ng gear backl ash and tooth contact patterns.
After the overal l shi m thi ckness to take up di fferen-
ti al si de pl ay i s measured, the pi ni on gear i s
i nstal l ed, and the gear backl ash shi m thi ckness i s
measured. The overal l shi m thi ckness i s the total of
the di al i ndi cator readi ng, starti ng poi nt shi m thi ck-
ness, and the prel oad speci fi cati on added together.
The gear backl ash measurement determi nes the
thi ckness of the shi m used on the ri ng gear si de of
the di fferenti al case. Subtract the gear backl ash shi m
thi ckness from the total overal l shi m thi ckness and
sel ect that amount for the pi ni on gear si de of the di f-
ferenti al (Fi g. 70).
SHIM SELECTION
NOTE: It is difficult to salvage the differential side
bearings during the removal procedure. Install
replacement bearings if necessary.
(1) Remove si de beari ngs from di fferenti al case.
(2) I nstal l ri ng gear, i f necessary, on di fferenti al
case and ti ghten bol ts to speci fi cati on.
(3) I nstal l dummy si de beari ngs D-348 on di fferen-
ti al case.
(4) I nstal l di fferenti al case i n axl e housi ng.
(5) I nsert Dummy Shi ms 8107 (0.118 i n. (3.0 mm))
starti ng poi nt shi ms between the dummy beari ng
and the axl e housi ng (Fi g. 71).
Fig. 69 Pinion Gear Depth MeasurementTypical
1 ARBOR
2 SCOOTER BLOCK
3 DIAL INDICATOR
Fig. 70 Axle Adjustment Shim Locations
1 PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM
2 DIFFERENTIAL BEARING SHIM-PINION GEAR SIDE
3 RING GEAR
4 DIFFERENTIAL BEARING SHIM-RING GEAR SIDE
5 COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
Fig. 71 Insert Starting Point Shims
1 SPECIAL TOOL 8107
2 AXLE HOUSING
3 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
4 SPECIAL TOOL D-348
3 - 94 194 RBI AXLE XJ
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
(6) I nstal l the marked beari ng caps i n thei r correct
posi ti ons. I nstal l and snug the bol ts.
(7) Usi ng a dead-bl ow type mal l et, seat the di ffer-
enti al dummy beari ngs to each si de of the axl e hous-
i ng (Fi g. 72) and (Fi g. 73).
(8) Thread gui de stud C-3288-B i nto rear cover
bol t hol e bel ow ri ng gear (Fi g. 74).
(9) Attach di al i ndi cator C-3339 to gui de stud.
Posi ti on the di al i ndi cator pl unger on a fl at surface
on a ri ng gear bol t head (Fi g. 74).
(10) Push fi rml y and hol d di fferenti al case to pi n-
i on gear si de of axl e housi ng (Fi g. 75).
(11) Zero di al i ndi cator face to poi nter.
(12) Push fi rml y and hol d di fferenti al case to ri ng
gear si de of the axl e housi ng (Fi g. 76).
(13) Record di al i ndi cator readi ng.
Fig. 72 Seat Pinion Gear Dummy Side Bearing
1 MALLET
2 AXLE HOUSING
3 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
Fig. 73 Seat Ring Gear Side Dummy Bearing
1 AXLE HOUSING
2 MALLET
3 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
Fig. 74 Differential Side play Measurement
1 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
2 AXLE HOUSING
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-3288B
4 SPECIAL TOOL C-3339
Fig. 75 Hold Differential Case and Zero Dial
Indicator
1 FORCE DIFFERENTIAL CASE TO PINION GEAR SIDE
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-3288B
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-3339
4 ZERO DIAL INDICATOR FACE
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 95
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
(14) Add the di al i ndi cator readi ng to the starti ng
poi nt shi m thi ckness to determi ne total shi m thi ck-
ness to achi eve zero di fferenti al end pl ay.
(15) Add 0.008 i n. (0.2 mm) to the zero end pl ay
total . Thi s new total represents the thi ckness of
shi ms to compress, or prel oad the new beari ngs when
the di fferenti al i s i nstal l ed.
(16) Rotate di al i ndi cator out of the way on gui de
stud.
(17) Remove di fferenti al case, dummy beari ngs,
and starti ng poi nt shi ms from axl e housi ng.
(18) I nstal l pi ni on gear i n axl e housi ng. I nstal l the
yoke and establ i sh the correct pi ni on rotati ng torque.
(19) I nstal l di fferenti al case and dummy beari ngs
i n axl e housi ng (wi thout shi ms) and ti ghten retai ni ng
cap bol ts.
(20) Posi ti on the di al i ndi cator pl unger on a fl at
surface between the ri ng gear bol t heads (Fi g. 74).
(21) Push and hol d di fferenti al case toward pi ni on
gear.
(22) Zero di al i ndi cator face to poi nter.
(23) Push and hol d di fferenti al case to ri ng gear
si de of the axl e housi ng.
(24) Record di al i ndi cator readi ng.
(25) Subtract 0.002 i n. (0.05 mm) from the di al
i ndi cator readi ng to compensate for backl ash between
ri ng and pi ni on gears. Thi s total i s the thi ckness of
shi m requi red to achi eve proper backl ash.
(26) Subtract the backl ash shi m thi ckness from
the total prel oad shi m thi ckness. The remai nder i s
the shi m thi ckness requi red on the pi ni on si de of the
axl e housi ng.
(27) Rotate di al i ndi cator out of the way on gui de
stud.
(28) Remove di fferenti al case and dummy beari ngs
from axl e housi ng.
(29) I nstal l new si de beari ng cones and cups on
di fferenti al case.
(30) I nstal l spreader W-129-B, uti l i zi ng some com-
ponents of Adapter Set 6987, on axl e housi ng and
spread axl e openi ng enough to recei ve di fferenti al
case.
(31) Pl ace si de beari ng shi ms i n axl e housi ng
agai nst axl e tubes.
(32) I nstal l di fferenti al case i n axl e housi ng.
(33) Rotate the di fferenti al case several ti mes to
seat the si de beari ngs.
(34) Posi ti on the i ndi cator pl unger agai nst a ri ng
gear tooth (Fi g. 77).
(35) Push and hol d ri ng gear upward whi l e not
al l owi ng the pi ni on gear to rotate.
(36) Zero di al i ndi cator face to poi nter.
(37) Push and hol d ri ng gear downward whi l e not
al l owi ng the pi ni on gear to rotate. Di al i ndi cator
readi ng shoul d be between 0.12 mm (0.005 i n.) and
0.20 mm (0.008 i n.). I f backl ash i s not wi thi n speci fi -
cati ons transfer the necessary amount of shi m thi ck-
ness from one si de of the di fferenti al housi ng to the
other (Fi g. 78).
Fig. 76 Hold Differential Case and Read Dial
Indicator
1 READ DIAL INDICATOR
2 FORCE DIFFERENTIAL CASE TO RING GEAR SIDE
3 AXLE HOUSING
3 - 96 194 RBI AXLE XJ
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
(38) Veri fy di fferenti al case and ri ng gear runout
by measuri ng ri ng to pi ni on gear backl ash at ei ght
l ocati ons around the ri ng gear. Readi ngs shoul d not
vary more than 0.05 mm (0.002 i n.). I f readi ngs vary
more than speci fi ed, the ri ng gear or the di fferenti al
case i s defecti ve.
After the proper backl ash i s achi eved, perform the
Gear Contact Pattern Anal ysi s procedure.
GEAR CONTACT PATTERN ANALYSIS
The ri ng gear and pi ni on teeth contact patterns
wi l l show i f the pi ni on depth i s correct i n the axl e
housi ng. I t wi l l al so show i f the ri ng gear backl ash
has been adjusted correctl y. The backl ash can be
adjusted wi thi n speci fi cati ons to achi eve desi red
tooth contact patterns.
(1) Appl y a thi n coat of hydrated ferri c oxi de, or
equi val ent, to the dri ve and coast si de of the ri ng
gear teeth.
(2) Wrap, twi st, and hol d a shop towel around the
pi ni on yoke to i ncrease the turni ng resi stance of the
pi ni on. Thi s wi l l provi de a more di sti nct contact pat-
tern.
(3) Usi ng a boxed end wrench on a ri ng gear bol t,
Rotate the di fferenti al case one compl ete revol uti on
i n both di recti ons whi l e a l oad i s bei ng appl i ed from
shop towel .
The areas on the ri ng gear teeth wi th the greatest
degree of contact agai nst the pi ni on teeth wi l l squee-
gee the compound to the areas wi th the l east amount
of contact. Note and compare patterns on the ri ng
gear teeth to Gear Tooth Contact Patterns chart (Fi g.
79) and adjust pi ni on depth and gear backl ash as
necessary.
Fig. 78 Backlash Shim Adjustment
Fig. 77 Ring Gear Backlash Measurement
1 DIAL INDICATOR
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 97
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
Fig. 79 Gear Tooth Contact Patterns
3 - 98 194 RBI AXLE XJ
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
194 RBI AXLE
DESCRIPTION SPECIFICATION
Axl e Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semi Fl oati ng Hypoi d
Lubri cant . . . . . . . . SAE Thermal l y Stabl e 80W90
Lubri cant Trai l er Tow . . . . . . . Syntheti c 75W140
Lube Capaci ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.66 L (3.50 pts.)
Fri cti on Modi fi er . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.12 L (3.50 ozs.)
Axl e Rati os . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.07, 3.55, 3.73
Di fferenti al Beari ng Prel oad . . . 0.1 mm (0.008 i n.)
Di fferenti al Si de Gear Cl earance . . . . . . 00.15 mm
(00.006 i n.)
Ri ng Gear Di ameter . . . . . . . . . 19.2 cm (7.562 i n.)
Ri ng Gear Backl ash . . 00.15 mm (0.0050.008 i n.)
Pi ni on Std. Depth . . . . . . . . . . 96.85 mm (3.813 i n.)
Pi ni on Beari ng Prel oad-Ori gi nal
Beari ngs . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Nm (1020 i n. l bs.)
Pi ni on Beari ng Prel oad-New Beari ngs . . 1.54 Nm
(1535 i n. l bs.)
194 RBI AXLE
DESCRIPTION TORQUE
Bol t, Di ff. Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Nm (30 ft. l bs.)
Bol t, Beari ng Cap . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Nm (57 ft. l bs.)
Nut, Pi ni on . . . . . . . 271474 Nm (200350 ft. l bs.)
Screw, Pi ni on Mate Shaft Lock . . . . . . . . 16.25 Nm
(12 ft. l bs.)
Bol t, Ri ng Gear . . . . . . 95122 Nm (7090 ft. l bs.)
Bol t, RWAL/ABS Sensor . . . . . . . 8 Nm (70 i n. l bs.)
SPECIAL TOOLS
194 RBI AXLE
PullerC-293-PA
AdapterC-293-39
AdapterC-293-40
PlugSP-3289
PullerC-452
WrenchC-3281
InstallerC-3972-A
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 99
Spanner6958
Installer Screw8112
Cup8109
HandleC-4171
DriverC-3716-A
InstallerD-130
InstallerD-146
RemoverC-4345
RemoverD-149
InstallerW-262
3 - 100 194 RBI AXLE XJ
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
Installer6436
Installer6437
Disc, Axle Arbor6732
Gauge Block6735
Tool Set, Pinion Depth6774
Trac-lok Tool Set6960
Holder6965
Puller7794-A
Starting Point Shim8107
SpreaderW-129-B
XJ 194 RBI AXLE 3 - 101
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
Adapter Kit6987
Guide PinC-3288-B
Bearing Remover Tool Set6310
Hub Puller6790
Dial IndicatorC-3339
3 - 102 194 RBI AXLE XJ
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
8 1/4 REAR AXLE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
8 1/4 AXLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
LUBRICANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
TRAC-LOK DIFFERENTIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
GEAR NOISE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
BEARING NOISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
LOW SPEED KNOCK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
VIBRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
DRIVELINE SNAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
TRACLOK DIFFERENTIAL NOISE . . . . . . . . . 109
TRACLOK TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
SERVICE PROCEDURES
LUBRICANT CHANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
REAR AXLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
AXLE SHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
AXLE SEAL AND BEARING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
PINION SEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
DIFFERENTIAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
RING GEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
PINION GEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
TRAC-LOK DIFFERENTIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
8 1/4 AXLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
TRAC-LOK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
ADJUSTMENTS
8 1/4 AXLE PINION GEAR DEPTH . . . . . . . . . . . 126
DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD AND
GEAR BACKLASH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
GEAR CONTACT PATTERN ANALYSIS. . . . . . . . 129
SIDE GEAR CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
SPECIFICATIONS
8 1/4 INCH AXLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
8 1/4 INCH AXLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
SPECIAL TOOLS
8 1/4 AXLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
8 1/4 AXLE
DESCRIPTION
The 8 1/4 i nch axl e housi ngs consi st of a cast i ron
center secti on wi th axl e tubes extendi ng from ei ther
si de. The tubes are pressed i nto and wel ded to the
di fferenti al housi ng to form a one-pi ece axl e housi ng
(Fi g. 1).
The axl es have a vent hose to rel i eve i nternal pres-
sure caused by l ubri cant vapori zati on and i nternal
expansi on.
The axl es are equi pped wi th semi -fl oati ng axl e
shafts, meani ng vehi cl e l oads are supported by the
axl e shaft and beari ngs. The axl e shafts are retai ned
by C-l ocks i n the di fferenti al si de gears.
The removabl e, stamped steel cover provi des a
means for i nspecti on and servi ce wi thout removi ng
the compl ete axl e from the vehi cl e.
The 8 1/4 axl e have a date tag and a gear rati o tag.
The tags are attached to the di fferenti al housi ng by a
cover bol t.
The di fferenti al case i s a one-pi ece desi gn. The di f-
ferenti al pi ni on mate shaft i s retai ned wi th a
threaded pi n. Di fferenti al beari ng prel oad and ri ng
gear backl ash are set and mai ntai ned by threaded
adjusters at the outsi de of the di fferenti al housi ng.
Pi ni on beari ng prel oad i s set and mai ntai ned by the
use of a col l apsi bl e spacer.
Axl es equi pped wi th a Trac-Lok di fferenti al are
opti onal . A Trac-Lok di fferenti al has a one-pi ece di f-
ferenti al case, and the same i nternal components as
a standard di fferenti al , pl us two cl utch di sc packs.
AXLE IDENTIFICATION
The axl e di fferenti al cover can be used for i denti fi -
cati on of the axl e (Fi g. 2). A tag i s al so attached to
the cover.
OPERATION
The axl e recei ves power from the transmi ssi on/
transfer case through the rear propel l er shaft. The
rear propel l er shaft i s connected to the pi ni on gear
whi ch rotates the di fferenti al through the gear mesh
wi th the ri ng gear bol ted to the di fferenti al case. The
engi ne power i s transmi tted to the axl e shafts
through the pi ni on mate and si de gears. The si de
gears are spl i ned to the axl e shafts.
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 103
LUBRICANT
DESCRIPTION
Mul ti -purpose, hypoi d gear l ubri cant shoul d be
used for rear axl es wi th a standard di fferenti al . The
l ubri cant shoul d have a MI L-L-2105C and API GL 5
qual i ty speci fi cati ons.
Trac-Lok di fferenti al s requi re the addi ti on of 4 oz.
of fri cti on modi fi er to the axl e l ubri cant after servi ce.
The 8 1/4 axl e l ubri cant capaci ty i s 2.08 L (4.4 pts.)
total , i ncl udi ng the fri cti on modi fi er, i f necessary.
CAUTION: If the rear axle is submerged in water,
the lubricant must be replaced immediately. Avoid
the possibility of premature axle failure resulting
from water contamination of the lubricant.
Fig. 1 8 1/4 Axle
Fig. 2 Differential Cover 8 1/4 Inch Axle
1 DIFFERENTIAL COVER
2 IDENTIFICATION TAG
3 PUSH-IN FILL PLUG
4 DATE TAG
3 - 104 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL
DESCRIPTION
The di fferenti al gear system di vi des the torque
between the axl e shafts. I t al l ows the axl e shafts to
rotate at di fferent speeds when turni ng corners.
Each di fferenti al si de gear i s spl i ned to an axl e
shaft. The pi ni on gears are mounted on a pi ni on
mate shaft and are free to rotate on the shaft. The
pi ni on gear i s fi tted i n a bore i n the di fferenti al case
and i s posi ti oned at a ri ght angl e to the axl e shafts.
OPERATION
I n operati on, power fl ow occurs as fol l ows:
The pi ni on gear rotates the ri ng gear
The ri ng gear (bol ted to the di fferenti al case)
rotates the case
The di fferenti al pi ni on gears (mounted on the
pi ni on mate shaft i n the case) rotate the si de gears
The si de gears (spl i ned to the axl e shafts) rotate
the shafts
Duri ng strai ght-ahead dri vi ng, the di fferenti al pi n-
i on gears do not rotate on the pi ni on mate shaft. Thi s
occurs because i nput torque appl i ed to the gears i s
di vi ded and di stri buted equal l y between the two si de
gears. As a resul t, the pi ni on gears revol ve wi th the
pi ni on mate shaft but do not rotate around i t (Fi g. 3).
When turni ng corners, the outsi de wheel must
travel a greater di stance than the i nsi de wheel to
compl ete a turn. The di fference must be compensated
for to prevent the ti res from scuffi ng and ski ddi ng
through turns. To accompl i sh thi s, the di fferenti al
al l ows the axl e shafts to turn at unequal speeds (Fi g.
4). I n thi s i nstance, the i nput torque appl i ed to the
pi ni on gears i s not di vi ded equal l y. The pi ni on gears
now rotate around the pi ni on mate shaft i n opposi te
di recti ons. Thi s al l ows the si de gear and axl e shaft
attached to the outsi de wheel to rotate at a faster
speed.
TRAC-LOK DIFFERENTIAL
DESCRIPTION
I n a standard di fferenti al , i f one wheel spi ns, the
opposi te wheel wi l l generate onl y as much torque as
the spi nni ng wheel .
I n the Trac-l ok di fferenti al , part of the ri ng gear
torque i s transmi tted through cl utch packs whi ch
contai n mul ti pl e di scs. The cl utches wi l l have radi al
grooves on the pl ates, and concentri c grooves on the
di scs or bonded fi ber materi al that i s smooth i n
appearance.
OPERATION
I n operati on, the Trac-l ok cl utches are engaged
by two concurrent forces. The fi rst bei ng the prel oad
force exerted through Bel l evi l l e spri ng washers
wi thi n the cl utch packs. The second i s the separati ng
forces generated by the si de gears as torque i s
appl i ed through the ri ng gear (Fi g. 5).
Fig. 3 Differential OperationStraight Ahead Driving
1 IN STRAIGHT AHEAD DRIVING EACH WHEEL ROTATES AT
100% OF CASE SPEED
2 PINION GEAR
3 SIDE GEAR
4 PINION GEARS ROTATE WITH CASE
Fig. 4 Differential OperationOn Turns
1 PINION GEARS ROTATE ON PINION SHAFT
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 105
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
The Trac-l ok desi gn provi des the di fferenti al
acti on needed for turni ng corners and for dri vi ng
strai ght ahead duri ng peri ods of unequal tracti on.
When one wheel l ooses tracti on, the cl utch packs
transfer addi ti onal torque to the wheel havi ng the
most tracti on. Trac-l ok di fferenti al s resi st wheel
spi n on bumpy roads and provi de more pul l i ng power
when one wheel l ooses tracti on. Pul l i ng power i s pro-
vi ded conti nuousl y unti l both wheel s l oose tracti on. I f
both wheel s sl i p due to unequal tracti on, Trac-l ok
operati on i s normal . I n extreme cases of di fferences
of tracti on, the wheel wi th the l east tracti on may
spi n.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
GENERAL INFORMATION
Axl e beari ng probl em condi ti ons are usual l y caused
by:
I nsuffi ci ent or i ncorrect l ubri cant.
Forei gn matter/water contami nati on.
I ncorrect beari ng prel oad torque adjustment.
I ncorrect backl ash.
Axl e gear probl em condi ti ons are usual l y the resul t
of:
I nsuffi ci ent l ubri cati on.
I ncorrect or contami nated l ubri cant.
Overl oadi ng (excessi ve engi ne torque) or exceed-
i ng vehi cl e wei ght capaci ty.
I ncorrect cl earance or backl ash adjustment.
Axl e component breakage i s most often the resul t
of:
Severe overl oadi ng.
I nsuffi ci ent l ubri cant.
I ncorrect l ubri cant.
I mproperl y ti ghtened components.
Di fferenti al housi ng bores not square to each
other.
Fig. 5 Trac-lok Limited Slip Differential Operation
1 CASE
2 RING GEAR
3 DRIVE PINION
4 PINION GEAR
5 MATE SHAFT
6 CLUTCH PACK
7 SIDE GEAR
8 CLUTCH PACK
3 - 106 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
DIAGNOSTIC CHART
Condition Possible Causes Correction
Wheel Noise 1. Wheel loose. 1. Tighten loose nuts.
2. Faulty, brinelled wheel bearing. 2. Replace bearing.
Axle Shaft Noise 1. Misaligned axle tube. 1. Inspect axle tube alignment. Correct as
necessary.
2. Bent or sprung axle shaft. 2. Inspect and correct as necessary.
3. End-play in pinion bearings. 3. Refer to pinion pre-load information and
correct as necessary.
4. Excessive gear backlash
between the ring gear and pinion.
4. Check adjustment of the ring gear and
pinion backlash. Correct as necessary.
5. Improper adjustment of pinion
gear bearings.
5. Adjust the pinion bearings pre-load.
6. Loose pinion yoke nut. 6. Tighten the pinion yoke nut.
7. Scuffed gear tooth contact
surfaces.
7. Inspect and replace as necessary.
Axle Shaft Broke 1. Misaligned axle tube. 1. Replace the broken shaft after correcting
tube mis-alignment.
2 Vehicle overloaded. 2. Replace broken shaft and avoid excessive
weight on vehicle.
3. Erratic clutch operation. 3. Replace broken shaft and avoid or correct
erratic clutch operation.
4. Grabbing clutch. 4. Replace broken shaft and inspect and
repair clutch as necessary.
Differential Cracked 1. Improper adjustment of the
differential bearings.
1. Replace case and inspect gears and
bearings for further damage. Set differential
bearing pre-load properly.
2. Excessive ring gear backlash. 2. Replace case and inspect gears and
bearings for further damage. Set ring gear
backlash properly.
3. Vehicle overloaded. 3. Replace case and inspect gears and
bearings for further damage. Avoid excessive
vehicle weight.
4. Erratic clutch operation. 4. Replace case and inspect gears and
bearings for further damage. Avoid erratic use
of clutch.
Differential Gears Scored 1. Insufficient lubrication. 1. Replace scored gears. Fill differential with
the correct fluid type and quantity.
2. Improper grade of lubricant. 2. Replace scored gears. Fill differential with
the correct fluid type and quantity.
3. Excessive spinning of one
wheel/tire.
3. Replace scored gears. Inspect all gears,
pinion bores, and shaft for damage. Service
as necessary.
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 107
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Condition Possible Causes Correction
Loss Of Lubricant 1. Lubricant level too high. 1. Drain lubricant to the correct level.
2. Worn axle shaft seals. 2. Replace seals.
3. Cracked differential housing. 3. Repair as necessary.
4. Worn pinion seal. 4. Replace seal.
5. Worn/scored yoke. 5. Replace yoke and seal.
6. Axle cover not properly sealed. 6. Remove, clean, and re-seal cover.
Axle Overheating 1. Lubricant level low. 1. Fill differential to correct level.
2. Improper grade of lubricant. 2. Fill differential with the correct fluid type
and quantity.
3. Bearing pre-loads too high. 3. Re-adjust bearing pre-loads.
4. Insufficient ring gear backlash. 4. Re-adjust ring gear backlash.
Gear Teeth Broke 1. Overloading. 1. Replace gears. Examine other gears and
bearings for possible damage.
2. Erratic clutch operation. 2. Replace gears and examine the remaining
parts for damage. Avoid erratic clutch
operation.
3. Ice-spotted pavement. 3. Replace gears and examine remaining
parts for damage.
4. Improper adjustments. 4. Replace gears and examine remaining
parts for damage. Ensure ring gear backlash
is correct.
Axle Noise 1. Insufficient lubricant. 1. Fill differential with the correct fluid type
and quantity.
2. Improper ring gear and pinion
adjustment.
2. Check ring gear and pinion contact pattern.
3. Unmatched ring gear and pinion. 3. Replace gears with a matched ring gear
and pinion.
4. Worn teeth on ring gear and/or
pinion.
4. Replace ring gear and pinion.
5. Loose pinion bearings. 5. Adjust pinion bearing pre-load.
6. Loose differential bearings. 6. Adjust differential bearing pre-load.
7. Mis-aligned or sprung ring gear. 7. Measure ring gear run-out. Replace
components as necessary.
8. Loose differential bearing cap
bolts.
8. Inspect differential components and replace
as necessary. Ensure that the bearing caps
are torqued tot he proper specification.
9. Housing not machined properly. 9. Replace housing.
3 - 108 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
GEAR NOISE
Axl e gear noi se can be caused by i nsuffi ci ent l ubri -
cant, i ncorrect backl ash, tooth contact, worn/damaged
gears, or the carri er housi ng not havi ng the proper
offset and squareness.
Gear noi se usual l y happens at a speci fi c speed
range. The noi se can al so occur duri ng a speci fi c type
of dri vi ng condi ti on. These condi ti ons are accel era-
ti on, decel erati on, coast, or constant l oad.
When road testi ng, fi rst warm-up the axl e fl ui d by
dri vi ng the vehi cl e at l east 5 mi l es and then accel er-
ate the vehi cl e to the speed range where the noi se i s
the greatest. Shi ft out-of-gear and coast through the
peaknoi se range. I f the noi se stops or changes
greatl y:
Check for i nsuffi ci ent l ubri cant.
I ncorrect ri ng gear backl ash.
Gear damage.
Di fferenti al si de gears and pi ni ons can be checked
by turni ng the vehi cl e. They usual l y do not cause
noi se duri ng strai ghtahead dri vi ng when the gears
are unl oaded. The si de gears are l oaded duri ng vehi -
cl e turns. A worn pi ni on mate shaft can al so cause a
snappi ng or a knocki ng noi se.
BEARING NOISE
The axl e shaft, di fferenti al and pi ni on beari ngs can
al l produce noi se when worn or damaged. Beari ng
noi se can be ei ther a whi ni ng, or a growl i ng sound.
Pi ni on beari ngs have a constantpi tch noi se. Thi s
noi se changes onl y wi th vehi cl e speed. Pi ni on beari ng
noi se wi l l be hi gher pi tched because i t rotates at a
faster rate. Dri ve the vehi cl e and l oad the di fferen-
ti al . I f beari ng noi se occurs, the rear pi ni on beari ng
i s the source of the noi se. I f the beari ng noi se i s
heard duri ng a coast, the front pi ni on beari ng i s the
source.
Worn or damaged di fferenti al beari ngs usual l y pro-
duce a l ow pi tch noi se. Di fferenti al beari ng noi se i s
si mi l ar to pi ni on beari ng noi se. The pi tch of di fferen-
ti al beari ng noi se i s al so constant and vari es onl y
wi th vehi cl e speed.
Axl e shaft beari ngs produce noi se and vi brati on
when worn or damaged. The noi se general l y changes
when the beari ngs are l oaded. Road test the vehi cl e.
Turn the vehi cl e sharpl y to the l eft and to the ri ght.
Thi s wi l l l oad the beari ngs and change the noi se
l evel . Where axl e beari ng damage i s sl i ght, the noi se
i s usual l y not noti ceabl e at speeds above 30 mph.
LOW SPEED KNOCK
Low speed knock i s general l y caused by a worn
Ujoi nt or by worn si degear thrust washers. A worn
pi ni on shaft bore wi l l al so cause l ow speed knock.
VIBRATION
Vi brati on at the rear of the vehi cl e i s usual l y
caused by a:
Damaged dri ve shaft.
Mi ssi ng dri ve shaft bal ance wei ght(s).
Worn or outofbal ance wheel s.
Loose wheel l ug nuts.
Worn Ujoi nt(s).
Loose/broken spri ngs.
Damaged axl e shaft beari ng(s).
Loose pi ni on gear nut.
Excessi ve pi ni on yoke run out.
Bent axl e shaft(s).
Check for l oose or damaged frontend components
or engi ne/transmi ssi on mounts. These components
can contri bute to what appears to be a rearend
vi brati on. Do not overl ook engi ne accessori es, brack-
ets and dri ve bel ts.
Al l dri vel i ne components shoul d be exami ned
before starti ng any repai r.
Refer to Group 22, Wheel s and Ti res, for addi ti onal
vi brati on i nformati on.
DRIVELINE SNAP
A snap or cl unk noi se when the vehi cl e i s shi fted
i nto gear (or the cl utch engaged), can be caused by:
Hi gh engi ne i dl e speed.
Transmi ssi on shi ft operati on.
Loose engi ne/transmi ssi on/transfer case mounts.
Worn Ujoi nts.
Loose spri ng mounts.
Loose pi ni on gear nut and yoke.
Excessi ve ri ng gear backl ash.
Excessi ve si de gear to case cl earance.
The source of a snap or a cl unk noi se can be deter-
mi ned wi th the assi stance of a hel per. Rai se the vehi -
cl e on a hoi st wi th the wheel s free to rotate. I nstruct
the hel per to shi ft the transmi ssi on i nto gear. Li sten
for the noi se, a mechani cs stethoscope i s hel pful i n
i sol ati ng the source of a noi se.
TRACLOK DIFFERENTIAL NOISE
The most common probl em i s a chatter noi se when
turni ng corners. Before removi ng a Trac-l ok uni t
for repai r, drai n, fl ush and refi l l the axl e wi th the
speci fi ed l ubri cant. Refer to Lubri cant change i n thi s
Group.
A contai ner of Mopar Trac-l ok Lubri cant (fri c-
ti on modi fi er) shoul d be added after repai r servi ce or
duri ng a l ubri cant change.
After changi ng the l ubri cant, dri ve the vehi cl e and
make 10 to 12 sl ow, fi gure-ei ght turns. Thi s maneu-
ver wi l l pump l ubri cant through the cl utches. Thi s
wi l l correct the condi ti on i n most i nstances. I f the
chatter persi sts, cl utch damage coul d have occurred.
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 109
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
TRACLOK TEST
WARNING: WHEN SERVICING VEHICLES WITH A
TRACLOK DIFFERENTIAL DO NOT USE THE
ENGINE TO TURN THE AXLE AND WHEELS. BOTH
REAR WHEELS MUST BE RAISED AND THE VEHI-
CLE SUPPORTED. A TRACLOK AXLE CAN
EXERT ENOUGH FORCE IF ONE WHEEL IS IN CON-
TACT WITH A SURFACE TO CAUSE THE VEHICLE
TO MOVE.
The di fferenti al can be tested wi thout removi ng the
di fferenti al case by measuri ng rotati ng torque. Make
sure brakes are not draggi ng duri ng thi s measure-
ment.
(1) Pl ace bl ocks i n front and rear of both front
wheel s.
(2) Rai se one rear wheel unti l i t i s compl etel y off
the ground.
(3) Engi ne off, transmi ssi on i n neutral , and park-
i ng brake off.
(4) Remove wheel and bol t Speci al Tool 6790 to
studs.
(5) Use torque wrench on speci al tool to rotate
wheel and read rotati ng torque (Fi g. 6).
(6) I f rotati ng torque i s l ess than 22 Nm (30 ft.
l bs.) or more than 271 Nm (200 ft. l bs.) on ei ther
wheel the uni t shoul d be servi ced.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
LUBRICANT CHANGE
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Remove the l ubri cant fi l l hol e pl ug from the
di fferenti al housi ng cover.
(3) Remove the di fferenti al housi ng cover and
drai n the l ubri cant from the housi ng.
(4) Cl ean the housi ng cavi ty wi th a fl ushi ng oi l ,
l i ght engi ne oi l , or l i nt free cl oth. Do not use water,
steam, kerosene, or gasoline for cleaning.
(5) Remove the ori gi nal seal ant from the housi ng
and cover surfaces.
(6) Appl y a bead of Mopar Si l i cone Rubber Seal -
ant, or equi val ent, to the housi ng cover (Fi g. 7).
Install the housing cover within 5 minutes
after applying the sealant.
(7) I nstal l the cover and any i denti fi cati on tag.
Ti ghten the cover bol ts to 41 Nm (30 ft. l bs.) torque.
(8) For Tracl ok di fferenti al s, a quanti ty of
Mopar Tracl ok l ubri cant (fri cti on modi fi er), or
equi val ent, must be added after repai r servi ce or a
l ubri cant change. Refer to the Lubri cant Speci fi ca-
ti ons secti on of thi s group for the quanti ty necessary.
(9) Fi l l di fferenti al wi th Mopar Hypoi d Gear
Lubri cant, or equi val ent, to bottom of the fi l l pl ug
hol e. Refer to the Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons secti on of
thi s group for the quanti ty necessary.
CAUTION: Overfilling the differential can result in
lubricant foaming and overheating.
(10) I nstal l the fi l l hol e pl ug and l ower the vehi cl e.
(11) Tracl ok di fferenti al equi pped vehi cl es
shoul d be road tested by maki ng 10 to 12 sl ow fi gure-
ei ght turns. Thi s maneuver wi l l pump the l ubri cant
through the cl utch di scs to el i mi nate a possi bl e chat-
ter noi se compl ai nt.
Fig. 6 Trac-lok Test Typical
1 SPECIAL TOOL 6790 WITH BOLT IN CENTER HOLE
2 TORQUE WRENCH
Fig. 7 Apply Sealant
1 SEALANT
2 AXLE HOUSING COVER
3 - 110 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
REAR AXLE
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Posi ti on a sui tabl e l i fti ng devi ce under the
axl e.
(3) Secure axl e to devi ce.
(4) Remove the wheel s and ti res.
(5) Secure brake drums to the axl e shaft.
(6) Di sconnect the brake hose at the axl e juncti on
bl ock. Do not di sconnect the brake hydraul i c l i nes at
the wheel cyl i nders. Refer to Group 5, Brakes, for
proper procedures.
(7) Di sconnect the parki ng brake cabl es and cabl e
brackets.
(8) Di sconnect the vent hose from the axl e tube.
(9) Mark the propel l er shaft and yoke for i nstal l a-
ti on al i gnment reference.
(10) Remove propel l er shaft.
(11) Di sconnect shock absorbers from axl e.
(12) Remove the stabi l i zer l i nks.
(13) Remove the spri ng cl amps and spri ng brack-
ets. Refer to Group 2, Suspensi on, for proper proce-
dures.
(14) Separate the axl e from the vehi cl e.
INSTALLATION
(1) Rai se the axl e wi th l i fti ng devi ce and al i gn to
the l eaf spri ng centeri ng bol ts.
(2) I nstal l the spri ng cl amps and spri ng brackets.
Refer to Group 2, Suspensi on, for proper procedures.
(3) I nstal l shock absorbers and ti ghten nuts to 60
Nm (44 ft. l bs.) torque.
(4) I nstal l the stabi l i zer l i nks. Ti ghten sway bar
l i nks to 74 Nm (55 ft. l bs.).
(5) Connect the parki ng brake cabl es and cabl e
brackets.
(6) I nstal l the brake drums. Refer to Group 5,
Brakes, for proper procedures.
(7) Connect the brake hose to the axl e juncti on
bl ock. Refer to Group 5, Brakes, for proper proce-
dures.
(8) I nstal l axl e vent hose.
(9) Al i gn propel l er shaft and pi ni on yoke reference
marks. I nstal l uni versal joi nt straps and bol ts.
Ti ghten to 19 Nm (14 ft. l bs.) torque.
(10) I nstal l the wheel s and ti res.
(11) Add gear l ubri cant, i f necessary. Refer to
Lubri cant Speci fi cati ons i n thi s secti on for l ubri cant
requi rements.
(12) Remove l i fti ng devi ce from axl e and l ower the
vehi cl e.
AXLE SHAFT
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support vehi cl e. Ensure that the
transmi ssi on i s i n neutral .
(2) Remove wheel and ti re assembl y.
(3) Remove brake drum. Refer to Group 5, Brakes,
for proper procedure.
(4) Cl ean al l forei gn materi al from housi ng cover
area.
(5) Loosen housi ng cover bol ts. Drai n l ubri cant
from the housi ng and axl e tubes. Remove housi ng
cover.
(6) Rotate di fferenti al case so that pi ni on mate
shaft l ock screw i s accessi bl e. Remove l ock screw and
pi ni on mate shaft from di fferenti al case (Fi g. 8).
(7) Push axl e shaft i nward and remove axl e shaft
Cl ock from the axl e shaft (Fi g. 9).
(8) Remove axl e shaft. Use care to prevent damage
to axl e shaft beari ng and seal , whi ch wi l l remai n i n
axl e tube.
(9) I nspect axl e shaft seal for l eakage or damage.
(10) I nspect rol l er beari ng contact surface on axl e
shaft for si gns of bri nel l i ng, gal l i ng and pi tti ng. I f
any of these condi ti ons exi st, the axl e shaft and/or
beari ng and seal must be repl aced.
INSTALLATION
(1) Lubri cate beari ng bore and seal l i p wi th gear
l ubri cant. I nsert axl e shaft through seal , beari ng,
and engage i t i nto si de gear spl i nes.
NOTE: Use care to prevent shaft splines from dam-
aging axle shaft seal lip.
Fig. 8 Pinion Mate Shaft Lock Screw
1 LOCK SCREW
2 PINION MATE SHAFT
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 111
(2) I nsert Cl ock i n end of axl e shaft. Push axl e
shaft outward to seat Cl ock i n si de gear.
(3) I nsert pi ni on shaft i nto di fferenti al case and
through thrust washers and di fferenti al pi ni ons.
(4) Al i gn hol e i n shaft wi th hol e i n the di fferenti al
case and i nstal l l ock screw wi th Locti te on the
threads. Ti ghten l ock screw to 11 Nm (8 ft. l bs.)
torque.
(5) I nstal l cover and add fl ui d. Refer to Lubri cant
Change procedure i n thi s secti on for procedure and
l ubri cant requi rements.
(6) I nstal l brake drum. Refer to Group 5, Brakes,
for proper procedures.
(7) I nstal l wheel and ti re.
(8) Lower vehi cl e.
AXLE SEAL AND BEARING
REMOVAL
(1) Remove axl e shaft.
(2) Remove axl e shaft seal from the end of the axl e
tube wi th a smal l pry bar (Fi g. 10).
NOTE: The seal and bearing can be removed at the
same time with the bearing removal tool.
(3) Remove the axl e shaft beari ng from the axl e
tube wi th Beari ng Removal Tool Set 6310, usi ng
Adapter Foot 6310-9 (Fi g. 11).
INSTALLATION
NOTE: Do not install the original axle shaft seal.
Always install a new seal.
(1) Wi pe the axl e tube bore cl ean. Remove any ol d
seal er or burrs from the tube.
(2) I nstal l the axl e shaft beari ng wi th I nstal l er
C-4198 and Handl e C-4171 (Fi g. 12). Ensure that the
beari ng part number i s agai nst the i nstal l er. Veri fy
that the beari ng i n i nstal l ed strai ght and the tool
ful l y contacts the axl e tube when seati ng the beari ng.
Fig. 9 Axle Shaft CLock
1 CLOCK
2 AXLE SHAFT
3 SIDE GEAR
Fig. 10 Axle Seal Removal
1 AXLE TUBE
2 AXLE SEAL
3 PRY BAR
Fig. 11 Axle Shaft Bearing Removal Tool
1 NUT
2 GUIDE PLATE
3 GUIDE
4 THREADED ROD
5 ADAPTER
6 FOOT
7 AXLE TUBE
3 - 112 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(3) I nstal l a new axl e seal wi th I nstal l er C-4076-B
and Handl e C-4735-1. When the tool contacts the
axl e tube, the seal i s i nstal l ed to the correct depth.
(4) Coat the l i p of the seal wi th axl e l ubri cant for
protecti on pri or to i nstal l i ng the axl e shaft.
(5) I nstal l the axl e shaft.
PINION SEAL
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support the vehi cl e.
(2) Scri be a mark on the uni versal joi nt, pi ni on
yoke, and pi ni on shaft for reference.
(3) Di sconnect the propel l er shaft from the pi ni on
yoke. Secure the propel l er shaft i n an upri ght posi -
ti on to prevent damage to the rear uni versal joi nt.
(4) Remove the wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(5) Remove the brake drums to prevent any drag.
The drag may cause a fal se beari ng prel oad torque
measurement.
(6) Rotate the pi ni on yoke three or four ti mes.
(7) Measure the amount of torque necessary to
rotate the pi ni on gear wi th a (i n. l bs.) di al -type
torque wrench. Record the torque readi ng for i nstal -
l ati on reference.
(8) Hol d the yoke wi th Wrench 6719. Remove the
pi ni on nut and washer.
(9) Remove the yoke wi th Remover C-452 (Fi g. 13).
(10) Remove the pi ni on seal wi th sui tabl e pry tool
or sl i de-hammer mounted screw.
INSTALLATION
(1) Cl ean the seal contact surface i n the housi ng
bore.
(2) Exami ne the spl i nes on the pi ni on shaft for
burrs or wear. Remove any burrs and cl ean the shaft.
(3) I nspect pi ni on yoke for cracks, worn spl i nes
and worn seal contact surface. Repl ace yoke i f neces-
sary.
NOTE: The outer perimeter of the seal is pre-coated
with a special sealant. An additional application of
sealant is not required.
(4) Appl y a l i ght coati ng of gear l ubri cant on the
l i p of pi ni on seal .
(5) I nstal l the new pi ni on seal wi th I nstal l er
C-4076-B and Handl e C-4735-1 (Fi g. 14).
NOTE: The seal is correctly installed when the seal
flange contacts the face of the differential housing
flange.
Fig. 12 Axle Shaft Seal and Bearing Installation
1 HANDLE
2 INSTALLER
3 AXLE TUBE
Fig. 13 Yoke Removal
1 PINION YOKE
2 TOOL C452
Fig. 14 8 1/4 Axle Pinion Seal Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-4735
2 DIFFERENTIAL HOUSING
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-4076-A
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 113
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(6) Posi ti on the pi ni on yoke on the end of the shaft
wi th the reference marks al i gned.
(7) Seat yoke on pi ni on shaft wi th I nstal l er C-3718
and Wrench 6719.
(8) Remove the tool s and i nstal l the pi ni on yoke
washer. The convex si de of the washer must face out-
ward.
CAUTION: Do not exceed the minimum tightening
torque when installing the pinion yoke retaining nut
at this point. Damage to collapsible spacer or bear-
ings may result.
(9) Hol d pi ni on yoke wi th Yoke Hol der 6719 and
ti ghten shaft nut to 285 Nm (210 ft. l bs.) (Fi g. 15).
Rotate the pi ni on several revol uti ons to ensure the
beari ng rol l ers are seated.
(10) Rotate the pi ni on usi ng an (i n. l bs.) torque
wrench. Rotati ng torque shoul d be equal to the read-
i ng recorded duri ng removal , pl us an addi ti onal 0.56
Nm (5 i n. l bs.) (Fi g. 16).
CAUTION: Never loosen pinion nut to decrease pin-
ion gear bearing rotating torque and never exceed
specified preload torque. If preload torque is
exceeded a new collapsible spacer must be
installed. The torque sequence will then have to be
repeated.
(11) I f the rotati ng torque i s l ow, use Yoke Hol der
6719 to hol d the pi ni on yoke (Fi g. 15) and ti ghten the
pi ni on nut i n 6.8 Nm (5 ft. l bs.) i ncrements unti l
proper rotati ng torque i s achi eved.
NOTE: The bearing rotating torque should be con-
stant during a complete revolution of the pinion. If
the rotating torque varies, this indicates a binding
condition.
(12) The seal repl acement i s unacceptabl e i f the
fi nal pi ni on nut torque i s l ess than 285 Nm (210 ft.
l bs.).
(13) I nstal l the propel l er shaft wi th the i nstal l a-
ti on reference marks al i gned.
(14) Ti ghten the uni versal joi nt yoke cl amp screws
to 19 Nm (14 ft. l bs.).
(15) I nstal l the brake drums.
(16) I nstal l wheel and ti re assembl i es and l ower
the vehi cl e.
(17) Check the di fferenti al housi ng l ubri cant l evel .
DIFFERENTIAL
REMOVAL
(1) Remove the axl e shafts.
NOTE: Side play resulting from bearing races being
loose on case hubs requires replacement of the dif-
ferential case.
Fig. 15 Tightening Pinion Nut
1 DIFFERENTIAL HOUSING
2 YOKE HOLDER
3 TORQUE WRENCH
Fig. 16 Check Pinion Rotation Torque
1 PINION YOKE
2 INCH POUND TORQUE WRENCH
3 - 114 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(2) Mark the di fferenti al housi ng and the di fferen-
ti al beari ng caps for i nstal l ati on reference (Fi g. 17).
(3) Remove beari ng threaded adjuster l ock from
each beari ng cap. Loosen the bol ts, but do not
remove the beari ng caps.
(4) Loosen the threaded adjusters wi th Wrench
C-4164 (Fi g. 18).
(5) Hol d the di fferenti al case whi l e removi ng bear-
i ng caps and adjusters.
(6) Remove the di fferenti al case.
NOTE: Each differential bearing cup and threaded
adjuster must be kept with their respective bearing.
INSTALLATION
(1) Appl y a coati ng of hypoi d gear l ubri cant to the
di fferenti al beari ngs, beari ng cups, and threaded
adjusters. A dab of grease can be used to keep the
adjusters i n posi ti on. Careful l y posi ti on the assem-
bl ed di fferenti al case i n the housi ng.
(2) Observe the reference marks and i nstal l the
di fferenti al beari ng caps at thei r ori gi nal l ocati ons
(Fi g. 19).
(3) I nstal l beari ng cap bol ts and ti ghten the upper
bol ts to 14 Nm (10 ft. l bs.). Ti ghten the l ower bol ts
fi nger-ti ght unti l the bol t head i s seated.
(4) Perform the di fferenti al beari ng prel oad and
adjustment procedure.
NOTE: Be sure that all bearing cap bolts are tight-
ened to the final torque of 95 Nm (70 ft.lbs) before
proceeding.
(5) I nstal l axl e shafts and di fferenti al housi ng
cover.
DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARINGS
REMOVAL
(1) Remove di fferenti al case from axl e housi ng.
(2) Remove the beari ngs from the di fferenti al case
wi th Pul l er/Press C-293-PA and Adapters C-293-48
and Pl ug SP-3289 (Fi g. 20).
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l di fferenti al si de beari ngs. Use I nstal l er
C-4340 wi th handl e C-4171 (Fi g. 21).
(2) I nstal l di fferenti al case i n axl e housi ng.
Fig. 17 Mark For Installation Reference
1 INSTALLATION REFERENCE MARKS
2 INSTALLATION REFERENCE MARKS
3 DIFFERENTIAL HOUSING
4 BEARING CAP
Fig. 18 Threaded Adjuster Tool
1 AXLE TUBE
2 BACKING PLATE
3 TOOL C-4164
Fig. 19 Bearing Caps & Bolts
1 INSTALLATION REFERENCE MARKS
2 INSTALLATION REFERENCE MARKS
3 DIFFERENTIAL HOUSING
4 BEARING CAP
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 115
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
RING GEAR
The ri ng gear and pi ni on are servi ced i n a matched
set. Do not repl ace the ri ng gear wi thout repl aci ng
the pi ni on.
REMOVAL
(1) Remove di fferenti al from axl e housi ng.
(2) Pl ace di fferenti al case i n a sui tabl e vi se wi th
soft metal jaw protectors. (Fi g. 22).
(3) Remove bol ts hol di ng ri ng gear to di fferenti al
case.
(4) Usi ng a soft hammer, dri ve ri ng gear from di f-
ferenti al case (Fi g. 22).
INSTALLATION
CAUTION: Do not reuse the bolts that held the ring
gear to the differential case. The bolts can fracture
causing extensive damage.
(1) I nvert the di fferenti al case.
(2) Posi ti on ri ng gear on the di fferenti al case and
start two ri ng gear bol ts. Thi s wi l l provi de case-to-
ri ng gear bol t hol e al i gnment.
(3) I nvert the di fferenti al case i n the vi se.
(4) I nstal l new ri ng gear bol ts and al ternatel y
ti ghten to 102 Nm (75 ft. l bs.) torque (Fi g. 23).
(5) I nstal l di fferenti al i n axl e housi ng and veri fy
gear mesh and contact pattern.
Fig. 20 Differential Bearing Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-293PA
2 SPECIAL TOOL C-29348
3 BEARING
4 DIFFERENTIAL
5 SPECIAL TOOL SP-3289
Fig. 21 Install Differential Side Bearings
1 HANDLE C-4171
2 DIFFERENTIAL
3 BEARING
4 TOOL C-4340
Fig. 22 Ring Gear Removal
1 CASE
2 RING GEAR
3 RAWHIDE HAMMER
3 - 116 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
PINION GEAR
The ri ng gear and pi ni on are servi ced i n a matched
set. Do not repl ace the pi ni on wi thout repl aci ng the
ri ng gear.
REMOVAL
(1) Remove di fferenti al from the axl e housi ng.
(2) Mark pi ni on yoke and propel l er shaft for
i nstal l ati on al i gnment.
(3) Di sconnect propel l er shaft from pi ni on yoke.
Usi ng sui tabl e wi re, ti e propel l er shaft to underbody.
(4) Usi ng Yoke Hol der 6719 to hol d yoke and
remove the pi ni on yoke nut and washer.
(5) Usi ng Remover C452, remove the pi ni on yoke
from pi ni on shaft (Fi g. 24).
(6) Parti al l y i nstal l pi ni on nut onto pi ni on to pro-
tect the threads.
(7) Remove the pi ni on from housi ng (Fi g. 25).
Catch the pi ni on wi th your hand to prevent i t from
fal l i ng and bei ng damaged.
(8) Remove the pi ni on shaft seal wi th sui tabl e pry
tool or sl i de-hammer mounted screw.
(9) Remove oi l sl i nger, i f equi pped, and front pi n-
i on beari ng.
(10) Remove the front pi ni on beari ng cup wi th
Remover C-4345 and Handl e C4171 (Fi g. 26).
(11) Remove the rear beari ng cup from housi ng
(Fi g. 27). Use Remover C-4307 and Handl e C4171.
(12) Remove the col l apsi bl e prel oad spacer (Fi g. 28).
(13) Remove the rear beari ng from the pi ni on (Fi g.
29) wi th Pul l er/Press C-293-PA and Adapters C-293-47.
Place 4 adapter blocks so they do not damage
the bearing cage.
(14) Remove the depth shi ms from the pi ni on
shaft. Record the thi ckness of the depth shi ms.
INSTALLATION
(1) Appl y Mopar Door Ease, or equi val ent, sti ck
l ubri cant to outsi de surface of beari ng cup.
(2) I nstal l the pi ni on rear beari ng cup (Fi g. 30)
wi th I nstal l er C-4308 and Dri ver Handl e C4171.
Fig. 23 Ring Gear Bolt Installation
1 TORQUE WRENCH
2 RING GEAR BOLT
3 RING GEAR
4 CASE
Fig. 24 Pinion Yoke Removal
1 PINION YOKE
2 TOOL C452
Fig. 25 Remove Pinion Gear
1 RAWHIDE HAMMER
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 117
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(2) Ensure cup i s correctl y seated.
(3) Appl y Mopar Door Ease, or equi val ent, sti ck
l ubri cant to outsi de surface of beari ng cup.
(4) I nstal l the pi ni on front beari ng cup (Fi g. 31)
wi th I nstal l er D130 and Handl e C4171.
(5) I nstal l pi ni on front beari ng, and oi l sl i nger, i f
equi pped.
(6) Appl y a l i ght coati ng of gear l ubri cant on the
l i p of pi ni on seal . I nstal l seal wi th I nstal l er
C-4076B and Handl e C-4735-1 (Fi g. 32).
Fig. 26 Front Bearing Cup Removal
1 REMOVER
2 HANDLE
Fig. 27 Rear Bearing Cup Removal
1 DRIVER
2 HANDLE
Fig. 28 Collapsible Spacer
1 COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
2 SHOULDER
3 PINION
4 PINION DEPTH SHIM
5 REAR BEARING
Fig. 29 Rear Bearing Removal
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-293PA
2 VISE
3 ADAPTERS
4 DRIVE PINION GEAR SHAFT
3 - 118 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
NOTE: Pinion depth shims are placed between the
rear pinion bearing cone and pinion head to
achieve proper ring and pinion gear mesh. If the
factory installed ring gear and pinion are reused,
the pinion depth shim should not require replace-
ment. If required, refer to Pinion Gear Depth to
select the proper thickness shim before installing
rear pinion bearing.
(7) Pl ace the proper thi ckness depth shi m on the
pi ni on.
(8) I nstal l the rear beari ng and sl i nger, i f
equi pped, on the pi ni on (Fi g. 33) wi th I nstal l er 6448.
(9) I nstal l a new col l apsi bl e prel oad spacer on pi n-
i on shaft and i nstal l pi ni on i n housi ng (Fi g. 34).
(10) I nstal l pi ni on i n housi ng.
(11) I nstal l yoke wi th I nstal l er C-3718 and Yoke
Hol der 6719.
(12) I nstal l the yoke washer and a new nut on the
pi ni on and ti ghten the pi ni on nut unti l there i s zero
Fig. 30 Pinion Rear Bearing Cup Installation
1 INSTALLER
2 HANDLE
Fig. 31 Pinion Front Bearing Cup Installation
1 INSTALLER
2 HANDLE
Fig. 32 Pinion Seal Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL C-4735
2 DIFFERENTIAL HOUSING
3 SPECIAL TOOL C-4076-A
Fig. 33 Shaft Rear Bearing Installation
1 PRESS
2 INSTALLATION TOOL
3 DRIVE PINION
4 DRIVE PINION SHAFT REAR BEARING
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 119
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
beari ng end-pl ay. I t wi l l not be possi bl e at thi s poi nt
to achi eve zero beari ng end-pl ay i f a new col l apsi bl e
spacer was i nstal l ed.
(13) Ti ghten the nut to 285 Nm (210 ft. l bs.).
CAUTION: Never loosen pinion nut to decrease pin-
ion bearing rotating torque and never exceed spec-
ified preload torque. If preload torque or rotating
torque is exceeded a new collapsible spacer must
be installed. The torque sequence will then have to
be repeated.
(14) Usi ng Yoke Hol der 6719, crush col l apsi bl e
spacer unti l beari ng end pl ay i s taken up.
(15) Sl owl y ti ghten the nut i n 6.8 Nm (5 ft. l bs.)
i ncrements unti l the desi red rotati ng torque i s
achi eved. Measure the rotati ng torque frequentl y to
avoi d over crushi ng the col l apsi bl e spacer (Fi g. 35).
(16) Check beari ng rotati ng torque wi th an i nch
pound torque wrench (Fi g. 35). The torque necessary
to rotate the pi ni on gear shoul d be:
Ori gi nal Beari ngs 1 to 2 Nm (10 to 20 i n. l bs.).
New Beari ngs 1 to 5 Nm (10 to 30 i n. l bs.).
(17) I nstal l propel l er shaft.
(18) I nstal l di fferenti al i n housi ng.
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL
DISASSEMBLY
(1) Remove pi ni on mate shaft l ock screw (Fi g. 36).
(2) Remove pi ni on mate shaft.
(3) Rotate the di fferenti al si de gears and remove the
di fferenti al pi ni on gears and thrust washers (Fi g. 37).
(4) Remove the di fferenti al si de gears and thrust
washers.
Fig. 34 Collapsible Preload Spacer
1 COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
2 SHOULDER
3 PINION
4 PINION DEPTH SHIM
5 REAR BEARING
Fig. 35 Check Pinion Rotating Torque
1 PINION YOKE
2 INCH POUND TORQUE WRENCH
Fig. 36 Pinion Mate Shaft Lock Screw
1 LOCK SCREW
2 PINION MATE SHAFT
3 - 120 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
ASSEMBLY
(1) I nstal l the di fferenti al si de gears and thrust
washers.
(2) I nstal l the di fferenti al pi ni on gears and thrust
washers.
(3) I nstal l the pi ni on mate shaft.
(4) Al i gn the hol e i n the pi ni on mate shaft wi th
the hol e i n the di fferenti al case and i nstal l the pi ni on
mate shaft l ock screw.
(5) Lubri cate al l di fferenti al components wi th
hypoi d gear l ubri cant.
TRAC-LOK DIFFERENTIAL
The Tracl ok di fferenti al components are i l l us-
trated i n (Fi g. 38). Refer to thi s i l l ustrati on duri ng
repai r servi ce.
DISASSEMBLY
(1) Cl amp Si de Gear Hol di ng Tool 8138 i n a vi se.
(2) Posi ti on the di fferenti al case on Si de Gear
Hol di ng Tool 8138 (Fi g. 39).
(3) Remove ri ng gear, i f necessary. Ri ng gear
removal i s necessary onl y i f the ri ng gear i s to be
repl aced. The Trac-l ok di fferenti al can be servi ced
wi th the ri ng gear i nstal l ed.
Fig. 37 Pinion Mate Gear Removal
1 THRUST WASHER
2 SIDE GEAR
3 PINION MATE GEAR
Fig. 38 Traclok Differential Components
1 THRUST WASHER
2 PINION
3 SHAFT LOCK SCREW
4 PINION MATE SHAFT
5 SIDE GEAR
6 RETAINER
7 DISC
8 CLUTCH PACK
9 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
10 RETAINER
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 121
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(4) Remove the pi ni on mate shaft l ock screw (Fi g.
40).
(5) Remove the pi ni on mate shaft. I f necessary, use
a dri ft and hammer (Fi g. 41).
(6) I nstal l and l ubri cate Step Pl ate 81402 (Fi g.
42).
(7) Assembl e Threaded Adapter 8140-1 i nto top
si de gear. Thread Forci ng Screw 6960-4 i nto adapter
unti l i t becomes centered i n adapter pl ate.
(8) Posi ti on a smal l screw dri ver i n sl ot of
Threaded Adapter 8140-1 (Fi g. 43) to prevent adapter
from turni ng.
(9) Ti ghten forci ng screw tool 122 Nm (90 ft. l bs.)
maxi mum to compress Bel l evi l l e spri ngs i n cl utch
packs (Fi g. 44).
(10) Usi ng an appropri ate si ze feel er gauge,
remove thrust washers from behi nd the di fferenti al
pi ni ons (Fi g. 45).
(11) I nsert Turni ng Bar 6960-2 i n case (Fi g. 46).
Fig. 39 Differential Case Holding Tool
1 SIDE GEAR HOLDING TOOL
2 VISE
3 DIFFERENTIAL
Fig. 40 Mate Shaft Lock Screw
1 LOCK SCREW
2 PINION MATE SHAFT
Fig. 41 Mate Shaft Removal
1 PINION MATE SHAFT
2 SIDE GEAR
3 DRIFT
4 PINION MATE GEAR
Fig. 42 Step Plate Tool Installation
1 SPECIAL TOOL 81402
2 LOWER SIDE GEAR
3 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
3 - 122 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(12) Loosen the Forci ng Screw 6960-4 i n smal l
i ncrements unti l the cl utch pack tensi on i s rel i eved
and the di fferenti al case can be turned usi ng Turni ng
Bar 6960-2.
(13) Rotate di fferenti al case unti l the di fferenti al
pi ni ons can be removed.
(14) Remove pi ni ons from di fferenti al case.
(15) Remove Forci ng Screw 6960-4, Step Pl ate
81402, and Threaded Adapter 81401.
(16) Remove top si de gear, cl utch pack retai ner,
and cl utch pack. Keep pl ates i n correct order duri ng
removal (Fi g. 47).
(17) Remove di fferenti al case from Si de Gear Hol d-
i ng Tool 8138. Remove si de gear, cl utch pack retai ner,
Fig. 43 Threaded Adapter Installation
1 SOCKET
2 SLOT IN ADAPTER
3 SCREWDRIVER
4 DISC 81402
5 THREADED ROD C-69604
6 THREADED ADAPTER DISC 81401
Fig. 44 Tighten Belleville Spring Compressor Tool
1 TORQUE WRENCH
2 TOOL ASSEMBLED
3 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
Fig. 45 Remove Pinion Thrust Washer
1 THRUST WASHER
2 FEELER GAUGE
Fig. 46 Pinion Gear Removal
1 PINION GEARS
2 TOOL
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 123
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
and cl utch pack. Keep pl ates i n correct order duri ng
removal .
ASSEMBLY
NOTE: The clutch discs are replaceable as com-
plete sets only. If one clutch disc pack is damaged,
both packs must be replaced.
Lubri cate each component wi th gear l ubri cant
before assembl y.
(1) Assembl e the cl utch di scs i nto packs and
secure di sc packs wi th retai ni ng cl i ps (Fi g. 48).
(2) Posi ti on assembl ed cl utch di sc packs on the
si de gear hubs.
(3) I nstal l cl utch pack and si de gear i n the ri ng
gear si de of the di fferenti al case (Fi g. 49). Be sure
clutch pack retaining clips remain in position
and are seated in the case pockets.
(4) Posi ti on the di fferenti al case on Si de Gear
Hol di ng Tool 8138.
(5) I nstal l l ubri cated Step Pl ate 81402 i n l ower
si de gear (Fi g. 50).
(6) I nstal l the upper si de gear and cl utch di sc pack
(Fi g. 50).
(7) Hol d assembl y i n posi ti on. I nsert Threaded
Adapter 8140-1 i nto top si de gear.
(8) I nsert Forci ng Screw 6960-4.
(9) Ti ghten forci ng screw tool to sl i ghtl y compress
cl utch di scs.
(10) Pl ace di fferenti al pi ni ons i n posi ti on i n si de
gears and veri fy that the pi ni on mate shaft hol es are
al i gned.
(11) Rotate case wi th Turni ng Bar 6960-2 unti l the
pi ni on mate shaft hol es i n the di fferenti al pi ni ons
al i gn wi th hol es i n case. I t may be necessary to
Fig. 47 Side Gear & Clutch Disc Removal
1 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
2 RETAINER
3 SIDE GEAR AND CLUTCH DISC PACK
Fig. 48 Clutch Disc Pack
1 CLUTCH PACK
2 RETAINER
3 SIDE GEAR
4 RETAINER
Fig. 49 Clutch Discs & Lower Side Gear Installation
1 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
2 LOWER SIDE GEAR AND CLUTCH DISC PACK
3 - 124 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
sl i ghtl y ti ghten the forci ng screw i n order to i nstal l
the pi ni ons.
(12) Ti ghten forci ng screw to 122 Nm (90 ft. l bs.)
maxi mum to compress the Bel l evi l l e spri ngs.
(13) Lubri cate and i nstal l thrust washers behi nd
pi ni ons and al i gn washers wi th a smal l screw dri ver.
I nsert mate shaft i nto each pi ni on to veri fy al i gn-
ment.
(14) Remove Forci ng Screw 6960-4, Step Pl ate
81402, and Threaded Adapter 8140-1.
(15) I nstal l pi ni on mate shaft and al i gn hol es i n
shaft and case.
(16) I nstal l the pi ni on mate shaft l ock screw fi nger
ti ght to hol d shaft duri ng di fferenti al i nstal l ati on.
(17) Lubri cate al l di fferenti al components wi th
hypoi d gear l ubri cant.
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
8 1/4 AXLE
Wash di fferenti al components wi th cl eani ng sol vent
and dry wi th dry compressed ai r. Do not steam
clean the differential components.
Wash beari ngs wi th sol vent and towel dry, or dry
wi th compressed ai r. DO NOT spi n beari ngs wi th
compressed ai r. Cup and bearing must be
replaced as matched sets only.
Be sure that the axl e tubes and oi l channel s are
thoroughl y cl eaned i n the housi ng.
I nspect for:
Smooth appearance wi th no broken/dented sur-
faces on the beari ng rol l ers or the rol l er contact sur-
faces.
Beari ng cups must not be di storted or cracked.
Machi ned surfaces shoul d be smooth and wi th-
out any rai sed edges.
Rai sed metal on shoul ders of cup bores shoul d
be removed wi th a hand stone.
Wear and damage to pi ni on mate shaft, pi ni ons,
si de gears and thrust washers. Repl ace as a matched
set onl y.
Ri ng gear and pi ni on for worn and chi pped
teeth.
Ri ng gear for damaged bol t threads. Repl aced as
a matched set onl y.
Pi ni on yoke for cracks, worn spl i nes, pi tted
areas, and a rough/corroded seal contact surface.
Repai r or repl ace as necessary.
Pi ni on depth shi ms for damage and di storti on.
I nstal l new shi ms i f necessary.
The di fferenti al case. Repl ace the case i f cracked
or damaged.
The axl e shaft C-l ocks for cracks and excessi ve
wear. Repl ace them i f necessary.
Each threaded adjuster to determi ne i f i t rotates
freel y. I f an adjuster bi nds, repai r the damaged
threads or repl ace the adjuster.
Pol i sh each axl e shaft seal i ng surface wi th No. 600
crocus cl oth. Thi s can remove sl i ght surface damage.
Do not reduce the di ameter of the axl e shaft seal con-
tact surface. When pol i shi ng, the crocus cl oth shoul d
be moved around the ci rcumference of the shaft (not
i n-l i ne wi th the shaft).
TRAC-LOK
Cl ean al l components i n cl eani ng sol vent. Dry com-
ponents wi th compressed ai r. I nspect cl utch pack
pl ates for wear, scori ng or damage. Repl ace both
cl utch packs i f any one component i n ei ther pack i s
damaged. I nspect si de gears and pi ni ons. Repl ace
any gear that i s worn, cracked, chi pped or damaged.
I nspect di fferenti al case and pi ni on shaft. Repl ace i f
worn or damaged.
PRESOAK PLATES AND DISC
Pl ates and di scs wi th fi ber coati ng (no grooves or
l i nes) must be presoaked i n Fri cti on Modi fi er before
assembl y. Soak pl ates and di scs for a mi ni mum of 20
mi nutes.
Fig. 50 Upper Side Gear & Clutch Disc Pack
Installation
1 UPPER SIDE GEAR AND CLUTCH DISC PACK
2 DIFFERENTIAL CASE
3 SPECIAL TOOL 81402
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 125
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
ADJ USTMENTS
8 1/4 AXLE PINION GEAR DEPTH
GENERAL INFORMATION
Ri ng gears and pi ni ons are suppl i ed as matched
sets onl y. The i denti fyi ng numbers for the ri ng gear
and pi ni on are etched i nto the face of each gear (Fi g.
51). A pl us (+) number, mi nus () number or zero (0)
i s etched i nto the face of the pi ni on. Thi s number i s
the amount (i n thousandths of an i nch) the depth
vari es from the standard depth setti ng of a pi ni on
etched wi th a (0). The standard depth provi des the
best gear tooth contact pattern. Refer to Backl ash
and Contact Pattern Anal ysi s paragraph i n thi s sec-
ti on for addi ti onal i nformati on.
Compensati on for pi ni on depth vari ance i s
achi eved wi th sel ect shi ms. The shi ms are pl aced
behi nd the rear pi ni on beari ng (Fi g. 52).
I f a new gear set i s bei ng i nstal l ed, note the depth
vari ance etched i nto both the ori gi nal and repl ace-
ment pi ni on. Add or subtract the thi ckness of the
ori gi nal depth shi ms to compensate for the di fference
i n the depth vari ances. Refer to the Depth Vari ance
chart.
Note where Ol d and New Pi ni on Marki ng col umns
i ntersect. I ntersecti ng fi gure represents pl us or
mi nus the amount needed.
Note the etched number on the face of the pi ni on
gear head (1, 2, 0, +1, +2, etc.). The numbers rep-
resent thousands of an i nch devi ati on from the stan-
dard. I f the number i s negati ve, add that val ue to the
requi red thi ckness of the depth shi ms. I f the number
i s posi ti ve, subtract that val ue from the thi ckness of
the depth shi m. I f the number i s 0 no change i s nec-
essary.
PINION DEPTH MEASUREMENT AND ADJUSTMENT
Measurements are taken wi th pi ni on beari ng cups
and pi ni on beari ngs i nstal l ed i n the axl e housi ng.
Take measurements wi th Pi ni on Gauge Set and Di al
I ndi cator C-3339 (Fi g. 53).
(1) Assembl e Pi ni on Hei ght Bl ock 6739, Pi ni on
Bl ock 8540, and rear pi ni on beari ng onto Screw 6741
(Fi g. 53).
(2) I nsert assembl ed hei ght gauge components,
rear beari ng, and screw i nto axl e housi ng through
pi ni on beari ng cups (Fi g. 54).
(3) I nstal l front pi ni on beari ng and Cone-Nut 6740
hand ti ght (Fi g. 53).
(4) Pl ace Arbor Di sc 8541 on Arbor D-115-3 i n posi -
ti on i n axl e housi ng si de beari ng cradl es (Fi g. 55).
I nstal l di fferenti al beari ng caps on Arbor Di scs and
ti ghten cap bol ts to 41 Nm (30 ft. l bs.).
NOTE: Arbor Discs 8541 has different step diame-
ters to fit other axles. Choose proper step for axle
being serviced.
(5) Assembl e Di al I ndi cator C-3339 i nto Scooter
Bl ock D-115-2 and secure set screw.
(6) Pl ace Scooter Bl ock/Di al I ndi cator i n posi ti on
i n axl e housi ng so di al probe and scooter bl ock are
fl ush agai nst the rearward surface of the pi ni on
hei ght bl ock (Fi g. 53). Hol d scooter bl ock i n pl ace and
zero the di al i ndi cator face to the poi nter. Ti ghten
di al i ndi cator face l ock screw.
Fig. 51 Pinion Gear ID Numbers
1 PRODUCTION NUMBERS
2 DRIVE PINION GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE
3 GEAR MATCHING NUMBER (SAME AS RING GEAR
NUMBER)
Fig. 52 Shim Locations
1 AXLE HOUSING
2 COLLAPSIBLE SPACER
3 PINION BEARING
4 PINION DEPTH SHIM
5 PINION GEAR
6 BEARING CUP
3 - 126 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
(7) Wi th scooter bl ock sti l l i n posi ti on agai nst the
pi ni on hei ght bl ock, sl owl y sl i de the di al i ndi cator
probe over the edge of the pi ni on hei ght bl ock.
(8) Sl i de the di al i ndi cator probe across the gap
between the pi ni on hei ght bl ock and the arbor bar
wi th the scooter bl ock agai nst the pi ni on hei ght bl ock
(Fi g. 56). When the di al probe contacts the arbor bar,
the di al poi nter wi l l turn cl ockwi se. Bri ng di al
poi nter back to zero agai nst the arbor bar, do not
turn di al face. Conti nue movi ng the di al probe to the
crest of the arbor bar and record the hi ghest readi ng.
I f the di al i ndi cator can not achi eve the zero readi ng,
the rear beari ng cup or the pi ni on depth gauge set i s
not i nstal l ed correctl y.
(9) Sel ect a shi m equal to the di al i ndi cator read-
i ng pl us the dri ve pi ni on gear depth vari ance number
etched i n the face of the pi ni on (Fi g. 51). For exam-
pl e, i f the depth vari ance i s 2, add +0.002 i n. to the
di al i ndi cator readi ng.
DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD AND GEAR
BACKLASH
The fol l owi ng must be consi dered when adjusti ng
beari ng prel oad and gear backl ash:
The maxi mum ri ng gear backl ash vari ati on i s
0.003 i nch (0.076 mm).
PINION GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE
Original Pinion
Gear Depth
Variance
Replacement Pinion Gear Depth Variance
4 3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4
+4 +0.008 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0
+3 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001
+2 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002
+1 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003
0 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004
1 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005
2 +0.002 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006
3 +0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007
4 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008
Fig. 53 Pinion Gear Depth Gauge ToolsTypical
1 DIAL INDICATOR
2 ARBOR
3 PINION HEIGHT BLOCK
4 CONE
5 SCREW
6 PINION BLOCK
7 SCOOTER BLOCK
8 ARBOR DISC
Fig. 54 Pinion Height BlockTypical
1 PINION BLOCK
2 PINION HEIGHT BLOCK
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 127
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
Mark the gears so the same teeth are meshed
duri ng al l backl ash measurements.
Mai ntai n the torque whi l e adjusti ng the beari ng
prel oad and ri ng gear backl ash.
Excessi ve adjuster torque wi l l i ntroduce a hi gh
beari ng l oad and cause premature beari ng fai l ure.
I nsuffi ci ent adjuster torque can resul t i n excessi ve
di fferenti al case free-pl ay and ri ng gear noi se.
I nsuffi ci ent adjuster torque wi l l not support the
ri ng gear correctl y and can cause excessi ve di fferen-
ti al case free-pl ay and ri ng gear noi se.
NOTE: The differential bearing cups will not always
immediately follow the threaded adjusters as they
are moved during adjustment. To ensure accurate
bearing cup responses to the adjustments:
Maintain the gear teeth engaged (meshed) as
marked.
The bearings must be seated by rapidly rotat-
ing the pinion gear a half turn back and forth.
Do this five to ten times each time the threaded
adjusters are adjusted.
(1) Use Wrench C-4164 to adjust each threaded
adjuster i nward unti l the di fferenti al beari ng free-
pl ay i s el i mi nated (Fi g. 57). Al l ow some ri ng gear
backl ash (approxi matel y 0.01 i nch/0.25 mm) between
the ri ng and pi ni on gear. Seat the beari ng cups wi th
the procedure descri bed above.
(2) I nstal l di al i ndi cator and posi ti on the pl unger
agai nst the dri ve si de of a ri ng gear tooth (Fi g. 58).
Measure the backl ash at 4 posi ti ons (90 degrees
apart) around the ri ng gear. Locate and mark the
area of mi ni mum backl ash.
(3) Rotate the ri ng gear to the posi ti on of the l east
backl ash. Mark the gear so that al l future backl ash
measurements wi l l be taken wi th the same gear
teeth meshed.
(4) Loosen the ri ght-si de, ti ghten the l eft-si de
threaded adjuster. Obtai n backl ash of 0.003 to 0.004
i nch (0.076 to 0.102 mm) wi th each adjuster ti ght-
ened to 14 Nm (10 ft. l bs.). Seat the beari ng cups
wi th the procedure descri bed above.
(5) Ti ghten the di fferenti al beari ng cap bol ts 95
Nm (70 ft. l bs.).
(6) Ti ghten the ri ght-si de threaded adjuster to 102
Nm (75 ft. l bs.). Seat the beari ng cups wi th the pro-
Fig. 55 Gauge Tools In HousingTypical
1 ARBOR DISC
2 PINION BLOCK
3 ARBOR
4 PINION HEIGHT BLOCK
Fig. 56 Pinion Gear Depth MeasurementTypical
1 ARBOR
2 SCOOTER BLOCK
3 DIAL INDICATOR
Fig. 57 Threaded Adjuster Tool
1 AXLE TUBE
2 BACKING PLATE
3 TOOL C-4164
3 - 128 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
cedure descri bed above. Conti nue to ti ghten the
ri ght-si de adjuster and seat beari ng cups unti l the
torque remai ns constant at 102 Nm (75 ft. l bs.)
(7) Measure the ri ng gear backl ash. The range of
backl ash i s 0.006 to 0.008 i nch (0.15 to 0.203 mm).
(8) Conti nue i ncreasi ng the torque at the ri ght-
si de threaded adjuster unti l the speci fi ed backl ash i s
obtai ned.
NOTE: The left-side threaded adjuster torque
should have approximately 102 Nm (75 ft. lbs.). If
the torque is considerably less, the complete
adjustment procedure must be repeated.
(9) Ti ghten the l eft-si de threaded adjuster unti l
102 Nm (75 ft. l bs.) torque i s i ndi cated. Seat the
beari ng rol l ers wi th the procedure descri bed above.
Do thi s unti l the torque remai ns constant.
(10) I nstal l the threaded adjuster l ocks and
ti ghten the l ock screws to 10 Nm (90 i n. l bs.).
After the proper backl ash i s achi eved, perform the
Gear Contact Anal ysi s procedure.
GEAR CONTACT PATTERN ANALYSIS
The ri ng gear and pi ni on teeth contact patterns
wi l l show i f the pi ni on depth i s correct i n the axl e
housi ng. I t wi l l al so show i f the ri ng gear backl ash
has been adjusted correctl y. The backl ash can be
adjusted wi thi n speci fi cati ons to achi eve desi red
tooth contact patterns.
(1) Appl y a thi n coat of hydrated ferri c oxi de, or
equi val ent, to the dri ve and coast si de of the ri ng
gear teeth.
(2) Wrap, twi st, and hol d a shop towel around the
pi ni on yoke to i ncrease the turni ng resi stance of the
pi ni on. Thi s wi l l provi de a more di sti nct contact pat-
tern.
(3) Usi ng a boxed end wrench on a ri ng gear bol t,
Rotate the di fferenti al case one compl ete revol uti on
i n both di recti ons whi l e a l oad i s bei ng appl i ed from
shop towel .
The areas on the ri ng gear teeth wi th the greatest
degree of contact agai nst the pi ni on teeth wi l l squee-
gee the compound to the areas wi th the l east amount
of contact. Note and compare patterns on the ri ng
gear teeth to Gear Tooth Contact Patterns chart (Fi g.
59) and adjust pi ni on depth and gear backl ash as
necessary.
SIDE GEAR CLEARANCE
When measuri ng si de gear cl earance, check each
gear i ndependentl y. I f i t necessary to repl ace a si de
gear, repl ace both gears as a matched set.
(1) I nstal l the axl e shafts and C-l ocks and pi ni on
mate shaft.
(2) Measure each si de gear cl earance. I nsert a
matched pai r of feel er gauge bl ades between the gear
and di fferenti al housi ng on opposi te si des of the hub
(Fi g. 60).
(3) I f si de gear cl earances i s no more than 0.005
i nch. Determi ne i f the axl e shaft i s contacti ng the
pi ni on mate shaft. Do not remove the feeler
gauges, inspect the axle shaft with the feeler
gauge inserted behind the side gear. I f the end of
the axl e shaft i s not contacti ng the pi ni on mate
shaft, the si de gear cl earance i s acceptabl e.
(4) I f cl earance i s more than 0.005 i nch (axl e shaft
not contacti ng mate shaft), record the si de gear cl ear-
ance. Remove the thrust washer and measure i ts
thi ckness wi th a mi crometer. Add the washer thi ck-
ness to the recorded si de gear cl earance. The sum of
gear cl earance and washer thi ckness wi l l determi ne
requi red thi ckness of repl acement thrust washer
(Fi g. 61).
I n some cases, the end of the axl e shaft wi l l move
and contact the mate shaft when the feel er gauge i s
i nserted. The C-l ock i s preventi ng the si de gear from
sl i di ng on the axl e shaft.
(5) I f there i s no si de gear cl earance, remove the
C-l ock from the axl e shaft. Use a mi crometer to mea-
sure the thrust washer thi ckness. Record the thi ck-
ness and re-i nstal l the thrust washer. Assembl e the
di fferenti al case wi thout the C-l ock i nstal l ed and re-
measure the si de gear cl earance.
(6) Compare both cl earance measurements. I f the
di fference i s l ess than 0.012 i nch (0.305 mm), add
cl earance recorded when the C-l ock was i nstal l ed to
thrust washer thi ckness measured. The sum wi l l
determi ne the requi red thi ckness of the repl acement
thrust washer.
Fig. 58 Ring Gear Backlash Measurement
1 DIAL INDICATOR
2 RING GEAR
3 EXCITER RING
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 129
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
Fig. 59 Gear Tooth Contact Patterns
3 - 130 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
(7) I f cl earance i s 0.012 i nch (0.305 mm) or
greater, both si de gears must be repl aced (matched
set) and the cl earance measurements repeated.
(8) I f cl earance (above) conti nues to be 0.012 i nch
(0.305 mm) or greater, the case must be repl aced.
SPECIFICATIONS
8 1/4 INCH AXLE
Axl e Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semi -fl oati ng, hypoi d
Lubri cant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAE 80W-90
Lube Capaci ty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08 L (4.4 pts.)
Trac-Lok Addi ti ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 ml (4 oz.)
Axl e Rati o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.07, 3.55,.4.10
Differential
Case Cl earance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.12 mm (0.005 i n.)
Case Fl ange Runout . . . . . . . . 0.076 mm (0.003 i n.)
Ring Gear
Di ameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.95 cm (8.25 i n.)
Backl ash . . . . . . . . . 0.12-0.20 mm (0.005-0.008 i n.)
Runout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.127 mm (0.005 i n.)
Pinion Bearing
Prel oad-Used Beari ngs . . . . 1-2 Nm (10-20 i n.l bs.)
Prel oad-New Beari ngs . . . . . 1-5 Nm (10-30 i n.l bs.)
8 1/4 INCH AXLE
DESCRIPTION TORQUE
Di ff. Cover Bol t . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Nm (30 ft. l bs.)
Beari ng Cap Bol t . . . . . . . . . . 136 Nm (100 ft. l bs.)
Pi ni on NutMi ni mum . . . . . . 285 Nm (210 ft. l bs.)
Ri ng Gear Bol t . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Nm (70 ft. l bs.)
Backi ng Pl ate Bol t . . . . . . . . . 614 Nm (45 ft. l bs.)
RWAL/ABS Sensor Bol t . . . . . . 24 Nm (18. ft. l bs.)
SPECIAL TOOLS
8 1/4 AXLES
Fig. 60 Side Gear Clearance Measurement
1 FEELER GAUGE BLADES
2 SIDE GEAR
Fig. 61 Side Gear Calculations
Puller, Hub6790
Remover, Bearing6310
InstallerC-4198
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 131
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
HandleC-4171
InstallerC-4076-B
HandleC-4735-1
Holder6719
PullerC-452
InstallerC-3718
Adjustment RodC-4164
Puller/PressC-293PA
AdaptersC-293-48
3 - 132 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
PlugSP-3289
AdaptersC-293-47
InstallerC-4340
Holder8138
InstallerC-4345
RemoverC-4307
InstallerC-4308
InstallerD-130
Installer6448
XJ 8 1/4 REAR AXLE 3 - 133
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
Trac-lok Tools8140
Trac-lok Tools6960
Pinion Gauge Block8540
Arbor Discs8541
Pinion Gauge Set
3 - 134 8 1/4 REAR AXLE XJ
SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued)
BRAKES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
BASE BRAKE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ANTILOCK BRAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
BASE BRAKE SYSTEM
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
BRAKE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
SERVICE WARNINGS & CAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 2
BRAKE PEDAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
BRAKE LAMP SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
RED BRAKE WARNING LAMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
POWER BRAKE BOOSTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
MASTER CYLINDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
COMBINATION VALVE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
FRONT DISC BRAKES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
REAR DRUM BRAKE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
PARKING BRAKE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
BRAKE HOSES AND LINES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
BASE BRAKE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
BRAKE LAMP SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
RED BRAKE WARNING LAMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
MASTER CYLINDER/POWER BOOSTER. . . . . . . 10
COMBINATION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
DISC BRAKE ROTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
BRAKE DRUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
BRAKE LINE AND HOSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
BRAKE FLUID CONTAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
SERVICE PROCEDURES
BRAKE FLUID LEVEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
MASTER CYLINDER BLEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
BASE BRAKE BLEEDING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
DISC ROTOR MACHINING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
BRAKE DRUM MACHINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
BRAKE TUBE FLARING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
BRAKE LAMP SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
BRAKE PEDAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
COMBINATION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
MASTER CYLINDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
POWER BRAKE BOOSTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
FRONT DISC BRAKE CALIPER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
FRONT DISC BRAKE SHOES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
DISC BRAKE ROTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
DRUM BRAKE SHOES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
WHEEL CYLINDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
BRAKE SUPPORT PLATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
REAR PARKING BRAKE CABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
PARKING BRAKE LEVER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
MASTER CYLINDER RESERVOIR . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
DISC BRAKE CALIPER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
WHEEL CYLINDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
CALIPER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
REAR DRUM BRAKE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
WHEEL CYLINDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
ADJUSTMENTS
BRAKE LAMP SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
REAR DRUM BRAKE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
PARKING BRAKE CABLE TENSIONER . . . . . . . . 31
SPECIFICATIONS
BRAKE FLUID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
BRAKE COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
TORQUE CHART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
SPECIAL TOOLS
BASE BRAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
XJ BRAKES 5 - 1
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
BRAKE SYSTEM
DESCRIPTION
Power assi st front di sc and rear drum brakes are
standard equi pment. Di sc brake components consi st
of si ngl e pi ston cal i pers and venti l ated rotors. Rear
drum brakes are dual shoe uni ts wi th cast brake
drums.
The parki ng brake mechani sm i s l ever and cabl e
operated. The cabl es are attached to l evers on the
rear drum brake secondary shoes. The parki ng
brakes are operated by a hand l ever.
A dual di aphragm vacuum power brake booster i s
used for al l appl i cati ons. Al l model s have an al umi -
num master cyl i nder wi th pl asti c reservoi r.
Al l model s are equi pped wi th a combi nati on val ve.
The val ve contai ns a pressure di fferenti al val ve and
swi tch and a fi xed rate rear proporti oni ng val ve.
Factory brake l i ni ng on al l model s consi sts of an
organi c base materi al combi ned wi th metal l i c parti -
cl es. The ori gi nal equi pment l i ni ngs do not contai n
asbestos.
SERVICE WARNINGS & CAUTIONS
DESCRIPTION
WARNING: DUST AND DIRT ACCUMULATING ON
BRAKE PARTS DURING NORMAL USE MAY CON-
TAIN ASBESTOS FIBERS FROM AFTERMARKET
LININGS. BREATHING EXCESSIVE CONCENTRA-
TIONS OF ASBESTOS FIBERS CAN CAUSE SERI-
OUS BODILY HARM. EXERCISE CARE WHEN
SERVICING BRAKE PARTS. DO NOT CLEAN
BRAKE PARTS WITH COMPRESSED AIR OR BY
DRY BRUSHING. USE A VACUUM CLEANER SPE-
CIFICALLY DESIGNED FOR THE REMOVAL OF
ASBESTOS FIBERS FROM BRAKE COMPONENTS.
IF A SUITABLE VACUUM CLEANER IS NOT AVAIL-
ABLE, CLEANING SHOULD BE DONE WITH A
WATER DAMPENED CLOTH. DO NOT SAND, OR
GRIND BRAKE LINING UNLESS EQUIPMENT USED
IS DESIGNED TO CONTAIN THE DUST RESIDUE.
DISPOSE OF ALL RESIDUE CONTAINING ASBES-
TOS FIBERS IN SEALED BAGS OR CONTAINERS
TO MINIMIZE EXPOSURE TO YOURSELF AND OTH-
ERS. FOLLOW PRACTICES PRESCRIBED BY THE
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINIS-
TRATION AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
AGENCY FOR THE HANDLING, PROCESSING, AND
DISPOSITION OF DUST OR DEBRIS THAT MAY
CONTAIN ASBESTOS FIBERS.
CAUTION: Never use gasoline, kerosene, alcohol,
motor oil, transmission fluid, or any fluid containing
mineral oil to clean the system components. These
fluids damage rubber cups and seals. Use only
fresh brake fluid or Mopar brake cleaner to clean or
flush brake system components. These are the only
cleaning materials recommended. If system contam-
ination is suspected, check the fluid for dirt, discol-
oration, or separation into distinct layers. Also
check the reservoir cap seal for distortion. Drain
and flush the system with new brake fluid if con-
tamination is suspected.
CAUTION: Use Mopar brake fluid, or an equivalent
quality fluid meeting SAE/DOT standards J1703 and
DOT 3. Brake fluid must be clean and free of con-
taminants. Use fresh fluid from sealed containers
only to ensure proper antilock component opera-
tion.
CAUTION: Use Mopar multi-mileage or high temper-
ature grease to lubricate caliper slide surfaces,
drum brake pivot pins, and shoe contact points on
the backing plates. Use multi-mileage grease or GE
661 or Dow 111 silicone grease on caliper slide pins
to ensure proper operation.
BRAKE PEDAL
DESCRIPTION
A suspended-type brake pedal i s used, the pedal
pi vots on a shaft mounted i n the pedal support
bracket. The bracket i s attached to the dash panel
and steeri ng support bracket. The uni t i s servi ced as
an assembl y, except for the pedal pad.
OPERATION
The brake pedal i s attached to the booster push
rod. When the pedal i s depressed, the pri mary
booster push rod i s depressed whi ch move the booster
secondary rod. The booster secondary rod depress the
master cyl i nder pi ston.
BRAKE LAMP SWITCH
DESCRIPTION
The pl unger type brake l amp swi tch i s mounted on
a bracket attached to the brake pedal support. The
swi tch can be adjusted when necessary.
OPERATION
The brake l amp swi tch i s used to for the brake
l amp, speed control and brake sensor ci rcui ts.
5 - 2 BRAKES XJ
RED BRAKE WARNING LAMP
DESCRIPTION
A red warni ng l amp i s used for the servi ce brake
porti on of the hydraul i c system. The l amp i s l ocated
i n the i nstrument cl uster.
OPERATION
The red warni ng l i ght al erts the dri ver i f a pres-
sure di fferenti al exi sts between the front and rear
hydraul i c systems or the parki ng brakes are appl i ed.
The l amp i s turned on momentari l y when the i gni -
ti on swi tch i s turn to the on posi ti on. Thi s i s a sel f
test to veri fy the l amp i s operati onal .
POWER BRAKE BOOSTER
DESCRIPTION
The booster assembl y consi sts of a housi ng di vi ded
i nto separate chambers by two i nternal di aphragms.
The outer edge of each di aphragm i s attached to the
booster housi ng. The di aphragms are connected to
the booster pri mary push rod.
Two push rods are used i n the booster. The pri -
mary push rod connects the booster to the brake
pedal . The secondary push rod connects the booster
to the master cyl i nder to stroke the cyl i nder pi stons.
OPERATION
The atmospheri c i nl et val ve i s opened and cl osed
by the pri mary push rod. Booster vacuum suppl y i s
through a hose attached to an i ntake mani fol d fi tti ng
at one end and to the booster check val ve at the
other. The vacuum check val ve i n the booster housi ng
i s a one-way devi ce that prevents vacuum l eak back.
Power assi st i s generated by uti l i zi ng the pressure
di fferenti al between normal atmospheri c pressure
and a vacuum. The vacuum needed for booster oper-
ati on i s taken di rectl y from the engi ne i ntake mani -
fol d. The entry poi nt for atmospheri c pressure i s
through a fi l ter and i nl et val ve at the rear of the
housi ng (Fi g. 1).
The chamber areas forward of the booster di a-
phragms are exposed to vacuum from the i ntake
mani fol d. The chamber areas to the rear of the di a-
phragms, are exposed to normal atmospheri c pres-
sure of 101.3 ki l opascal s (14.7 pounds/square i n.).
Brake pedal appl i cati on causes the pri mary push
rod to open the atmospheri c i nl et val ve. Thi s exposes
the area behi nd the di aphragms to atmospheri c pres-
sure. The resul ti ng pressure di fferenti al provi des the
extra appl y force for power assi st.
The booster check val ve, check val ve grommet and
booster seal s are servi ceabl e.
MASTER CYLINDER
DESCRIPTION
The master cyl i nder has a removabl e nyl on reser-
voi r. The cyl i nder body i s made of al umi num and
contai ns a pri mary and secondary pi ston assembl y.
The cyl i nder body i ncl udi ng the pi ston assembl i es
are not servi ceabl e. I f di agnosi s i ndi cates an i nternal
probl em wi th the cyl i nder body, i t must be repl aced
as an assembl y. The reservoi r and grommets are the
onl y repl aceabl e parts on the master cyl i nder.
OPERATION
The master cyl i nder bore contai ns a pri mary and
secondary pi ston. The pri mary pi ston suppl i es
hydraul i c pressure to the front brakes. The secondary
pi ston suppl i es hydraul i c pressure to the rear brakes.
The master cyl i nder reservoi r stores reserve brake
fl ui d for the hydraul i c brake ci rcui ts.
COMBINATION VALVE
DESCRIPTION
The combi nati on val ve contai ns a pressure di ffer-
enti al val ve and swi tch and a rear brake proporti on-
i ng val ve. The val ve i s not repai rabl e and must be
repl aced as an assembl y i f di agnosi s i ndi cates thi s i s
necessary.
OPERATION
PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL VALVE
The pressure di fferenti al swi tch i s connected to the
brake warni ng l i ght. The swi tch i s actuated by move-
ment of the swi tch val ve. The swi tch moni tors fl ui d
pressure i n the separate front/rear brake hydraul i c
ci rcui ts.
A decrease or l oss of fl ui d pressure i n ei ther
hydraul i c ci rcui t wi l l cause the swi tch val ve to shut-
tl e to the l ow pressure si de. Movement of the val ve
pushes the swi tch pl unger upward. Thi s acti on cl oses
the swi tch i nternal contacts compl eti ng the el ectri cal
ci rcui t to the red warni ng l i ght. The swi tch val ve wi l l
remai n i n an actuated posi ti on unti l repai rs to the
brake system are made.
PROPORTIONING VALVE
The proporti oni ng val ve i s used to bal ance front-
rear brake acti on at hi gh decel erati ons. The val ve
al l ows normal fl ui d fl ow duri ng moderate braki ng.
The val ve onl y control s fl ui d fl ow duri ng hi gh decel -
erati ons brake stops.
XJ BRAKES 5 - 3
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
FRONT DISC BRAKES
DESCRIPTION
The cal i pers are a si ngl e pi ston type. The cal i pers
are free to sl i de l ateral l y, thi s al l ows conti nuous com-
pensati on for l i ni ng wear.
OPERATION
When the brakes are appl i ed fl ui d pressure i s
exerted agai nst the cal i per pi ston. The fl ui d pressure
i s exerted equal l y and i n al l di recti ons. Thi s means
pressure exerted agai nst the cal i per pi ston and
wi thi n the cal i per bore wi l l be equal (Fi g. 2).
Fl ui d pressure appl i ed to the pi ston i s transmi tted
di rectl y to the i nboard brake shoe. Thi s forces the
shoe l i ni ng agai nst the i nner surface of the di sc
brake rotor. At the same ti me, fl ui d pressure wi thi n
the pi ston bore forces the cal i per to sl i de i nward on
the mounti ng bol ts. Thi s acti on bri ngs the outboard
brake shoe l i ni ng i nto contact wi th the outer surface
of the di sc brake rotor.
Fig. 1 Power Brake BoosterTypical
1 VACUUM CHECK VALVE
2 FRONT DIAPHRAGM
3 REAR DIAPHRAGM
4 HOUSING
5 SEAL
6 AIR FILTER
7 PRIMARY PUSH ROD (TO BRAKE PEDAL)
8 ATMOSPHERIC INLET VALVE ASSEMBLY
9 BOOSTER MOUNTING STUDS (4)
10 SECONDARY PUSH ROD (TO MASTER CYLINDER)
11 MASTER CYLINDER MOUNTING STUD (2)
12 SPRING
5 - 4 BRAKES XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
I n summary, fl ui d pressure acti ng si mul taneousl y
on both pi ston and cal i per, produces a strong cl amp-
i ng acti on. When suffi ci ent force i s appl i ed, fri cti on
wi l l attempt to stop the rotors from turni ng and
bri ng the vehi cl e to a stop.
Appl i cati on and rel ease of the brake pedal gener-
ates onl y a very sl i ght movement of the cal i per and
pi ston. Upon rel ease of the pedal , the cal i per and pi s-
ton return to a rest posi ti on. The brake shoes do not
retract an appreci abl e di stance from the rotor. I n
fact, cl earance i s usual l y at, or cl ose to zero. The rea-
sons for thi s are to keep road debri s from getti ng
between the rotor and l i ni ng and i n wi pi ng the rotor
surface cl ear each revol uti on.
The cal i per pi ston seal control s the amount of pi s-
ton extensi on needed to compensate for normal l i ni ng
wear.
Duri ng brake appl i cati on, the seal i s defl ected out-
ward by fl ui d pressure and pi ston movement (Fi g. 3).
When the brakes (and fl ui d pressure) are rel eased,
the seal rel axes and retracts the pi ston.
The amount of pi ston retracti on i s determi ned by
the amount of seal defl ecti on. General l y the amount
i s just enough to mai ntai n contact between the pi s-
ton and i nboard brake shoe.
REAR DRUM BRAKE
DESCRIPTION
The rear brakes use a l eadi ng shoe (pri mary) and
trai l i ng shoe (secondary) desi gn (Fi g. 4).
OPERATION
When the brake pedal i s depressed hydraul i c pres-
sure pushes the rear brake wheel cyl i nder pi stons
outward. The wheel cyl i nder push rods then push the
brake shoes outward agai nst the brake drum. When
the brake pedal i s rel eased return spri ngs attached
to the brake shoes pul l the shoes back to there ori g-
i nal posi ti on.
PARKING BRAKE
DESCRIPTION
The parki ng bake i s a hand l ever and cabl e oper-
ated system used to appl y the rear brakes.
OPERATION
A hand operated l ever i n the passenger compart-
ment i s the mai n appl i cati on devi ce. The front cabl e
i s connected between the hand l ever and the ten-
si oner. The tensi oner rod i s attached to the equal i zer
whi ch i s the connecti ng poi nt for the rear cabl es (Fi g.
5).
The rear cabl es are connected to the actuati ng
l ever on each secondary brake shoe. The l evers are
attached to the brake shoes by a pi n ei ther pressed
i nto, or wel ded to the l ever. A cl i p i s used to secure
the pi n i n the brake shoe. The pi n al l ows each l ever
to pi vot i ndependentl y of the brake shoe.
To appl y the parki ng brakes, the hand l ever i s
pul l ed upward. Thi s pul l s the rear brake shoe actu-
Fig. 2 Brake Caliper Operation
1 CALIPER
2 PISTON
3 PISTON BORE
4 SEAL
5 INBOARD SHOE
6 OUTBOARD SHOE
Fig. 3 Lining Wear Compensation By Piston Seal
1 PISTON
2 CYLINDER BORE
3 PISTON SEAL BRAKE PRESSURE OFF
4 CALIPER HOUSING
5 DUST BOOT
6 PISTON SEAL BRAKE PRESSURE ON
XJ BRAKES 5 - 5
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
ati ng l evers forward, by means tensi oner and cabl es.
As the actuati ng l ever i s pul l ed forward, the parki ng
brake strut (whi ch i s connected to both shoes), exerts
a l i near force agai nst the pri mary brake shoe. Thi s
acti on presses the pri mary shoe i nto contact wi th the
drum. Once the pri mary shoe contacts the drum,
force i s exerted through the strut. Thi s force i s trans-
ferred through the strut to the secondary brake shoe
causi ng i t to pi vot i nto the drum as wel l .
A gear type ratcheti ng mechani sm i s used to hol d
the l ever i n an appl i ed posi ti on. Parki ng brake
rel ease i s accompl i shed by the hand l ever rel ease
button.
A parki ng brake swi tch i s mounted on the parki ng
brake l ever and i s actuated by movement of the
l ever. The swi tch, whi ch i s i n ci rcui t wi th the red
warni ng l i ght i n the dash, wi l l i l l umi nate the warn-
i ng l i ght whenever the parki ng brakes are appl i ed.
Parki ng brake adjustment i s control l ed by a cabl e
tensi oner mechani sm. The cabl e tensi oner, once
adjusted at the factory, shoul d not need further
adjustment under normal ci rcumstances. Adjustment
Fig. 4 Brake Components
1 ADJUSTER LEVER
2 ADJUSTER CABLE
3 HOLDDOWN SPRING AND RETAINERS
4 ADJUSTER LEVER SPRING
5 TRAILING SHOE
6 CYLINDER-TO-SUPPORT SEAL
7 HOLDDOWN PINS
8 ACCESS PLUGS
9 SUPPORT PLATE
10 CABLE HOLE PLUG
11 PARK BRAKE STRUT AND SPRING
12 ADJUSTER SCREW ASSEMBLY
13 HOLDDOWN SPRING AND RETAINERS
14 LEADING SHOE
15 CABLE GUIDE
16 SHOE RETURN SPRINGS
17 SHOE GUIDE PLATE
18 PIN
19 SHOE SPRING
20 PARK BRAKE LEVER
Fig. 5 Parking Brake Components
1 REAR CABLES
2 EQUALIZER
3 FRONT CABLE
4 TENSIONER ROD
5 - 6 BRAKES XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
may be requi red i f a new tensi oner, or cabl es are
i nstal l ed, or di sconnected.
BRAKE HOSES AND LINES
DESCRIPTION
Fl exi bl e rubber hose i s used at both front brakes
and at the rear axl e juncti on bl ock. Doubl e wal l ed
steel tubi ng i s used to connect the master cyl i nder to
the major hydraul i c braki ng components and then to
the fl exi bl e rubber hoses. Doubl e i nverted styl e and
I SO styl e fl ares are used on the brake l i nes.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
BASE BRAKE SYSTEM
Base brake components consi st of the brake shoes,
cal i pers, wheel cyl i nders, brake drums, rotors, brake
l i nes, master cyl i nder, booster, and parki ng brake
components.
Brake di agnosi s i nvol ves determi ni ng i f the prob-
l em i s rel ated to a mechani cal , hydraul i c, or vacuum
operated component.
The fi rst di agnosi s step i s the prel i mi nary check.
PRELIMINARY BRAKE CHECK
(1) Check condi ti on of ti res and wheel s. Damaged
wheel s and worn, damaged, or underi nfl ated ti res
can cause pul l , shudder, vi brati on, and a condi ti on
si mi l ar to grab.
(2) I f compl ai nt was based on noi se when braki ng,
check suspensi on components. Jounce front and rear
of vehi cl e and l i sten for noi se that mi ght be caused
by l oose, worn or damaged suspensi on or steeri ng
components.
(3) I nspect brake fl ui d l evel and condi ti on. Note
that the brake reservoi r fl ui d l evel wi l l decrease i n
proporti on to normal l i ni ng wear. Also note that
brake fluid tends to darken over time. This is
normal and should not be mistaken for contam-
ination.
(a) I f fl ui d l evel i s abnormal l y l ow, l ook for evi -
dence of l eaks at cal i pers, wheel cyl i nders, brake
l i nes, and master cyl i nder.
(b) I f fl ui d appears contami nated, drai n out a
sampl e to exami ne. System wi l l have to be fl ushed
i f fl ui d i s separated i nto l ayers, or contai ns a sub-
stance other than brake fl ui d. The system seal s
and cups wi l l al so have to be repl aced after fl ush-
i ng. Use cl ean brake fl ui d to fl ush the system.
(4) Check parki ng brake operati on. Veri fy free
movement and ful l rel ease of cabl es and pedal . Al so
note i f vehi cl e was bei ng operated wi th parki ng
brake parti al l y appl i ed.
(5) Check brake pedal operati on. Veri fy that pedal
does not bi nd and has adequate free pl ay. I f pedal
l acks free pl ay, check pedal and power booster for
bei ng l oose or for bi nd condi ti on. Do not road test
unti l condi ti on i s corrected.
(6) Check booster vacuum check val ve and hose.
(7) I f components checked appear OK, road test
the vehi cl e.
ROAD TESTING
(1) I f compl ai nt i nvol ved l ow brake pedal , pump
pedal and note i f i t comes back up to normal hei ght.
(2) Check brake pedal response wi th transmi ssi on
i n Neutral and engi ne runni ng. Pedal shoul d remai n
fi rm under constant foot pressure.
(3) Duri ng road test, make normal and fi rm brake
stops i n 25-40 mph range. Note faul ty brake opera-
ti on such as l ow pedal , hard pedal , fade, pedal pul sa-
ti on, pul l , grab, drag, noi se, etc.
(4) Attempt to stop the vehi cl e wi th the parki ng
brake onl y and note grab, drag, noi se, etc.
PEDAL FALLS AWAY
A brake pedal that fal l s away under steady foot
pressure i s general l y the resul t of a system l eak. The
l eak poi nt coul d be at a brake l i ne, fi tti ng, hose, or
cal i per/wheel cyl i nder. I f l eakage i s severe, fl ui d wi l l
be evi dent at or around the l eaki ng component.
I nternal l eakage (seal by-pass) i n the master cyl i n-
der caused by worn or damaged pi ston cups, may
al so be the probl em cause.
An i nternal l eak i n the ABS or RWAL system may
al so be the probl em wi th no physi cal evi dence.
LOW PEDAL
I f a l ow pedal i s experi enced, pump the pedal sev-
eral ti mes. I f the pedal comes back up worn l i ni ngs,
rotors, drums, or rear brakes out of adjustment are
the most l i kel y causes. The proper course of acti on i s
to i nspect and repl ace al l worn component and make
the proper adjustments.
SPONGY PEDAL
A spongy pedal i s most often caused by ai r i n the
system. However, thi n brake drums or substandard
brake l i nes and hoses can al so cause a spongy pedal .
The proper course of acti on i s to bl eed the system,
and repl ace thi n drums and substandard qual i ty
brake hoses i f suspected.
HARD PEDAL OR HIGH PEDAL EFFORT
A hard pedal or hi gh pedal effort may be due to
l i ni ng that i s water soaked, contami nated, gl azed, or
badl y worn. The power booster or check val ve coul d
al so be faul ty.
XJ BRAKES 5 - 7
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
PEDAL PULSATION
Pedal pul sati on i s caused by components that are
l oose, or beyond tol erance l i mi ts.
The pri mary cause of pul sati on are di sc brake
rotors wi th excessi ve l ateral runout or thi ckness vari -
ati on, or out of round brake drums. Other causes are
l oose wheel beari ngs or cal i pers and worn, damaged
ti res.
NOTE: Some pedal pulsation may be felt during
ABS activation.
BRAKE DRAG
Brake drag occurs when the l i ni ng i s i n constant
contact wi th the rotor or drum. Drag can occur at one
wheel , al l wheel s, fronts onl y, or rears onl y.
Drag i s a product of i ncompl ete brake shoe rel ease.
Drag can be mi nor or severe enough to overheat the
l i ni ngs, rotors and drums.
Mi nor drag wi l l usual l y cause sl i ght surface char-
ri ng of the l i ni ng. I t can al so generate hard spots i n
rotors and drums from the overheat-cool down pro-
cess. I n most cases, the rotors, drums, wheel s and
ti res are qui te warm to the touch after the vehi cl e i s
stopped.
Severe drag can char the brake l i ni ng al l the way
through. I t can al so di stort and score rotors and
drums to the poi nt of repl acement. The wheel s, ti res
and brake components wi l l be extremel y hot. I n
severe cases, the l i ni ng may generate smoke as i t
chars from overheati ng.
Common causes of brake drag are:
Sei zed or i mproperl y adjusted parki ng brake
cabl es.
Loose/worn wheel beari ng.
Sei zed cal i per or wheel cyl i nder pi ston.
Cal i per bi ndi ng on corroded bushi ngs or rusted
sl i de surfaces.
Loose cal i per mounti ng.
Drum brake shoes bi ndi ng on worn/damaged
support pl ates.
Mi s-assembl ed components.
Long booster output rod.
I f brake drag occurs at al l wheel s, the probl em
may be rel ated to a bl ocked master cyl i nder return
port, or faul ty power booster (bi nds-does not rel ease).
BRAKE FADE
Brake fade i s usual l y a product of overheati ng
caused by brake drag. However, brake overheati ng
and resul ti ng fade can al so be caused by ri di ng the
brake pedal , maki ng repeated hi gh decel erati on stops
i n a short ti me span, or constant braki ng on steep
mountai n roads. Refer to the Brake Drag i nformati on
i n thi s secti on for causes.
BRAKE PULL
Front brake pul l condi ti on coul d resul t from:
Contami nated l i ni ng i n one cal i per
Sei zed cal i per pi ston
Bi ndi ng cal i per
Loose cal i per
Rusty cal i per sl i de surfaces
I mproper brake shoes
Damaged rotor
A worn, damaged wheel beari ng or suspensi on
component are further causes of pul l . A damaged
front ti re (brui sed, pl y separati on) can al so cause
pul l .
A common and frequentl y mi sdi agnosed pul l condi -
ti on i s where di recti on of pul l changes after a few
stops. The cause i s a combi nati on of brake drag fol -
l owed by fade at one of the brake uni ts.
As the draggi ng brake overheats, effi ci ency i s so
reduced that fade occurs. Si nce the opposi te brake
uni t i s sti l l functi oni ng normal l y, i ts braki ng effect i s
magni fi ed. Thi s causes pul l to swi tch di recti on i n
favor of the normal l y functi oni ng brake uni t.
An addi ti onal poi nt when di agnosi ng a change i n
pul l condi ti on concerns brake cool down. Remember
that pul l wi l l return to the ori gi nal di recti on, i f the
draggi ng brake uni t i s al l owed to cool down (and i s
not seri ousl y damaged).
REAR BRAKE GRAB OR PULL
Rear grab or pul l i s usual l y caused by i mproperl y
adjusted or sei zed parki ng brake cabl es, contami -
nated l i ni ng, bent or bi ndi ng shoes and support
pl ates, or i mproperl y assembl ed components. Thi s i s
parti cul arl y true when onl y one rear wheel i s
i nvol ved. However, when both rear wheel s are
affected, the master cyl i nder or proporti oni ng val ve
coul d be at faul t.
BRAKES DO NOT HOLD AFTER DRIVING THROUGH DEEP
WATER PUDDLES
Thi s condi ti on i s general l y caused by water soaked
l i ni ng. I f the l i ni ng i s onl y wet, i t can be dri ed by
dri vi ng wi th the brakes very l i ghtl y appl i ed for a
mi l e or two. However, i f the l i ni ng i s both soaked and
di rt contami nated, cl eani ng and/or repl acement wi l l
be necessary.
BRAKE LINING CONTAMINATION
Brake l i ni ng contami nati on i s mostl y a product of
l eaki ng cal i pers or wheel cyl i nders, worn seal s, dri v-
i ng through deep water puddl es, or l i ni ng that has
become covered wi th grease and gri t duri ng repai r.
Contami nated l i ni ng shoul d be repl aced to avoi d fur-
ther brake probl ems.
5 - 8 BRAKES XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
WHEEL AND TIRE PROBLEMS
Some condi ti ons attri buted to brake components
may actual l y be caused by a wheel or ti re probl em.
A damaged wheel can cause shudder, vi brati on and
pul l . A worn or damaged ti re can al so cause pul l .
Severel y worn ti res wi th very l i ttl e tread l eft can
produce a grab-l i ke condi ti on as the ti re l oses and
recovers tracti on. Fl at-spotted ti res can cause vi bra-
ti on and generate shudder duri ng brake operati on. A
ti re wi th i nternal damage such as a severe brui se,
cut, or pl y separati on can cause pul l and vi brati on.
BRAKE NOISES
Some brake noi se i s common wi th rear drum
brakes and on some di sc brakes duri ng the fi rst few
stops after a vehi cl e has been parked overni ght or
stored. Thi s i s pri mari l y due to the formati on of trace
corrosi on (l i ght rust) on metal surfaces. Thi s l i ght
corrosi on i s typi cal l y cl eared from the metal surfaces
after a few brake appl i cati ons causi ng the noi se to
subsi de.
BRAKE SQUEAK/SQUEAL
Brake squeak or squeal may be due to l i ni ngs that
are wet or contami nated wi th brake fl ui d, grease, or
oi l . Gl azed l i ni ngs and rotors wi th hard spots can
al so contri bute to squeak. Di rt and forei gn materi al
embedded i n the brake l i ni ng wi l l al so cause squeak/
squeal .
A very l oud squeak or squeal i s frequentl y a si gn of
severel y worn brake l i ni ng. I f the l i ni ng has worn
through to the brake shoes i n spots, metal -to-metal
contact occurs. I f the condi ti on i s al l owed to conti nue,
rotors and drums can become so scored that repl ace-
ment i s necessary.
BRAKE CHATTER
Brake chatter i s usual l y caused by l oose or worn
components, or gl azed/burnt l i ni ng. Rotors wi th hard
spots can al so contri bute to chatter. Addi ti onal causes
of chatter are out-of-tol erance rotors, brake l i ni ng not
securel y attached to the shoes, l oose wheel beari ngs
and contami nated brake l i ni ng.
THUMP/CLUNK NOISE
Thumpi ng or cl unk noi ses duri ng braki ng are fre-
quentl y not caused by brake components. I n many
cases, such noi ses are caused by l oose or damaged
steeri ng, suspensi on, or engi ne components. However,
cal i pers that bi nd on the sl i de surfaces can generate
a thump or cl unk noi se. I n addi ti on, worn out,
i mproperl y adjusted, or i mproperl y assembl ed rear
brake shoes can al so produce a thump noi se.
BRAKE LAMP SWITCH
The brake l amp swi tch operati on can be tested
wi th an ohmmeter. The ohmmeter i s used to check
conti nui ty between the pi n termi nal s (Fi g. 6).
SWITCH CIRCUIT IDENTIFICATION
Termi nal s 1 and 2: brake sensor ci rcui t
Termi nal s 3 and 4: speed control ci rcui t i f
equi pped
Termi nal s 5 and 6: brake l amp ci rcui t
SWITCH CONTINUITY TEST
NOTE: Disconnect switch harness before testing
switch continuity.
Wi th the swi tch pl unger retracted, attach test
l eads to termi nal pi ns 1 and 2. Repl ace swi tch i f
meter i ndi cates no conti nui ty.
Wi th the swi tch pl unger retracted, attach test
l eads to termi nal pi ns 3 and 4. Repl ace swi tch i f
meter i ndi cates no conti nui ty.
Wi th the swi tch pl unger extended, attach test
l eads to termi nal pi ns 5 and 6. Repl ace swi tch i f
meter i ndi cates no conti nui ty.
RED BRAKE WARNING LAMP
The red brake warni ng l amp wi l l i l l umi nate under
the fol l owi ng condi ti ons:
Sel f test at start-up.
Parki ng brakes are appl i ed.
Leak i n front/rear brake hydraul i c ci rcui t.
I f the red l i ght remai ns on after start-up, fi rst ver-
i fy that the parki ng brakes are ful l y rel eased. Then
check pedal acti on and fl ui d l evel . I f the l amp on and
the brake pedal i s l ow thi s i ndi cates the pressure di f-
Fig. 6 Brake Lamp Switch Terminal Identification
1 TERMINAL PINS
2 PLUNGER TEST POSITIONS
XJ BRAKES 5 - 9
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
ferenti al swi tch and val ve have been actuated due to
a l eak i n the hydraul i c system.
On model s wi th ABS brakes, the amber warni ng
l amp onl y i l l umi nates duri ng the sel f test and when
an ABS mal functi on has occurred. The ABS l amp
operates i ndependentl y of the red warni ng l amp.
For addi ti onal i nformati on refer to Group 8W.
MASTER CYLINDER/POWER BOOSTER
(1) Start engi ne and check booster vacuum hose
connecti ons. A hi ssi ng noi se i ndi cates vacuum l eak.
Correct any vacuum l eak before proceedi ng.
(2) Stop engi ne and shi ft transmi ssi on i nto Neu-
tral .
(3) Pump brake pedal unti l al l vacuum reserve i n
booster i s depl eted.
(4) Press and hol d brake pedal under l i ght foot
pressure. The pedal shoul d hol d fi rm, i f the pedal
fal l s away master cyl i nder i s faul ty (i nternal l eak-
age).
(5) Start engi ne and note pedal acti on. I t shoul d
fal l away sl i ghtl y under l i ght foot pressure then hol d
fi rm. I f no pedal acti on i s di scerni bl e, power booster,
vacuum suppl y, or vacuum check val ve i s faul ty. Pro-
ceed to the POWER BOOSTER VACUUM TEST.
(6) I f the POWER BOOSTER VACUUM TEST
passes, rebui l d booster vacuum reserve as fol l ows:
Rel ease brake pedal . I ncrease engi ne speed to 1500
rpm, cl ose the throttl e and i mmedi atel y turn off i gni -
ti on to stop engi ne.
(7) Wai t a mi ni mum of 90 seconds and try brake
acti on agai n. Booster shoul d provi de two or more vac-
uum assi sted pedal appl i cati ons. I f vacuum assi st i s
not provi ded, booster i s faul ty.
POWER BOOSTER VACUUM TEST
(1) Connect vacuum gauge to booster check val ve
wi th short l ength of hose and T-fi tti ng (Fi g. 7).
(2) Start and run engi ne at curb i dl e speed for one
mi nute.
(3) Observe the vacuum suppl y. I f vacuum suppl y
i s not adequate, repai r vacuum suppl y.
(4) Cl amp hose shut between vacuum source and
check val ve.
(5) Stop engi ne and observe vacuum gauge.
(6) I f vacuum drops more than one i nch HG (33
mi l l i bars) wi thi n 15 seconds, booster di aphragm or
check val ve i s faul ty.
POWER BOOSTER CHECK VALVE TEST
(1) Di sconnect vacuum hose from check val ve.
(2) Remove check val ve and val ve seal from
booster.
(3) Use a hand operated vacuum pump for test.
(4) Appl y 15-20 i nches vacuum at l arge end of
check val ve (Fi g. 8).
(5) Vacuum shoul d hol d steady. I f gauge on pump
i ndi cates vacuum l oss, check val ve i s faul ty and
shoul d be repl aced.
Fig. 7 Typical Booster Vacuum Test Connections
1 TEE FITTING
2 SHORT CONNECTING HOSE
3 CHECK VALVE
4 CHECK VALVE HOSE
5 CLAMP TOOL
6 INTAKE MANIFOLD
7 VACUUM GAUGE
Fig. 8 Vacuum Check Valve And Seal
1 BOOSTER CHECK VALVE
2 APPLY TEST VACUUM HERE
3 VALVE SEAL
5 - 10 BRAKES XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
COMBINATION VALVE
PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL SWITCH
(1) Have hel per si t i n dri vers seat to appl y brake
pedal and observe red brake warni ng l i ght.
(2) Rai se vehi cl e on hoi st.
(3) Connect bl eed hose to a rear wheel cyl i nder
and i mmerse hose end i n contai ner parti al l y fi l l ed
wi th brake fl ui d.
(4) Have hel per press and hol d brake pedal to fl oor
and observe warni ng l i ght.
(a) I f warni ng l i ght i l l umi nates, swi tch i s operat-
i ng correctl y.
(b) I f l i ght fai l s to i l l umi nate, check ci rcui t fuse,
bul b, and wi ri ng. The parki ng brake swi tch can be
used to ai d i n i denti fyi ng whether or not the brake
l i ght bul b and fuse i s functi onal . Repai r or repl ace
parts as necessary and test di fferenti al pressure
swi tch operati on agai n.
(5) I f warni ng l i ght sti l l does not i l l umi nate,
swi tch i s faul ty. Repl ace combi nati on val ve assembl y,
bl eed brake system and veri fy proper swi tch and
val ve operati on.
REAR PROPORTIONING VALVE
The val ve control s fl ui d fl ow. I f fl ui d enters the
val ve and does not exi t the val ve the combi nati on
val ve must be repl aced.
DISC BRAKE ROTOR
The rotor braki ng surfaces shoul d not be refi ni shed
unl ess necessary.
Li ght surface rust and scal e can be removed wi th a
l athe equi pped wi th dual sandi ng di scs. The rotor
surfaces can be restored by machi ni ng i n a di sc brake
l athe i f surface scori ng and wear are l i ght.
Repl ace the rotor under the fol l owi ng condi ti ons:
severel y scored
tapered
hard spots
cracked
bel ow mi ni mum thi ckness
ROTOR MINIMUM THICKNESS
Measure rotor thi ckness at the center of the brake
shoe contact surface. Repl ace the rotor i f worn bel ow
mi ni mum thi ckness, or i f machi ni ng woul d reduce
thi ckness bel ow the al l owabl e mi ni mum.
Rotor mi ni mum thi ckness i s usual l y speci fi ed on
the rotor hub. The speci fi cati on i s ei ther stamped or
cast i nto the hub surface.
ROTOR RUNOUT
Check rotor l ateral runout wi th di al i ndi cator
C-3339 (Fi g. 9). Excessi ve l ateral runout wi l l cause
brake pedal pul sati on and rapi d, uneven wear of the
brake shoes. Posi ti on the di al i ndi cator pl unger
approxi matel y 25.4 mm (1 i n.) i nward from the rotor
edge. Maxi mum al l owabl e rotor runout i s 0.102 mm
(0.004 i n.).
ROTOR THICKNESS VARIATION
Vari ati ons i n rotor thi ckness wi l l cause pedal pul -
sati on, noi se and shudder.
Measure rotor thi ckness at 6 to 12 poi nts around
the rotor face (Fi g. 10).
Posi ti on the mi crometer approxi matel y 25.4 mm (1
i n.) from the rotor outer ci rcumference for each mea-
surement.
Thi ckness shoul d not vary by more than 0.013 mm
(0.0005 i n.) from poi nt-to-poi nt on the rotor. Machi ne
or repl ace the rotor i f necessary.
BRAKE DRUM
The maxi mum al l owabl e di ameter of the drum
braki ng surface i s i ndi cated on the drum outer edge.
General l y, a drum can be machi ned to a maxi mum of
1.52 mm (0.060 i n.) oversi ze. Al ways repl ace the
drum i f machi ni ng woul d cause drum di ameter to
exceed the si ze l i mi t i ndi cated on the drum.
BRAKE DRUM RUNOUT
Measure drum di ameter and runout wi th an accu-
rate gauge. The most accurate method of measure-
ment i nvol ves mounti ng the drum i n a brake l athe
and checki ng vari ati on and runout wi th a di al i ndi -
cator.
Vari ati ons i n drum di ameter shoul d not exceed
0.076 mm (0.003 i n.). Drum runout shoul d not exceed
0.20 mm (0.008 i n.) out of round. Machi ne the drum
i f runout or vari ati on exceed these val ues. Repl ace
Fig. 9 Checking Rotor Runout And Thickness
Variation
1 DIAL INDICATOR
XJ BRAKES 5 - 11
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
the drum i f machi ni ng causes the drum to exceed the
maxi mum al l owabl e di ameter.
BRAKE LINE AND HOSES
Fl exi bl e rubber hose i s used at both front brakes
and at the rear axl e juncti on bl ock. I nspect the hoses
whenever the brake system i s servi ced, at every
engi ne oi l change, or whenever the vehi cl e i s i n for
servi ce.
I nspect the hoses for surface cracki ng, scuffi ng, or
worn spots. Repl ace any brake hose i mmedi atel y i f
the fabri c casi ng of the hose i s exposed due to cracks
or abrasi ons.
Al so check brake hose i nstal l ati on. Faul ty i nstal l a-
ti on can resul t i n ki nked, twi sted hoses, or contact
wi th the wheel s and ti res or other chassi s compo-
nents. Al l of these condi ti ons can l ead to scuffi ng,
cracki ng and eventual fai l ure.
The steel brake l i nes shoul d be i nspected peri odi -
cal l y for evi dence of corrosi on, twi sts, ki nks, l eaks, or
other damage. Heavi l y corroded l i nes wi l l eventual l y
rust through causi ng l eaks. I n any case, corroded or
damaged brake l i nes shoul d be repl aced.
Factory repl acement brake l i nes and hoses are rec-
ommended to ensure qual i ty, correct l ength and supe-
ri or fati gue l i fe. Care shoul d be taken to make sure
that brake l i ne and hose mati ng surfaces are cl ean
and free from ni cks and burrs. Al so remember that
ri ght and l eft brake hoses are not i nterchangeabl e.
Use new copper seal washers at al l cal i per connec-
ti ons. Be sure brake l i ne connecti ons are properl y
made (not cross threaded) and ti ghtened to recom-
mended torque.
BRAKE FLUID CONTAMINATION
I ndi cati ons of fl ui d contami nati on are swol l en or
deteri orated rubber parts.
Swol l en rubber parts i ndi cate the presence of
petrol eum i n the brake fl ui d.
To test for contami nati on, put a smal l amount of
drai ned brake fl ui d i n cl ear gl ass jar. I f fl ui d sepa-
rates i nto l ayers, there i s mi neral oi l or other fl ui d
contami nati on of the brake fl ui d.
I f brake fl ui d i s contami nated, drai n and thor-
oughl y fl ush system. Repl ace master cyl i nder, propor-
ti oni ng val ve, cal i per seal s, wheel cyl i nder seal s,
Anti l ock Brakes hydraul i c uni t and al l hydraul i c
fl ui d hoses.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
BRAKE FLUID LEVEL
Al ways cl ean the master cyl i nder reservoi r and cap
before addi ng fl ui d. Thi s wi l l prevent di rt from fal l -
i ng i n the reservoi r and contami nati ng the brake
fl ui d.
The reservoi r has a ADD and a FULL mark on the
si de (Fi g. 11) fi l l to the FULL mark.
MASTER CYLINDER BLEEDING
A new master cyl i nder shoul d be bl ed before i nstal -
l ati on on the vehi cl e. Requi red bl eedi ng tool s i ncl ude
bl eed tubes and a wood dowel to stroke the pi stons.
Bl eed tubes can be fabri cated from brake l i ne.
BLEEDING PROCEDURE
(1) Mount master cyl i nder i n vi se.
(2) Attach bl eed tubes to cyl i nder outl et ports.
Then posi ti on each tube end i nto reservoi r (Fi g. 12).
Fig. 10 Measuring Rotor Thickness
1 MICROMETER
2 ROTOR
Fig. 11 Master Cylinder Fluid Level
1 FLUID LEVEL MARKS
2 RESERVOIR
5 - 12 BRAKES XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
(3) Fi l l reservoi r wi th fresh brake fl ui d.
(4) Press cyl i nder pi stons i nward wi th wood dowel .
Then rel ease pi stons and al l ow them to return under
spri ng pressure. Conti nue bl eedi ng operati ons unti l
ai r bubbl es are no l onger vi si bl e i n fl ui d.
BASE BRAKE BLEEDING
Use Mopar brake fl ui d, or an equi val ent qual i ty
fl ui d meeti ng SAE J1703-F and DOT 3 standards
onl y. Use fresh, cl ean fl ui d from a seal ed contai ner at
al l ti mes.
Do not pump the brake pedal at any ti me whi l e
bl eedi ng. Ai r i n the system wi l l be compressed i nto
smal l bubbl es that are di stri buted throughout the
hydraul i c system. Thi s wi l l make addi ti onal bl eedi ng
operati ons necessary.
Do not al l ow the master cyl i nder to run out of fl ui d
duri ng bl eed operati ons. An empty cyl i nder wi l l al l ow
addi ti onal ai r to be drawn i nto the system. Check the
cyl i nder fl ui d l evel frequentl y and add fl ui d as
needed.
Bl eed onl y one brake component at a ti me i n the
fol l owi ng sequence:
Master Cyl i nder
Combi nati on Val ve
Ri ght Rear Wheel
Left Rear Wheel
Ri ght Front Wheel
Left Front Wheel
MANUAL BLEEDING
(1) Remove reservoi r fi l l er caps and fi l l reservoi r.
(2) I f cal i pers, or wheel cyl i nders were overhaul ed,
open al l cal i per and wheel cyl i nder bl eed screws.
Then cl ose each bl eed screw as fl ui d starts to dri p
from i t. Top off master cyl i nder reservoi r once more
before proceedi ng.
(3) Attach one end of bl eed hose to bl eed screw
and i nsert opposi te end i n gl ass contai ner parti al l y
fi l l ed wi th brake fl ui d (Fi g. 13). Be sure end of bl eed
hose i s i mmersed i n fl ui d.
(4) Open up bl eeder, then have a hel per press
down the brake pedal . Once the pedal i s down cl ose
the bl eeder. Repeat bl eedi ng unti l fl ui d stream i s
cl ear and free of bubbl es. Then move to the next
wheel .
PRESSURE BLEEDING
Fol l ow the manufacturers i nstructi ons careful l y
when usi ng pressure equi pment. Do not exceed the
tank manufacturers pressure recommendati ons. Gen-
eral l y, a tank pressure of 15-20 psi i s suffi ci ent for
bl eedi ng.
Fi l l the bl eeder tank wi th recommended fl ui d and
purge ai r from the tank l i nes before bl eedi ng.
Do not pressure bl eed wi thout a proper master cyl -
i nder adapter. The wrong adapter can l ead to l eak-
age, or drawi ng ai r back i nto the system. Use
adapter provi ded wi th the equi pment or Adapter
6921.
DISC ROTOR MACHINING
The di sc brake rotor can be machi ned i f scored or
worn. The l athe must machi ne both si des of the rotor
si mul taneousl y wi th dual cutter heads. The rotor
mounti ng surface must be cl ean before pl aci ng on the
l athe. Equi pment capabl e of machi ni ng onl y one si de
at a ti me may produce a tapered rotor. A hub
Fig. 12 Master Cylinder BleedingTypical
1 BLEEDING TUBES
2 RESERVOIR
Fig. 13 Bleed Hose Setup
1 BLEED HOSE
2 FLUID CONTAINER PARTIALLY FILLED WITH FLUID
XJ BRAKES 5 - 13
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
mounted on-vehi cl e l athe i s recommended. Thi s type
of l athe trues the rotor to the vehi cl es hub/beari ng.
CAUTION: Brake rotors that do not meet minimum
thickness specifications before or after machining
must be replaced.
BRAKE DRUM MACHINING
The brake drums can be machi ned on a drum l athe
when necessary. I ni ti al machi ni ng cuts shoul d be l i m-
i ted to 0.12 - 0.20 mm (0.005 - 0.008 i n.) at a ti me as
heavi er feed rates can produce taper and surface
vari ati on. Fi nal fi ni sh cuts of 0.025 to 0.038 mm
(0.001 to 0.0015 i n.) are recommended and wi l l gen-
eral l y provi de the best surface fi ni sh.
Be sure the drum i s securel y mounted i n the l athe
before machi ni ng operati ons. A damper strap shoul d
al ways be used around the drum to reduce vi brati on
and avoi d chatter marks.
The maxi mum al l owabl e di ameter of the drum
braki ng surface i s stamped or cast i nto the drum
outer edge.
CAUTION: Replace the drum if machining will
cause the drum to exceed the maximum allowable
diameter.
BRAKE TUBE FLARING
A preformed metal brake tube i s recommended and
preferred for al l repai rs. However, doubl e-wal l steel
tube can be used for emergency repai r when factory
repl acement parts are not readi l y avai l abl e.
Speci al bendi ng tool s are needed to avoi d ki nki ng
or twi sti ng of metal brake tubes. Speci al fl ari ng tool s
are needed to make a doubl e i nverted fl are or I SO
fl are (Fi g. 14).
DOUBLE INVERTED FLARING
(1) Cut off damaged tube wi th Tubi ng Cutter.
(2) Ream cut edges of tubi ng to ensure proper
fl are.
(3) I nstal l repl acement tube nut on the tube.
(4) I nsert tube i n fl ari ng tool .
(5) Pl ace gauge form over the end of the tube.
(6) Push tubi ng through fl ari ng tool jaws unti l
tube contacts recessed notch i n gauge that matches
tube di ameter.
(7) Ti ghten the tool bar on the tube
(8) I nsert pl ug on gauge i n the tube. Then swi ng
compressi on di sc over gauge and center tapered fl ar-
i ng screw i n recess of compressi on di sc (Fi g. 15).
(9) Ti ghten tool handl e unti l pl ug gauge i s
squarel y seated on jaws of fl ari ng tool . Thi s wi l l start
the i nverted fl are.
(10) Remove the pl ug gauge and compl ete the
i nverted fl are.
ISO FLARING
To make a I SO fl are use Snap-On Fl ari ng Tool
TFM-428 or equi val ent.
(1) Cut off damaged tube wi th Tubi ng Cutter.
(2) Remove any burrs from the i nsi de of the tube.
(3) I nstal l tube nut on the tube.
Fig. 14 Inverted Flare And ISO Flare
1 ISO-STYLE FLARE
2 DOUBLE INVERTED-STYLE FLARE
Fig. 15 Inverted Flare Tools
5 - 14 BRAKES XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
(4) Posi ti on the tube i n the fl ari ng tool fl ush wi th
the top of the tool bar (Fi g. 16). Then ti ghten the tool
bar on the tube.
(5) I nstal l the correct si ze adaptor on the fl ari ng
tool yoke screw.
(6) Lubri cate the adaptor.
(7) Al i gn the adaptor and yoke screw over the tube
(Fi g. 16).
(8) Turn the yoke screw i n unti l the adaptor i s
squarel y seated on the tool bar.
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
BRAKE LAMP SWITCH
REMOVAL
(1) Remove steeri ng col umn cover and l ower tri m
panel for swi tch access (i f necessary).
(2) Press brake pedal downward to ful l y appl i ed
posi ti on.
(3) Rotate swi tch approxi matel y 30 i n counter-
cl ockwi se di recti on to unl ock swi tch retai ner. Then
pul l swi tch rearward and out of bracket.
(4) Di sconnect swi tch harness and remove swi tch
from vehi cl e (Fi g. 17).
INSTALLATION
(1) Pul l swi tch pl unger al l the way out to ful l y
extended posi ti on.
(2) Connect harness wi res to swi tch.
(3) Press and hol d brake pedal i n appl i ed posi ti on.
(4) I nstal l swi tch as fol l ows: Al i gn tab on swi tch
wi th notch i n swi tch bracket. Then i nsert swi tch i n
bracket and turn i t cl ockwi se about 30 to l ock i t i n
pl ace.
(5) Rel ease brake pedal . Then pul l pedal l i ghtl y
rearward. Pedal wi l l set pl unger to correct posi ti on
as pedal pushes pl unger i nto swi tch body. Swi tch wi l l
make ratcheti ng sound as i t sel f adjusts.
CAUTION: Booster damage may occur if the pedal
pull exceeds 20 lbs..
BRAKE PEDAL
REMOVAL
(1) Remove knee bl ocker under the steeri ng col -
umn.
(2) Remove retai ner cl i p securi ng booster push rod
to pedal (Fi g. 18).
(3) Remove brake l amp swi tch.
(4) Remove nuts securi ng the booster to the pedal
support bracket and nuts to the col umn bracket.
(5) Remove pedal and support bracket as an
assembl y from the vehi cl e.
Fig. 16 ISO Flaring
1 ADAPTER
2 LUBRICATE HERE
3 PILOT
4 FLUSH WITH BAR
5 TUBING
6 BAR ASSEMBLY
Fig. 17 Brake Lamp Switch
1 SWITCH
2 HARNESS CONNECTOR
XJ BRAKES 5 - 15
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l pedal and support bracket as an assem-
bl y i nto the vehi cl e.
(2) I nstal l nuts securi ng the booster to the pedal
support bracket and nuts to the col umn bracket.
(3) Ti ghten nuts to 39 Nm (29 ft. l bs.).
(4) Lubri cate the brake pedal pi n and bushi ngs
wi th Mopar mul ti -mi l eage grease.
(5) I nstal l booster push rod on pedal pi n and
i nstal l new retai ner cl i p.
(6) I nstal l knee bl ocker.
COMBINATION VALVE
NOTE: The combination valve is not repairable. The
valve is serviced as an assembly only.
REMOVAL
(1) Remove ai r cl eaner cover and hose for access to
val ve.
(2) Unsnap connector l ock tabs and di sconnect di f-
ferenti al pressure swi tch wi re at combi nati on val ve
(Fi g. 19). Do not pul l swi tch wi re to di sconnect.
(3) Di sconnect brake l i nes at combi nati on val ve
(Fi g. 20).
(4) Remove mounti ng nut and remove val ve.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l val ve and ti ghten mounti ng nut to 17
Nm (155 i n. l bs.).
(2) Connect brake l i nes to repl acement val ve. Start
l i ne fi tti ngs by hand to avoi d cross threadi ng.
(3) Ti ghten brake l i ne fi tti ngs to 14 Nm (124 i n.
l bs.).
(4) Connect wi re to pressure di fferenti al swi tch.
(5) Bl eed base brakes.
MASTER CYLINDER
REMOVAL
(1) Remove brake l i nes at master cyl i nder and
combi nati on val ve (Fi g. 20).
(2) Di sconnect di fferenti al pressure swi tch wi re
from the combi nati on val ve.
Fig. 18 Booster Push Rod
1 BRAKE PEDAL
2 BOOSTER ROD
3 BUSHING
Fig. 19 Differential Pressure Switch
1 SWITCH TERMINAL
2 COMBINATION VALVE
3 WIRE HARNESS CONNECTOR
Fig. 20 Combination Valve
1 COMBINATION VALVE
2 MASTER CYLINDER
5 - 16 BRAKES XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(3) Remove mounti ng nuts from the combi nati on
val ve bracket and remove the val ve (Fi g. 20).
(4) Remove mounti ng nuts from the master cyl i n-
der (Fi g. 21).
(5) Remove master cyl i nder.
(6) Remove cyl i nder cover and drai n fl ui d.
(7) I f master cyl i nder reservoi r requi res servi ce,
refer to reservoi r repl acement procedure i n thi s sec-
ti on.
INSTALLATION
NOTE: If master cylinder is replaced, bleed cylinder
before installation.
(1) Remove protecti ve sl eeve from pri mary pi ston
shank on new master cyl i nder.
(2) Cl ean cyl i nder mounti ng surface of brake
booster.
(3) I nstal l master cyl i nder onto brake booster
studs.
(4) I nstal l mounti ng nuts and ti ghten to 17 Nm
(155 i n. l bs.).
(5) I nstal l combi nati on val ve and i nstal l mounti ng
nuts.
(6) Connect brake l i nes to master cyl i nder and
combi nati on val ve and ti ghten to 14 Nm (124 i n.
l bs.).
(7) Connect di fferenti al pressure swi tch wi re to the
combi nati on val ve.
(8) On RHD vehi cl es i nstal l the cool ant reserve/
overfl ow tank. Refer to Group 7 Cool i ng System.
(9) Fi l l and bl eed base brake system.
POWER BRAKE BOOSTER
REMOVAL
(1) On RHD vehi cl es remove the cool ant reserve/
overfl ow tank. Refer to Group 7 Cool i ng System.
(2) Di sconnect brake l i nes at master cyl i nder.
(3) Di sconnect wi re at combi nati on val ve di fferen-
ti al pressure swi tch.
(4) Remove nut mounti ng combi nati on val ve
bracket to booster studs and remove val ve.
(5) Remove nuts mounti ng master cyl i nder to
booster studs and remove cyl i nder.
(6) Di sconnect vacuum hose from booster check
val ve.
(7) Remove knee bl ocker under the steeri ng col -
umn.
(8) Remove retai ni ng cl i p that secures booster
push rod to brake pedal (Fi g. 22).
(9) Remove nuts attachi ng booster to passenger
compartment si de of dash panel (Fi g. 23).
(10) I n engi ne compartment, sl i de booster studs
out of dash panel , ti l t booster upward, and remove
booster from engi ne compartment.
(11) Remove dash seal from booster.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l dash seal on booster.
(2) Al i gn and posi ti on booster on dash panel .
(3) I n passenger compartment, i nstal l booster
mounti ng nuts. Ti ghten nuts just enough to hol d
booster i n pl ace.
(4) Sl i de booster push rod onto the brake pedal .
Then secure push rod to pedal pi n wi th retai ni ng
cl i p.
Fig. 21 Master Cylinder
1 BOOSTER
2 MASTER CYLINDER
Fig. 22 Booster Push Rod
1 BRAKE PEDAL
2 BOOSTER ROD
3 BUSHING
XJ BRAKES 5 - 17
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
NOTE: Lubricate the pedal pin and bushing with
Mopar multi-mileage grease before installation.
(5) Ti ghten booster mounti ng nuts to 39 Nm (29
ft. l bs.).
(6) I nstal l the knee bl ocker.
(7) I f ori gi nal master cyl i nder i s bei ng i nstal l ed,
check condi ti on of seal at rear of master cyl i nder.
Repl ace seal i f cut, or torn.
(8) Cl ean cyl i nder mounti ng surface of brake
booster. Use shop towel wetted wi th brake cl eaner for
thi s purpose. Di rt, grease, or si mi l ar materi al s wi l l
prevent proper cyl i nder seati ng and coul d resul t i n
vacuum l eak.
(9) Al i gn and i nstal l master cyl i nder on booster
studs. I nstal l mounti ng nuts and ti ghten to 17.5 Nm
(155 i n. l bs.).
(10) Connect vacuum hose to booster check val ve.
(11) Connect and secure brake l i nes to combi nati on
val ve and master cyl i nder. Start al l brake l i ne fi t-
ti ngs by hand to avoi d cross threadi ng.
(12) I nstal l combi nati on val ve on booster studs.
Ti ghten bracket mounti ng nuts to 17.5 Nm (155 i n.
l bs.).
(13) Connect wi re to combi nati on val ve swi tch.
(14) On RHD vehi cl es i nstal l the cool ant reserve/
overfl ow tank. Refer to Group 7 Cool i ng System.
(15) Fi l l and bl eed base brake system.
(16) Veri fy proper brake operati on before movi ng
vehi cl e.
FRONT DISC BRAKE CALIPER
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support vehi cl e.
(2) Remove front wheel and ti re assembl y.
(3) Drai n smal l amount of fl ui d from master cyl i n-
der brake reservoi r wi th sucti on gun.
(4) Bottom cal i per pi ston i n bore wi th C-cl amp.
Posi ti on cl amp screw on outboard brake shoe and
cl amp frame on rear of cal i per (Fi g. 24). Do not
allow clamp screw to bear directly on outboard
shoe retainer spring. Use wood or metal spacer
between shoe and clamp screw.
(5) Remove brake hose mounti ng bol t and di scard
washers (Fi g. 25).
(6) Remove cal i per mounti ng bol ts (Fi g. 26).
Fig. 23 Booster Mounting
1 BOOSTER
Fig. 24 Bottoming Caliper Piston With C-Clamp
1 CALIPER BOSS
2 OUTBOARD BRAKESHOE
3 C-CLAMP
Fig. 25 Brake Hose And Bolt
1 FITTING WASHERS
2 CALIPERS
5 - 18 BRAKES XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(7) Ti l t top of cal i per outward wi th pry tool i f nec-
essary (Fi g. 27) and remove cal i per.
(8) Remove cal i per from vehi cl e.
INSTALLATION
(1) Cl ean brake shoe mounti ng l edges wi th wi re
brush and appl y l i ght coat of Mopar mul ti -mi l eage
grease to surfaces (Fi g. 28).
(2) I nstal l cal i per by posi ti on notches at l ower end
of brake shoes on bottom mounti ng l edge. Then
rotate cal i per over rotor and seat notches at upper
end of shoes on top mounti ng l edge (Fi g. 29).
(3) Coat cal i per mounti ng bol ts wi th si l i cone
grease. Then i nstal l and ti ghten bol ts to 15 Nm (11
ft. l bs.).
CAUTION: If new caliper bolts are being installed,
or if the original reason for repair was a drag/pull
condition, check caliper bolt length before proceed-
ing. Bolts must not have a shank length greater
than 67.6 mm (2.66 in.) (Fig. 30).
(4) I nstal l brake hose to cal i per wi th new seal
washers and ti ghten fi tti ng bol t to 31 Nm (23 ft.
l bs.).
Fig. 26 Caliper Mounting Bolts
1 CALIPER MOUNTING BOLT (2)
2 CALIPER
Fig. 27 Caliper Removal
1 TILT CALIPER OUTBOARD TO REMOVE
Fig. 28 Caliper Lubrication Points
1 BUSHINGS
2 CALIPER MOUNTING BOLTS
3 MOUNTING LEDGES
Fig. 29 Caliper Installation
1 TOP LEDGE
2 BRAKESHOE TAB ON LEDGE OUTER SURFACE
3 LEDGE SEATED IN BRAKESHOE NOTCH
4 BOTTOM LEDGE
XJ BRAKES 5 - 19
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
CAUTION: Verify brake hose is not twisted or
kinked before tightening fitting bolt.
(5) Bl eed base brake system.
(6) I nstal l wheel and ti re assembl i es.
(7) Remove supports and l ower vehi cl e.
(8) Veri fy fi rm pedal before movi ng vehi cl e.
FRONT DISC BRAKE SHOES
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and support vehi cl e.
(2) Remove wheel and ti re assembl y.
(3) Remove cal i per.
(4) Pressi ng one end of outboard shoe i nward to
di sengage shoe l ug. Then rotate shoe upward unti l
retai ner spri ng cl ears cal i per. Press opposi te end of
shoe i nward to di sengage shoe l ug and rotate shoe up
and out of cal i per (Fi g. 31).
(5) Grasp ends of i nboard shoe and ti l t shoe out-
ward to rel ease spri ngs from cal i per pi ston (Fi g. 32)
and remove shoe from cal i per.
NOTE: If original brake shoes will be used, keep
them in sets left and right. They are not inter-
changeable.
(6) Secure cal i per to nearby suspensi on part wi th
wi re. Do not allow brake hose to support caliper
weight.
(7) Wi pe cal i per off wi th shop rags or towel s.
CAUTION: Do not use compressed air, this can
unseat dust boot and force dirt into piston bore.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l i nboard shoe i n cal i per and veri fy shoe
retai ni ng i s ful l y seated i nto the pi ston.
(2) Starti ng one end of outboard shoe i n cal i per
and rotati ng shoe downward i nto pl ace. Veri fy shoe
l ocati ng l ugs and shoe spri ng are seated.
(3) I nstal l cal i per.
(4) I nstal l wheel and ti re assembl y.
(5) Remove support and l ower vehi cl e.
(6) Pump brake pedal unti l cal i per pi stons and
brake shoes are seated.
(7) Top off brake fl ui d l evel i f necessary.
Fig. 30 Mounting Bolt Dimensions
1 67 mm ( 0.6 mm) 2.637 in. ( 0.0236 in.)
2 22 mm (0.866 in.) THREAD LENGTH
3 CALIPER BOLT
Fig. 31 Outboard Brake Shoe Removal
1 OUTBOARD BRAKESHOE
2 SHOE SPRING
3 LOCATING LUG
4 CALIPER
5 LOCATING LUG
Fig. 32 Inboard Brake Shoe Removal
1 CALIPER PISTON
2 SHOE SPRINGS
3 INBOARD BRAKESHOE
5 - 20 BRAKES XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
DISC BRAKE ROTOR
REMOVAL
(1) Remove wheel and ti re assembl e.
(2) Remove cal i per.
(3) Remove retai ners securi ng rotor to hub studs
(Fi g. 33).
(4) Remove rotor from hub.
(5) I f rotor shi el d requi res servi ce, remove front
hub and beari ng assembl y.
INSTALLATION
(1) I f new rotor i s bei ng i nstal l ed, remove protec-
ti ve coati ng from rotor surfaces wi th carburetor
cl eaner.
(2) I nstal l rotor on hub.
(3) I nstal l cal i per.
(4) I nstal l wheel and ti re assembl y.
DRUM BRAKE SHOES
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se vehi cl e and remove rear wheel s.
(2) Remove and di scard spri ng nuts securi ng
drums to wheel studs.
(3) Remove brake drums. I f drums prove di ffi cul t
to remove, retract brake shoes. Remove access pl ug
at the rear of backi ng pl ate and back off adjuster
screw wi th brake tool and screwdri ver.
(4) Remove U-cl i p and washer securi ng adjuster
cabl e to parki ng brake l ever (Fi g. 34).
(5) Remove pri mary and secondary return spri ngs
from anchor pi n wi th brake spri ng pl i ers.
(6) Remove hol d-down spri ngs, retai ners and pi ns
wi th standard retai ni ng spri ng tool .
(7) I nstal l spri ng cl amps on wheel cyl i nders to
hol d pi stons i n pl ace.
(8) Remove adjuster l ever, adjuster screw and
spri ng.
(9) Remove adjuster cabl e and cabl e gui de.
(10) Remove brake shoes and parki ng brake strut.
(11) Di sconnect cabl e from parki ng brake l ever and
remove l ever.
INSTALLATION
(1) Cl ean support pl ate wi th brake cl eaner.
(2) I f new drums are bei ng i nstal l ed, remove pro-
tecti ve coati ng wi th carburetor cl eaner fol l owed by
fi nal ri nse wi th brake cl eaner.
(3) Cl ean and l ubri cate anchor pi n wi th l i ght coat
of Mopar mul ti -mi l eage grease.
(4) Appl y Mopar mul ti -mi l eage grease to brake
shoe contact surfaces of support pl ate (Fi g. 35).
(5) Lubri cate adjuster screw threads and pi vot
wi th spray l ube.
(6) Attach parki ng brake l ever to secondary brake
shoe. Use new washer and U-cl i p to secure l ever.
(7) Remove wheel cyl i nder cl amps.
(8) Attach parki ng brake cabl e to l ever.
(9) I nstal l brake shoes on support pl ate. Secure
shoes wi th new hol d-down spri ngs, pi ns and retai n-
ers.
(10) I nstal l parki ng brake strut and spri ng.
(11) I nstal l gui de pl ate and adjuster cabl e on
anchor pi n.
(12) I nstal l pri mary and secondary return spri ngs.
(13) I nstal l adjuster cabl e gui de on secondary
shoe.
(14) Lubri cate and assembl e adjuster screw.
(15) I nstal l adjuster screw, spri ng and l ever and
connect to adjuster cabl e.
(16) Adjust shoes to drum.
(17) I nstal l wheel /ti re assembl i es and l ower vehi -
cl e.
(18) Veri fy fi rm brake pedal before movi ng vehi cl e.
WHEEL CYLINDER
REMOVAL
(1) Remove wheel and ti re assembl y.
(2) Remove brake drum.
(3) Di sconnect wheel cyl i nder brake l i ne.
(4) Remove brake shoe return spri ngs and move
shoes out of engagement wi th cyl i nder push rods.
(5) Remove cyl i nder attachi ng bol ts and remove
cyl i nder from support pl ate.
Fig. 33 Rotor & Hub
1 ROTOR
2 RETAINER
3 BEARING NUT
4 NUT LOCK
5 COTTER PIN
6 WASHER
XJ BRAKES 5 - 21
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
INSTALLATION
(1) Appl y bead of si l i cone seal er around cyl i nder
mounti ng surface of support pl ate.
(2) I nstal l cyl i nder mounti ng bol ts and ti ghten to
20 Nm (15 ft. l bs.).
(3) Connect brake l i ne to cyl i nder.
(4) I nstal l brake shoe return spri ng.
(5) I nstal l brake drum.
(6) I nstal l wheel and ti re assembl y.
(7) Bl eed base brake system.
BRAKE SUPPORT PLATE
REMOVAL
(1) Remove wheel and ti re assembl y and brake
drum.
(2) Remove brake shoe assembl y.
(3) Remove parki ng brake cabl e from parki ng
brake l ever.
(4) Compress parki ng brake cabl e retai ner tabs.
Then push retai ner and cabl e through and out of
support pl ate.
Fig. 34 Drum Brake ComponentsTypical
1 ADJUSTER LEVER
2 ADJUSTER CABLE
3 HOLDDOWN SPRING AND RETAINERS
4 ADJUSTER LEVER SPRING
5 TRAILING SHOE
6 CYLINDER-TO-SUPPORT SEAL
7 HOLDDOWN PINS
8 ACCESS PLUGS
9 SUPPORT PLATE
10 CABLE HOLE PLUG
11 PARK BRAKE STRUT AND SPRING
12 ADJUSTER SCREW ASSEMBLY
13 HOLDDOWN SPRING AND RETAINERS
14 LEADING SHOE
15 CABLE GUIDE
16 SHOE RETURN SPRINGS
17 SHOE GUIDE PLATE
18 PIN
19 SHOE SPRING
20 PARK BRAKE LEVER
Fig. 35 Shoe Contact Surfaces
1 ANCHOR PIN
2 SUPPORT PLATE
3 SHOE CONTACT SURFACES
5 - 22 BRAKES XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(5) Di sconnect brake l i ne at wheel cyl i nder.
(6) Remove wheel cyl i nder from support pl ate.
(7) Remove axl e shaft, refer to Group 3 for proce-
dures.
(8) Remove bol ts attachi ng support pl ate to axl e
and remove support pl ate.
INSTALLATION
(1) Appl y bead of si l i cone seal er around axl e
mounti ng surface of support pl ate.
(2) I nstal l support pl ate on axl e fl ange. Ti ghten
attachi ng bol ts to 115 Nm (85 ft. l bs.).
(3) Appl y bead of si l i cone seal er around wheel cyl -
i nder mounti ng surface and i nstal l wheel cyl i nder.
(4) I nstal l brake l i ne i n wheel cyl i nder.
(5) I nstal l parki ng brake cabl e i n support pl ate.
(6) I nstal l axl e shaft, refer to Group 3 for proce-
dure.
(7) Connect parki ng brake cabl e to l ever on sec-
ondary shoe and i nstal l brake shoes on support pl ate.
(8) Adjust brake shoes to drum wi th brake gauge.
(9) I nstal l brake drum and wheel and ti re assem-
bl y.
(10) Bl eed brake system.
REAR PARKING BRAKE CABLES
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se vehi cl e and l oosen equal i zer nuts unti l
rear cabl es are sl ack.
(2) Di sengage cabl es from equal i zer and compress
cabl e retai ners wi th a worm dri ve hose cl amp.
(3) Remove cabl es from the cabl e bracket (Fi g. 36).
(4) Remove rear wheel and brake drums.
(5) Remove secondary brake shoe and di sconnect
cabl e from l ever on brake shoe.
(6) Compress cabl es retai ner wi th worm dri ve hose
cl amp (Fi g. 37) and remove cabl es from backi ng
pl ates.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l new cabl es i n backi ng pl ates. Be sure
cabl e retai ner i s seated.
(2) Attach cabl e to l ever on brake shoe and i nstal l
brake shoe on backi ng pl ate.
(3) Adjust brake shoes to drum wi th brake gauge.
(4) I nstal l brake drums and wheel s.
(5) I nstal l cabl es i nto the cabl e bracket and i nsure
retai ners are seated i n the bracket.
(6) Engage the cabl e ends i nto the equal i zer and
i nstal l equal i zer nut.
(7) Adjust parki ng brakes. PARKING BRAKE LEVER
The center consol e must be removed to servi ce the
parki ng brake l ever. Refer to Group 23 I nteri or Com-
ponents for servi ce procedures.
Fig. 36 Parking Brake Cables
1 REAR CABLES
2 EQUALIZER
3 FRONT CABLE
4 TENSIONER ROD
Fig. 37 Cable Retainer
1 CABLE RETAINER
2 REAR CABLE
3 WORM DRIVE HOSE CLAMP
XJ BRAKES 5 - 23
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
REMOVAL
(1) Rel ease parki ng brakes.
(2) Rai se vehi cl e.
(3) Remove adjusti ng nut from tensi oner rod at the
equal i zer (Fi g. 38).
(4) Lower vehi cl e.
(5) Di sengage front cabl e from the cabl e l ever.
(6) Compress cabl e retai ner wi th worm dri ve hose
cl amp and remove the cabl e from the parki ng brake
l ever base.
(7) Di sconnect parki ng brake l amp swi tch wi re
(Fi g. 39).
(8) Remove parki ng brake l ever assembl y mount-
i ng bol ts (Fi g. 39).
(9) Remove l ever assembl y.
(10) Remove parki ng brake l amp swi tch.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l parki ng brake l amp swi tch.
(2) Posi ti on l ever assembl y on fl oorpan and i nstal l
l ever mounti ng bol ts.
(3) Ti ghten l ever mounti ng bol ts to 10 to 14 Nm
(7 to 10 ft. l bs.).
(4) I nsert front cabl e through the parki ng brake
l ever base. I nsure the cabl e retai ner i s seated i nto
the base.
(5) Attach the front cabl e to the cabl e l ever (Fi g.
39).
(6) Connect parki ng brake l amp swi tch wi re.
(7) Rai se vehi cl e.
(8) I nstal l adjusti ng nut to the tensi oner rod and
adjust parki ng brakes.
(9) Lower vehi cl e.
(10) Veri fy correct parki ng brake operati on.
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
MASTER CYLINDER RESERVOIR
REMOVAL
(1) Remove reservoi r cap and empty fl ui d i nto
drai n contai ner.
(2) Remove pi ns that retai n reservoi r to master
cyl i nder. Use hammer and pi n punch to remove pi ns
(Fi g. 40).
Fig. 38 Parking Brake Equalizer
1 REAR CABLES
2 EQUALIZER
3 FRONT CABLE
4 TENSIONER ROD
Fig. 39 Parking Brake Lever Assembly
1 MOUNTING BOLTS
2 FRONT CABLE LEVER
3 PARKING BRAKE SWITCH
4 PARKING BRAKE LEVER
Fig. 40 Reservoir Retaining Pins
1 PIN PUNCH
2 RESERVOIR
3 BODY
4 ROLL PINS
5 - 24 BRAKES XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(3) Cl amp cyl i nder body i n vi se wi th brass protec-
ti ve jaws.
(4) Loosen reservoi r from grommets wi th pry tool
(Fi g. 41).
(5) Remove reservoi r by rocki ng i t to one si de and
pul l i ng free of grommets (Fi g. 42).
(6) Remove ol d grommets from cyl i nder body (Fi g.
43).
INSTALLATION
CAUTION: Do not use any type of tool to install the
grommets. Tools may cut, or tear the grommets cre-
ating a leak problem after installation. Install the
grommets using finger pressure only.
(1) Lubri cate new grommets wi th cl ean brake fl ui d
and I nstal l new grommets i n cyl i nder body (Fi g. 44).
Use fi nger pressure to i nstal l and seat grommets.
(2) Start reservoi r i n grommets. Then rock reser-
voi r back and forth whi l e pressi ng downward to seat
i t i n grommets.
(3) I nstal l pi ns that retai n reservoi r to cyl i nder
body.
(4) Fi l l and bl eed master cyl i nder on bench before
i nstal l ati on i n vehi cl e.
DISC BRAKE CALIPER
DISASSEMBLY
(1) Remove brake shoes from cal i per.
(2) Drai n brake fl ui d out of cal i per.
(3) Take a pi ece of wood and pad i t wi th one-i nch
thi ckness of shop towel s. Pl ace thi s pi ece i n the out-
board shoe si de of the cal i per i n front of the pi ston.
Fig. 41 Loosening Reservoir
1 PRY TOOL
2 RESERVOIR
3 GROMMET
4 MASTER CYLINDER BODY
Fig. 42 Reservoir Removal
1 RESERVOIR
2 GROMMETS
Fig. 43 Grommet Removal
1 MASTER CYLINDER BODY
2 GROMMETS
Fig. 44 Grommet Installation
1 WORK NEW GROMMETS INTO PLACE USING FINGER
PRESSURE ONLY
XJ BRAKES 5 - 25
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
Thi s wi l l cushi on and protect cal i per pi ston duri ng
removal (Fi g. 45).
(4) Remove cal i per pi ston wi th short bursts of
l ow pressure compressed ai r. Di rect ai r through fl ui d
i nl et port and ease pi ston out of bore (Fi g. 46).
CAUTION: Do not blow the piston out of the bore
with sustained air pressure. This could result in a
cracked piston. Use only enough air pressure to
ease the piston out.
WARNING: NEVER ATTEMPT TO CATCH THE PIS-
TON AS IT LEAVES THE BORE. THIS MAY RESULT
IN PERSONAL INJURY.
(5) Remove cal i per pi ston dust boot wi th sui tabl e
pry tool (Fi g. 47).
(6) Remove cal i per pi ston seal wi th wood or pl asti c
tool (Fi g. 48). Do not use metal tool s as they wi l l
scratch pi ston bore.
(7) Remove cal i per mounti ng bol t bushi ngs and
boots (Fi g. 49).
ASSEMBLY
CAUTION: Dirt, oil, and solvents can damage cali-
per seals. Insure assembly area is clean and dry.
(1) Lubri cate cal i per pi ston bore, new pi ston seal
and pi ston wi th cl ean brake fl ui d.
(2) Lubri cate cal i per bushi ngs and i nteri or of
bushi ng boots wi th si l i cone grease.
(3) I nstal l bushi ng boots i n cal i per, then i nsert
bushi ng i nto boot and push bushi ng i nto pl ace (Fi g.
50).
(4) I nstal l new pi ston seal i nto seal groove wi th
fi nger (Fi g. 51).
(5) I nstal l new dust boot on cal i per pi ston and seat
boot i n pi ston groove (Fi g. 52).
(6) Press pi ston i nto cal i per bore by hand, use a
turn and push moti on to work pi ston i nto seal (Fi g.
53).
(7) Press cal i per pi ston to bottom of bore.
Fig. 45 Padding Caliper Interior
1 SHOP TOWELS OR CLOTHS
2 CALIPER
Fig. 46 Caliper Piston Removal
1 AIR GUN
2 CALIPER PISTON
3 PADDING MATERIAL
Fig. 47 Caliper Piston Dust Boot Removal
1 COLLAPSE BOOT WITH PUNCH OR SCREWDRIVER
2 PISTON DUST BOOT
5 - 26 BRAKES XJ
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
Fig. 48 Piston Seal Removal
1 REMOVE SEAL WITH WOOD PENCIL OR SIMILAR TOOL
2 PISTON SEAL
Fig. 49 Mounting Bolt Bushing And Boot
1 CALIPER SLIDE BUSHING
2 BOOT
Fig. 50 Bushings And Boots Installation
1 BUSHING
2 BOOT
Fig. 51 Piston Seal Installation
1 SEAL GROOVE
2 PISTON SEAL
Fig. 52 Dust Boot On Piston
1 PISTON
2 DUST BOOT
Fig. 53 Caliper Piston Installation
1 PISTON
2 BOOT
XJ BRAKES 5 - 27
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
(8) Seat dust boot i n cal i per wi th I nstal l er Tool
C-4842 and Tool Handl e C-4171 (Fi g. 54).
(9) Repl ace cal i per bl eed screw i f removed.
WHEEL CYLINDER
DISASSEMBLY
(1) Remove push rods and boots (Fi g. 55).
(2) Press pi stons, cups and spri ng and expander
out of cyl i nder bore.
(3) Remove bl eed screw.
ASSEMBLY
(1) Lubri cate wheel cyl i nder bore, pi stons, pi ston
cups and spri ng and expander wi th cl ean brake fl ui d.
(2) I nstal l fi rst pi ston i n cyl i nder bore. Then
i nstal l fi rst cup i n bore and agai nst pi ston. Be sure
lip of piston cup is facing inward (toward
spring and expander) and flat side is against
piston.
(3) I nstal l spri ng and expander fol l owed by
remai ni ng pi ston cup and pi ston.
(4) I nstal l boots on each end of cyl i nder and i nsert
push rods i n boots.
(5) I nstal l cyl i nder bl eed screw.
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
CALIPER
CLEANING
Cl ean the cal i per components wi th cl ean brake
fl ui d or brake cl ean onl y. Wi pe the cal i per and pi ston
dry wi th l i nt free towel s or use l ow pressure com-
pressed ai r.
CAUTION: Do not use gasoline, kerosene, thinner,
or similar solvents. These products may leave a
residue that could damage the piston and seal.
INSPECTION
The pi ston i s made from a phenol i c resi n (pl asti c
materi al ) and shoul d be smooth and cl ean.
The pi ston must be repl aced i f cracked or scored.
Do not attempt to restore a scored pi ston surface by
sandi ng or pol i shi ng.
CAUTION: If the caliper piston is replaced, install
the same type of piston in the caliper. Never inter-
change phenolic resin and steel caliper pistons.
The pistons, seals, seal grooves, caliper bore and
piston tolerances are different.
The bore can be lightly pol i shed wi th a brake
hone to remove very mi nor surface i mperfecti ons
(Fi g. 56). The cal i per shoul d be repl aced i f the bore i s
severel y corroded, rusted, scored, or i f pol i shi ng
woul d i ncrease bore di ameter more than 0.025 mm
(0.001 i nch).
Fig. 54 Piston Dust Boot Installation
1 HANDLE C-4171
2 INSTALLER C-4842
3 DUST BOOT
Fig. 55 Wheel Cylinder ComponentsTypical
1 SPRING
2 CYLINDER
3 PISTON CLIP
4 BOOT
5 PUSH ROD
6 PISTON
7 BLEED SCREW
8 CUP EXPANDERS
5 - 28 BRAKES XJ
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
REAR DRUM BRAKE
CLEANING
Cl ean the i ndi vi dual brake components, i ncl udi ng
the support pl ate and wheel cyl i nder exteri or, wi th a
water dampened cl oth or wi th brake cl eaner. Do not
use any other cl eani ng agents. Remove l i ght rust and
scal e from the brake shoe contact pads on the sup-
port pl ate wi th fi ne sandpaper.
INSPECTION
As a general rul e, ri veted brake shoes shoul d be
repl aced when worn to wi thi n 0.78 mm (1/32 i n.) of
the ri vet heads. Bonded l i ni ng shoul d be repl aced
when worn to a thi ckness of 1.6 mm (1/16 i n.).
Exami ne the l i ni ng contact pattern to determi ne i f
the shoes are bent or the drum i s tapered. The l i ni ng
shoul d exhi bi t contact across i ts enti re wi dth. Shoes
exhi bi ti ng contact onl y on one si de shoul d be
repl aced and the drum checked for runout or taper.
I nspect the adjuster screw assembl y. Repl ace the
assembl y i f the star wheel or threads are damaged,
or the components are severel y rusted or corroded.
Di scard the brake spri ngs and retai ner components
i f worn, di storted or col l apsed. Al so repl ace the
spri ngs i f a brake drag condi ti on had occurred. Over-
heati ng wi l l di stort and weaken the spri ngs.
I nspect the brake shoe contact pads on the support
pl ate, repl ace the support pl ate i f any of the pads are
worn or rusted through. Al so repl ace the pl ate i f i t i s
bent or di storted (Fi g. 57).
WHEEL CYLINDER
CLEANING
Cl ean the cyl i nder and pi stons wi th cl ean brake
fl ui d or brake cl eaner onl y. Do not use any other
cl eani ng agents.
Dry the cyl i nder and pi stons wi th compressed ai r.
Do not use rags or shop towel s to dry the cyl i nder
components. Li nt from cl oth materi al wi l l adhere to
the cyl i nder bores and pi stons.
INSPECTION
I nspect the cyl i nder bore. Li ght di scol orati on and
dark stai ns i n the bore are normal and wi l l not
i mpai r cyl i nder operati on.
The cyl i nder bore can be l i ghtl y pol i shed but onl y
wi th crocus cl oth. Repl ace the cyl i nder i f the bore i s
scored, pi tted or heavi l y corroded. Honi ng the bore to
restore the surface i s not recommended.
I nspect the cyl i nder pi stons. The pi ston surfaces
shoul d be smooth and free of scratches, scori ng and
corrosi on. Repl ace the pi stons i f worn, scored, or cor-
roded. Do attempt to restore the surface by sandi ng
or pol i shi ng.
Di scard the ol d pi ston cups and the spri ng and
expander. These parts are not reusabl e. The ori gi nal
dust boots may be reused but onl y i f they are i n good
condi ti on.
Fig. 56 Polishing Piston Bore
1 SPECIAL HONE
2 CALIPER
3 PISTON BORE
Fig. 57 Shoe Contact Surfaces
1 ANCHOR PIN
2 SUPPORT PLATE
3 SHOE CONTACT SURFACES
XJ BRAKES 5 - 29
CLEANING AND INSPECTION (Continued)
ADJ USTMENTS
BRAKE LAMP SWITCH
(1) Press and hol d brake pedal i n appl i ed posi ti on.
(2) Pul l swi tch pl unger al l the way out to ful l y
extended posi ti on.
(3) Rel ease brake pedal . Then pul l pedal l i ghtl y
rearward. Pedal wi l l set pl unger to correct posi ti on
as pedal pushes pl unger i nto swi tch body. Swi tch wi l l
make ratcheti ng sound as i t sel f adjusts.
CAUTION: Booster damage may occur if the pedal
pull exceeds 20 lbs..
REAR DRUM BRAKE
The rear drum brakes are equi pped wi th a sel f-ad-
justi ng mechani sm. Under normal ci rcumstances, the
onl y ti me adjustment i s requi red i s when the shoes
are repl aced, removed for access to other parts, or
when one or both drums are repl aced.
Adjustment can be made wi th a standard brake
gauge or wi th adjusti ng tool . Adjustment i s per-
formed wi th the compl ete brake assembl y i nstal l ed
on the backi ng pl ate.
ADJUSTMENT WITH BRAKE GAUGE
(1) Be sure parki ng brakes are ful l y rel eased.
(2) Rai se rear of vehi cl e and remove wheel s and
brake drums.
(3) Veri fy that l eft and ri ght automati c adjuster
l evers and cabl es are properl y connected.
(4) I nsert brake gauge i n drum. Expand gauge
unti l gauge i nner l egs contact drum braki ng surface.
Then l ock gauge i n posi ti on (Fi g. 58).
(5) Reverse gauge and i nstal l i t on brake shoes.
Posi ti on gauge l egs at shoe centers as shown (Fi g.
59). I f gauge does not fi t (too l oose/too ti ght), adjust
shoes.
(6) Pul l shoe adjuster l ever away from adjuster
screw star wheel .
(7) Turn adjuster screw star wheel (by hand) to
expand or retract brake shoes. Conti nue adjustment
unti l gauge outsi de l egs are l i ght drag-fi t on shoes.
(8) I nstal l brake drums and wheel s and l ower
vehi cl e.
(9) Dri ve vehi cl e and make one forward stop fol -
l owed by one reverse stop. Repeat procedure 8-10
ti mes to operate automati c adjusters and equal i ze
adjustment.
NOTE: Bring vehicle to complete standstill at each
stop. Incomplete, rolling stops will not activate
automatic adjusters.
ADJUSTMENT WITH ADJUSTING TOOL
(1) Be sure parki ng brake l ever i s ful l y rel eased.
(2) Rai se vehi cl e so rear wheel s can be rotated
freel y.
(3) Remove pl ug from each access hol e i n brake
support pl ates.
(4) Loosen parki ng brake cabl e adjustment nut
unti l there i s sl ack i n front cabl e.
(5) I nsert adjusti ng tool through support pl ate
access hol e and engage tool i n teeth of adjusti ng
screw star wheel (Fi g. 60).
(6) Rotate adjuster screw star wheel (move tool
handl e upward) unti l sl i ght drag can be fel t when
wheel i s rotated.
Fig. 58 Adjusting Gauge On Drum
1 BRAKE GAUGE
2 BRAKE DRUM
Fig. 59 Adjusting Gauge On Brake Shoes
1 BRAKE GAUGE
2 BRAKE SHOES
5 - 30 BRAKES XJ
(7) Push and hol d adjuster l ever away from star
wheel wi th thi n screwdri ver.
(8) Back off adjuster screw star wheel unti l brake
drag i s el i mi nated.
(9) Repeat adjustment at opposi te wheel . Be sure
adjustment i s equal at both wheel s.
(10) I nstal l support pl ate access hol e pl ugs.
(11) Adjust parki ng brake cabl e and l ower vehi cl e.
(12) Dri ve vehi cl e and make one forward stop fol -
l owed by one reverse stop. Repeat procedure 8-10
ti mes to operate automati c adjusters and equal i ze
adjustment.
NOTE: Bring vehicle to complete standstill at each
stop. Incomplete, rolling stops will not activate
automatic adjusters.
PARKING BRAKE CABLE TENSIONER
NOTE: Parking brake adjustment is only necessary
when the tensioner, or a cable has been replaced or
disconnected.
ADJUSTMENT
(1) Rai se vehi cl e.
(2) Back off tensi oner adjusti ng nut to create sl ack
i n cabl es.
(3) Remove rear wheel /ti re assembl i es and remove
brake drums.
(4) Check rear brake shoe adjustment wi th stan-
dard brake gauge.
CAUTION: Excessive shoe-to-drum clearance, or
worn brake components will result in faulty parking
brake adjustment and operation.
(5) Veri fy that parki ng brake cabl es operate freel y
and are not bi ndi ng, or sei zed. Repl ace faul ty cabl es,
before proceedi ng.
(6) Rei nstal l brake drums and wheel /ti re assem-
bl i es after brake shoe adjustment i s compl ete.
(7) Lower vehi cl e enough for access to parki ng
brake l ever. Then fully appl y parki ng brakes. Leave
brakes appl i ed unti l adjustment i s compl ete.
(8) Rai se vehi cl e and mark tensi oner rod 6.5 mm
(1/4 i n.) from tensi oner bracket (Fi g. 61).
(9) Ti ghten adjusti ng nut at equal i zer unti l mark
on tensi oner rod moves i nto al i gnment wi th tensi oner
bracket.
(10) Lower vehi cl e unti l rear wheel s are 15-20 cm
(6-8 i n.) off shop fl oor.
(11) Rel ease parki ng brake l ever and veri fy that
rear wheel s rotate freel y wi thout drag.
(12) Lower vehi cl e.
NOTE: Do not loosen/tighten equalizer adjusting
nut for any reason after completing adjustment.
SPECIFICATIONS
BRAKE FLUID
The brake fl ui d used i n thi s vehi cl e must conform
to DOT 3 speci fi cati ons and SAE J1703 standards.
No other type of brake fl ui d i s recommended or
approved for usage i n the vehi cl e brake system. Use
Fig. 60 Brake Adjustment
1 STAR WHEEL
2 LEVER
3 BRAKE SHOE WEB
4 SCREWDRIVER
5 ADJUSTING TOOL
6 ADJUSTER SPRING
Fig. 61 Tensioner Rod Measurement
1 TENSIONER BRACKET
2 6.5 mm (1/4 in.)
3 TENSIONER ROD
4 ROD TO EQUALIZER
XJ BRAKES 5 - 31
ADJ USTMENTS (Continued)
onl y Mopar brake fl ui d or an equi val ent from a
ti ghtl y seal ed contai ner.
CAUTION: Never use reclaimed brake fluid or fluid
from an container which has been left open. An
open container will absorb moisture from the air
and contaminate the fluid.
CAUTION: Never use any type of a petroleum-
based fluid in the brake hydraulic system. Use of
such type fluids will result in seal damage of the
vehicle brake hydraulic system causing a failure of
the vehicle brake system. Petroleum based fluids
would be items such as engine oil, transmission
fluid, power steering fluid, etc.
BRAKE COMPONENTS
Disc Brake Caliper
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sl i di ng
Disc Brake Rotor
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Venti l ated
Max. Runout . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.12 mm (0.005 i n.)
Max. Thi ckness Vari ati on . . 0.013 mm (0.0005 i n.)
Mi n. Thi ckness . . . . . . . . . . 22.7 mm (0.8937 i n.)
Brake Drum
Si ze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 i n. or 10 i n.
Brake Booster
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dual Di aphragm
TORQUE CHART
DESCRIPTION TORQUE
Brake Pedal
Pi vot Bol t/Nut . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Nm (26 ft. l bs.)
Brake Booster
Mounti ng Nuts . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Nm (29 ft. l bs.)
Master Cylinder
Mounti ng Nuts . . . . . . . . . 17.5 Nm (155 i n. l bs.)
Brake Li nes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Nm (124 i n. l bs.)
Combination Valve
Mounti ng Nuts . . . . . . . . . 17.5 Nm (155 i n. l bs.)
Brake Li nes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Nm (124 i n. l bs.)
Caliper
Mounti ng Bol ts . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Nm (11 ft. l bs.)
Brake Hose Bol t . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Nm (23 ft. l bs.)
Wheel Cylinder
Mounti ng Bol ts . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Nm (7 ft. l bs.)
Brake Li ne . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Nm (124 i n. l bs.)
Parking Brake
Lever Screws . . . . . . . . . 10-14 Nm (7-10 ft. l bs.)
Lever Bracket Screws . . 10-14 Nm (7-10 ft. l bs.)
Cabl e Retai ner Nut . . . . . . . 1.5 Nm (14 i n. l bs.)
SPECIAL TOOLS
BASE BRAKES
Installer Caliper Dust Boot 8280
Handle C-4171
Adapter Pressure Bleeder 6921
5 - 32 BRAKES XJ
SPECIFICATIONS (Continued)
ANTILOCK BRAKES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
CONTROLLER ANTILOCK BRAKES. . . . . . . . . . . 33
HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
WHEEL SPEED SENSORS AND TONE WHEEL . . 34
COMBINATION VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
G-SWITCH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
ABS WARNING LAMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
ANTILOCK BRAKES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
SERVICE PROCEDURES
BLEEDING ABS BRAKE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT/CONTROLLER
ANTILOCK BRAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
FRONT WHEEL SPEED SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
REAR WHEEL SPEED SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
G-SWITCH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT/CONTROLLER
ANTILOCK BRAKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
SPECIFICATIONS
T0RQUE CHART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM
DESCRIPTION
The purpose of the anti l ock system i s to prevent
wheel l ockup duri ng peri ods of hi gh wheel sl i p. Pre-
venti ng l ockup hel ps mai ntai n vehi cl e braki ng acti on
and steeri ng control .
The anti l ock CAB acti vates the system whenever
sensor si gnal s i ndi cate peri ods of hi gh wheel sl i p.
Hi gh wheel sl i p can be descri bed as the poi nt where
wheel rotati on begi ns approachi ng 20 to 30 percent of
actual vehi cl e speed duri ng braki ng. Peri ods of hi gh
wheel sl i p occur when brake stops i nvol ve hi gh pedal
pressure and rate of vehi cl e decel erati on.
Battery vol tage i s suppl i ed to the CAB i gni ti on ter-
mi nal when the i gni ti on swi tch i s turned to Run posi -
ti on. The CAB performs a system i ni ti al i zati on
procedure at thi s poi nt. I ni ti al i zati on consi sts of a
stati c and dynami c sel f check of system el ectri cal
components.
The stati c check occurs after the i gni ti on swi tch i s
turned to Run posi ti on. The dynami c check occurs
when vehi cl e road speed reaches approxi matel y 30
kph (18 mph). Duri ng the dynami c check, the CAB
bri efl y cycl es the pump and sol enoi ds to veri fy oper-
ati on.
I f an ABS component exhi bi ts a faul t duri ng i ni -
ti al i zati on, the CAB i l l umi nates the amber warni ng
l i ght and regi sters a faul t code i n the mi croprocessor
memory.
OPERATION
Duri ng normal braki ng, the master cyl i nder, power
booster and wheel brake uni ts al l functi on as they
woul d i n a vehi cl e wi thout ABS. The HCU compo-
nents are not acti vated.
Duri ng anti l ock braki ng fl ui d pressure i s modu-
l ated accordi ng to wheel speed, degree of sl i p and
rate of decel erati on. A sensor at each wheel converts
wheel speed i nto el ectri cal si gnal s. These si gnal s are
transmi tted to the CAB for processi ng and determi -
nati on of wheel sl i p and decel erati on rate.
The ABS system has three fl ui d pressure control
channel s. The front brakes are control l ed separatel y
and the rear brakes i n tandem. A speed sensor i nput
si gnal i ndi cati ng a hi gh sl i p condi ti on acti vates the
CAB anti l ock program. Two sol enoi d val ves are used
i n each anti l ock control channel . The val ves are al l
l ocated wi thi n the HCU val ve body and work i n pai rs
to ei ther i ncrease, hol d, or decrease appl y pressure as
needed i n the i ndi vi dual control channel s. The sol e-
noi d val ves are not stati c duri ng anti l ock braki ng.
They are cycl ed conti nuousl y to modul ate pressure.
Sol enoi d cycl e ti me i n anti l ock mode can be mea-
sured i n mi l l i seconds.
CONTROLLER ANTILOCK BRAKES
DESCRIPTION
The CAB i s mounted to the HCU and operates the
ABS system (Fi g. 1) separate from other vehi cl e el ec-
tri cal ci rcui ts.
OPERATION
The CAB vol tage source i s through the i gni ti on
swi tch i n the RUN posi ti on. The CAB contai ns dual
XJ BRAKES 5 - 33
mi croprocessors. A l ogi c bl ock i n each mi croprocessor
recei ves i denti cal sensor si gnal s. These si gnal s are
processed and compared si mul taneousl y. The CAB
contai ns a sel f check program that i l l umi nates the
ABS warni ng l i ght when a system faul t i s detected.
Faul ts are stored i n a di agnosti c program memory
and are accessi bl e wi th the DRB scan tool . ABS
faul ts remai n i n memory unti l cl eared, or unti l after
the vehi cl e i s started approxi matel y 50 ti mes. Stored
faul ts are not erased i f the battery i s di sconnected.
HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT
DESCRIPTION
The HCU consi sts of a val ve body, pump motor,
and wi re harness (Fi g. 1).
OPERATION
Accumul ators i n the val ve body store extra fl ui d
rel eased to the system for ABS mode operati on. The
pump provi des the fl ui d vol ume needed and i s oper-
ated by a DC type motor. The motor i s control l ed by
the CAB.
The val ves modul ate brake pressure duri ng
anti l ock braki ng and are control l ed by the CAB.
The HCU provi des three channel pressure control
to the front and rear brakes. One channel control s
the rear wheel brakes i n tandem. The two remai ni ng
channel s control the front wheel brakes i ndi vi dual l y.
Duri ng anti l ock braki ng, the sol enoi d val ves are
opened and cl osed as needed. The val ves are not
stati c. They are cycl ed rapi dl y and conti nuousl y to
modul ate pressure and control wheel sl i p and decel -
erati on.
Duri ng normal braki ng, the HCU sol enoi d val ves
and pump are not acti vated. The master cyl i nder and
power booster operate the same as a vehi cl e wi thout
an ABS brake system.
Duri ng anti l ock braki ng, sol enoi d val ve pressure
modul ati on occurs i n three stages, pressure i ncrease,
pressure hol d, and pressure decrease. The val ves are
al l contai ned i n the val ve body porti on of the HCU.
PRESSURE DECREASE
The outl et val ve i s opened and the i nl et val ve i s
cl osed duri ng the pressure decrease cycl e.
A pressure decrease cycl e i s i ni ti ated when speed
sensor si gnal s i ndi cate hi gh wheel sl i p at one or
more wheel s. At thi s poi nt, the CAB cl oses the i nl et
then opens the outl et val ve, whi ch al so opens the
return ci rcui t to the accumul ators. Fl ui d pressure i s
al l owed to bl eed off (decrease) as needed to prevent
wheel l ock.
Once the peri od of hi gh wheel sl i p has ended, the
CAB cl oses the outl et val ve and begi ns a pressure
i ncrease or hol d cycl e as needed.
PRESSURE HOLD
Both sol enoi d val ves are cl osed i n the pressure
hol d cycl e. Fl ui d appl y pressure i n the control chan-
nel i s mai ntai ned at a constant rate. The CAB mai n-
tai ns the hol d cycl e unti l sensor i nputs i ndi cate a
pressure change i s necessary.
PRESSURE INCREASE
The i nl et val ve i s open and the outl et val ve i s
cl osed duri ng the pressure i ncrease cycl e. The pres-
sure i ncrease cycl e i s used to counteract unequal
wheel speeds. Thi s cycl e control s re-appl i cati on of
fl ui d appl y pressure due to changi ng road surfaces or
wheel speed.
WHEEL SPEED SENSORS AND TONE WHEEL
DESCRIPTION
A speed sensor i s used at each wheel . The front
sensors are mounted to the steeri ng knuckl es. The
rear sensors at the outboard end of the axl e.
OPERATION
The sensors convert wheel speed i nto a smal l AC
el ectri cal si gnal . Thi s si gnal i s transmi tted to the
CAB. The CAB converts the AC si gnal i nto a di gi tal
si gnal for each wheel . Thi s vol tage i s generated by
magneti c i nducti on when a tone wheel passes by the
stati onary magnet of the wheel speed sensor.
A gear type tone ri ng serves as the tri gger mecha-
ni sm for each sensor. The tone ri ngs are mounted at
the outboard ends of the front and rear axl e shafts.
Di fferent sensors are used at the front and rear
wheel s (Fi g. 2). The front/rear sensors have the same
el ectri cal val ues but are not i nterchangeabl e. The
Fig. 1 Controller Antilock Brakes
1 HCU
2 MOTOR
3 CAB
5 - 34 BRAKES XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
sensors have a resi stance between 900 and 1300
ohms.
FRONT SENSOR AIR GAP
Front sensor ai r gap i s fi xed and not adjustabl e.
Onl y rear sensor ai r gap i s adjustabl e.
Al though front ai r gap i s not adjustabl e, i t can be
checked i f di agnosi s i ndi cates thi s i s necessary. Front
ai r gap shoul d be 0.36 to 1.5 mm (0.014 to 0.059 i n.). I f
gap i s i ncorrect, the sensor i s ei ther l oose, or damaged.
REAR SENSOR AIR GAP
A rear sensor ai r gap adjustment i s onl y needed
when rei nstal l i ng an ori gi nal sensor. Repl acement
sensors have an ai r gap spacer attached to the sensor
pi ckup face. The spacer establ i shes correct ai r gap
when pressed agai nst the tone ri ng duri ng i nstal l a-
ti on. As the tone ri ng rotates, i t peel s the spacer off
the sensor to create the requi red ai r gap. Rear sensor
ai r gap i s 0.92-1.275 mm (0.036-0.05 i n.).
Sensor ai r gap measurement, or adjustment proce-
dures are provi ded i n thi s secti on. Refer to the front,
or rear sensor removal and i nstal l ati on procedures as
requi red.
COMBINATION VALVE
DESCRIPTION
The combi nati on val ve contai ns a pressure di ffer-
enti al val ve and swi tch and a rear brake proporti on-
i ng val ve. The val ve i s not repai rabl e and must be
repl aced as an assembl y i f di agnosi s i ndi cates thi s i s
necessary.
OPERATION
PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL VALVE
The pressure di fferenti al swi tch i s connected to the
brake warni ng l i ght. The swi tch i s actuated by move-
ment of the swi tch val ve. The swi tch moni tors fl ui d
pressure i n the separate front/rear brake hydraul i c
ci rcui ts.
A decrease or l oss of fl ui d pressure i n ei ther
hydraul i c ci rcui t wi l l cause the swi tch val ve to shut-
tl e to the l ow pressure si de. Movement of the val ve
pushes the swi tch pl unger upward. Thi s acti on cl oses
the swi tch i nternal contacts compl eti ng the el ectri cal
ci rcui t to the red warni ng l i ght. The swi tch val ve wi l l
remai n i n an actuated posi ti on unti l repai rs to the
brake system are made.
PROPORTIONING VALVE
The proporti oni ng val ve i s used to bal ance front-
rear brake acti on at hi gh decel erati ons. The val ve
al l ows normal fl ui d fl ow duri ng moderate braki ng.
The val ve onl y control s fl ui d fl ow duri ng hi gh decel -
erati ons brake stops.
G-SWITCH
DESCRIPTION
The G-swi tch i s l ocated under the rear seat. The
swi tch has di recti onal arrow and must be mounted
wi th the arrow poi nti ng towards the front of the
vehi cl e.
OPERATION
The swi tch (Fi g. 3), provi des an addi ti onal vehi cl e
decel erati on reference duri ng 4x4 operati on. The
swi tch i s moni tored by the CAB at al l ti mes. The
swi tch reference si gnal i s uti l i zed by the CAB when
al l wheel s are decel erati ng at the same speed.
ABS WARNING LAMP
DESCRIPTION
The amber ABS warni ng l amp i s l ocated i n the
i nstrument cl uster. The l amp i l l umi nates at start-up
to perform a sel f check. The l amp goes out when the
sel f check program determi nes the system i s operat-
i ng normal .
OPERATION
I f an ABS component exhi bi ts a faul t the CAB wi l l
i l l umi nate the l amp and regi ster a troubl e code i n
the mi croprocessor. The l amp i s control l ed by the
CAB. The l amp i s i l l umi nated when the CAB sends a
ground si gnal to the ABS rel ay. The ABS rel ay then
grounds the l amp ci rcui t and i l l umi nates the l amp.
Fig. 2 Wheel Speed Sensors
1 FRONT SENSOR
2 REAR SENSOR
3 PICKUP FACE
XJ BRAKES 5 - 35
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
ANTILOCK BRAKES
The ABS brake system performs several sel f-tests
every ti me the i gni ti on swi tch i s turned on and the
vehi cl e i s dri ven. The CAB moni tors the systems
i nput and output ci rcui ts to veri fy the system i s oper-
ati ng correctl y. I f the on board di agnosti c system
senses that a ci rcui t i s mal functi oni ng the system
wi l l set a troubl e code i n i ts memory.
NOTE: An audible noise may be heard during the
self-test. This noise should be considered normal.
NOTE: The MDS or DRB III scan tool is used to
diagnose the ABS system. For additional informa-
tion refer to the Antilock Brake section in Group
8W. For test procedures refer to the Chassis Diag-
nostic Manual.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
BLEEDING ABS BRAKE SYSTEM
ABS system bl eedi ng requi res conventi onal bl eed-
i ng methods pl us use of the DRB scan tool . The pro-
cedure i nvol ves performi ng a base brake bl eedi ng,
fol l owed by use of the scan tool to cycl e and bl eed the
HCU pump and sol enoi ds. A second base brake bl eed-
i ng procedure i s then requi red to remove any ai r
remai ni ng i n the system.
(1) Perform base brake bl eedi ng. Refer to base
brake secti on for procedure.
(2) Connect scan tool to the Data Li nk Connector.
(3) Sel ect ANTI LOCK BRAKES, fol l owed by MI S-
CELLANEOUS, then ABS BRAKES. Fol l ow the
i nstructi ons di spl ayed. When scan tool di spl ays TEST
COMPLETE, di sconnect scan tool and proceed.
(4) Perform base brake bl eedi ng a second ti me.
Refer to base brake secti on for procedure.
(5) Top off master cyl i nder fl ui d l evel and veri fy
proper brake operati on before movi ng vehi cl e.
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT/CONTROLLER
ANTILOCK BRAKES
REMOVAL
(1) Remove negati ve battery cabl e from the bat-
tery.
(2) Pul l up on the CAB harness connector rel ease
(Fi g. 4) and remove connector.
(3) Remove brake l i nes from the HCU.
(4) Remove HCU/CAB mounti ng nuts and bol t
(Fi g. 5) and remove HCU/CAB.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l HCU/CAB on the mounti ng studs.
(2) I nstal l mounti ng nuts and bol t. Ti ghten to 11.5
Nm (102 i n. l bs.).
(3) I nstal l brake l i nes to the HCU and ti ghten to
19 Nm (170 i n. l bs.).
(4) I nstal l wi ri ng harness connector to the CAB
and push down on the rel ease to secure the connec-
tor.
(5) I nstal l negati ve battery cabl e to the battery.
(6) Bl eed ABS brake system.
Fig. 3 G-Switch
1 SWITCH PART NUMBER
2 ARROW INDICATES FRONT OF SWITCH FOR PROPER
MOUNTING
Fig. 4 CAB Harness Connector Release
1 CAB
2 CAB HARNESS RELEASE
5 - 36 BRAKES XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
FRONT WHEEL SPEED SENSOR
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se vehi cl e and turn wheel outward for eas-
i er access to sensor.
(2) Remove sensor wi re from mounti ng brackets.
(3) Cl ean sensor and surroundi ng area wi th shop
towel before removal .
(4) Remove bol t attachi ng sensor to steeri ng
knuckl e and remove sensor (Fi g. 6).
(5) Remove sensor wi re from brackets on body and
steeri ng knuckl e.
(6) Unseat sensor wi re grommet i n wheel house
panel .
(7) I n engi ne compartment, di sconnect sensor wi re
connector at harness pl ug. Then remove sensor and
wi re.
INSTALLATION
(1) I f original sensor wi l l be i nstal l ed, wi pe al l
traces of ol d spacer materi al off sensor pi ckup face.
Use a dry shop towel for thi s purpose.
(2) Appl y Mopar Lock N Seal or Locti te 242 to
bol t that secures sensor i n steeri ng knuckl e. Use new
sensor bol t i f ori gi nal bol t i s worn or damaged.
(3) Posi ti on sensor on steeri ng knuckl e. Seat sen-
sor l ocati ng tab i n hol e i n knuckl e and i nstal l sensor
attachi ng bol t fi nger ti ght.
(4) Ti ghten sensor attachi ng bol t to 4.7 Nm (42 i n.
l bs.).
(5) I f ori gi nal sensor has been i nstal l ed, check sen-
sor ai r gap. Ai r gap shoul d be 0.36 to 1.5 mm (0.014
to 0.059 i n.). I f gap i s i ncorrect, sensor i s ei ther l oose,
or damaged.
(6) Secure sensor wi re to steeri ng knuckl e and
body brackets.
(7) Route sensor wi re forward and behi nd shock
absorber. Then attach sensor wi re to spri ng seat
bracket wi th grommets on sensor wi re.
(8) Route sensor wi re to outer si l l bracket. Remove
al l twi sts or ki nks from wi re.
(9) Attach sensor wi re to si l l bracket wi th grom-
met. Be sure wi re i s free of twi sts and ki nks.
(10) Veri fy sensor wi re routi ng. Wi re shoul d l oop
forward and above si l l bracket. Loose end of wi re
shoul d be bel ow si l l bracket and towards brake hose.
(11) Seat sensor wi re grommet i n body panel and
cl i p wi re to brake l i ne at grommet l ocati on.
(12) Connect sensor wi re to harness i n engi ne com-
partment.
REAR WHEEL SPEED SENSOR
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and fol d rear seat forward for access to
rear sensor connectors (Fi g. 7).
(2) Di sconnect sensors at rear harness connectors.
(3) Push sensor grommets and sensor wi res
through fl oorpan.
(4) Rai se vehi cl e.
(5) Di sconnect sensor wi res at rear axl e connec-
tors.
(6) Remove wheel and ti re assembl y.
Fig. 5 HCU/CAB Mounting
1 HCU
2 CAB
3 HCU/CAB BRACKET
4 MOTOR
Fig. 6 Front Wheel Speed Sensor
1 WHEEL SPEED SENSOR PIGTAIL
2 STEERING KNUCKLE
3 TONE WHEEL
4 FRONT WHEEL SPEED SENSOR
XJ BRAKES 5 - 37
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(7) Remove brake drum.
(8) Remove cl i ps securi ng sensor wi res to brake
l i nes, rear axl e and, brake hose.
(9) Unseat sensor wi re support pl ate grommet.
(10) Remove bol t attachi ng sensor to bracket and
remove sensor (Fi g. 8).
INSTALLATION
(1) I f original sensor i s bei ng i nstal l ed, remove
any remai ni ng pi eces of cardboard spacer from sen-
sor pi ckup face. Use dry shop towel onl y to remove
ol d spacer materi al .
(2) I nsert sensor wi re through support pl ate hol e.
Then seat sensor grommet i n support pl ate.
(3) Appl y Mopar Lock N Seal or Locti te 242 to
ori gi nal sensor bol t. Use new bol t i f ori gi nal i s worn
or damaged.
(4) I nstal l sensor bol t fi nger ti ght onl y at thi s
ti me.
(5) I f original rear sensor was i nstal l ed, adjust
sensor ai r gap to 0.92-1.275 mm (0.036-0.05 i n.). Use
feel er gauge to measure ai r gap (Fi g. 9). Ti ghten sen-
sor bol t to 13 Nm (115 i n. l bs.).
(6) I f new sensor was i nstal l ed, push cardboard
spacer on sensor face agai nst tone ri ng (Fi g. 10).
Then ti ghten sensor bol t to 13 Nm (115 i n. l bs.). Cor-
rect ai r gap wi l l be establ i shed as tone ri ng rotates
and peel s spacer off sensor face.
(7) Route sensor wi res to rear seat area.
(8) Feed sensor wi res through fl oorpan access hol e
and seat sensor grommets i n fl oorpan.
(9) Veri fy that rear sensor wi res are secured to
rear brake hose and axl e wi th cl i ps. Veri fy that wi re
i s cl ear of rotati ng components.
(10) I nstal l brake drum and wheel and ti re assem-
bl y.
(11) Lower vehi cl e.
(12) Connect sensor wi re to harness connector.
Then reposi ti on carpet and fol d rear seat down.
G-SWITCH
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se and fol d rear seat assembl y forward for
access to sensor.
Fig. 7 Acceleration Switch And Rear Sensor
Connections
1 REAR SEAT CROSSMEMBER
2 ACCELERATION SENSOR
3 SENSOR MOUNTING BRACKET
4 TO R. R. WHEEL SENSOR
5 TO L. R. WHEEL SENSOR
6 FLOORPAN
7 SENSOR HARNESS
Fig. 8 Rear Wheel Speed Sensor
1 TONE WHEEL
2 WHEEL SPEED SENSOR
Fig. 9 Setting Air Gap On Original Rear Sensor
1 WHEEL SPEED SENSOR
2 BRASS FEELER GAUGE
3 TONE RING
5 - 38 BRAKES XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(2) Di sconnect swi tch harness.
(3) Remove swi tch mounti ng screws (Fi g. 11)
(4) Remove the accel erati on swi tch.
INSTALLATION
CAUTION: The mercury switch (inside the
G-switch), will not function properly if the switch is
installed incorrectly. Verify that the switch locating
arrow is pointing to the front of the vehicle (Fig.
12).
(1) Posi ti on swi tch i n mounti ng bracket.
(2) I nstal l swi tch mounti ng bol ts and ti ghten to 3
Nm (27.5 i n. l bs.).
(3) Connect harness to swi tch. Be sure harness
connector i s fi rml y seated.
(4) Move seat back to normal posi ti on.
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT/CONTROLLER
ANTILOCK BRAKE
DISASSEMBLY
(1) Remove pump motor connector from the CAB.
(2) Remove CAB mounti ng screws from the HCU
(Fi g. 13).
(3) Remove CAB from the HCU.
Fig. 10 New Rear Sensor
1 REAR SENSOR
2 AIR GAP SPACER ATTACHED TO SENSOR FACE
Fig. 11 G-Switch Mounting
1 ACCELERATION SWITCH
2 SWITCH BRACKET
3 REAR SEAT CROSSMEMBER
Fig. 12 G-Switch
1 SWITCH PART NUMBER
2 ARROW INDICATES FRONT OF SWITCH FOR PROPER
MOUNTING
Fig. 13 CAB Mounting Screws
1 MOUNTING SCREWS
2 CAB
XJ BRAKES 5 - 39
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
ASSEMBLY
(1) I nstal l the CAB onto the HCU.
(2) I nstal l the CAB mounti ng screws and ti ghten
to 1.8 Nm (16 i n. l bs.).
(3) I nstal l pump motor connector to the CAB.
SPECIFICATIONS
T0RQUE CHART
DESCRIPTION TORQUE
G-Sensor
Sensor Bol t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Nm (27.5 i n. l bs.)
Bracket Bol t . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 Nm (24 i n. l bs.)
Hydraulic Control Unit/Controller Antilock
Brakes
Mounti ng Nuts . . . . . . . . . 11.5 Nm (102 i n. l bs.)
Brake Li nes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Nm (170 i n. l bs.)
Controller Antilock Brakes
Mounti ng Screws . . . . . . . . . 1.8 Nm (16 i n. l bs.)
Wheel Speed Sensors
Front Mounti ng Bol t . . . . . . 4.7 Nm (42 i n. l bs.)
Rear Mounti ng Bol t . . . . . . . 13 Nm (115 i n. l bs.)
5 - 40 BRAKES XJ
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
CLUTCH
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
CLUTCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
FLYWHEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
CLUTCH DISC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
CLUTCH PRESSURE PLATE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
CLUTCH RELEASE BEARING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
HYDRAULIC CLUTCH LINKAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
INSTALLATION METHODS AND PARTS
USAGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
CLUTCH DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . 4
CLUTCH CONTAMINATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
IMPROPER CLUTCH RELEASE OR
ENGAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
CLUTCH MISALIGNMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
CLUTCH HOUSING MISALIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . 6
CLUTCH FLYWHEEL RUNOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
CLUTCH COVER AND DISC RUNOUT . . . . . . . . . 7
CLUTCH DIAGNOSIS CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
SERVICE PROCEDURES
CLUTCH COMPONENT LUBRICATION . . . . . . . . . 9
CLUTCH LINKAGE FLUID. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
CLUTCH FLUID LEVEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
FLYWHEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
CLUTCH COVER AND DISC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
RELEASE BEARING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
PILOT BEARING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
CLUTCH HOUSING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
CLUTCH HYDRAULIC LINKAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
CLUTCH
DESCRIPTION
The cl utch mechani sm consi sts of a fl ywheel , a si n-
gl e, dry-type di sc, and a di aphragm styl e cl utch cover
(Fi g. 1). A hydraul i c l i nkage i s used to operate the
cl utch rel ease beari ng and fork. The fl ywheel i s
bol ted to the rear fl ange of the crankshaft. The
cl utch pressure pl ate i s bol ted to the fl ywheel wi th
the cl utch di sc l ocated between these two compo-
nents. The cl utch system provi des the mechani cal ,
but sti l l easi l y detachabl e, l i nk between the engi ne
and the transmi ssi on. The system i s desi gned to
ensure that the ful l torque output of the engi ne i s
transfered to the transmi ssi on whi l e i sol ati ng the
transmi ssi on from the engi ne fi ri ng pul ses to mi ni -
mi ze concerns such as gear rattl e.
OPERATION
Leverage, cl ampi ng force, and fri cti on are what
make the cl utch work. The di sc serves as the fri cti on
el ement and a di aphragm spri ng and pressure pl ate
provi de the cl ampi ng force. The cl utch pedal , hydrau-
l i c l i nkage, rel ease l ever and beari ng provi de the
l everage.
Fig. 1 Engine Powerflow
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 1
The cl utch master cyl i nder push rod i s connected
to the cl utch pedal . When the cl utch pedal i s
depressed, the sl ave cyl i nder i s operated by the
cl utch master cyl i nder mounted on the dash panel .
The rel ease fork i s actuated by the hydraul i c sl ave
cyl i nder mounted on the transmi ssi on housi ng. The
rel ease beari ng i s operated by a rel ease fork pi voti ng
on a bal l stud mounted i n the transmi ssi on housi ng.
The rel ease beari ng then depresses the pressure
pl ate spri ng fi ngers, thereby rel easi ng pressure on
the cl utch di sc and al l owi ng the engi ne crankshaft to
spi n i ndependentl y of the transmi ssi on i nput shaft
(Fi g. 2).
FLYWHEEL
DESCRIPTION
The fl ywheel (Fi g. 3) i s a heavy pl ate bol ted to the
rear of the crankshaft. The fl ywheel i ncorporates the
ri ng gear around the outer ci rcumference to mesh
wi th the starter to permi t engi ne cranki ng. The rear
face of the fl ywheel serves as the dri vi ng member to
the cl utch di sc.
OPERATION
The fl ywheel serves to dampen the engi ne fi ri ng
pul ses. The heavy wei ght of the fl ywheel rel ati ve to
the rotati ng mass of the engi ne components serves to
stabi l i ze the fl ow of power to the remai nder of the
dri vetrai n. The crankshaft has the tendency to
attempt to speed up and sl ow down i n response to
the cyl i nder fi ri ng pul ses. The fl ywheel dampens
these i mpul ses by absorbi ng energy when the crank-
shaft speeds and rel easi ng the energy back i nto the
system when the crankshaft sl ows down.
CLUTCH DISC
DESCRIPTION
The cl utch di sc fri cti on materi al i s ri veted to the
di sc hub (Fi g. 4). The hub bore i s spl i ned for i nstal l a-
ti on on the transmi ssi on i nput shaft. The cl utch di sc
has cushi on spri ngs i n the di sc hub to dampen di sc
vi brati ons duri ng appl i cati on and rel ease of the cl utch.
OPERATION
The cl utch di sc i s hel d onto the surface of the fl y-
wheel by the force exerted by the pressure pl ates di a-
phragm spri ng. The fri cti on materi al of the cl utch di sc
then transfers the engi ne torque from the fl ywheel and
pressure pl ate to the i nput shaft of the transmi ssi on.
CLUTCH PRESSURE PLATE
DESCRIPTION
The cl utch pressure pl ate assembl y i s a di aphragm
type wi th a one-pi ece spri ng and mul ti pl e rel ease fi n-
gers (Fi g. 5). The pressure pl ate rel ease fi ngers are
preset duri ng manufacture and are not adjustabl e.
The assembl y al so contai ns the cover, pressure pl ate,
and ful crum components.
Fig. 2 Clutch Operation
1 FLYWHEEL
2 PRESSURE PLATE FINGERS
3 PIVOT POINT
4 RELEASE BEARING PUSHED IN
5 CLUTCH DISC ENGAGED
6 CLUTCH DISC ENGAGED
7 RELEASE BEARING
Fig. 3 Flywheel
1 CRANKSHAFT
2 RING GEAR
3 FLYWHEEL
6 - 2 CLUTCH XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
OPERATION
The cl utch pressure pl ate assembl y cl amps the
cl utch di sc agai nst the fl ywheel . When the rel ease
beari ng i s depressed by the shi ft fork, the pressure
exerted on the cl utch di sc by the pressure pl ate
spri ng i s decreased. As addi ti onal force i s appl i ed,
the beari ng presses the di aphragm spri ng fi ngers
i nward on the ful crums. Thi s acti on moves the pres-
sure pl ate rearward rel i evi ng cl amp force on the di sc.
The cl utch di sc i s di sengaged and freewheel i ng at
thi s poi nt.
CLUTCH RELEASE BEARING
DESCRIPTION
A conventi onal rel ease beari ng (Fi g. 6) i s used to
engage and di sengage the cl utch pressure pl ate
assembl y. The cl utch rel ease beari ng i s mounted on
the transmi ssi on front beari ng retai ner. The beari ng
i s attached to the rel ease fork, whi ch moves the bear-
i ng i nto contact wi th the cl utch cover di aphragm
spri ng.
OPERATION
The rel ease beari ng i s operated by a rel ease fork i n
the cl utch housi ng. Sl ave cyl i nder force causes the
rel ease l ever to move the rel ease beari ng i nto contact
wi th the di aphragm spri ng. As addi ti onal force i s
appl i ed, the beari ng presses the di aphragm spri ng
fi ngers i nward on the ful crums. Thi s acti on moves
the pressure pl ate rearward rel i evi ng cl amp force on
the di sc. Rel easi ng pedal pressure removes cl utch
hydraul i c pressure. The rel ease beari ng then moves
away from the di aphragm spri ng whi ch al l ows the
pressure pl ate to exert cl ampi ng force on the cl utch
di sc.
Fig. 4 Clutch Disc-Typical
1 FACING MATERIAL
2 DAMPER SPRINGS
3 HUB
Fig. 5 Clutch Pressure Plate-Typical
1 COVER
2 RELEASE FINGERS
3 PRESSURE PLATE
Fig. 6 Clutch Release Bearing
1 RELEASE BEARING
2 RELEASE FORK
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 3
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
HYDRAULIC CLUTCH LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION
The hydraul i c l i nkage consi sts of a cl utch master
cyl i nder wi th i ntegral reservoi r, a cl utch sl ave cyl i n-
der and an i nterconnecti ng fl ui d l i ne (Fi g. 7).
The cl utch master cyl i nder push rod i s connected to
the cl utch pedal . The sl ave cyl i nder push rod i s con-
nected to the cl utch rel ease fork. The master cyl i nder i s
mounted on the dri ver si de of the dash panel adjacent
to the brake master cyl i nder and booster assembl y.
OPERATION
The cl utch l i nkage uses hydraul i c pressure to oper-
ate the cl utch. Depressi ng the cl utch pedal devel ops
fl ui d pressure i n the cl utch master cyl i nder. Thi s
pressure i s transmi tted to the sl ave cyl i nder through
a connecti ng l i ne. I n turn, the sl ave cyl i nder operates
the cl utch rel ease l ever.
Sl ave cyl i nder force causes the rel ease l ever to
move the rel ease beari ng i nto contact wi th the di a-
phragm spri ng. As addi ti onal force i s appl i ed, the
beari ng presses the di aphragm spri ng fi ngers i nward
on the ful crums. Thi s acti on moves the pressure
pl ate rearward rel i evi ng cl amp force on the di sc.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
WARNING: EXERCISE CARE WHEN SERVICING
CLUTCH COMPONENTS. FACTORY INSTALLED
CLUTCH DISCS DO NOT CONTAIN ASBESTOS
FIBERS. DUST AND DIRT ON CLUTCH PARTS MAY
CONTAIN ASBESTOS FIBERS FROM AFTERMARKET
COMPONENTS. BREATHING EXCESSIVE CONCEN-
TRATIONS OF THESE FIBERS CAN CAUSE SERIOUS
BODILY HARM. WEAR A RESPIRATOR DURING SER-
VICE AND NEVER CLEAN CLUTCH COMPONENTS
WITH COMPRESSED AIR OR WITH A DRY BRUSH.
EITHER CLEAN THE COMPONENTS WITH A WATER
DAMPENED RAGS OR USE A VACUUM CLEANER
SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED FOR REMOVING ASBES-
TOS FIBERS AND DUST. DO NOT CREATE DUST BY
SANDING A CLUTCH DISC. REPLACE THE DISC IF
THE FRICTION MATERIAL IS DAMAGED OR CON-
TAMINATED. DISPOSE OF ALL DUST AND DIRT CON-
TAINING ASBESTOS FIBERS IN SEALED BAGS OR
CONTAINERS. THIS WILL HELP MINIMIZE EXPOSURE
TO YOURSELF AND TO OTHERS. FOLLOW ALL REC-
OMMENDED SAFETY PRACTICES PRESCRIBED BY
THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMIN-
ISTRATION (OSHA) AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL
SAFETY AGENCY (EPA), FOR THE HANDLING AND
DISPOSAL OF PRODUCTS CONTAINING ASBESTOS.
INSTALLATION METHODS AND PARTS USAGE
Di storti on of cl utch components duri ng i nstal l ati on
and the use of non-standard components are common
causes of cl utch mal functi on.
I mproper cl utch cover bol t ti ghteni ng can di stort
the cover. The usual resul t i s cl utch grab, chatter
and rapi d wear. Ti ghten the cover bol ts as descri bed
i n Removal and I nstal l ati on secti on.
An i mproperl y seated fl ywheel and/or cl utch hous-
i ng are addi ti onal causes of cl utch fai l ure. I mproper
seati ng wi l l produce mi sal i gnment and addi ti onal
cl utch probl ems.
The use of non-standard or l ow qual i ty parts wi l l
al so l ead to probl ems and wear. Use recommended
factory qual i ty parts to avoi d comebacks.
A cocked pi l ot beari ng i s another cause of cl utch
noi se, drag, hard shi fti ng, and rapi d beari ng wear.
Al ways use an al i gnment tool to i nstal l a new bear-
i ng. Thi s practi ce hel ps avoi d cocki ng the beari ng
duri ng i nstal l ati on.
CLUTCH DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION
Unl ess the cause of a cl utch probl em i s obvi ous, accu-
rate probl em di agnosi s wi l l usual l y requi re a road test to
confi rm a probl em. Component i nspecti on (Fi g. 8) wi l l
then be requi red to determi ne the actual probl em cause.
Duri ng a road test, dri ve the vehi cl e at normal
speeds. Shi ft the transmi ssi on through al l gear
ranges and observe cl utch acti on. I f chatter, grab,
sl i p, or i mproper rel ease i s experi enced, remove and
i nspect the cl utch components. However, i f the prob-
l em i s noi se or hard shi fti ng, further di agnosi s may
be needed as the transmi ssi on or another dri vel i ne
component may be at faul t. Careful observati on dur-
i ng the test wi l l hel p narrow the probl em area.
Fig. 7 Clutch Master Cylinder
1 CAP
2 FILL LINE
3 CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER
4 RESERVOIR
6 - 4 CLUTCH XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Fig. 8 Clutch Components And Inspection
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 5
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CLUTCH CONTAMINATION
Fl ui d contami nati on i s a frequent cause of cl utch
mal functi ons. Oi l , water, or cl utch fl ui d on the cl utch
di sc and pressure pl ate surfaces wi l l cause chatter,
sl i p and grab.
Duri ng i nspecti on, note i f any components are con-
tami nated wi th oi l , hydraul i c fl ui d, or water/road
spl ash.
Oi l contami nati on i ndi cates a l eak at ei ther the
rear mai n seal or transmi ssi on i nput shaft. Oi l l eak-
age produces a resi due of oi l on the housi ng i nteri or
and on the cl utch cover and fl ywheel . Heat bui l dup
caused by sl i ppage between the cover, di sc and fl y-
wheel , can someti mes bake the oi l resi due onto the
components. The gl aze-l i ke resi due ranges i n col or
from amber to bl ack.
Road spl ash contami nati on means di rt/water i s
enteri ng the cl utch housi ng due to l oose bol ts, hous-
i ng cracks, or through hydraul i c l i ne openi ngs. Dri v-
i ng through deep water puddl es can force water/road
spl ash i nto the housi ng through such openi ngs.
Cl utch fl ui d l eaks are usual l y from damaged sl ave
cyl i nder push rod seal s. Thi s type of l eak can onl y be
confi rmed by vi sual i nspecti on.
IMPROPER CLUTCH RELEASE OR
ENGAGEMENT
Cl utch rel ease or engagement probl ems are caused
by wear, or damage to one or more cl utch compo-
nents. A vi sual i nspecti on of the rel ease components
wi l l usual l y reveal the probl em part.
Rel ease probl ems can resul t i n hard shi fti ng and
noi se. I tems to l ook for are: l eaks at the cl utch cyl i n-
ders and i nterconnecti ng l i ne; l oose sl ave cyl i nder
bol ts; worn/l oose rel ease fork and pi vot stud; dam-
aged rel ease beari ng; and a worn cl utch di sc, or pres-
sure pl ate.
Normal condensati on i n vehi cl es that are stored or
out of servi ce for l ong peri ods of ti me can generate
enough corrosi on to make the di sc sti ck to the fl y-
wheel , or pressure pl ate. I f thi s condi ti on i s experi -
enced, correcti on onl y requi res that the di sc be
l oosened manual l y through the i nspecti on pl ate open-
i ng.
Engagement probl ems usual l y resul t i n sl i p, chat-
ter/shudder, and noi sy operati on. The pri mary causes
are cl utch di sc contami nati on; cl utch di sc wear; mi s-
al i gnment, or di storti on; fl ywheel damage; or a com-
bi nati on of the foregoi ng. A vi sual i nspecti on i s
requi red to determi ne the part actual l y causi ng the
probl em.
CLUTCH MISALIGNMENT
Cl utch components must be i n proper al i gnment
wi th the crankshaft and transmi ssi on i nput shaft.
Mi sal i gnment caused by excessi ve runout or warpage
of any cl utch component wi l l cause grab, chatter and
i mproper cl utch rel ease.
CLUTCH HOUSING MISALIGNMENT
Cl utch housi ng al i gnment i s i mportant to proper
cl utch operati on. The housi ng mai ntai ns al i gnment
between the crankshaft and transmi ssi on i nput
shaft. Mi sal i gnment can cause cl utch noi se, hard
shi fti ng, i ncompl ete rel ease and chatter. I t can al so
resul t i n premature wear of the pi l ot beari ng, cover
rel ease fi ngers and cl utch di sc. I n severe cases, mi s-
al i gnment can al so cause premature wear of the
transmi ssi on i nput shaft and front beari ng.
Housi ng mi sal i gnment i s general l y caused by
i ncorrect seati ng on the engi ne or transmi ssi on, l oose
housi ng bol ts, mi ssi ng al i gnment dowel s, or housi ng
damage. I nfrequentl y, mi sal i gnment may al so be
caused by housi ng mounti ng surfaces that are not
compl etel y paral l el . Mi sal i gnment can be corrected
wi th shi ms.
CLUTCH FLYWHEEL RUNOUT
Check fl ywheel runout whenever mi sal i gnment i s
suspected. Fl ywheel runout shoul d not exceed 0.08
mm (0.003 i n.). Measure runout at the outer edge of
the fl ywheel face wi th a di al i ndi cator. Mount the
i ndi cator on a stud i nstal l ed i n pl ace of one of the fl y-
wheel bol ts.
Common causes of runout are:
heat warpage
i mproper machi ni ng
i ncorrect bol t ti ghteni ng
i mproper seati ng on crankshaft fl ange shoul der
forei gn materi al on crankshaft fl ange
Fl ywheel machi ni ng i s not recommended. The fl y-
wheel cl utch surface i s machi ned to a uni que contour
and machi ni ng wi l l negate thi s feature. However,
mi nor fl ywheel scori ng can be cl eaned up by hand
wi th 180 gri t emery, or wi th surface gri ndi ng equi p-
ment. Remove onl y enough materi al to reduce scor-
i ng (approxi matel y 0.001 - 0.003 i n.). Heavy stock
removal i s not recommended. Repl ace the fl ywheel
i f scori ng i s severe and deeper than 0.076 mm (0.003
i n.). Excessi ve stock removal can resul t i n fl ywheel
cracki ng or warpage after i nstal l ati on; i t can al so
weaken the fl ywheel and i nterfere wi th proper cl utch
rel ease.
Cl ean the crankshaft fl ange before mounti ng the
fl ywheel . Di rt and grease on the fl ange surface may
cock the fl ywheel causi ng excessi ve runout. Use new
bol ts when remounti ng a fl ywheel and secure the
bol ts wi th Mopar Lock And Seal . Ti ghten fl ywheel
bol ts to speci fi ed torque onl y. Overti ghteni ng can di s-
tort the fl ywheel hub causi ng runout.
6 - 6 CLUTCH XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CLUTCH COVER AND DISC RUNOUT
Check the cl utch di sc before i nstal l ati on. Axi al
(face) runout of a new di sc shoul d not exceed 0.50
mm (0.020 i n.). Measure runout about 6 mm (1/4 i n.)
from the outer edge of the di sc faci ng. Obtai n
another di sc i f runout i s excessi ve.
Check condi ti on of the cl utch before i nstal l ati on. A
warped cover or di aphragm spri ng wi l l cause grab
and i ncompl ete rel ease or engagement. Be careful
when handl i ng the cover and di sc. I mpact can di stort
the cover, di aphragm spri ng, rel ease fi ngers and the
hub of the cl utch di sc.
Use an al i gnment tool when posi ti oni ng the di sc on
the fl ywheel . The tool prevents acci dental mi sal i gn-
ment whi ch coul d resul t i n cover di storti on and di sc
damage.
A frequent cause of cl utch cover di storti on (and
consequent mi sal i gnment) i s i mproper bol t ti ghten-
i ng.
CLUTCH DIAGNOSIS CHARTS
The cl utch i nspecti on chart (Fi g. 8) outl i nes i tems
to be checked before and duri ng cl utch i nstal l ati on.
Use the chart as a check l i st to hel p avoi d overl ook-
i ng potenti al probl em sources duri ng servi ce opera-
ti ons.
The di agnosi s charts descri be common cl utch prob-
l ems, causes and correcti on. Faul t condi ti ons are
l i sted at the top of each chart. Condi ti ons, causes and
correcti ve acti on are outl i ned i n the i ndi cated col -
umns.
The charts are provi ded as a conveni ent reference
when di agnosi ng faul ty cl utch operati on.
DIAGNOSIS CHART
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
Disc facing worn out 1. Normal wear. 1. Replace cover and disc.
2. Driver frequently rides (slips) the
clutch. Results in rapid overheating
and wear.
2. Replace cover and disc.
3. Insufficient clutch cover
diaphragm spring tension.
3. Replace cover and disc.
Clutch disc facing contaminated with
oil, grease, or clutch fluid.
1. Leak at rear main engine seal or
transmission input shaft seal.
1. Replace appropriate seal.
2. Excessive amount of grease
applied to the input shaft splines.
2. Remove grease and apply the
correct amount of grease.
3. Road splash, water entering
housing.
3. Replace clutch disc. Clean clutch
cover and reuse if in good condition.
4. Slave cylinder leaking. 4. Replace hydraulic clutch linkage.
Clutch is running partially
disengaged.
1. Release bearing sticking or
binding and does not return to the
normal running position.
1. Verify failure. Replace the release
bearing and transmission front
bearing retainer as necessary.
Flywheel below minimum thickness
specification.
1. Improper flywheel machining.
Flywheel has excessive taper or
excessive material removal.
1. Replace flywheel.
Clutch disc, cover and/or diaphragm
spring warped or distorted.
1. Rough handling. Impact bent
cover, spring, or disc.
1. Replace disc or cover as
necessary.
2. Improper bolt tightening
procedure.
2. Tighten clutch cover using proper
procedure.
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 7
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
Facing on flywheel side of disc torn,
gouged, or worn.
1. Flywheel surface scored or
nicked.
2. Correct surface condition if
possible. Replace flywheel and disc
as necessary.
2. Clutch disc sticking or binding on
transmission input shaft.
2. Inspect components and
correct/replace as necessary.
Clutch disc facing burnt. Flywheel
and cover pressure plate surfaces
heavily glazed.
1. Frequent operation under high
loads or hard acceleration
conditions.
1. Correct condition of flywheel and
pressure plate surface. Replace
clutch cover and disc. Alert driver to
problem cause.
2. Driver frequently rides (slips)
clutch. Results in rapid wear and
overheating of disc and cover.
2. Correct condition of flywheel and
pressure plate surface. Replace
clutch cover and disc. Alert driver to
problem cause.
Clutch disc binds on input shaft
splines.
1. Clutch disc hub splines damaged
during installation.
1. Clean, smooth, and lubricate hub
splines if possible. Replace disc if
necessary.
2. Input shaft splines rough,
damaged, or corroded.
2. Clean, smooth, and lubricate
shaft splines if possible. Replace
input shaft if necessary.
Clutch disc rusted to flywheel and/or
pressure plate.
1. Clutch not used for and extended
period of time (e.g. long term
vehicle storage).
1. Sand rusted surfaces with 180
grit sanding paper. Replace clutch
cover and flywheel if necessary.
Pilot bearing seized, loose, or rollers
are worn.
1. Bearing cocked during
installation.
1. Install and lubricate a new
bearing.
2. Bearing defective. 2. Install and lubricate a new
bearing.
3. Bearing not lubricated. 3. Install and lubricate a new
bearing.
4. Clutch misalignment. 4. Inspect clutch and correct as
necessary. Install and lubricate a
new bearing.
Clutch will not disengage properly. 1. Low clutch fluid level. 1. Replace hydraulic linkage
assembly.
2. Clutch cover loose. 2. Follow proper bolt tightening
procedure.
3. Clutch disc bent or distorted. 3. Replace clutch disc.
4. Clutch cover diaphragm spring
bent or warped.
4. Replace clutch cover.
5. Clutch disc installed backwards. 5. Remove and install clutch disc
correctly.
6. Release fork bent or fork pivot
loose or damaged.
6. Replace fork or pivot as
necessary.
7. Clutch master or slave cylinder
failure.
7. Replace hydraulic linkage
assembly.
6 - 8 CLUTCH XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
Clutch pedal squeak. 1. Pivot pin loose. 1. Tighten pivot pin if possible.
Replace clutch pedal if necessary.
2. Master cylinder bushing not
lubricated.
2. Lubricate master cylinder
bushing.
3. Pedal bushings worn out or
cracked.
3. Replace and lubricate bushings.
Clutch master or slave cylinder
plunger dragging andr binding
1. Master or slave cylinder
components worn or corroded.
1. Replace clutch hydraulic linkage
assembly.
Release bearing is noisy. 1. Release bearing defective or
damaged.
1. Replace release bearing.
Contact surface of release bearing
damaged.
1. Clutch cover incorrect or release
fingers bent or distorted.
1. Replace clutch cover and release
bearing.
2. Release bearing defective or
damaged.
2. Replace the release bearing.
3. Release bearing misaligned. 3. Check and correct runout of
clutch components. Check front
bearing sleeve for damage/
alignment. Repair as necessary.
Partial engagement of clutch disc.
One side of disc is worn and the
other side is glazed and lightly
worn.
1. Clutch pressure plate position
incorrect.
1. Replace clutch disc and cover.
2. Clutch cover, spring, or release
fingers bent or distorted.
2. Replace clutch disc and cover.
3. Clutch disc damaged or
distorted.
2. Replace clutch disc.
4. Clutch misalignment. 4. Check alignment and runout of
flywheel, disc, pressure plate, andr
clutch housing. Correct as
necessary.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
CLUTCH COMPONENT LUBRICATION
Proper cl utch component l ubri cati on i s i mportant
to sati sfactory operati on. Usi ng the correct l ubri cant
and not over l ubri cati ng are equal l y i mportant. Appl y
recommended l ubri cant spari ngl y to avoi d di sc and
pressure pl ate contami nati on.
Cl utch and transmi ssi on components requi ri ng
l ubri cati on are:
Pi l ot beari ng.
Rel ease l ever pi vot bal l stud.
Rel ease l ever contact surfaces.
Rel ease beari ng bore.
Cl utch di sc hub spl i nes.
Cl utch pedal pi vot shaft bore.
Cl utch pedal bushi ngs.
I nput shaft spl i nes.
I nput shaft pi l ot hub.
Transmi ssi on front beari ng retai ner sl i de sur-
face.
NOTE: Never apply grease to any part of the clutch
cover, or disc.
RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS
Use Mopar mul ti -purpose grease for the cl utch
pedal bushi ngs and pi vot shaft. Use Mopar hi gh
temperature grease (or equi val ent) for al l other l ubri -
cati on requi rements. Appl y recommended amounts
and do not over l ubri cate.
CLUTCH LINKAGE FLUID
I f i nspecti on or di agnosi s i ndi cates addi ti onal fl ui d
may be needed, use Mopar brake fl ui d, or an equi v-
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 9
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
al ent meeti ng standards SAE J1703 and DOT 3. Do
not use any other type of fl ui d.
CLUTCH FLUID LEVEL
The cl utch fl ui d reservoi r, master cyl i nder, sl ave
cyl i nder and fl ui d l i nes are pre-fi l l ed wi th fl ui d at
the factory duri ng assembl y operati ons.
The hydraul i c system shoul d not requi re addi ti onal
fl ui d under normal ci rcumstances. I n fact, the reser-
voir fluid level will actually increase as normal
clutch wear occurs. For this reason, it is impor-
tant to avoid overfilling, or removing fluid from
the reservoir.
Cl utch fl ui d l evel i s checked at the master cyl i nder
reservoi r (Fi g. 9). An i ndi cator ri ng i s provi ded on the
outsi de ri m of the reservoi r.
Be sure to wi pe the reservoi r and cover cl ean
before removi ng the cover. Thi s wi l l avoi d havi ng di rt
or forei gn materi al fal l i nto the reservoi r duri ng a
fl ui d l evel check.
FLYWHEEL
I nspect the fl ywheel whenever the cl utch di sc,
cover and housi ng are removed for servi ce. Check
condi ti on of the fl ywheel face, hub, ri ng gear teeth,
and fl ywheel bol ts.
Mi nor scratches, burrs, or gl azi ng on the fl ywheel
face can be reduced wi th 180 gri t emery cl oth. How-
ever, the fl ywheel shoul d be repl aced i f the di sc con-
tact surface i s severel y scored, heat checked, cracked,
or obvi ousl y worn.
Fl ywheel machi ni ng i s not recommended. The fl y-
wheel surface i s manufactured wi th a uni que contour
that woul d be negated by machi ni ng. However,
cl eanup of mi nor fl ywheel scori ng can be performed
by hand wi th 180 gri t emery, or wi th surface gri nd-
i ng equi pment. Repl ace the fl ywheel i f scori ng i s
deeper than 0.0762 mm (0.003 i n.).
Heavy stock removal by gri ndi ng i s not recom-
mended. Excessi ve stock removal can resul t i n fl y-
wheel cracki ng or warpage after i nstal l ati on. I t can
al so weaken the fl ywheel and i nterfere wi th proper
cl utch rel ease.
Check fl ywheel runout i f mi sal i gnment i s sus-
pected. Runout shoul d not exceed 0.08 mm (0.003
i n.). Measure runout at the outer edge of the fl y-
wheel face wi th a di al i ndi cator. Mount the di al i ndi -
cator on a stud i nstal l ed i n pl ace of one of the cl utch
housi ng attachi ng bol ts.
Cl ean the crankshaft fl ange before mounti ng the
fl ywheel . Di rt and grease on the fl ange surface may
cock the fl ywheel causi ng excessi ve runout.
Check condi ti on of the fl ywheel hub and attachi ng
bol ts. Repl ace the fl ywheel i f the hub exhi bi ts cracks
i n the area of the attachi ng bol t hol es.
I nstal l new attachi ng bol ts whenever the fl ywheel
i s repl aced and use Mopar Lock N Seal , or Locti te
242 on the repl acement bol t threads.
Recommended fl ywheel bol t torques are:
142 Nm (105 ft. l bs.) for 6-cyl i nder fl ywheel s
95 Nm (70 ft. l bs.) for 4-cyl i nder fl ywheel s
I nspect the teeth on the starter ri ng gear. If the
teeth are worn or damaged, the flywheel should
be replaced as an assembly. This is the recom-
mended and preferred method of repair.
I n cases where a new fl ywheel i s not readi l y avai l -
abl e, a repl acement ri ng gear can be i nstal l ed. How-
ever, the fol l owi ng precauti ons must be observed to
avoi d damagi ng the fl ywheel and repl acement gear.
(1) Mark posi ti on of the ol d gear for al i gnment ref-
erence on the fl ywheel . Use a scri ber for thi s pur-
pose.
(2) Wear protecti ve goggl es or approved safety
gl asses. Al so wear heat resi stent gl oves when han-
dl i ng a heated ri ng gear.
(3) Remove the ol d gear by cutti ng most of the way
through i t (at one poi nt) wi th an abrasi ve cut-off
wheel . Then compl ete removal wi th a col d chi sel or
punch.
(4) The ri ng gear i s a shri nk fi t on the fl ywheel .
Thi s means the gear must be expanded by heati ng i n
order to i nstal l i t. The method of heating and
expanding the gear is extremely important.
Every surface of the gear must be heated at the same
ti me to produce uni form expansi on. An oven or si mi -
l ar encl osed heati ng devi ce must be used. Tempera-
ture requi red for uni form expansi on i s approxi matel y
375 F.
Fig. 9 Clutch Master Cylinder Reservoir And Cap
1 CAP
2 FILL LINE
3 CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER
4 RESERVOIR
6 - 10 CLUTCH XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
CAUTION: Do not use an oxy/acetylene torch to
remove the old gear, or to heat and expand a new
gear. The high temperature of the torch flame can
cause localized heating that will damage the fly-
wheel. In addition, using the torch to heat a replace-
ment gear will cause uneven heating and
expansion. The torch flame can also anneal the
gear teeth resulting in rapid wear and damage after
installation.
(5) The heated gear must be i nstal l ed evenl y to
avoi d mi sal i gnment or di storti on. A shop press and
sui tabl e press pl ates shoul d be used to i nstal l the
gear i f at al l possi bl e.
(6) Be sure to wear eye and hand protecti on. Heat
resi stent gl oves and safety goggl es are needed for
personal safety. Al so use metal tongs, vi se gri ps, or
si mi l ar tool s to posi ti on the gear as necessary for
i nstal l ati on.
(7) Al l ow the fl ywheel and ri ng gear to cool down
before i nstal l ati on. Set the assembl y on a workbench
and l et i t cool i n normal shop ai r.
CAUTION: Do not use water, or compressed air to
cool the flywheel. The rapid cooling produced by
water or compressed air can distort, or crack the
gear and flywheel.
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
CLUTCH COVER AND DISC
REMOVAL
(1) Remove transmi ssi on. Refer to procedures i n
Group 21.
(2) I f ori gi nal cl utch cover wi l l be rei nstal l ed, mark
posi ti on of cover on fl ywheel for assembl y reference.
Use pai nt or a scri ber for thi s purpose.
(3) I f cl utch cover i s to be repl aced, cover bol ts can
be removed i n any sequence. However, i f ori gi nal
cover wi l l be rei nstal l ed, l oosen cover bol ts evenl y
and i n rotati on to rel i eve spri ng tensi on equal l y. Thi s
i s necessary to avoi d warpi ng cover.
(4) Remove cover bol ts and remove cover and di sc
(Fi g. 10).
INSTALLATION
(1) Li ghtl y scuff sand fl ywheel face wi th 180 gri t
emery cl oth. Then cl ean surface wi th a wax and
grease remover.
(2) Lubri cate pi l ot beari ng wi th Mopar hi gh tem-
perature beari ng grease.
(3) Check runout and free operati on of new cl utch
di sc as fol l ows:
(a) Sl i de di sc onto transmi ssi on i nput shaft
spl i nes. Di sc shoul d sl i de freel y on spl i nes.
(b) Leave di sc on shaft and check face runout
wi th di al i ndi cator. Check runout at di sc hub and
about 6 mm (1/4 i n.) from outer edge of faci ng.
(c) Face runout shoul d not exceed 0.5 mm (0.020
i n.). Obtai n another cl utch di sc i f runout exceeds
thi s l i mi t.
(4) Posi ti on cl utch di sc on fl ywheel . Be sure si de of
di sc marked fl ywheel si de i s posi ti oned agai nst fl y-
wheel (Fi g. 10). I f di sc i s not marked, be sure fl at
si de of di sc hub i s toward fl ywheel .
(5) I nspect condi ti on of pressure pl ate surface of
cl utch cover (Fi g. 10). Repl ace cover i f thi s surface i s
worn, heat checked, cracked, or scored.
(6) I nsert cl utch al i gnment tool i n cl utch di sc (Fi g.
11).
(7) I nsert al i gnment tool i n pi l ot beari ng and posi -
ti on di sc on fl ywheel . Be sure di sc hub i s posi ti oned
correctl y. Si de of hub marked Fl ywheel Si de shoul d
face fl ywheel (Fi g. 10). I f di sc i s not marked, pl ace
fl at si de of di sc agai nst fl ywheel .
(8) Posi ti on cl utch cover over di sc and on fl ywheel
(Fi g. 11).
(9) I nstal l cl utch cover bol ts fi nger ti ght.
(10) Ti ghten cover bol ts evenl y and i n rotati on a
few threads at a ti me. Cover bolts must be tight-
ened evenly and to specified torque to avoid
distorting cover. Tightening torques are 31 Nm
(23 ft. lbs.) on 2.5L engines and 50Nm(37ft. lbs.)
on 4.0 L engines.
(a) Start al l 6 bol ts by hand.
(b) Ti ghten 3 pi l ot hol e bol ts 3/4s of the way
(any sequence).
Fig. 10 Clutch Disc And Pressure Plate Inspection
1 DISC
2 INSPECT THIS SURFACE
3 CLUTCH COVER
4 FLYWHEEL SIDE STAMPED ON THIS SURFACE
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 11
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
(c) Starti ng 180 degrees from the l ast pi l ot bol t,
ti ghten 3 l arge hol e bol ts 3/4s of the way (any
sequence).
(d) Ti ghten 3 pi l ot hol e bol ts al l the way (any
sequence).
(e) Starti ng 180 degrees from l ast pi l ot bol t,
ti ghten 3 l arge bol ts al l the way (any sequence).
(11) Appl y l i ght coat of Mopar hi gh temperature
beari ng grease to cl utch di sc hub and spl i nes of
transmi ssi on i nput shaft. Do not over lubricate
shaft splines. This will result in grease contam-
ination of disc.
(12) I nstal l transmi ssi on.
RELEASE BEARING
REMOVAL
(1) Remove transmi ssi on.
(2) Di sconnect rel ease beari ng from rel ease l ever
and remove beari ng (Fi g. 12).
(3) I nspect beari ng sl i de surface of transmi ssi on
front beari ng retai ner. Repl ace retai ner i f sl i de sur-
face i s scored, worn, or cracked.
(4) I nspect rel ease fork and fork pi vot. Be sure
pi vot i s secure and i n good condi ti on. Be sure fork i s
not di storted or worn. Repl ace rel ease fork retai ner
spri ng i f bent or damaged.
INSTALLATION
(1) Lubri cate crankshaft pi l ot beari ng wi th Mopar
hi gh temperature beari ng grease. Appl y grease to
end of l ong shank, smal l di ameter fl at bl ade screw-
dri ver. Then i nsert tool through cl utch di sc hub to
reach beari ng.
(2) Lubri cate i nput shaft spl i nes, beari ng retai ner
sl i de surface, fork pi vot and rel ease fork pi vot surface
wi th Mopar hi gh temperature grease.
(3) I nstal l new rel ease beari ng. Be sure beari ng i s
properl y secured to rel ease fork.
(4) I nstal l transmi ssi on.
PILOT BEARING
REMOVAL
(1) Remove transmi ssi on. Refer to Group 21,
Transmi ssi on and Transfer Case, for proper proce-
dures.
(2) Remove cl utch cover and di sc.
(3) Use a sui tabl e bl i nd hol e pul l er to remove pi l ot
beari ng.
INSTALLATION
(1) Cl ean beari ng bore wi th sol vent and wi pe dry
wi th shop towel .
(2) Lubri cate new pi l ot beari ng wi th Mopar hi gh
temperature grease.
(3) Posi ti on and start new beari ng i n beari ng bore
by hand. Note that pi l ot beari ng has seal at one end.
I nstal l beari ng so seal i s faci ng outward toward
transmi ssi on.
(4) Seat pi l ot beari ng wi th cl utch al i gnment tool
(Fi g. 13). Keep beari ng strai ght duri ng i nstal l ati on.
Do not al l ow beari ng to become cocked. Tap beari ng
i nto pl ace unti l fl ush wi th edge of beari ng bore. Do
not recess beari ng.
(5) I nstal l transmi ssi on. Refer to Group 21, Trans-
mi ssi on and Transfer Case, for proper procedures.
Fig. 11 Typical Method Of Aligning Clutch Disc
1 FLYWHEEL
2 CLUTCH COVER AND DISC
3 CLUTCH DISC ALIGNMENT TOOL
Fig. 12 Release Bearing Attachment
1 RETURN SPRING
2 PIVOT BALL STUD
3 CLUTCH HOUSING
4 RELEASE FORK
5 RELEASE BEARING
6 - 12 CLUTCH XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
CLUTCH HOUSING
The cl utch housi ng i s removabl e and can be
repl aced when the transmi ssi on i s out of the vehi cl e.
The bol ts attachi ng the housi ng to the transmi s-
si on case are l ocated i nsi de the housi ng (Fi g. 14).
Recommended ti ghteni ng torque for the cl utch hous-
i ng-to-transmi ssi on bol ts i s 46 Nm (34 ft. l bs.).
NOTE: Be sure the transmission and housing mat-
ing surfaces are clean before installing an original,
or replacement clutch housing. Dirt/foreign material
trapped between the housing and transmission will
cause misalignment. If misalignment is severe
enough, the result will be clutch drag, incomplete
release and hard shifting.
CLUTCH HYDRAULIC LINKAGE
The cl utch master cyl i nder, sl ave cyl i nder and con-
necti ng l i ne are servi ced as an assembl y onl y. The
l i nkage components cannot be overhaul ed or servi ced
separatel y. The cyl i nders and connecti ng l i ne are
seal ed uni ts. Al so note that removal /i nstal l ati on pro-
cedures for ri ght and l eft hand dri ve model s are basi -
cal l y the same. Onl y master cyl i nder l ocati on i s
di fferent.
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se vehi cl e.
(2) Remove fasteners attachi ng sl ave cyl i nder to
cl utch housi ng.
(3) Remove sl ave cyl i nder from cl utch housi ng
(Fi g. 15).
(4) Di sengage cl utch fl ui d l i ne from body cl i ps, i f
appl i cabl e.
(5) Lower vehi cl e.
(6) Veri fy that cap on cl utch master cyl i nder reser-
voi r i s ti ght. Thi s i s necessary to avoi d spi l l i ng fl ui d
duri ng removal .
(7) Remove cl utch master cyl i nder attachi ng nuts
(Fi g. 16) or (Fi g. 17).
(8) Di sengage captured bushi ng on cl utch master
cyl i nder actuator from pi vot pi n on pedal arm (Fi g.
18).
(9) Sl i de actuator off pi vot pi n.
(10) Di sconnect cl utch i nterl ock safety swi tch
wi res.
(11) Remove cl utch hydraul i c l i nkage through
engi ne compartment.
Fig. 13 Typical Method Of Installing Pilot Bearing
1 PILOT BEARING
2 ALIGNMENT TOOL
3 BEARING SEAL MUST FACE TRANSMISSION
Fig. 14 Clutch Housing Attachment
1 HOUSING-TO-TRANSMISSION BOLTS (46 Nm/34 ft. lbs.)
2 CLUTCH HOUSING
3 TRANSMISSION
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 13
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
INSTALLATION
(1) Be sure reservoi r cover on cl utch master cyl i n-
der i s ti ght to avoi d spi l l s.
(2) Posi ti on cl utch l i nkage components i n vehi cl e.
Work connecti ng l i ne and sl ave cyl i nder downward
past engi ne and adjacent to cl utch housi ng (Fi g. 16)
or (Fi g. 17).
(3) Posi ti on cl utch master cyl i nder on dash panel
(Fi g. 16) or (Fi g. 17).
(4) Attach cl utch master cyl i nder actuator to pi vot
pi n on cl utch pedal (Fi g. 18).
(5) I nstal l and ti ghten cl utch master cyl i nder
attachi ng nuts to 38 Nm (28 ft. l bs.) torque.
(6) Rai se vehi cl e.
(7) I nsert sl ave cyl i nder push rod through cl utch
housi ng openi ng and i nto rel ease l ever. Be sure cap
on end of rod i s securel y engaged i n l ever. Check thi s
before i nstal l i ng cyl i nder attachi ng nuts.
(8) I nstal l and ti ghten sl ave cyl i nder attachi ng
nuts to 23 Nm (17 ft. l bs.) torque.
Fig. 15 Slave Cylinder
1 CLUTCH SLAVE CYLINDER
Fig. 16 Left Hand Drive Clutch Master Cylinder
1 CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER
Fig. 17 Right Hand Drive Clutch Master Cylinder
1 CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER
Fig. 18 Clutch Pedal Attachment
1 CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER
6 - 14 CLUTCH XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(9) Secure cl utch fl ui d l i ne i n body and transmi s-
si on cl i ps.
(10) Lower vehi cl e.
(11) Connect cl utch i nterl ock safety swi tch wi res.
SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
DESCRIPTION TORQUE
Bol ts, cl utch cover 2.5 L . . . . . . . 31 Nm (23 ft. l bs)
Bol ts, cl utch cover 4.0 L . . . . . . . 50 Nm (37 ft. l bs)
Bol t/Nut, cl utch cyl . mount . . . 23 Nm (200 i n. l bs)
Bol t, cl utch housi ng M12 . . . . . . 75 Nm (55 ft. l bs)
Bol t, cl utch housi ng 3/8 . . . . . . . 37 Nm (27 ft. l bs)
Bol t, cl utch housi ng 7/16 . . . . . . 58 Nm (43 ft. l bs)
Bol t, cl utch housi ng/trans. . . . . . 46 Nm (34 ft. l bs)
Bol t, dust shi el d M8 . . . . . . . . . . 8 Nm (72 i n. l bs)
Bol t, dust shi el d l ower . . . . . . . . 50 Nm (37 ft. l bs)
Bol t, X-member/frame . . . . . . . . 41 Nm (30 ft. l bs)
Bol t, X-member/rear support . . . 45 Nm (33 ft. l bs.)
Bol ts, fl ywheel 4.0 L . . . . . . . . 142 Nm (105 ft. l bs)
Bol ts, fl ywheel 2.5 L . . . . . . . . . 95 Nm (70 ft. l bs)
Bol t, starter motor . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Nm (33 ft. l bs)
Bol ts, U-joi nts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Nm (170 i n. l bs.)
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 15
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
CLUTCH
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
CLUTCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
FLYWHEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
CLUTCH DISC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
CLUTCH PRESSURE PLATE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
CLUTCH RELEASE BEARING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
HYDRAULIC CLUTCH LINKAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
INSTALLATION METHODS AND PARTS
USAGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
CLUTCH DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . 4
CLUTCH CONTAMINATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
IMPROPER CLUTCH RELEASE OR
ENGAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
CLUTCH MISALIGNMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
CLUTCH HOUSING MISALIGNMENT . . . . . . . . . . 6
CLUTCH FLYWHEEL RUNOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
CLUTCH COVER AND DISC RUNOUT . . . . . . . . . 7
CLUTCH DIAGNOSIS CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
SERVICE PROCEDURES
CLUTCH COMPONENT LUBRICATION . . . . . . . . . 9
CLUTCH LINKAGE FLUID. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
CLUTCH FLUID LEVEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
FLYWHEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
CLUTCH COVER AND DISC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
RELEASE BEARING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
PILOT BEARING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
CLUTCH HOUSING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
CLUTCH HYDRAULIC LINKAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
CLUTCH
DESCRIPTION
The cl utch mechani sm consi sts of a fl ywheel , a si n-
gl e, dry-type di sc, and a di aphragm styl e cl utch cover
(Fi g. 1). A hydraul i c l i nkage i s used to operate the
cl utch rel ease beari ng and fork. The fl ywheel i s
bol ted to the rear fl ange of the crankshaft. The
cl utch pressure pl ate i s bol ted to the fl ywheel wi th
the cl utch di sc l ocated between these two compo-
nents. The cl utch system provi des the mechani cal ,
but sti l l easi l y detachabl e, l i nk between the engi ne
and the transmi ssi on. The system i s desi gned to
ensure that the ful l torque output of the engi ne i s
transfered to the transmi ssi on whi l e i sol ati ng the
transmi ssi on from the engi ne fi ri ng pul ses to mi ni -
mi ze concerns such as gear rattl e.
OPERATION
Leverage, cl ampi ng force, and fri cti on are what
make the cl utch work. The di sc serves as the fri cti on
el ement and a di aphragm spri ng and pressure pl ate
provi de the cl ampi ng force. The cl utch pedal , hydrau-
l i c l i nkage, rel ease l ever and beari ng provi de the
l everage.
Fig. 1 Engine Powerflow
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 1
The cl utch master cyl i nder push rod i s connected
to the cl utch pedal . When the cl utch pedal i s
depressed, the sl ave cyl i nder i s operated by the
cl utch master cyl i nder mounted on the dash panel .
The rel ease fork i s actuated by the hydraul i c sl ave
cyl i nder mounted on the transmi ssi on housi ng. The
rel ease beari ng i s operated by a rel ease fork pi voti ng
on a bal l stud mounted i n the transmi ssi on housi ng.
The rel ease beari ng then depresses the pressure
pl ate spri ng fi ngers, thereby rel easi ng pressure on
the cl utch di sc and al l owi ng the engi ne crankshaft to
spi n i ndependentl y of the transmi ssi on i nput shaft
(Fi g. 2).
FLYWHEEL
DESCRIPTION
The fl ywheel (Fi g. 3) i s a heavy pl ate bol ted to the
rear of the crankshaft. The fl ywheel i ncorporates the
ri ng gear around the outer ci rcumference to mesh
wi th the starter to permi t engi ne cranki ng. The rear
face of the fl ywheel serves as the dri vi ng member to
the cl utch di sc.
OPERATION
The fl ywheel serves to dampen the engi ne fi ri ng
pul ses. The heavy wei ght of the fl ywheel rel ati ve to
the rotati ng mass of the engi ne components serves to
stabi l i ze the fl ow of power to the remai nder of the
dri vetrai n. The crankshaft has the tendency to
attempt to speed up and sl ow down i n response to
the cyl i nder fi ri ng pul ses. The fl ywheel dampens
these i mpul ses by absorbi ng energy when the crank-
shaft speeds and rel easi ng the energy back i nto the
system when the crankshaft sl ows down.
CLUTCH DISC
DESCRIPTION
The cl utch di sc fri cti on materi al i s ri veted to the
di sc hub (Fi g. 4). The hub bore i s spl i ned for i nstal l a-
ti on on the transmi ssi on i nput shaft. The cl utch di sc
has cushi on spri ngs i n the di sc hub to dampen di sc
vi brati ons duri ng appl i cati on and rel ease of the cl utch.
OPERATION
The cl utch di sc i s hel d onto the surface of the fl y-
wheel by the force exerted by the pressure pl ates di a-
phragm spri ng. The fri cti on materi al of the cl utch di sc
then transfers the engi ne torque from the fl ywheel and
pressure pl ate to the i nput shaft of the transmi ssi on.
CLUTCH PRESSURE PLATE
DESCRIPTION
The cl utch pressure pl ate assembl y i s a di aphragm
type wi th a one-pi ece spri ng and mul ti pl e rel ease fi n-
gers (Fi g. 5). The pressure pl ate rel ease fi ngers are
preset duri ng manufacture and are not adjustabl e.
The assembl y al so contai ns the cover, pressure pl ate,
and ful crum components.
Fig. 2 Clutch Operation
1 FLYWHEEL
2 PRESSURE PLATE FINGERS
3 PIVOT POINT
4 RELEASE BEARING PUSHED IN
5 CLUTCH DISC ENGAGED
6 CLUTCH DISC ENGAGED
7 RELEASE BEARING
Fig. 3 Flywheel
1 CRANKSHAFT
2 RING GEAR
3 FLYWHEEL
6 - 2 CLUTCH XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
OPERATION
The cl utch pressure pl ate assembl y cl amps the
cl utch di sc agai nst the fl ywheel . When the rel ease
beari ng i s depressed by the shi ft fork, the pressure
exerted on the cl utch di sc by the pressure pl ate
spri ng i s decreased. As addi ti onal force i s appl i ed,
the beari ng presses the di aphragm spri ng fi ngers
i nward on the ful crums. Thi s acti on moves the pres-
sure pl ate rearward rel i evi ng cl amp force on the di sc.
The cl utch di sc i s di sengaged and freewheel i ng at
thi s poi nt.
CLUTCH RELEASE BEARING
DESCRIPTION
A conventi onal rel ease beari ng (Fi g. 6) i s used to
engage and di sengage the cl utch pressure pl ate
assembl y. The cl utch rel ease beari ng i s mounted on
the transmi ssi on front beari ng retai ner. The beari ng
i s attached to the rel ease fork, whi ch moves the bear-
i ng i nto contact wi th the cl utch cover di aphragm
spri ng.
OPERATION
The rel ease beari ng i s operated by a rel ease fork i n
the cl utch housi ng. Sl ave cyl i nder force causes the
rel ease l ever to move the rel ease beari ng i nto contact
wi th the di aphragm spri ng. As addi ti onal force i s
appl i ed, the beari ng presses the di aphragm spri ng
fi ngers i nward on the ful crums. Thi s acti on moves
the pressure pl ate rearward rel i evi ng cl amp force on
the di sc. Rel easi ng pedal pressure removes cl utch
hydraul i c pressure. The rel ease beari ng then moves
away from the di aphragm spri ng whi ch al l ows the
pressure pl ate to exert cl ampi ng force on the cl utch
di sc.
Fig. 4 Clutch Disc-Typical
1 FACING MATERIAL
2 DAMPER SPRINGS
3 HUB
Fig. 5 Clutch Pressure Plate-Typical
1 COVER
2 RELEASE FINGERS
3 PRESSURE PLATE
Fig. 6 Clutch Release Bearing
1 RELEASE BEARING
2 RELEASE FORK
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 3
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
HYDRAULIC CLUTCH LINKAGE
DESCRIPTION
The hydraul i c l i nkage consi sts of a cl utch master
cyl i nder wi th i ntegral reservoi r, a cl utch sl ave cyl i n-
der and an i nterconnecti ng fl ui d l i ne (Fi g. 7).
The cl utch master cyl i nder push rod i s connected to
the cl utch pedal . The sl ave cyl i nder push rod i s con-
nected to the cl utch rel ease fork. The master cyl i nder i s
mounted on the dri ver si de of the dash panel adjacent
to the brake master cyl i nder and booster assembl y.
OPERATION
The cl utch l i nkage uses hydraul i c pressure to oper-
ate the cl utch. Depressi ng the cl utch pedal devel ops
fl ui d pressure i n the cl utch master cyl i nder. Thi s
pressure i s transmi tted to the sl ave cyl i nder through
a connecti ng l i ne. I n turn, the sl ave cyl i nder operates
the cl utch rel ease l ever.
Sl ave cyl i nder force causes the rel ease l ever to
move the rel ease beari ng i nto contact wi th the di a-
phragm spri ng. As addi ti onal force i s appl i ed, the
beari ng presses the di aphragm spri ng fi ngers i nward
on the ful crums. Thi s acti on moves the pressure
pl ate rearward rel i evi ng cl amp force on the di sc.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
WARNING: EXERCISE CARE WHEN SERVICING
CLUTCH COMPONENTS. FACTORY INSTALLED
CLUTCH DISCS DO NOT CONTAIN ASBESTOS
FIBERS. DUST AND DIRT ON CLUTCH PARTS MAY
CONTAIN ASBESTOS FIBERS FROM AFTERMARKET
COMPONENTS. BREATHING EXCESSIVE CONCEN-
TRATIONS OF THESE FIBERS CAN CAUSE SERIOUS
BODILY HARM. WEAR A RESPIRATOR DURING SER-
VICE AND NEVER CLEAN CLUTCH COMPONENTS
WITH COMPRESSED AIR OR WITH A DRY BRUSH.
EITHER CLEAN THE COMPONENTS WITH A WATER
DAMPENED RAGS OR USE A VACUUM CLEANER
SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED FOR REMOVING ASBES-
TOS FIBERS AND DUST. DO NOT CREATE DUST BY
SANDING A CLUTCH DISC. REPLACE THE DISC IF
THE FRICTION MATERIAL IS DAMAGED OR CON-
TAMINATED. DISPOSE OF ALL DUST AND DIRT CON-
TAINING ASBESTOS FIBERS IN SEALED BAGS OR
CONTAINERS. THIS WILL HELP MINIMIZE EXPOSURE
TO YOURSELF AND TO OTHERS. FOLLOW ALL REC-
OMMENDED SAFETY PRACTICES PRESCRIBED BY
THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMIN-
ISTRATION (OSHA) AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL
SAFETY AGENCY (EPA), FOR THE HANDLING AND
DISPOSAL OF PRODUCTS CONTAINING ASBESTOS.
INSTALLATION METHODS AND PARTS USAGE
Di storti on of cl utch components duri ng i nstal l ati on
and the use of non-standard components are common
causes of cl utch mal functi on.
I mproper cl utch cover bol t ti ghteni ng can di stort
the cover. The usual resul t i s cl utch grab, chatter
and rapi d wear. Ti ghten the cover bol ts as descri bed
i n Removal and I nstal l ati on secti on.
An i mproperl y seated fl ywheel and/or cl utch hous-
i ng are addi ti onal causes of cl utch fai l ure. I mproper
seati ng wi l l produce mi sal i gnment and addi ti onal
cl utch probl ems.
The use of non-standard or l ow qual i ty parts wi l l
al so l ead to probl ems and wear. Use recommended
factory qual i ty parts to avoi d comebacks.
A cocked pi l ot beari ng i s another cause of cl utch
noi se, drag, hard shi fti ng, and rapi d beari ng wear.
Al ways use an al i gnment tool to i nstal l a new bear-
i ng. Thi s practi ce hel ps avoi d cocki ng the beari ng
duri ng i nstal l ati on.
CLUTCH DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION
Unl ess the cause of a cl utch probl em i s obvi ous, accu-
rate probl em di agnosi s wi l l usual l y requi re a road test to
confi rm a probl em. Component i nspecti on (Fi g. 8) wi l l
then be requi red to determi ne the actual probl em cause.
Duri ng a road test, dri ve the vehi cl e at normal
speeds. Shi ft the transmi ssi on through al l gear
ranges and observe cl utch acti on. I f chatter, grab,
sl i p, or i mproper rel ease i s experi enced, remove and
i nspect the cl utch components. However, i f the prob-
l em i s noi se or hard shi fti ng, further di agnosi s may
be needed as the transmi ssi on or another dri vel i ne
component may be at faul t. Careful observati on dur-
i ng the test wi l l hel p narrow the probl em area.
Fig. 7 Clutch Master Cylinder
1 CAP
2 FILL LINE
3 CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER
4 RESERVOIR
6 - 4 CLUTCH XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Fig. 8 Clutch Components And Inspection
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 5
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CLUTCH CONTAMINATION
Fl ui d contami nati on i s a frequent cause of cl utch
mal functi ons. Oi l , water, or cl utch fl ui d on the cl utch
di sc and pressure pl ate surfaces wi l l cause chatter,
sl i p and grab.
Duri ng i nspecti on, note i f any components are con-
tami nated wi th oi l , hydraul i c fl ui d, or water/road
spl ash.
Oi l contami nati on i ndi cates a l eak at ei ther the
rear mai n seal or transmi ssi on i nput shaft. Oi l l eak-
age produces a resi due of oi l on the housi ng i nteri or
and on the cl utch cover and fl ywheel . Heat bui l dup
caused by sl i ppage between the cover, di sc and fl y-
wheel , can someti mes bake the oi l resi due onto the
components. The gl aze-l i ke resi due ranges i n col or
from amber to bl ack.
Road spl ash contami nati on means di rt/water i s
enteri ng the cl utch housi ng due to l oose bol ts, hous-
i ng cracks, or through hydraul i c l i ne openi ngs. Dri v-
i ng through deep water puddl es can force water/road
spl ash i nto the housi ng through such openi ngs.
Cl utch fl ui d l eaks are usual l y from damaged sl ave
cyl i nder push rod seal s. Thi s type of l eak can onl y be
confi rmed by vi sual i nspecti on.
IMPROPER CLUTCH RELEASE OR
ENGAGEMENT
Cl utch rel ease or engagement probl ems are caused
by wear, or damage to one or more cl utch compo-
nents. A vi sual i nspecti on of the rel ease components
wi l l usual l y reveal the probl em part.
Rel ease probl ems can resul t i n hard shi fti ng and
noi se. I tems to l ook for are: l eaks at the cl utch cyl i n-
ders and i nterconnecti ng l i ne; l oose sl ave cyl i nder
bol ts; worn/l oose rel ease fork and pi vot stud; dam-
aged rel ease beari ng; and a worn cl utch di sc, or pres-
sure pl ate.
Normal condensati on i n vehi cl es that are stored or
out of servi ce for l ong peri ods of ti me can generate
enough corrosi on to make the di sc sti ck to the fl y-
wheel , or pressure pl ate. I f thi s condi ti on i s experi -
enced, correcti on onl y requi res that the di sc be
l oosened manual l y through the i nspecti on pl ate open-
i ng.
Engagement probl ems usual l y resul t i n sl i p, chat-
ter/shudder, and noi sy operati on. The pri mary causes
are cl utch di sc contami nati on; cl utch di sc wear; mi s-
al i gnment, or di storti on; fl ywheel damage; or a com-
bi nati on of the foregoi ng. A vi sual i nspecti on i s
requi red to determi ne the part actual l y causi ng the
probl em.
CLUTCH MISALIGNMENT
Cl utch components must be i n proper al i gnment
wi th the crankshaft and transmi ssi on i nput shaft.
Mi sal i gnment caused by excessi ve runout or warpage
of any cl utch component wi l l cause grab, chatter and
i mproper cl utch rel ease.
CLUTCH HOUSING MISALIGNMENT
Cl utch housi ng al i gnment i s i mportant to proper
cl utch operati on. The housi ng mai ntai ns al i gnment
between the crankshaft and transmi ssi on i nput
shaft. Mi sal i gnment can cause cl utch noi se, hard
shi fti ng, i ncompl ete rel ease and chatter. I t can al so
resul t i n premature wear of the pi l ot beari ng, cover
rel ease fi ngers and cl utch di sc. I n severe cases, mi s-
al i gnment can al so cause premature wear of the
transmi ssi on i nput shaft and front beari ng.
Housi ng mi sal i gnment i s general l y caused by
i ncorrect seati ng on the engi ne or transmi ssi on, l oose
housi ng bol ts, mi ssi ng al i gnment dowel s, or housi ng
damage. I nfrequentl y, mi sal i gnment may al so be
caused by housi ng mounti ng surfaces that are not
compl etel y paral l el . Mi sal i gnment can be corrected
wi th shi ms.
CLUTCH FLYWHEEL RUNOUT
Check fl ywheel runout whenever mi sal i gnment i s
suspected. Fl ywheel runout shoul d not exceed 0.08
mm (0.003 i n.). Measure runout at the outer edge of
the fl ywheel face wi th a di al i ndi cator. Mount the
i ndi cator on a stud i nstal l ed i n pl ace of one of the fl y-
wheel bol ts.
Common causes of runout are:
heat warpage
i mproper machi ni ng
i ncorrect bol t ti ghteni ng
i mproper seati ng on crankshaft fl ange shoul der
forei gn materi al on crankshaft fl ange
Fl ywheel machi ni ng i s not recommended. The fl y-
wheel cl utch surface i s machi ned to a uni que contour
and machi ni ng wi l l negate thi s feature. However,
mi nor fl ywheel scori ng can be cl eaned up by hand
wi th 180 gri t emery, or wi th surface gri ndi ng equi p-
ment. Remove onl y enough materi al to reduce scor-
i ng (approxi matel y 0.001 - 0.003 i n.). Heavy stock
removal i s not recommended. Repl ace the fl ywheel
i f scori ng i s severe and deeper than 0.076 mm (0.003
i n.). Excessi ve stock removal can resul t i n fl ywheel
cracki ng or warpage after i nstal l ati on; i t can al so
weaken the fl ywheel and i nterfere wi th proper cl utch
rel ease.
Cl ean the crankshaft fl ange before mounti ng the
fl ywheel . Di rt and grease on the fl ange surface may
cock the fl ywheel causi ng excessi ve runout. Use new
bol ts when remounti ng a fl ywheel and secure the
bol ts wi th Mopar Lock And Seal . Ti ghten fl ywheel
bol ts to speci fi ed torque onl y. Overti ghteni ng can di s-
tort the fl ywheel hub causi ng runout.
6 - 6 CLUTCH XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CLUTCH COVER AND DISC RUNOUT
Check the cl utch di sc before i nstal l ati on. Axi al
(face) runout of a new di sc shoul d not exceed 0.50
mm (0.020 i n.). Measure runout about 6 mm (1/4 i n.)
from the outer edge of the di sc faci ng. Obtai n
another di sc i f runout i s excessi ve.
Check condi ti on of the cl utch before i nstal l ati on. A
warped cover or di aphragm spri ng wi l l cause grab
and i ncompl ete rel ease or engagement. Be careful
when handl i ng the cover and di sc. I mpact can di stort
the cover, di aphragm spri ng, rel ease fi ngers and the
hub of the cl utch di sc.
Use an al i gnment tool when posi ti oni ng the di sc on
the fl ywheel . The tool prevents acci dental mi sal i gn-
ment whi ch coul d resul t i n cover di storti on and di sc
damage.
A frequent cause of cl utch cover di storti on (and
consequent mi sal i gnment) i s i mproper bol t ti ghten-
i ng.
CLUTCH DIAGNOSIS CHARTS
The cl utch i nspecti on chart (Fi g. 8) outl i nes i tems
to be checked before and duri ng cl utch i nstal l ati on.
Use the chart as a check l i st to hel p avoi d overl ook-
i ng potenti al probl em sources duri ng servi ce opera-
ti ons.
The di agnosi s charts descri be common cl utch prob-
l ems, causes and correcti on. Faul t condi ti ons are
l i sted at the top of each chart. Condi ti ons, causes and
correcti ve acti on are outl i ned i n the i ndi cated col -
umns.
The charts are provi ded as a conveni ent reference
when di agnosi ng faul ty cl utch operati on.
DIAGNOSIS CHART
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
Disc facing worn out 1. Normal wear. 1. Replace cover and disc.
2. Driver frequently rides (slips) the
clutch. Results in rapid overheating
and wear.
2. Replace cover and disc.
3. Insufficient clutch cover
diaphragm spring tension.
3. Replace cover and disc.
Clutch disc facing contaminated with
oil, grease, or clutch fluid.
1. Leak at rear main engine seal or
transmission input shaft seal.
1. Replace appropriate seal.
2. Excessive amount of grease
applied to the input shaft splines.
2. Remove grease and apply the
correct amount of grease.
3. Road splash, water entering
housing.
3. Replace clutch disc. Clean clutch
cover and reuse if in good condition.
4. Slave cylinder leaking. 4. Replace hydraulic clutch linkage.
Clutch is running partially
disengaged.
1. Release bearing sticking or
binding and does not return to the
normal running position.
1. Verify failure. Replace the release
bearing and transmission front
bearing retainer as necessary.
Flywheel below minimum thickness
specification.
1. Improper flywheel machining.
Flywheel has excessive taper or
excessive material removal.
1. Replace flywheel.
Clutch disc, cover and/or diaphragm
spring warped or distorted.
1. Rough handling. Impact bent
cover, spring, or disc.
1. Replace disc or cover as
necessary.
2. Improper bolt tightening
procedure.
2. Tighten clutch cover using proper
procedure.
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 7
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
Facing on flywheel side of disc torn,
gouged, or worn.
1. Flywheel surface scored or
nicked.
2. Correct surface condition if
possible. Replace flywheel and disc
as necessary.
2. Clutch disc sticking or binding on
transmission input shaft.
2. Inspect components and
correct/replace as necessary.
Clutch disc facing burnt. Flywheel
and cover pressure plate surfaces
heavily glazed.
1. Frequent operation under high
loads or hard acceleration
conditions.
1. Correct condition of flywheel and
pressure plate surface. Replace
clutch cover and disc. Alert driver to
problem cause.
2. Driver frequently rides (slips)
clutch. Results in rapid wear and
overheating of disc and cover.
2. Correct condition of flywheel and
pressure plate surface. Replace
clutch cover and disc. Alert driver to
problem cause.
Clutch disc binds on input shaft
splines.
1. Clutch disc hub splines damaged
during installation.
1. Clean, smooth, and lubricate hub
splines if possible. Replace disc if
necessary.
2. Input shaft splines rough,
damaged, or corroded.
2. Clean, smooth, and lubricate
shaft splines if possible. Replace
input shaft if necessary.
Clutch disc rusted to flywheel and/or
pressure plate.
1. Clutch not used for and extended
period of time (e.g. long term
vehicle storage).
1. Sand rusted surfaces with 180
grit sanding paper. Replace clutch
cover and flywheel if necessary.
Pilot bearing seized, loose, or rollers
are worn.
1. Bearing cocked during
installation.
1. Install and lubricate a new
bearing.
2. Bearing defective. 2. Install and lubricate a new
bearing.
3. Bearing not lubricated. 3. Install and lubricate a new
bearing.
4. Clutch misalignment. 4. Inspect clutch and correct as
necessary. Install and lubricate a
new bearing.
Clutch will not disengage properly. 1. Low clutch fluid level. 1. Replace hydraulic linkage
assembly.
2. Clutch cover loose. 2. Follow proper bolt tightening
procedure.
3. Clutch disc bent or distorted. 3. Replace clutch disc.
4. Clutch cover diaphragm spring
bent or warped.
4. Replace clutch cover.
5. Clutch disc installed backwards. 5. Remove and install clutch disc
correctly.
6. Release fork bent or fork pivot
loose or damaged.
6. Replace fork or pivot as
necessary.
7. Clutch master or slave cylinder
failure.
7. Replace hydraulic linkage
assembly.
6 - 8 CLUTCH XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
Clutch pedal squeak. 1. Pivot pin loose. 1. Tighten pivot pin if possible.
Replace clutch pedal if necessary.
2. Master cylinder bushing not
lubricated.
2. Lubricate master cylinder
bushing.
3. Pedal bushings worn out or
cracked.
3. Replace and lubricate bushings.
Clutch master or slave cylinder
plunger dragging andr binding
1. Master or slave cylinder
components worn or corroded.
1. Replace clutch hydraulic linkage
assembly.
Release bearing is noisy. 1. Release bearing defective or
damaged.
1. Replace release bearing.
Contact surface of release bearing
damaged.
1. Clutch cover incorrect or release
fingers bent or distorted.
1. Replace clutch cover and release
bearing.
2. Release bearing defective or
damaged.
2. Replace the release bearing.
3. Release bearing misaligned. 3. Check and correct runout of
clutch components. Check front
bearing sleeve for damage/
alignment. Repair as necessary.
Partial engagement of clutch disc.
One side of disc is worn and the
other side is glazed and lightly
worn.
1. Clutch pressure plate position
incorrect.
1. Replace clutch disc and cover.
2. Clutch cover, spring, or release
fingers bent or distorted.
2. Replace clutch disc and cover.
3. Clutch disc damaged or
distorted.
2. Replace clutch disc.
4. Clutch misalignment. 4. Check alignment and runout of
flywheel, disc, pressure plate, andr
clutch housing. Correct as
necessary.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
CLUTCH COMPONENT LUBRICATION
Proper cl utch component l ubri cati on i s i mportant
to sati sfactory operati on. Usi ng the correct l ubri cant
and not over l ubri cati ng are equal l y i mportant. Appl y
recommended l ubri cant spari ngl y to avoi d di sc and
pressure pl ate contami nati on.
Cl utch and transmi ssi on components requi ri ng
l ubri cati on are:
Pi l ot beari ng.
Rel ease l ever pi vot bal l stud.
Rel ease l ever contact surfaces.
Rel ease beari ng bore.
Cl utch di sc hub spl i nes.
Cl utch pedal pi vot shaft bore.
Cl utch pedal bushi ngs.
I nput shaft spl i nes.
I nput shaft pi l ot hub.
Transmi ssi on front beari ng retai ner sl i de sur-
face.
NOTE: Never apply grease to any part of the clutch
cover, or disc.
RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS
Use Mopar mul ti -purpose grease for the cl utch
pedal bushi ngs and pi vot shaft. Use Mopar hi gh
temperature grease (or equi val ent) for al l other l ubri -
cati on requi rements. Appl y recommended amounts
and do not over l ubri cate.
CLUTCH LINKAGE FLUID
I f i nspecti on or di agnosi s i ndi cates addi ti onal fl ui d
may be needed, use Mopar brake fl ui d, or an equi v-
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 9
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
al ent meeti ng standards SAE J1703 and DOT 3. Do
not use any other type of fl ui d.
CLUTCH FLUID LEVEL
The cl utch fl ui d reservoi r, master cyl i nder, sl ave
cyl i nder and fl ui d l i nes are pre-fi l l ed wi th fl ui d at
the factory duri ng assembl y operati ons.
The hydraul i c system shoul d not requi re addi ti onal
fl ui d under normal ci rcumstances. I n fact, the reser-
voir fluid level will actually increase as normal
clutch wear occurs. For this reason, it is impor-
tant to avoid overfilling, or removing fluid from
the reservoir.
Cl utch fl ui d l evel i s checked at the master cyl i nder
reservoi r (Fi g. 9). An i ndi cator ri ng i s provi ded on the
outsi de ri m of the reservoi r.
Be sure to wi pe the reservoi r and cover cl ean
before removi ng the cover. Thi s wi l l avoi d havi ng di rt
or forei gn materi al fal l i nto the reservoi r duri ng a
fl ui d l evel check.
FLYWHEEL
I nspect the fl ywheel whenever the cl utch di sc,
cover and housi ng are removed for servi ce. Check
condi ti on of the fl ywheel face, hub, ri ng gear teeth,
and fl ywheel bol ts.
Mi nor scratches, burrs, or gl azi ng on the fl ywheel
face can be reduced wi th 180 gri t emery cl oth. How-
ever, the fl ywheel shoul d be repl aced i f the di sc con-
tact surface i s severel y scored, heat checked, cracked,
or obvi ousl y worn.
Fl ywheel machi ni ng i s not recommended. The fl y-
wheel surface i s manufactured wi th a uni que contour
that woul d be negated by machi ni ng. However,
cl eanup of mi nor fl ywheel scori ng can be performed
by hand wi th 180 gri t emery, or wi th surface gri nd-
i ng equi pment. Repl ace the fl ywheel i f scori ng i s
deeper than 0.0762 mm (0.003 i n.).
Heavy stock removal by gri ndi ng i s not recom-
mended. Excessi ve stock removal can resul t i n fl y-
wheel cracki ng or warpage after i nstal l ati on. I t can
al so weaken the fl ywheel and i nterfere wi th proper
cl utch rel ease.
Check fl ywheel runout i f mi sal i gnment i s sus-
pected. Runout shoul d not exceed 0.08 mm (0.003
i n.). Measure runout at the outer edge of the fl y-
wheel face wi th a di al i ndi cator. Mount the di al i ndi -
cator on a stud i nstal l ed i n pl ace of one of the cl utch
housi ng attachi ng bol ts.
Cl ean the crankshaft fl ange before mounti ng the
fl ywheel . Di rt and grease on the fl ange surface may
cock the fl ywheel causi ng excessi ve runout.
Check condi ti on of the fl ywheel hub and attachi ng
bol ts. Repl ace the fl ywheel i f the hub exhi bi ts cracks
i n the area of the attachi ng bol t hol es.
I nstal l new attachi ng bol ts whenever the fl ywheel
i s repl aced and use Mopar Lock N Seal , or Locti te
242 on the repl acement bol t threads.
Recommended fl ywheel bol t torques are:
142 Nm (105 ft. l bs.) for 6-cyl i nder fl ywheel s
95 Nm (70 ft. l bs.) for 4-cyl i nder fl ywheel s
I nspect the teeth on the starter ri ng gear. If the
teeth are worn or damaged, the flywheel should
be replaced as an assembly. This is the recom-
mended and preferred method of repair.
I n cases where a new fl ywheel i s not readi l y avai l -
abl e, a repl acement ri ng gear can be i nstal l ed. How-
ever, the fol l owi ng precauti ons must be observed to
avoi d damagi ng the fl ywheel and repl acement gear.
(1) Mark posi ti on of the ol d gear for al i gnment ref-
erence on the fl ywheel . Use a scri ber for thi s pur-
pose.
(2) Wear protecti ve goggl es or approved safety
gl asses. Al so wear heat resi stent gl oves when han-
dl i ng a heated ri ng gear.
(3) Remove the ol d gear by cutti ng most of the way
through i t (at one poi nt) wi th an abrasi ve cut-off
wheel . Then compl ete removal wi th a col d chi sel or
punch.
(4) The ri ng gear i s a shri nk fi t on the fl ywheel .
Thi s means the gear must be expanded by heati ng i n
order to i nstal l i t. The method of heating and
expanding the gear is extremely important.
Every surface of the gear must be heated at the same
ti me to produce uni form expansi on. An oven or si mi -
l ar encl osed heati ng devi ce must be used. Tempera-
ture requi red for uni form expansi on i s approxi matel y
375 F.
Fig. 9 Clutch Master Cylinder Reservoir And Cap
1 CAP
2 FILL LINE
3 CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER
4 RESERVOIR
6 - 10 CLUTCH XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
CAUTION: Do not use an oxy/acetylene torch to
remove the old gear, or to heat and expand a new
gear. The high temperature of the torch flame can
cause localized heating that will damage the fly-
wheel. In addition, using the torch to heat a replace-
ment gear will cause uneven heating and
expansion. The torch flame can also anneal the
gear teeth resulting in rapid wear and damage after
installation.
(5) The heated gear must be i nstal l ed evenl y to
avoi d mi sal i gnment or di storti on. A shop press and
sui tabl e press pl ates shoul d be used to i nstal l the
gear i f at al l possi bl e.
(6) Be sure to wear eye and hand protecti on. Heat
resi stent gl oves and safety goggl es are needed for
personal safety. Al so use metal tongs, vi se gri ps, or
si mi l ar tool s to posi ti on the gear as necessary for
i nstal l ati on.
(7) Al l ow the fl ywheel and ri ng gear to cool down
before i nstal l ati on. Set the assembl y on a workbench
and l et i t cool i n normal shop ai r.
CAUTION: Do not use water, or compressed air to
cool the flywheel. The rapid cooling produced by
water or compressed air can distort, or crack the
gear and flywheel.
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
CLUTCH COVER AND DISC
REMOVAL
(1) Remove transmi ssi on. Refer to procedures i n
Group 21.
(2) I f ori gi nal cl utch cover wi l l be rei nstal l ed, mark
posi ti on of cover on fl ywheel for assembl y reference.
Use pai nt or a scri ber for thi s purpose.
(3) I f cl utch cover i s to be repl aced, cover bol ts can
be removed i n any sequence. However, i f ori gi nal
cover wi l l be rei nstal l ed, l oosen cover bol ts evenl y
and i n rotati on to rel i eve spri ng tensi on equal l y. Thi s
i s necessary to avoi d warpi ng cover.
(4) Remove cover bol ts and remove cover and di sc
(Fi g. 10).
INSTALLATION
(1) Li ghtl y scuff sand fl ywheel face wi th 180 gri t
emery cl oth. Then cl ean surface wi th a wax and
grease remover.
(2) Lubri cate pi l ot beari ng wi th Mopar hi gh tem-
perature beari ng grease.
(3) Check runout and free operati on of new cl utch
di sc as fol l ows:
(a) Sl i de di sc onto transmi ssi on i nput shaft
spl i nes. Di sc shoul d sl i de freel y on spl i nes.
(b) Leave di sc on shaft and check face runout
wi th di al i ndi cator. Check runout at di sc hub and
about 6 mm (1/4 i n.) from outer edge of faci ng.
(c) Face runout shoul d not exceed 0.5 mm (0.020
i n.). Obtai n another cl utch di sc i f runout exceeds
thi s l i mi t.
(4) Posi ti on cl utch di sc on fl ywheel . Be sure si de of
di sc marked fl ywheel si de i s posi ti oned agai nst fl y-
wheel (Fi g. 10). I f di sc i s not marked, be sure fl at
si de of di sc hub i s toward fl ywheel .
(5) I nspect condi ti on of pressure pl ate surface of
cl utch cover (Fi g. 10). Repl ace cover i f thi s surface i s
worn, heat checked, cracked, or scored.
(6) I nsert cl utch al i gnment tool i n cl utch di sc (Fi g.
11).
(7) I nsert al i gnment tool i n pi l ot beari ng and posi -
ti on di sc on fl ywheel . Be sure di sc hub i s posi ti oned
correctl y. Si de of hub marked Fl ywheel Si de shoul d
face fl ywheel (Fi g. 10). I f di sc i s not marked, pl ace
fl at si de of di sc agai nst fl ywheel .
(8) Posi ti on cl utch cover over di sc and on fl ywheel
(Fi g. 11).
(9) I nstal l cl utch cover bol ts fi nger ti ght.
(10) Ti ghten cover bol ts evenl y and i n rotati on a
few threads at a ti me. Cover bolts must be tight-
ened evenly and to specified torque to avoid
distorting cover. Tightening torques are 31 Nm
(23 ft. lbs.) on 2.5L engines and 50Nm(37ft. lbs.)
on 4.0 L engines.
(a) Start al l 6 bol ts by hand.
(b) Ti ghten 3 pi l ot hol e bol ts 3/4s of the way
(any sequence).
Fig. 10 Clutch Disc And Pressure Plate Inspection
1 DISC
2 INSPECT THIS SURFACE
3 CLUTCH COVER
4 FLYWHEEL SIDE STAMPED ON THIS SURFACE
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 11
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
(c) Starti ng 180 degrees from the l ast pi l ot bol t,
ti ghten 3 l arge hol e bol ts 3/4s of the way (any
sequence).
(d) Ti ghten 3 pi l ot hol e bol ts al l the way (any
sequence).
(e) Starti ng 180 degrees from l ast pi l ot bol t,
ti ghten 3 l arge bol ts al l the way (any sequence).
(11) Appl y l i ght coat of Mopar hi gh temperature
beari ng grease to cl utch di sc hub and spl i nes of
transmi ssi on i nput shaft. Do not over lubricate
shaft splines. This will result in grease contam-
ination of disc.
(12) I nstal l transmi ssi on.
RELEASE BEARING
REMOVAL
(1) Remove transmi ssi on.
(2) Di sconnect rel ease beari ng from rel ease l ever
and remove beari ng (Fi g. 12).
(3) I nspect beari ng sl i de surface of transmi ssi on
front beari ng retai ner. Repl ace retai ner i f sl i de sur-
face i s scored, worn, or cracked.
(4) I nspect rel ease fork and fork pi vot. Be sure
pi vot i s secure and i n good condi ti on. Be sure fork i s
not di storted or worn. Repl ace rel ease fork retai ner
spri ng i f bent or damaged.
INSTALLATION
(1) Lubri cate crankshaft pi l ot beari ng wi th Mopar
hi gh temperature beari ng grease. Appl y grease to
end of l ong shank, smal l di ameter fl at bl ade screw-
dri ver. Then i nsert tool through cl utch di sc hub to
reach beari ng.
(2) Lubri cate i nput shaft spl i nes, beari ng retai ner
sl i de surface, fork pi vot and rel ease fork pi vot surface
wi th Mopar hi gh temperature grease.
(3) I nstal l new rel ease beari ng. Be sure beari ng i s
properl y secured to rel ease fork.
(4) I nstal l transmi ssi on.
PILOT BEARING
REMOVAL
(1) Remove transmi ssi on. Refer to Group 21,
Transmi ssi on and Transfer Case, for proper proce-
dures.
(2) Remove cl utch cover and di sc.
(3) Use a sui tabl e bl i nd hol e pul l er to remove pi l ot
beari ng.
INSTALLATION
(1) Cl ean beari ng bore wi th sol vent and wi pe dry
wi th shop towel .
(2) Lubri cate new pi l ot beari ng wi th Mopar hi gh
temperature grease.
(3) Posi ti on and start new beari ng i n beari ng bore
by hand. Note that pi l ot beari ng has seal at one end.
I nstal l beari ng so seal i s faci ng outward toward
transmi ssi on.
(4) Seat pi l ot beari ng wi th cl utch al i gnment tool
(Fi g. 13). Keep beari ng strai ght duri ng i nstal l ati on.
Do not al l ow beari ng to become cocked. Tap beari ng
i nto pl ace unti l fl ush wi th edge of beari ng bore. Do
not recess beari ng.
(5) I nstal l transmi ssi on. Refer to Group 21, Trans-
mi ssi on and Transfer Case, for proper procedures.
Fig. 11 Typical Method Of Aligning Clutch Disc
1 FLYWHEEL
2 CLUTCH COVER AND DISC
3 CLUTCH DISC ALIGNMENT TOOL
Fig. 12 Release Bearing Attachment
1 RETURN SPRING
2 PIVOT BALL STUD
3 CLUTCH HOUSING
4 RELEASE FORK
5 RELEASE BEARING
6 - 12 CLUTCH XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
CLUTCH HOUSING
The cl utch housi ng i s removabl e and can be
repl aced when the transmi ssi on i s out of the vehi cl e.
The bol ts attachi ng the housi ng to the transmi s-
si on case are l ocated i nsi de the housi ng (Fi g. 14).
Recommended ti ghteni ng torque for the cl utch hous-
i ng-to-transmi ssi on bol ts i s 46 Nm (34 ft. l bs.).
NOTE: Be sure the transmission and housing mat-
ing surfaces are clean before installing an original,
or replacement clutch housing. Dirt/foreign material
trapped between the housing and transmission will
cause misalignment. If misalignment is severe
enough, the result will be clutch drag, incomplete
release and hard shifting.
CLUTCH HYDRAULIC LINKAGE
The cl utch master cyl i nder, sl ave cyl i nder and con-
necti ng l i ne are servi ced as an assembl y onl y. The
l i nkage components cannot be overhaul ed or servi ced
separatel y. The cyl i nders and connecti ng l i ne are
seal ed uni ts. Al so note that removal /i nstal l ati on pro-
cedures for ri ght and l eft hand dri ve model s are basi -
cal l y the same. Onl y master cyl i nder l ocati on i s
di fferent.
REMOVAL
(1) Rai se vehi cl e.
(2) Remove fasteners attachi ng sl ave cyl i nder to
cl utch housi ng.
(3) Remove sl ave cyl i nder from cl utch housi ng
(Fi g. 15).
(4) Di sengage cl utch fl ui d l i ne from body cl i ps, i f
appl i cabl e.
(5) Lower vehi cl e.
(6) Veri fy that cap on cl utch master cyl i nder reser-
voi r i s ti ght. Thi s i s necessary to avoi d spi l l i ng fl ui d
duri ng removal .
(7) Remove cl utch master cyl i nder attachi ng nuts
(Fi g. 16) or (Fi g. 17).
(8) Di sengage captured bushi ng on cl utch master
cyl i nder actuator from pi vot pi n on pedal arm (Fi g.
18).
(9) Sl i de actuator off pi vot pi n.
(10) Di sconnect cl utch i nterl ock safety swi tch
wi res.
(11) Remove cl utch hydraul i c l i nkage through
engi ne compartment.
Fig. 13 Typical Method Of Installing Pilot Bearing
1 PILOT BEARING
2 ALIGNMENT TOOL
3 BEARING SEAL MUST FACE TRANSMISSION
Fig. 14 Clutch Housing Attachment
1 HOUSING-TO-TRANSMISSION BOLTS (46 Nm/34 ft. lbs.)
2 CLUTCH HOUSING
3 TRANSMISSION
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 13
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
INSTALLATION
(1) Be sure reservoi r cover on cl utch master cyl i n-
der i s ti ght to avoi d spi l l s.
(2) Posi ti on cl utch l i nkage components i n vehi cl e.
Work connecti ng l i ne and sl ave cyl i nder downward
past engi ne and adjacent to cl utch housi ng (Fi g. 16)
or (Fi g. 17).
(3) Posi ti on cl utch master cyl i nder on dash panel
(Fi g. 16) or (Fi g. 17).
(4) Attach cl utch master cyl i nder actuator to pi vot
pi n on cl utch pedal (Fi g. 18).
(5) I nstal l and ti ghten cl utch master cyl i nder
attachi ng nuts to 38 Nm (28 ft. l bs.) torque.
(6) Rai se vehi cl e.
(7) I nsert sl ave cyl i nder push rod through cl utch
housi ng openi ng and i nto rel ease l ever. Be sure cap
on end of rod i s securel y engaged i n l ever. Check thi s
before i nstal l i ng cyl i nder attachi ng nuts.
(8) I nstal l and ti ghten sl ave cyl i nder attachi ng
nuts to 23 Nm (17 ft. l bs.) torque.
Fig. 15 Slave Cylinder
1 CLUTCH SLAVE CYLINDER
Fig. 16 Left Hand Drive Clutch Master Cylinder
1 CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER
Fig. 17 Right Hand Drive Clutch Master Cylinder
1 CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER
Fig. 18 Clutch Pedal Attachment
1 CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER
6 - 14 CLUTCH XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(9) Secure cl utch fl ui d l i ne i n body and transmi s-
si on cl i ps.
(10) Lower vehi cl e.
(11) Connect cl utch i nterl ock safety swi tch wi res.
SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE
DESCRIPTION TORQUE
Bol ts, cl utch cover 2.5 L . . . . . . . 31 Nm (23 ft. l bs)
Bol ts, cl utch cover 4.0 L . . . . . . . 50 Nm (37 ft. l bs)
Bol t/Nut, cl utch cyl . mount . . . 23 Nm (200 i n. l bs)
Bol t, cl utch housi ng M12 . . . . . . 75 Nm (55 ft. l bs)
Bol t, cl utch housi ng 3/8 . . . . . . . 37 Nm (27 ft. l bs)
Bol t, cl utch housi ng 7/16 . . . . . . 58 Nm (43 ft. l bs)
Bol t, cl utch housi ng/trans. . . . . . 46 Nm (34 ft. l bs)
Bol t, dust shi el d M8 . . . . . . . . . . 8 Nm (72 i n. l bs)
Bol t, dust shi el d l ower . . . . . . . . 50 Nm (37 ft. l bs)
Bol t, X-member/frame . . . . . . . . 41 Nm (30 ft. l bs)
Bol t, X-member/rear support . . . 45 Nm (33 ft. l bs.)
Bol ts, fl ywheel 4.0 L . . . . . . . . 142 Nm (105 ft. l bs)
Bol ts, fl ywheel 2.5 L . . . . . . . . . 95 Nm (70 ft. l bs)
Bol t, starter motor . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Nm (33 ft. l bs)
Bol ts, U-joi nts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Nm (170 i n. l bs.)
XJ CLUTCH 6 - 15
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
COOLING SYSTEM
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
COOLING SYSTEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLER. . . . . 2
COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW SYSTEM . . . . . 2
COOLING SYSTEM FANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
BLOCK HEATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
THERMOSTAT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
RADIATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
WATER PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
HOSE CLAMPS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
VISCOUS FAN DRIVE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
ELECTRIC COOLING FAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS (OBD) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
DRB SCAN TOOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSIS. . . . . . . . . 9
PRELIMINARY CHECKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
RADIATOR COOLANT FLOW CHECK . . . . . . . . . 17
COOLING SYSTEMTESTING FOR LEAKS. . . . 17
VISCOUS FAN DRIVE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
ELECTRIC COOLING FAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
RADIATOR CAP-TO-FILLER NECK
SEALPRESSURE RELIEF CHECK. . . . . . . . . 20
RADIATOR CAPPRESSURE TESTING. . . . . . . 20
COOLANTLOW LEVEL AERATION . . . . . . . . . 21
DEAERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
SERVICE PROCEDURES
COOLANTROUTINE LEVEL CHECK. . . . . . . . . 21
COOLANTADDING ADDITIONAL. . . . . . . . . . . 21
COOLANTLEVEL CHECK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
COOLING SYSTEMDRAINING AND
FILLING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
COOLING SYSTEMREVERSE FLUSHING . . . . 22
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
COOLANT RESERVE TANK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
WATER PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
THERMOSTAT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
RADIATOR2.5L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
RADIATOR4.0L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
ELECTRIC COOLING FAN2.5L . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
ELECTRIC COOLING FAN4.0L . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
BLOCK HEATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS. . . . . . . . . . 35
COOLING SYSTEM FANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
VISCOUS FAN DRIVE REMOVAL/
INSTALLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
RADIATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
WATER PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
FAN BLADE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
SPECIFICATIONS
BELT TENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
SPECIAL TOOLS
COOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
COOLING SYSTEM
DESCRIPTION
The cool i ng system regul ates engi ne operati ng tem-
perature. I t al l ows the engi ne to reach normal oper-
ati ng temperature as qui ckl y as possi bl e, mai ntai ns
normal operati ng temperature and prevents over-
heati ng.
The cool i ng system al so provi des a means of heat-
i ng the passenger compartment and cool i ng the auto-
mati c transmi ssi on fl ui d (i f equi pped). The cool i ng
system i s pressuri zed and uses a centri fugal water
pump to ci rcul ate cool ant throughout the system.
An opti onal factory i nstal l ed heavy duty cool i ng
package i s avai l abl e on most model s. The package
consi sts of a radi ator that has an i ncreased number
of cool i ng fi ns. Vehi cl es equi pped wi th a 2.5L/4.0L
engi ne and heavy duty cool i ng and/or ai r condi ti on-
i ng al so have an auxi l i ary el ectri c cool i ng fan.
The cool i ng system consi sts of:
A radi ator
Cool i ng fan (mechani cal and/or el ectri cal )
Thermal vi scous fan dri ve
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 1
Fan shroud
Radi ator pressure cap
Thermostat
Cool ant reserve/overfl ow system
Transmi ssi on oi l cool er (i f equi pped wi th an
automati c transmi ssi on)
Cool ant
Water pump
Hoses and hose cl amps
Cool i ng system ci rcul ati on for 2.5L/4.0L model s i s
shown i n (Fi g. 1).
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLER
DESCRIPTION
Al l model s equi pped wi th an automati c transmi s-
si on are equi pped wi th a transmi ssi on oi l cool er
mounted i nternal l y wi thi n the radi ator tank. Thi s
i nternal cool er i s suppl i ed as standard equi pment on
al l model s equi pped wi th an automati c transmi ssi on.
Transmi ssi on oi l i s cool ed when i t passes through
thi s separate cool er. I n case of a l eak i n the i nternal
radi ator mounted transmi ssi on oi l cool er, engi ne cool -
ant may become mi xed wi th transmi ssi on fl ui d or
transmi ssi on fl ui d may enter engi ne cool i ng system.
Both cool i ng system and transmi ssi on shoul d be
drai ned and i nspected i f the i nternal radi ator
mounted transmi ssi on cool er i s l eaki ng.
An auxi l i ary ai r-to-oi l transmi ssi on oi l cool er i s
avai l abl e wi th most engi ne packages.
The auxi l i ary ai r-to-oi l transmi ssi on oi l cool er i s
l ocated i n front of the radi ator or A/C condenser (i f
equi pped) and behi nd the gri l l . I t i s mounted to the
front frame crossmember.
The auxi l i ary oi l cool ers on al l model s operate i n
conjuncti on wi th the i nternal radi ator mounted mai n
oi l cool er. The transmi ssi on oi l i s routed through the
mai n cool er fi rst, then the auxi l i ary cool er, before
returni ng to the transmi ssi on.
COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW SYSTEM
DESCRIPTION
The system works al ong wi th the radi ator pressure
cap. Thi s i s done by usi ng thermal expansi on and
contracti on of the cool ant to keep the cool ant free of
trapped ai r. I t provi des:
A vol ume for cool ant expansi on and contracti on.
A conveni ent and safe method for checki ng/ad-
justi ng cool ant l evel at atmospheri c pressure. Thi s i s
done wi thout removi ng the radi ator pressure cap.
Some reserve cool ant to the radi ator to cover
mi nor l eaks and evaporati on or boi l i ng l osses.
Fig. 1 Coolant Circulation2.5L/4.0L Engines
1 HEATER CORE
2 TO COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK
3 THERMOSTAT HOUSING
4 RADIATOR
5 WATER PUMP
Fig. 2 Auxiliary Transmission Oil Cooler
1 AUXILIARY TRANSMISSION OIL COOLER
7 - 2 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
The cool ant reserve/overfl ow system consi sts of a
radi ator mounted pressuri zed cap, a pl asti c reserve/
overfl ow tank (Fi g. 3) (Fi g. 4), a tube (hose) connect-
i ng the radi ator and tank, and an overfl ow tube on
the si de of the tank.
OPERATION
As the engi ne cool s, a vacuum i s formed i n the
cool i ng system of both the radi ator and engi ne. Cool -
ant wi l l then be drawn from the cool ant tank and
returned to a proper l evel i n the radi ator.
COOLING SYSTEM FANS
DESCRIPTION
Al l model s are equi pped wi th a vi scous fan. Thi s
thermal vi scous fan dri ve i s a torque-and-tempera-
ture-sensi ti ve cl utch uni t. I t automati cal l y i ncreases
or decreases fan speed to provi de proper engi ne cool -
i ng. Vehi cl es wi th a 2.5L/4.0L engi ne wi th ai r condi -
ti oni ng, or 4.0L wi th max cool i ng al so have an
auxi l i ary el ectri cal cool i ng fan.
Fig. 3 Reserve/Overflow TankExcept Right Hand
Drive
1 COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK
2 CLAMP
3 MOUNTING BOLTS
4 TUBE TO RADIATOR
Fig. 4 Reserve/Overflow TankWith Right Hand
Drive
1 CLAMP
2 COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK
3 MOUNTING BOLTS
4 LOWER BRACKET
5 TUBE TO RADIATOR
Fig. 5 Viscous Fan Drive and Fan Blade Assembly
1 VISCOUS FAN DRIVE
2 FAN BLADE ASSEMBLY
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 3
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
BLOCK HEATER
DESCRIPTION
WARNING: DO NOT OPERATE ENGINE UNLESS
BLOCK HEATER CORD HAS BEEN DISCONNECTED
FROM POWER SOURCE AND SECURED IN PLACE.
An opti onal engi ne bl ock heater i s avai l abl e for al l
model s. The heater i s equi pped wi th a power cord.
The cord i s attached to an engi ne compartment com-
ponent wi th ti e-straps. The heater warms the engi ne
provi di ng easi er engi ne starti ng and faster warm-up
i n l ow temperatures. The heater i s mounted i n a core
hol e of the engi ne cyl i nder bl ock (i n pl ace of a freeze
pl ug) wi th the heati ng el ement i mmersed i n engi ne
cool ant.
BLOCK HEATER SPECIFICATIONS
2.5L 4-Cyl i nder Engi ne: 115 Vol ts 400 Watts
4.0L 6-Cyl i nder Engi ne: 120 Vol ts 600 Watts
OPERATION
Connecti ng the power cord to a grounded 110-120
vol t AC el ectri cal outl et wi th a grounded, three-wi re
extensi on cord acti vates the bl ock heater.
THERMOSTAT
DESCRIPTION
CAUTION: Do not operate an engine without a ther-
mostat, except for servicing or testing.
A pel l et-type thermostat control s the operati ng
temperature of the engi ne by control l i ng the amount
of cool ant fl ow to the radi ator. On al l engi nes the
thermostat i s cl osed bel ow 195F (90C). Above thi s
temperature, cool ant i s al l owed to fl ow to the radi a-
tor. Thi s provi des qui ck engi ne warm-up and overal l
temperature control .
An arrow pl us the word UP i s stamped on the
front fl ange next to the ai r bl eed. The words TO
RAD are stamped on one arm of the thermostat.
They i ndi cate the proper i nstal l ed posi ti on.
The same thermostat i s used for wi nter and sum-
mer seasons. An engi ne shoul d not be operated wi th-
out a thermostat, except for servi ci ng or testi ng.
Operati ng wi thout a thermostat causes other prob-
l ems. These are: A check engi ne l i ght and a DTC
wi l l eventual l y be set, l onger engi ne warm-up ti me,
unrel i abl e warm-up performance, i ncreased exhaust
emi ssi ons and crankcase condensati on. Thi s conden-
sati on can resul t i n sl udge formati on.
Fig. 6 Engine Block Heater
1 BLOCK HEATER
2 CYLINDER BLOCK
3 BLOCK HEATER POWER CORD
Fig. 7 Thermostat and Housing
1 LONG BOLT
2 GASKET
3 THERMOSTAT
4 THERMOSTAT HOUSING
5 SHORT BOLT
7 - 4 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
RADIATOR
DESCRIPTION
CAUTION: Plastic tanks, while stronger than brass,
are subject to damage by impact, such as
wrenches.
Radi ators for both engi nes are the cross fl ow type.
Pl asti c tanks are used on al l radi ators.
RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP
DESCRIPTION
Al l radi ators are equi pped wi th a pressure cap.
Thi s cap rel eases pressure at some poi nt wi thi n a
range of 83-110 kPa (12-16 psi ). The pressure rel i ef
poi nt (i n pounds) i s engraved on top of the cap (Fi g.
9).
The cool i ng system wi l l operate at pressures
sl i ghtl y above atmospheri c pressure. Thi s resul ts i n a
hi gher cool ant boi l i ng poi nt al l owi ng i ncreased radi -
ator cool i ng capaci ty. The cap contai ns a spri ng-
l oaded pressure rel i ef val ve that opens when system
pressure reaches rel ease range of 83-110 kPa (12-16
psi ).
A rubber gasket seal s radi ator fi l l er neck. Thi s i s
done to mai ntai n vacuum duri ng cool ant cool -down
and to prevent l eakage when system i s under pres-
sure.
OPERATION
A vent val ve i n the center of cap al l ows a smal l
cool ant fl ow through cap when cool ant i s bel ow boi l -
i ng temperature. The val ve i s compl etel y cl osed when
boi l i ng poi nt i s reached. As the cool ant cool s, i t con-
tracts and creates a vacuum i n the cool i ng system.
Thi s causes the vacuum val ve to open and cool ant i n
the reserve/overfl ow tank to be drawn through i ts
connecti ng hose i nto radi ator. I f the vacuum val ve i s
stuck shut, the radi ator hoses wi l l col l apse on cool -
down.
Fig. 8 Cross Flow Radiator
1 RADIATOR
Fig. 9 Radiator Pressure Cap and Filler Neck
Typical
1 FILLER NECK SEAL
2 VACUUM VENT VALVE
3 PRESSURE RATING
4 PRESSURE VALVE
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 5
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
WATER PUMP
DESCRIPTION
CAUTION: All engines are equipped with a reverse
(counter-clockwise) rotating water pump and vis-
cous fan drive assembly. REVERSE is stamped or
imprinted on the cover of the viscous fan drive and
inner side of the fan. The letter R is stamped into
the back of the water pump impeller (Fig. 10).
A centri fugal water pump ci rcul ates cool ant
through the water jackets, passages, i ntake mani fol d,
radi ator core, cool i ng system hoses and heater core.
The pump i s dri ven from the engi ne crankshaft by a
dri ve bel t on al l engi nes.
The water pump i mpel l er i s pressed onto the rear
of a shaft that rotates i n beari ngs pressed i nto the
housi ng. The housi ng has a smal l hol e to al l ow seep-
age to escape. The water pump seal s are l ubri cated
by the anti freeze i n the cool ant mi xture. No addi -
ti onal l ubri cati on i s necessary.
HOSE CLAMPS
DESCRIPTION
The cool i ng system uti l i zes both worm dri ve and
spri ng type hose cl amps. I f a spri ng type cl amp
repl acement i s necessary, repl ace wi th the ori gi nal
Mopar equi pment spri ng type cl amp.
CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the
tongue of constant tension clamps. If replacement
is necessary, use only a original equipment clamp
with matching number or letter (Fig. 11).
OPERATION
The worm type hose cl amp uses a speci fi ed torque
val ue to mai ntai n proper tensi on on a hose connec-
ti on.
The spri ng type hose cl amp appl i es constant ten-
si on on a hose connecti on. To remove a spri ng type
hose cl amp, use Speci al Tool 6094 or equi val ent, con-
stant tensi on cl amp pl i ers (Fi g. 12) to compress the
hose cl amp.
Fig. 10 Reverse Rotating Water PumpTypical
1 R STAMPED INTO IMPELLER
Fig. 11 Spring Clamp Size Location
1 SPRING CLAMP SIZE LOCATION
7 - 6 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
VISCOUS FAN DRIVE
DESCRIPTION
CAUTION: Engines equipped with polyV drive
belts have reverse rotating fans and viscous fan
drives. They are marked with the word REVERSE to
designate their usage. Installation of the wrong fan
or viscous fan drive can result in engine overheat-
ing.
The thermal vi scous fan dri ve i s a si l i cone-fl ui d-
fi l l ed coupl i ng used to connect the fan bl ades to
ei ther the engi ne or the water pump shaft. The cou-
pl i ng al l ows the fan to be dri ven i n a normal manner.
Thi s i s done at l ow engi ne speeds whi l e l i mi ti ng the
top speed of the fan to a predetermi ned maxi mum
l evel at hi gher engi ne speeds.
2.5L vehi cl es wi th A/C are equi pped wi th a vi scous
fan dri ve whi ch i s desi gned to free wheel duri ng
most of the ambi ent condi ti ons encountered by the
vehi cl e and wi l l onl y engage duri ng hi gh heat l oads
as seen i n trai l er towi ng or hi gh ambi ent tempera-
tures.
A thermostati c bi metal l i c spri ng coi l i s l ocated on
the front face of the vi scous fan dri ve uni t. A typi cal
vi scous uni t i s shown i n (Fi g. 13). Thi s spri ng coi l
reacts to the temperature of the radi ator di scharge
ai r. I t engages the vi scous fan dri ve for hi gher fan
speed i f the ai r temperature from the radi ator ri ses
above a certai n poi nt. Unti l addi ti onal engi ne cool i ng
i s necessary, the fan wi l l remai n at a reduced rpm
regardl ess of engi ne speed.
Vehi cl es equi pped wi th 2.5L engi nes have what i s
know as an hybri d cool i ng fan system. Thi s means
that not onl y do they have a vi scous fan but they al so
have an el ectri c fan as wel l . The hybri d vi scous fan
dri ve has a l ow speed characteri sti c. Thi s causes the
mechani cal fan speeds to be very l ow 200400 rpm
range when not engaged al l owi ng the engi ne to have
addi ti onal performance and horsepower gai nes.
OPERATION
Onl y when suffi ci ent heat i s present, wi l l the vi s-
cous fan dri ve engage. Thi s i s when the ai r fl owi ng
through the radi ator core causes a reacti on to the
bi metal l i c coi l . I t then i ncreases fan speed to provi de
the necessary addi ti onal engi ne cool i ng.
Once the engi ne has cool ed, the radi ator di scharge
temperature wi l l drop. The bi metal l i c coi l agai n
reacts and the fan speed i s reduced to the previ ous
di sengaged speed.
Fig. 12 Hose Clamp Tool
1 HOSE CLAMP TOOL 6094
2 HOSE CLAMP
Fig. 13 Typical Viscous Fan Drive
1 VISCOUS FAN DRIVE
2 MOUNTING HUB
3 THERMOSTATIC SPRING
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 7
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
ELECTRIC COOLING FAN
DESCRIPTION
Vehi cl es equi pped wi th a 2.5L/4.0L engi ne and ai r
condi ti oni ng and 4.0L vehi cl es equi pped wi th the
max cool i ng package al so have an el ectri cal cool i ng
fan. The fan i s control l ed by the cool i ng fan rel ay,
whi ch i s l ocated i n the power di stri buti on center
(PDC) (Fi g. 15). For the l ocati on of rel ay wi thi n the
PDC, refer to the l abel on PDC cover.
The el ectri c fan on the 2.5L engi ne equi pped vehi -
cl es i s consi dered the pri mary fan (l ow to moderate
ambi ent condi ti ons) and i s energi zed when the JTEC
recei ves i nput from the cool ant temperature sensor
or the a/c system and suppl i es ground to the cool i ng
fan rel ay.
The cool i ng fan motor i s protected by a 40 amp
maxi -fuse l ocated i n the PDC. The fan rel ay i s pro-
tected by a 15 amp fuse l ocated i n the juncti on bl ock.
OPERATION
Electric cooling fan 2.5L: When ai r condi ti oni ng
i s not requested, the el ectri c fan wi l l not come on
unl ess the cool ant temperature i s at l east 103 C
(218 F), at whi ch ti me the fan wi l l come on and
remai n on unti l the cool ant temperature drops to 99
C (210 F) or bel ow. When ai r condi ti oni ng i s
requested (i ncl udi ng defroster operati on), the fan wi l l
cycl e on and off i n conjuncti on wi th the A/C compres-
sor unl ess the cool ant temperature i s at l east 97 C
(207 F), at whi ch ti me the fan wi l l come on and
remai n on unti l the cool ant temperature drops to 93
C (199 F) or bel ow. Then, the cycl e fan operati on
wi l l resume. When the fan i s schedul ed to be on, the
powertrai n control modul e (PCM) provi des a ground
path for the fan rel ay. Thi s ground i s provi ded to the
cool i ng fan rel ay through pi n C2 of PCM connector
C3. Battery vol tage i s then appl i ed to the fan
through the rel ay. When the fan i s schedul ed to be
off, the PCM opens the ground path to the rel ay. Thi s
wi l l prevent the cool i ng fan from bei ng energi zed.
Fig. 14 Electric Cooling Fan
1 (LHD)
2 (RHD)
3 VISCOUS FAN SHROUD
4 ELECTRIC FAN MODULE
5 ISOLATOR
6 RADIATOR
7 LOWER CROSSMEMBER
8 U-NUT
9 UPPER CROSSMEMBER
7 - 8 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Electric cooling fan 4.0L: Wi th or wi thout A/C
request the el ectri c fan wi l l come on onl y when the
cool ant temperature i s at l east 106 C (223 F), and
wi l l remai n on unti l the cool ant temperature drops to
103 C (217 F) or bel ow. Regardl ess of cool ant tem-
perature, When ai r condi ti oni ng system pressures
reach 2068.5 138 kPa (300 20 psi ) the el ectri c
fan wi l l engage and conti nue to run unti l the A/C
system pressure drops to 1620.3 kPa (235 psi ) mi ni -
mum, then the el ectri c fan wi l l shut off.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS (OBD)
COOLING SYSTEM RELATED DIAGNOSTICS
The Powertrai n Control Modul e (PCM) has been
programmed to moni tor the certai n fol l owi ng cool i ng
system components:
I f the engi ne has remai ned cool for too l ong a
peri od, such as wi th a stuck open thermostat, a Di ag-
nosti c Troubl e Code (DTC) can be set.
I f an open or shorted condi ti on has devel oped i n
the rel ay ci rcui t control l i ng the el ectri c radi ator fan,
a Di agnosti c Troubl e Code (DTC) can be set.
I f the probl em i s sensed i n a moni tored ci rcui t
often enough to i ndi cate an actual probl em, a DTC i s
stored. The DTC wi l l be stored i n the PCM memory
for eventual di spl ay to the servi ce techni ci an. (Refer
to Group 25, Emi ssi on Control Systems for proper
procedures)
ACCESSING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES
To read DTCs and to obtai n cool i ng system data,
refer to Group 25, Emi ssi on Control Systems for
proper procedures.
DRB SCAN TOOL
For operati on of the DRB scan tool , refer to the
appropri ate Powertrai n Di agnosti c Procedures ser-
vi ce manual .
ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSIS
VISUAL DIAGNOSIS
When di agnosi ng serpenti ne accessory dri ve bel ts,
smal l cracks that run across the ri bbed surface of the
bel t from ri b to ri b (Fi g. 16), are consi dered normal .
These are not a reason to repl ace the bel t. However,
cracks runni ng al ong a ri b (not across) are not nor-
mal . Any bel t wi th cracks runni ng al ong a ri b must
be repl aced (Fi g. 16). Al so repl ace the bel t i f i t has
excessi ve wear, frayed cords or severe gl azi ng.
Refer to the Accessory Dri ve Bel t Di agnosi s charts
for further bel t di agnosi s.
NOISE DIAGNOSIS
Noi ses generated by the accessory dri ve bel t are
most noti ceabl e at i dl e. Before repl aci ng a bel t to
resol ve a noi se condi ti on, i nspect al l of the accessory
dri ve pul l eys for al i gnment, gl azi ng, or excessi ve end
pl ay.
Fig. 15 Power Distribution Center (PDC)
1 RIGHT FENDER
2 BATTERY
3 POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER
Fig. 16 Belt Wear Patterns
1 NORMAL CRACKS BELT OK
2 NOT NORMAL CRACKS REPLACE BELT
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 9
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSIS CHART
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
RIB CHUNKING (One or more ribs
has separated from belt body)
1. Foreign objects imbedded in
pulley grooves.
1. Remove foreign objects from
pulley grooves. Replace belt.
2. Installation damage 2. Replace belt
RIB OR BELT WEAR 1. Pulley misaligned 1. Align pulley(s)
2. Abrasive environment 2. Clean pulley(s). Replace belt if
necessary
3. Rusted pulley(s) 3. Clean rust from pulley(s)
4. Sharp or jagged pulley groove
tips
4. Replace pulley. Inspect belt.
5. Belt rubber deteriorated 5. Replace belt
BELT SLIPS 1. Belt slipping because of
insufficient tension
1. Adjust tension (2.5L)
2. Belt or pulley exposed to
substance that has reduced friction
(belt dressing, oil, ethylene glycol)
2. Replace belt and clean pulleys
3. Driven component bearing failure
(seizure)
3. Replace faulty component or
bearing
4. Belt glazed or hardened from
heat and excessive slippage
4. Replace belt.
LONGITUDAL BELT CRACKING 1. Belt has mistracked from pulley
groove
1. Replace belt
2. Pulley groove tip has worn away
rubber to tensile member
2. Replace belt
GROOVE JUMPING
(Belt does not maintain correct
position on pulley)
1. Belt tension either too low or too
high
1. Adjust belt tension (2.5L)
2. Pulley(s) not within design
tolerance
2. Replace pulley(s)
3. Foreign object(s) in grooves 3. Remove foreign objects from
grooves
4. Pulley misalignment 4. Align component
5. Belt cordline is broken 5. Replace belt
BELT BROKEN
(Note: Identify and correct problem
before new belt is installed)
1. Excessive tension 1. Replace belt and adjust tension
to specification
2. Tensile member damaged during
belt installation
2. Replace belt
3. Severe misalignment 3. Align pulley(s)
4. Bracket, pulley, or bearing failure 4. Replace defective component
and belt
7 - 10 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
NOISE (Objectionable squeal,
squeak, or rumble is heard or felt
while drive belt is in operation)
1. Belt slippage 1. Adjust belt tension (2.5L)
2. Bearing noise 2. Locate and repair
3. Belt misalignment 3. Align belt/pulley(s)
4. Belt to pulley mismatch 4. Install correct belt
5. Driven component induced
vibration
5. Locate defective driven
component and repair
6. System resonant frequency
induced vibration
6. Vary belt tension within
specifications.
TENSION SHEETING FABRIC
FAILURE
(Woven fabric on outside,
circumference of belt has cracked or
separated from body of belt)
1. Tension sheeting contacting
stationary object
1. Correct rubbing condition
2. Excessive heat causing woven
fabric to age
2. Replace belt
3. Tension sheeting splice has
fractured
3. Replace belt
CORD EDGE FAILURE
(Tensile member exposed at edges
of belt or separated from belt body)
1. Excessive tension 1. Adjust belt tension (2.5L)
2. Belt contacting stationary object 2. Replace belt
3. Pulley(s) out of tolerance 3. Replace pulley
4. Insufficient adhesion between
tensile member and rubber matrix
4. Replace belt and adjust tension
to specifications
PRELIMINARY CHECKS
ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM OVERHEATING
Establ i sh what dri vi ng condi ti ons caused the com-
pl ai nt. Abnormal l oads on the cool i ng system such as
the fol l owi ng may be the cause:
PROLONGED IDLE, VERY HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE,
SLIGHT TAIL WIND AT IDLE, SLOW TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC
JAMS, HIGH SPEED OR STEEP GRADES.
Dri vi ng techni ques that avoi d overheati ng are:
I dl e wi th A/C off when temperature gauge i s at
end of normal range.
I ncreasi ng engi ne speed for more ai r fl ow i s rec-
ommended.
TRAILER TOWING:
Consul t Trai l er Towi ng secti on of owners manual .
Do not exceed l i mi ts.
AIR CONDITIONING; ADD-ON OR AFTER MARKET:
A maxi mum cool i ng package shoul d have been
ordered wi th vehi cl e i f add-on or after market A/C i s
i nstal l ed. I f not, maxi mum cool i ng system compo-
nents shoul d be i nstal l ed for model i nvol ved per
manufacturers speci fi cati ons.
RECENT SERVICE OR ACCIDENT REPAIR:
Determi ne i f any recent servi ce has been per-
formed on vehi cl e that may effect cool i ng system.
Thi s may be:
Engi ne adjustments (i ncorrect ti mi ng)
Sl i ppi ng engi ne accessory dri ve bel t(s)
Brakes (possi bl y draggi ng)
Changed parts. I ncorrect water pump or pump
rotati ng i n wrong di recti on due to bel t not correctl y
routed
Recondi ti oned radi ator or cool i ng system refi l l -
i ng (possi bl y under fi l l ed or ai r trapped i n system).
NOTE: If investigation reveals none of the previous
items as a cause for an engine overheating com-
plaint, refer to following Cooling System Diagnosis
charts.
These charts are to be used as a qui ck-reference
onl y. Refer to the group text for i nformati on.
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 11
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS CHART
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
TEMPERATURE GAUGE READS
LOW
1. Has a Diagnostic Trouble Code
(DTC) been set indicating a stuck
open thermostat?
1. Refer to Group 25, Emission
Systems for On-Board Diagnostics
and DTC information. Replace
thermostat if necessary.
2. Is the temperature sending unit
connected?
2. Check the temperature sensor
connector. Refer to Group 8E.
Repair connector if necessary.
3. Is the temperature gauge
operating OK?
3. Check gauge operation. Refer to
Group 8E. Repair as necessary.
4. Coolant level low in cold ambient
temperatures accompanied with
poor heater performance.
4. Check coolant level in the coolant
reserve/overflow tank and the
radiator. Inspect system for leaks.
Repair leaks as necessary. Refer to
the Coolant section of the manual
text for WARNINGS and
CAUTIONS associated with
removing the radiator cap.
5. Improper operation of internal
heater doors or heater controls.
5. Inspect heater and repair as
necessary. Refer to Group 24,
Heating and Air Conditioning for
procedures.
TEMPERATURE GAUGE READS
HIGH OR THE COOLANT
WARNING LAMP ILLUMINATES.
COOLANT MAY OR MAY NOT BE
LOST OR LEAKING FROM THE
COOLING SYSTEM
1. Trailer is being towed, a steep
hill is being climbed, vehicle is
operated in slow moving traffic, or
engine is being idled with very high
ambient (outside) temperatures and
the air conditioning is on. Higher
altitudes could aggravate these
conditions.
1. This may be a temporary
condition and repair is not
necessary. Turn off the air
conditioning and attempt to drive the
vehicle without any of the previous
conditions. Observe the temperature
gauge. The gauge should return to
the normal range. If the gauge does
not return to the normal range,
determine the cause for overheating
and repair. Refer to Possible
Causes (2-20).
2. Is the temperature gauge reading
correctly?
2. Check gauge. Refer to Group 8E.
Repair as necessary.
3. Is the temperature warning
illuminating unnecessarily?
3. Check warning lamp operation.
Refer to Group 8E. Repair as
necessary.
4. Coolant low in coolant reserve/
overflow tank and radiator?
4. Check for coolant leaks and
repair as necessary. Refer to
Testing Cooling System for Leaks in
this Group.
5. Pressure cap not installed tightly.
If cap is loose, boiling point of
coolant will be lowered. Also refer
to the following Step 6.
5. Tighten cap
7 - 12 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
TEMPERATURE GAUGE READS
HIGH OR THE COOLANT
WARNING LAMP ILLUMINATES.
COOLANT MAY OR MAY NOT BE
LOST OR LEAKING FROM THE
COOLING SYSTEM (CONTINUED)
6. Poor seals at the radiator cap. 6. (a) Check condition of cap and
cap seals. Refer to Radiator Cap.
Replace cap if necessary.
(b) Check condition of radiator filler
neck. If neck is bent or damaged,
replace radiator.
7. Coolant level low in radiator but
not in coolant reserve/overflow
tank. This means the radiator is not
drawing coolant from the coolant
reserve/overflow tank as the engine
cools
7. (a) Check condition of radiator
cap and cap seals. Refer to
Radiator Cap in this Group. Replace
cap if necessary.
(b) Check condition of radiator filler
neck. If neck is bent or damaged,
replace radiator.
(c) Check condition of the hose from
the radiator to the coolant tank. It
should fit tight at both ends without
any kinks or tears. Replace hose if
necessary.
(d) Check coolant reserve/overflow
tank and tanks hoses for blockage.
Repair as necessary.
8. Incorrect coolant concentration 8. Check coolant. Refer to Coolant
section in this Group for correct
coolant/water mixture ratio.
9. Coolant not flowing through
system
9. Check for coolant flow at radiator
filler neck with some coolant
removed, engine warm and
thermostat open. Coolant should be
observed flowing through radiator. If
flow is not observed, determine area
of obstruction and repair as
necessary.
10. Radiator or A/C condenser fins
are dirty or clogged.
10. Remove insects and debris.
Refer to Radiator Cleaning in this
Group.
11. Radiator core is corroded or
plugged.
11. Have radiator re-cored or
replaced.
12. Aftermarket A/C installed
without proper radiator.
12. Install proper radiator.
13. Fuel or ignition system
problems.
13. Refer to Fuel and Ignition
System Groups for diagnosis.
14. Dragging brakes. 14. Check and correct as
necessary. Refer to Group 5,
Brakes for correct procedures.
15. Bug screen or cardboard is
being used, reducing airflow.
15. Remove bug screen or
cardboard.
16. Thermostat partially or
completely shut.
16. Check thermostat operation and
replace as necessary. Refer to
Thermostats in this Group.
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 13
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
TEMPERATURE GAUGE READS
HIGH OR THE COOLANT
WARNING LAMP ILLUMINATES.
COOLANT MAY OR MAY NOT BE
LOST OR LEAKING FROM THE
COOLING SYSTEM (CONTINUED)
17. Viscous fan drive not operating
properly.
17. Check fan drive operation and
replace as necessary. Refer to
Viscous Fan Drive in this Group.
18. Electric cooling fan not
operating properly (vehicles
equipped with 2.5L/4.0L and air
conditioning
18. Check electric fan operation and
repair as necessary. Refer to
Electric Cooling Fan in this Group.
19. Cylinder head gasket leaking. 19. Check for cylinder head gasket
leaks. Refer to Cooling System-
Testing For Leaks in this Group. For
repair, refer to Group 9, Engines.
20. Heater core leaking. 20. Check heater core for leaks.
Refer to Group 24, Heating and Air
Conditioning. Repair as necessary.
TEMPERATURE GAUGE READING
IS INCONSISTENT (FLUCTUATES,
CYCLES OR IS ERRATIC)
1. On vehicles equipped with an
electric fan, the gauge may cycle
up and down. This is due to the
cycling of the electric radiator fan.
1. This is a normal condition. No
correction is necessary unless the
gauge cycles into the red (overheat)
zone. Refer to Electric Cooling Fan
Diagnosis and Testing in this group.
2. During cold weather operation,
with the heater blower in the high
position, the gauge reading may
drop slightly.
2. A normal condition. No correction
is necessary.
3. Temperature gauge or engine
mounted gauge sensor defective or
shorted. Also, corroded or loose
wiring in this circuit.
3. Check operation of gauge and
repair if necessary. Refer to Group
8E, Instrument Panel and Gauges.
4. Gauge reading rises when
vehicle is brought to a stop after
heavy use (engine still running)
4. A normal condition. No correction
is necessary. Gauge should return
to normal range after vehicle is
driven.
5. Gauge reading high after
re-starting a warmed up (hot)
engine.
5. A normal condition. No correction
is necessary. The gauge should
return to normal range after a few
minutes of engine operation.
6. Coolant level low in radiator (air
will build up in the cooling system
causing the thermostat to open
late).
6. Check and correct coolant leaks.
Refer to Cooling System-Testing for
leaks in this group.
7. Cylinder head gasket leaking
allowing exhaust gas to enter
cooling system causing a
thermostat to open late.
7. (a) Check for cylinder head
gasket leaks. Refer to Cooling
System-Testing for Leaks in this
group.
(b) Check for coolant in the engine
oil. Inspect for white steam emitting
from the exhaust system. Repair as
necessary.
7 - 14 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
TEMPERATURE GAUGE READING
IS INCONSISTENT (FLUCTUATES,
CYCLES OR IS ERRATIC)
(CONTINUED)
8. Water pump impeller loose on
shaft.
8. Check water pump and replace
as necessary. Refer to water Pumps
in this group.
9. Loose accessory drive belt.
(water pump slipping)
9. Refer to Accessory Drive Belts in
this group. Check and correct as
necessary.
10. Air leak on the suction side of
the water pump allows air to build
up in cooling system causing
thermostat to open late.
10. Locate leak and repair as
necessary.
PRESSURE CAP IS BLOWING
OFF STEAM AND/OR COOLANT
TO COOLANT TANK.
TEMPERATURE GAUGE READING
MAY BE ABOVE NORMAL BUT
NOT HIGH. COOLANT LEVEL MAY
BE HIGH IN COOLANT RESERVE/
OVERFLOW TANK
1. Pressure relief valve in radiator
cap is defective.
1. Check condition of radiator cap
and cap seals. Refer to Radiator
Caps in this group. Replace cap as
necessary.
COOLANT LOSS TO THE
GROUND WITHOUT PRESSURE
CAP BLOWOFF. GAUGE READING
HIGH OR HOT
1. Coolant leaks in radiator, cooling
system hoses, water pump or
engine.
1. Pressure test and repair as
necessary. Refer to Cooling
System-Testing For Leaks in this
group.
DETONATION OR PRE-IGNITION
(NOT CAUSED BY IGNITION
SYSTEM). GAUGE MAY OR MAY
NOT BE READING HIGH
1. engine overheating. 1. Check reason for overheating
and repair as necessary.
2. Freeze point of coolant not
correct. Mixture is too rich or too
lean.
2. Check coolant concentration.
Refer to the Coolant section of this
group and adjust ratio as required.
HOSE OR HOSES COLLAPSE
WHILE ENGINE IS RUNNING
1. Vacuum created in cooling
system on engine cool-down is not
being relieved through coolant
reserve/overflow system.
1. (a) Radiator cap relief valve
stuck. Refer to Radiator Cap in this
group. Replace if necessary
(b) Hose between coolant
reserve/overflow tank and radiator is
kinked. Repair as necessary.
(c) Vent at coolant reserve/overflow
tank is plugged. Clean vent and
repair as necessary.
(d) Reserve/overflow tank is
internally blocked or plugged. Check
for blockage and repair as
necessary.
ELECTRIC RADIATOR FAN RUNS
ALL OF THE TIME (2.5L/4.0L
MODELS EQUIPPED WITH A/C
AND 4.0L MODELS EQUIPPED
WITH MAX COOLING)
1. Fan relay, powertrain control
module (PCM) or coolant
temperature sensor defective.
1. Refer to Electric Cooling Fan
Diagnosis and Testing. Also refer to
Group 8W, Wiring Diagrams. Repair
as necessary.
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 15
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
ELECTRIC RADIATOR FAN WILL
NOT RUN AT ALL. GAUGE
READING HIGH OR HOT
(2.5L/4.0L MODELS EQUIPPED
WITH A/C AND 4.0L MODELS
EQUIPPED WITH MAX COOLING)
1. Blown Fuse in Power Distribution
Center (PDC)
1. Determine reason for blown fuse
and repair as necessary.
2. Fan relay, powertrain control
module (PCM) or coolant
temperature sensor defective.
2. Refer to Electric Cooling Fan
Diagnosis and Testing. Also refer to
Group 8W, Wiring Diagrams. Repair
as necessary.
3. Fan Motor Defective 3. Refer to Electric Cooling Fan
Diagnosis and Testing. Also refer to
Group 8W, Wiring Diagrams. Repair
as necessary.
NOISY VISCOUS FAN/DRIVE 1. Fan blades loose. 1. Replace fan blade assembly.
Refer to Cooling System Fans in
this Group
2. Fan blades striking a surrounding
object.
2. Locate point of fan blade contact
and repair as necessary.
3. Air obstructions at radiator or air
conditioning condenser.
3. Remove obstructions and/or
clean debris or insects from radiator
or A/C condenser.
4. Thermal viscous fan drive has
defective bearing.
4. Replace fan drive. Bearing is not
serviceable. Refer to Viscous Fan
Drive in this group.
5. A certain amount of fan noise
may be evident on models
equipped with a thermal viscous fan
drive. Some of this noise is normal.
5. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this
group for an explanation of normal
fan noise.
INADEQUATE HEATER
PERFORMANCE. THERMOSTAT
FAILED IN OPEN POSITION
1. Has a Diagnostic trouble Code
(DTC) been set?
1. Refer to Group 25, Emissions for
correct procedures and replace
thermostat if necessary
2. Coolant level low 2. Refer to Cooling System-Testing
For Leaks in this group.
3. Obstructions in heater hose/
fittings
3. Remove heater hoses at both
ends and check for obstructions
4. Heater hose kinked 4. Locate kinked area and repair as
necessary
5. Water pump is not pumping
water to/through the heater core.
When the engine is fully warmed
up, both heater hoses should be
hot to the touch. If only one of the
hoses is hot, the water pump may
not be operating correctly or the
heater core may be plugged.
Accessory drive belt may be
slipping causing poor water pump
operation.
5. Refer to Water Pump in this
group. If a slipping belt is detected,
refer to Accessory Drive Belts in this
group. If heater core obstruction is
detected, refer to Group 24, Heating
and Air Conditioning.
7 - 16 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
STEAM IS COMING FROM THE
FRONT OF VEHICLE NEAR THE
GRILL AREA WHEN WEATHER IS
WET, ENGINE IS WARMED UP
AND RUNNING, AND VEHICLE IS
STATIONARY. TEMPERATURE
GAUGE IS IN NORMAL RANGE
1. During wet weather, moisture
(snow, ice or rain condensation) on
the radiator will evaporate when the
thermostat opens. This opening
allows heated water into the
radiator. When the moisture
contacts the hot radiator, steam
may be emitted. This usually occurs
in cold weather with no fan or
airflow to blow it away.
1. Occasional steam emitting from
this area is normal. No repair is
necessary.
COOLANT COLOR 1. Coolant color is not necessarily
an indication of adequate corrosion
or temperature protection. Do not
rely on coolant color for determining
condition of coolant.
1. Refer to Coolant in this group for
coolant concentration information.
Adjust coolant mixture as
necessary.
COOLANT LEVEL CHANGES IN
COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW
TANK. TEMPERATURE GAUGE IS
IN NORMAL RANGE
1. Level changes are to be
expected as coolant volume
fluctuates with engine temperature.
If the level in the tank was between
the FULL and ADD marks at normal
operating temperature, the level
should return to within that range
after operation at elevated
temperatures.
1. A normal condition. No repair is
necessary.
RADIATOR COOLANT FLOW CHECK
The fol l owi ng procedure wi l l determi ne i f cool ant i s
fl owi ng through the cool i ng system.
I f engi ne i s col d, i dl e engi ne unti l normal operati ng
temperature i s reached. Then feel the upper radi ator
hose. I f hose i s hot, the thermostat i s open and water
i s ci rcul ati ng through cool i ng system.
COOLING SYSTEM TESTING FOR LEAKS
ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT METHOD
Al l Jeep model s have a l eak detecti on addi ti ve
added to the cool i ng system before they l eave the fac-
tory. The addi ti ve i s hi ghl y vi si bl e under ul travi ol et
l i ght (bl ack l i ght). I f the factory ori gi nal cool ant has
been drai ned, pour one ounce of addi ti ve i nto the
cool i ng system. The addi ti ve i s avai l abl e through the
parts department. Pl ace the heater control uni t i n
HEAT posi ti on. Start and operate the engi ne unti l
the radi ator upper hose i s warm to the touch. Ai m
the commerci al l y avai l abl e bl ack l i ght tool at the
components to be checked. I f l eaks are present, the
bl ack l i ght wi l l cause the addi ti ve to gl ow a bri ght
green col or.
The bl ack l i ght can be used al ong wi th a pressure
tester to determi ne i f any external l eaks exi st (Fi g.
17).
Fig. 17 Leak Detection Using Black LightTypical
1 TYPICAL BLACK LIGHT TOOL
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 17
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PRESSURE TESTER METHOD
The engi ne shoul d be at the normal operati ng tem-
perature. Recheck the system col d i f the cause of
cool ant l oss i s not l ocated duri ng warm engi ne exam-
i nati on.
WARNING: HOT, PRESSURIZED COOLANT CAN
CAUSE INJURY BY SCALDING.
Careful l y remove the radi ator pressure cap from
the fi l l er neck and check the cool ant l evel . Push
down on the cap to di sengage i t from the stop tabs.
Wi pe the i nner part of the fi l l er neck and exami ne
the l ower i nsi de seal i ng seat for ni cks, cracks, pai nt,
di rt and sol der resi due. I nspect the reserve/overfl ow
tank tube for i nternal obstructi ons. I nsert a wi re
through the tube to be sure i t i s not obstructed.
I nspect the cams on the outsi de part of the fi l l er
neck. I f the cams are bent, seati ng of pressure cap
val ve and tester seal wi l l be affected. Repl ace cap i f
cams are bent.
Attach pressure tester 7700 (or an equi val ent) to
the radi ator fi l l er neck (Fi g. 18).
Operate the tester pump to appl y 124 kPa (18 psi )
pressure to the system. I f the hoses enl arge exces-
si vel y or bul ge whi l e testi ng, repl ace as necessary.
Observe the gauge poi nter and determi ne the condi -
ti on of the cool i ng system accordi ng to the fol l owi ng
cri teri a:
Hol ds Steady: I f the poi nter remai ns steady for
two mi nutes, there are no seri ous cool ant l eaks i n
the system. However, there coul d be an i nternal l eak
that does not appear wi th normal system test pres-
sure. I nspect for i nteri or l eakage or do the I nternal
Leakage Test. Do thi s i f i t i s certai n that cool ant i s
bei ng l ost and no l eaks can be detected.
Drops Sl owl y: Shows a smal l l eak or seepage i s
occurri ng. Exami ne al l connecti ons for seepage or
sl i ght l eakage wi th a fl ashl i ght. I nspect the radi ator,
hoses, gasket edges and heater. Seal any smal l l eak
hol es wi th a Seal er Lubri cant or equi val ent. Repai r
l eak hol es and rei nspect the system wi th pressure
appl i ed.
Drops Qui ckl y: Shows that a seri ous l eakage i s
occurri ng. Exami ne the system for seri ous external
l eakage. I f no l eaks are vi si bl e, i nspect for i nternal
l eakage. Large radi ator l eak hol es shoul d be repai red
by a reputabl e radi ator repai r shop.
INTERNAL LEAKAGE INSPECTION
Remove the engi ne oi l pan drai n pl ug and drai n a
smal l amount of engi ne oi l . Cool ant, bei ng heavi er
than engi ne oi l , wi l l drai n fi rst. Another way of test-
i ng i s to operate the engi ne and check for water gl ob-
ul es on the engi ne oi l di psti ck. Al so i nspect the
automati c transmi ssi on oi l di psti ck for water gl ob-
ul es. I nspect the automati c transmi ssi on fl ui d cool er
for l eakage. Operate the engi ne wi thout the pressure
cap on the radi ator unti l thermostat opens.
Attach a pressure tester to the fi l l er neck. I f pres-
sure bui l ds up qui ckl y, a l eak exi sts as a resul t of a
faul ty cyl i nder head gasket or crack i n the engi ne.
Repai r as necessary.
WARNING: DO NOT ALLOW PRESSURE TO
EXCEED 124 KPA (18 PSI). TURN THE ENGINE OFF.
TO RELEASE THE PRESSURE, ROCK THE TESTER
FROM SIDE TO SIDE. WHEN REMOVING THE
TESTER, DO NOT TURN THE TESTER MORE THAN
1/2 TURN IF THE SYSTEM IS UNDER PRESSURE.
I f there i s no i mmedi ate pressure i ncrease, pump
the pressure tester unti l the i ndi cated pressure i s
wi thi n the system range. Vi brati on of the gauge
poi nter i ndi cates compressi on or combusti on l eakage
i nto the cool i ng system.
WARNING: DO NOT DISCONNECT THE SPARK
PLUG WIRES WHILE THE ENGINE IS OPERATING.
CAUTION: Do not operate the engine with a spark
plug shorted for more than a minute. The catalytic
converter may be damaged.
I sol ate the compressi on l eak by shorti ng each
spark pl ug to the cyl i nder bl ock. The gauge poi nter
shoul d stop or decrease vi brati on when spark pl ug
for l eaki ng cyl i nder i s shorted. Thi s happens because
of the absence of combusti on pressure.
Fig. 18 Pressurizing SystemTypical
1 TYPICAL COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURE TESTER
7 - 18 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
COMBUSTION LEAKAGE TEST (WITHOUT
PRESSURE TESTER)
DO NOT WASTE reusabl e cool ant. I f the sol uti on
i s cl ean, drai n the cool ant i nto a cl ean contai ner for
reuse.
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE CYLINDER
BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN THE RADIATOR
DRAINCOCK WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND UNDER
PRESSURE. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT
CAN OCCUR.
Drai n suffi ci ent cool ant to al l ow for thermostat
removal . Refer to Thermostat Repl acement. Di scon-
nect the water pump dri ve bel t.
Di sconnect the upper radi ator hose from the ther-
mostat housi ng. Remove the housi ng and thermostat.
I nstal l the thermostat housi ng.
Add cool ant to the radi ator to bri ng the l evel to
wi thi n 6.3 mm (1/4 i n) of the top of the thermostat
housi ng.
CAUTION: Avoid overheating. Do not operate the
engine for an excessive period of time. Open the
draincock immediately after the test to eliminate
boil over of coolant.
Start the engi ne and accel erate rapi dl y three ti mes
(to approxi matel y 3000 rpm) whi l e observi ng the
cool ant. I f i nternal engi ne combusti on gases are l eak-
i ng i nto the cool i ng system, bubbl es wi l l appear i n
the cool ant. I f bubbl es do not appear, there i s no
i nternal combusti on gas l eakage.
VISCOUS FAN DRIVE
LEAKS
Vi scous fan dri ve operati on i s not affected by smal l
oi l stai ns near the dri ve beari ng. I f l eakage appears
excessi ve, repl ace the fan dri ve uni t.
TESTING
I f the fan assembl y free-wheel s wi thout drag (the
fan bl ades wi l l revol ve more than fi ve turns when
spun by hand), repl ace the fan dri ve. Thi s spi n test
must be performed when the engi ne i s cool .
For the fol l owi ng test, the cool i ng system must be
i n good condi ti on. I t al so wi l l ensure agai nst exces-
si vel y hi gh cool ant temperature.
WARNING: BE SURE THAT THERE IS ADEQUATE
FAN BLADE CLEARANCE BEFORE DRILLING.
(1) Dri l l a 3.18-mm (1/8-i n) di ameter hol e i n the
top center of the fan shroud.
(2) Obtai n a di al thermometer wi th an 8 i nch stem
(or equi val ent). I t shoul d have a range of -18-to-
105C (0-to-220 F). I nsert thermometer through the
hol e i n the shroud. Be sure that there i s adequate
cl earance from the fan bl ades.
(3) Connect a tachometer and an engi ne i gni ti on
ti mi ng l i ght (ti mi ng l i ght i s to be used as a strobe
l i ght).
(4) Bl ock the ai r fl ow through the radi ator. Secure
a sheet of pl asti c i n front of the radi ator (or ai r con-
di ti oner condenser). Use tape at the top to secure the
pl asti c and be sure that the ai r fl ow i s bl ocked.
(5) Be sure that the ai r condi ti oner (i f equi pped) i s
turned off.
WARNING: USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN THE
ENGINE IS OPERATING. DO NOT STAND IN A
DIRECT LINE WITH THE FAN. DO NOT PUT YOUR
HANDS NEAR THE PULLEYS, BELTS OR FAN. DO
NOT WEAR LOOSE CLOTHING.
(6) Start the engi ne and operate at 2400 rpm.
Wi thi n ten mi nutes the ai r temperature (i ndi cated on
the di al thermometer) shoul d be up to 88 C (190 F).
Fan dri ve engagement shoul d have started to occur
at between 74 to 82 C (165 to 180 F). Engage-
ment i s di sti ngui shabl e by a defi ni te increase i n fan
fl ow noi se (roari ng). The ti mi ng l i ght al so wi l l i ndi -
cate an i ncrease i n the speed of the fan.
(7) When the ai r temperature reaches 88 C (190
F), remove the pl asti c sheet. Fan dri ve disengage-
ment shoul d have started to occur at between 57 to
79 C (135 to 175 F). A defi ni te decrease of fan
fl ow noi se (roari ng) shoul d be noti ced. I f not, repl ace
the defecti ve vi scous fan dri ve uni t.
ELECTRIC COOLING FAN
ELECTRIC COOLING FAN AND RELAY DIAGNOSIS
NOTE: Refer to Electrical Group 8W for electric
cooling fan and relay circuit schematic.
The powertrai n control modul e (PCM) wi l l enter a
di agnosti c troubl e code (DTC) i n memory i f i t detects
a probl em i n the auxi l i ary cool i ng fan rel ay or ci rcui t.
Refer to Group 25, Emi ssi on Control Systems for cor-
rect DTC retri eval procedures.
I f the el ectri c cool i ng fan i s i noperati ve, check the
15A fuse i n the juncti on bl ock and the 40A fuse i n
the Power Di stri buti on Center (PDC) wi th a 12 vol t
test l amp or DVOM. Refer to the i nsi de of the PDC
cover for the exact l ocati on of the fuse. I f fuses are
o.k., refer to Group 8W for el ectri c cool i ng fan and
rel ay ci rcui t schemati c.
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 19
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
RADIATOR CAP-TO-FILLER NECK SEAL
PRESSURE RELIEF CHECK
Wi th radi ator cap i nstal l ed on fi l l er neck, remove
cool ant reserve/ overfl ow tank hose from ni ppl e on
fi l l er neck. Connect a hand operated vacuum pump
to ni ppl e. Operate pump unti l a readi ng of 47-to-61
kPa (14- to-18 i n. Hg) appears on gauge. I f the read-
i ng stays steady, or drops sl i ghtl y and then remai ns
steady, the pressure val ve seal i s good. Repl ace radi -
ator cap i f readi ng does not hol d.
WARNING: THE WARNING WORDS -DO NOT OPEN
HOT- ON THE RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP (Fig. 19)
ARE A SAFETY PRECAUTION. WHEN HOT, PRES-
SURE BUILDS UP IN COOLING SYSTEM. TO PRE-
VENT SCALDING OR INJURY, THE RADIATOR CAP
SHOULD NOT BE REMOVED WHILE THE SYSTEM
IS HOT AND/OR UNDER PRESSURE.
There i s no need to remove the radi ator cap
except for the fol l owi ng purposes:
(1) To check and adjust anti freeze freeze poi nt.
(2) To refi l l system wi th new anti freeze.
(3) For conducti ng servi ce procedures.
(4) When checki ng for vacuum l eaks.
WARNING: IF VEHICLE HAS BEEN RUN RECENTLY,
WAIT AT LEAST 15 MINUTES BEFORE REMOVING
RADIATOR CAP. WITH A RAG, SQUEEZE RADIATOR
UPPER HOSE TO CHECK IF SYSTEM IS UNDER
PRESSURE. PLACE A RAG OVER THE CAP AND
WITHOUT PUSHING DOWN, ROTATE CAP
COUNTER-CLOCKWISE TO THE FIRST STOP.
ALLOW FLUID TO ESCAPE THROUGH OVERFLOW
HOSE INTO COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW
TANK. SQUEEZE RADIATOR UPPER HOSE TO
DETERMINE WHEN PRESSURE HAS BEEN
RELEASED. WHEN COOLANT AND STEAM STOP
BEING PUSHED INTO TANK AND SYSTEM PRES-
SURE DROPS, REMOVE RADIATOR CAP COM-
PLETELY.
RADIATOR CAP PRESSURE TESTING
Remove cap from radi ator. Be sure that seal i ng
surfaces are cl ean. Moi sten rubber gasket wi th water
and i nstal l the cap on pressure tester (tool 7700 or
an equi val ent) (Fi g. 20).
Fig. 19 Radiator Pressure Cap
1 FILLER NECK SEAL
2 VACUUM VENT VALVE
3 PRESSURE RATING
4 PRESSURE VALVE
Fig. 20 Pressure Testing Radiator Pressure
CapTypical
1 PRESSURE CAP
2 TYPICAL COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURE TESTER
7 - 20 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Operate the tester pump and observe the gauge
poi nter at i ts hi ghest poi nt. The cap rel ease pressure
shoul d be 83-to-110 kPa (12-to-16 psi ). The cap i s sat-
i sfactory when the pressure hol ds steady. I t i s al so
good i f i t hol ds pressure wi thi n the 83-to-110 kPa
(12-to-16 psi ) range for 30 seconds or more. I f the
poi nter drops qui ckl y, repl ace the cap.
CAUTION: Radiator pressure testing tools are very
sensitive to small air leaks, which will not cause
cooling system problems. A pressure cap that does
not have a history of coolant loss should not be
replaced just because it leaks slowly when tested
with this tool. Add water to tool. Turn tool upside
down and recheck pressure cap to confirm that cap
needs replacement.
CAP INSPECTION
Vi sual l y i nspect the pressure val ve gasket on the
cap. Repl ace cap i f the gasket i s swol l en, torn or
worn. I nspect the area around radi ator fi l l er neck for
whi te deposi ts that i ndi cate a l eaki ng cap.
COOLANT LOW LEVEL AERATION
I f the cool ant l evel i n radi ator drops bel ow top of
radi ator core tubes, ai r wi l l enter cool i ng system.
Low cool ant l evel can cause thermostat pel l et to be
suspended i n ai r i nstead of cool ant. Thi s wi l l cause
thermostat to open l ater, whi ch i n turn causes hi gher
cool ant temperature. Ai r trapped i n cool i ng system
al so reduces amount of cool ant ci rcul ati ng i n heater
core resul ti ng i n l ow heat output.
DEAERATION
As the engi ne operates, any ai r trapped i n cool i ng
system gathers under the radi ator cap. The next ti me
the engi ne i s operated, thermal expansi on of cool ant
wi l l push any trapped ai r past radi ator cap i nto the
cool ant reserve/overfl ow tank. Here i t escapes to the
atmosphere i nto the tank. When the engi ne cool s
down the cool ant, i t wi l l be drawn from the reserve/
overfl ow tank i nto the radi ator to repl ace any
removed ai r.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
COOLANT ROUTINE LEVEL CHECK
NOTE: Do not remove radiator cap for routine
coolant level inspections. The coolant level can be
checked at coolant reserve/overflow tank.
The cool ant reserve/overfl ow system provi des a
qui ck vi sual method for determi ni ng cool ant l evel
wi thout removi ng radi ator pressure cap. Wi th engi ne
col d and not runni ng, observe cool ant l evel i n
reserve/overfl ow tank. The cool ant l evel shoul d be
between ADD and FULL marks.
COOLANT ADDING ADDITIONAL
Do not remove radiator cap to add coolant to
system. When addi ng cool ant to mai ntai n correct
l evel , do so at cool ant reserve/overfl ow tank. Use a
50/50 mi xture of ethyl ene-gl ycol anti freeze contai ni ng
Al ugard 340-2 and l ow mi neral content water.
Remove radi ator cap onl y for testi ng or when refi l l -
i ng system after servi ce. Removi ng cap unnecessari l y
can cause l oss of cool ant and al l ow ai r to enter sys-
tem, whi ch produces corrosi on.
COOLANT LEVEL CHECK
The cool i ng system i s cl osed and desi gned to mai n-
tai n cool ant l evel to top of radi ator.
WARNING: DO NOT OPEN RADIATOR DRAINCOCK
WITH ENGINE RUNNING OR WHILE ENGINE IS HOT
AND COOLING SYSTEM IS UNDER PRESSURE.
When vehi cl e servi ci ng requi res a cool ant l evel
check i n radi ator, drai n several ounces of cool ant
from radi ator drai n cock. Do thi s whi l e observi ng
cool ant reserve/overfl ow system tank. The cool ant
l evel i n reserve/overfl ow tank shoul d drop sl i ghtl y. I f
not, i nspect for a l eak between radi ator and cool ant
reserve/overfl ow system connecti on. Remove radi ator
cap. The cool ant l evel shoul d be to top of radi ator. I f
not and i f cool ant l evel i n reserve/overfl ow tank i s at
ADD mark, check for:
An ai r l eak i n cool ant reserve/overfl ow tank or
i ts hose
An ai r l eak i n radi ator fi l l er neck
Leak i n pressure cap seal to radi ator fi l l er neck
COOLING SYSTEM DRAINING AND FILLING
DRAINING
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE CYLINDER
BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN THE RADIATOR
DRAINCOCK WITH SYSTEM HOT AND UNDER
PRESSURE. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT
CAN OCCUR.
DO NOT WASTE reusabl e cool ant. I f the sol uti on
i s cl ean, drai n the cool ant i nto a cl ean contai ner for
reuse.
(1) Remove radi ator pressure cap.
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 21
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
(2) For access to radi ator drai ncock (Fi g. 21),
remove radi ator gri l l e mounti ng screws and remove
gri l l . Refer to Group 23, Body for correct procedure.
(3) Attach one end of a 24 i nch l ong X 1/4 i nch I D
hose to the radi ator drai ncock. Put the other end i nto
a cl ean contai ner. Open drai ncock and drai n cool ant
from radi ator.
(4) Drai n cool ant from engi ne by removi ng the
drai n pl ug and cool ant temperature sensor on l eft
si de of bl ock.
REFILLING
(1) Ti ghten the radi ator petcock and the cyl i nder
bl ock drai n pl ug(s).
(2) I nstal l gri l l e.
(3) Fi l l system usi ng a 50/50 mi xture of water and
anti freeze as descri bed i n the Cool ant secti on of thi s
group. Fi l l radi ator to top and i nstal l radi ator cap.
Add suffi ci ent cool ant to reserve/overfl ow tank to
rai se l evel to FULL mark.
(4) Wi th heater control uni t i n the HEAT posi ti on,
operate engi ne wi th radi ator cap i n pl ace.
(5) After engi ne has reached normal operati ng
temperature, shut engi ne off and al l ow i t to cool .
(6) Add cool ant to reserve/overfl ow tank as neces-
sary. Only add coolant when the engine is cold.
Coolant level in a warm engine will be higher
due to thermal expansion.
COOLING SYSTEM REVERSE FLUSHING
CAUTION: The cooling system normally operates at
97-to-124 kPa (14- to-18 psi) pressure. Exceeding
this pressure may damage the radiator or hoses.
Reverse fl ushi ng of the cool i ng system i s the forc-
i ng of water through the cool i ng system. Thi s i s done
usi ng ai r pressure i n the opposi te di recti on of normal
cool ant fl ow. I t i s usual l y onl y necessary wi th very
di rty systems wi th evi dence of parti al pl uggi ng.
CHEMICAL CLEANING
I f vi sual i nspecti on i ndi cates the formati on of
sl udge or scal y deposi ts, use a radi ator cl eaner
(Mopar Radi ator Kl een or equi val ent) before fl ushi ng.
Thi s wi l l soften scal e and other deposi ts and ai d the
fl ushi ng operati on.
CAUTION: Be sure instructions on the container
are followed.
REVERSE FLUSHING RADIATOR
Di sconnect the radi ator hoses from the radi ator fi t-
ti ngs. Attach a secti on of radi ator hose to the radi a-
tor bottom outl et fi tti ng and i nsert the fl ushi ng gun.
Connect a water suppl y hose and ai r suppl y hose to
the fl ushi ng gun.
CAUTION: The cooling system normally operates at
97-to-124 kPa (14- to-18 psi) pressure. Exceeding
this pressure may damage the radiator or hoses.
Al l ow the radi ator to fi l l wi th water. When radi ator
i s fi l l ed, appl y ai r i n short bl asts al l owi ng radi ator to
refi l l between bl asts. Conti nue thi s reverse fl ushi ng
unti l cl ean water fl ows out through rear of radi ator
cool i ng tube passages. For more i nformati on, refer to
operati ng i nstructi ons suppl i ed wi th fl ushi ng equi p-
ment. Have radi ator cl eaned more extensi vel y by a
radi ator repai r shop.
REVERSE FLUSHING ENGINE
Drai n the cool i ng system. Remove the thermostat
housi ng and thermostat. I nstal l the thermostat hous-
i ng. Di sconnect the radi ator upper hose from the
radi ator and attach the fl ushi ng gun to the hose. Di s-
connect the radi ator l ower hose from the water
pump. Attach a l ead away hose to the water pump
i nl et fi tti ng.
CAUTION: Be sure that the heater control valve is
closed (heat off). This is done to prevent coolant
flow with scale and other deposits from entering
the heater core.
Connect the water suppl y hose and ai r suppl y hose
to the fl ushi ng gun. Al l ow the engi ne to fi l l wi th
water. When the engi ne i s fi l l ed, appl y ai r i n short
bl asts, al l owi ng the system to fi l l between ai r bl asts.
Conti nue unti l cl ean water fl ows through the l ead
away hose. For more i nformati on, refer to operati ng
i nstructi ons suppl i ed wi th fl ushi ng equi pment.
Fig. 21 Radiator Petcock2.5L/4.0L (LHD/RHD)
1 RADIATOR PETCOCK
7 - 22 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
Remove the l ead away hose, fl ushi ng gun, water
suppl y hose and ai r suppl y hose. Remove the thermo-
stat housi ng and i nstal l thermostat. I nstal l the ther-
mostat housi ng wi th a repl acement gasket. Refer to
Thermostat Repl acement. Connect the radi ator
hoses. Refi l l the cool i ng system wi th the correct anti -
freeze/water mi xture.
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERS
WATER-TO-OIL COOLER
The i nternal transmi ssi on oi l cool er l ocated wi thi n
the radi ator i s not servi ceabl e. I f i t requi res servi ce,
the radi ator must be repl aced.
Once the repai red or repl acement radi ator has been
i nstal l ed, fi l l the cool i ng system and i nspect for l eaks.
Refer to the Refi l l i ng Cool i ng System and Testi ng
Cool i ng System For Leaks secti ons i n thi s group. I f
the transmi ssi on operates properl y after repai ri ng the
l eak, drai n the transmi ssi on and remove the transmi s-
si on oi l pan. I nspect for sl udge and/or rust. I nspect for
a di rty or pl ugged i nl et fi l ter. I f none of these condi -
ti ons are found, the transmi ssi on and torque convertor
may not requi re recondi ti oni ng. Refer to Group 21 for
automati c transmi ssi on servi ci ng.
AIR-TO-OIL COOLER
REMOVAL
(1) Remove the gri l l mounti ng screws and remove
the gri l l . Refer to Group 23, Body for procedures.
(2) Pl ace a drai n pan bel ow the transmi ssi on oi l
cool er.
(3) Remove the two constant tensi on cl amps at oi l
cool er i nl et and outl et tubes.
(4) Remove the two oi l cool er mounti ng bol ts (Fi g.
22).
(5) Remove the oi l cool er from vehi cl e.
INSTALLATION
(1) Posi ti on and secure oi l cool er to vehi cl e.
Ti ghten mounti ng bol ts to 8 Nm (72 i n. l bs.) torque.
(2) Secure i nl et and outl et tubes wi th constant
tensi on cl amps.
I nstal l the gri l l .
(3) Start engi ne and check transmi ssi on fl ui d l evel .
Add fl ui d i f necessary.
COOLANT RESERVE TANK
REMOVAL
(1) Remove the tube cl amp at the tank and remove
tube.
(2) Remove the tank mounti ng bol ts and remove
tank (Fi g. 23) (Fi g. 24).
Fig. 22 Auxiliary Air-To-Oil Cooler
1 AIR CONDITIONING CONDENSER
2 HOSE CLAMPS (2)
3 AUXILIARY AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLER
4 MOUNTING BOLT
5 MOUNTING BOLT
Fig. 23 Reserve/Overflow TankExcept Right Hand
Drive
1 COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK
2 CLAMP
3 MOUNTING BOLTS
4 TUBE TO RADIATOR
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 23
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
INSTALLATION
(1) Posi ti on tank and ti ghten to 2 Nm (17 i n. l bs.)
torque.
(2) Posi ti on tube and secure cl amp.
WATER PUMP
CAUTION: If the water pump is replaced because of
mechanical damage, the fan blades and viscous fan
drive should also be inspected. These components
could have been damaged due to excessive vibra-
tion.
The water pump can be removed wi thout di scharg-
i ng the ai r condi ti oni ng system (i f equi pped).
CAUTION: All engines have a reverse (counter-
clockwise) rotating water pump. The letter R is
stamped into the back of the water pump impeller
(Fig. 25) to identify. Engines from previous model
years, depending upon application, may be
equipped with a forward (clockwise) rotating water
pump. Installation of the wrong water pump will
cause engine over heating.
The water pump i mpel l er i s pressed on the rear of
the pump shaft and beari ng assembl y. The water
pump i s servi ced onl y as a compl ete assembl y.
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE BLOCK DRAIN
PLUG(S) OR LOOSEN RADIATOR DRAINCOCK
WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND UNDER PRESSURE.
SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR.
DO NOT WASTE reusabl e cool ant. I f the sol uti on
i s cl ean, drai n cool ant i nto a cl ean contai ner for
reuse.
REMOVAL-2. 5L ENGINE (LHD/RHD)
(1) Di sconnect battery negati ve cabl e.
(2) Drai n cool i ng system. Refer to Cool i ng System-
Drai ni ng and Fi l l i ng i n thi s group.
(3) Remove upper radi ator hose.
(4) Loosen (but do not remove at thi s ti me) the
four fan hub-to-water pump pul l ey mounti ng nuts
(Fi g. 26).
(5) Remove accessory dri ve bel t. (Refer to Acces-
sory Dri ve Bel t, Removal and I nstal l ati on i n thi s
group)
(6) Di sconnect el ectri c cool i ng fan connector (i f
equi pped).
(7) Unbol t fan shroud.
(8) Remove the four fan hub-to-water pump pul l ey
nuts and remove fan and shroud together.
Fig. 24 Reserve/Overflow TankWith Right Hand
Drive
1 CLAMP
2 COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK
3 MOUNTING BOLTS
4 LOWER BRACKET
5 TUBE TO RADIATOR
Fig. 25 Reverse Rotating Water PumpTypical
1 R STAMPED INTO IMPELLER
7 - 24 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
CAUTION: After removing fan blade/viscous fan
drive assembly, do not place thermal viscous fan
drive in horizontal position. If stored horizontally,
silicone fluid in viscous fan drive could drain into
its bearing assembly and contaminate lubricant.
(9) Remove power steeri ng pump and bracket (Fi g.
27), refer to Group 19 Steeri ng for correct procedure.
(10) Remove l ower radi ator hose from water pump.
Remove heater hose from water pump pi pe.
(11) Remove the four pump mounti ng bol ts (Fi g.
28) and remove pump from vehi cl e. Di scard ol d gas-
ket. Note that one of the four bol ts i s l onger than the
other bol ts.
(12) I f pump i s to be repl aced, the heater hose fi t-
ti ng must be removed. Note posi ti on of fi tti ng before
removal .
INSTALLATION-2. 5L ENGINE (LHD/RHD)
(1) I f pump i s bei ng repl aced, i nstal l the heater
hose pi pe to the pump. Use a seal ant on the fi tti ng
such as Mopar Thread Seal ant Wi th Tefl on. Refer to
the di recti ons on the package.
(2) Cl ean the gasket mati ng surfaces. I f the ori gi -
nal pump i s used, remove any deposi ts or other for-
ei gn materi al . I nspect the cyl i nder bl ock and water
Fig. 26 Fan Mounting Nuts
1 THERMAL VISCOUS FAN DRIVE
2 (4) FAN BLADE-TO-VISCOUS DRIVE BOLTS
3 (4) FAN HUB-TO-PUMP PULLEY STUDS
4 WATER PUMP
5 WATER PUMP PULLEY
6 FAN BLADE
7 (4) FAN HUB-TO-PUMP PULLEY NUTS
Fig. 27 Power Steering Pump Attachment-2.5L
1 INTAKE MANIFOLD
2 PUMP ASSEMBLY 2.5L
3 PUMP BRACKET
Fig. 28 Water Pump Remove/InstallTypical
1 HEATER HOSE FITTING
2 UPPER VENT HOLE
3 PUMP GASKET
4 WATER PUMP
5 LOWER VENT HOLE
6 LONG BOLT
7 BOLTS (3) SHORT
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 25
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
pump mati ng surfaces for erosi on or damage from
cavi tati on.
(3) I nstal l the gasket and water pump. The si l i -
cone bead on the gasket shoul d be faci ng the water
pump. Al so, the gasket i s i nstal l ed dry. Ti ghten
mounti ng bol ts to 23 Nm (17 ft. l bs.) torque. Rotate
the shaft by hand to be sure i t turns freel y.
(4) Connect the radi ator and heater hoses to the
water pump.
(5) I nstal l power steeri ng pump and bracket. Refer
to Group 19, Steeri ng.
(6) Posi ti on water pump pul l ey to water pump
hub.
(7) I nstal l shroud and fan together and i nstal l four
nuts to water pump hub studs. Ti ghten nuts to 27
Nm (20 ft. l bs.) torque.
(8) I nstal l and ti ghten upper fan shroud nuts to 4
Nm (31 i n. l bs.).
(9) Connect el ectri c fan connector (i f equi pped).
CAUTION: When installing the accessory drive belt,
the belt MUST be routed correctly. If not, the engine
may overheat due to the water pump rotating in the
wrong direction. Refer to the Belt Removal and
Installation in this group for appropriate belt rout-
ing. You may also refer to the Belt Routing Label in
the vehicle engine compartment.
(10) I nstal l and tensi on accessory dri ve bel t, refer
to Accessory Dri ve Bel t removal and i nstal l ati on i n
thi s group.
(11) I nstal l upper radi ator hose.
(12) Fi l l cool i ng system wi th cool ant and check for
l eaks. Refer to Refi l l i ng Cool i ng System i n thi s
group.
(13) Connect battery negati ve cabl e.
(14) Start and warm the engi ne. Check for l eaks.
REMOVAL-4. 0L ENGINE (LHD/RHD)
(1) Di sconnect battery negati ve cabl e.
(2) Drai n the cool i ng system. (Refer to Cool i ng
System-Drai ni ng and Fi l l i ng i n thi s group.)
(3) Di sconnect el ectri c cool i ng fan connector.
(4) Remove el ectri c cool i ng fan/shroud assembl y (i f
equi pped).
(5) Remove vi scous fan shroud bol ts (2).
(6) Loosen (but do not remove at thi s ti me) the
four water pump pul l ey-to-water pump hub mounti ng
bol ts (Fi g. 29) and the four vi scous fan to i dl er pul l ey
nuts.
NOTE: The accessory drive belt must be removed
prior to removing the fan (if installed at pump) or
fan pulley.
(7) Remove accessory dri ve bel t (refer to Accessory
Dri ve Bel t, Removal and I nstal l ati on i n thi s group)
(8) Remove the four vi scous fan to i dl er pul l ey
nuts and remove the fan and shroud together.
CAUTION: After removing fan blade/viscous fan
drive assembly, do not place thermal viscous fan
drive in horizontal position. If stored horizontally,
silicone fluid in viscous fan drive could drain into
its bearing assembly and contaminate lubricant.
(9) Remove the four water pump pul l ey bol ts and
remove the pul l ey.
(10) Remove power steeri ng pump and bracket
(Fi g. 30), refer to Group 19 Steeri ng.
(11) Remove l ower radi ator hose from water pump.
Remove heater hose from water pump fi tti ng.
(12) Remove the four pump mounti ng bol ts (Fi g.
31) and remove pump from vehi cl e. Di scard ol d gas-
ket. Note that one of the four bol ts i s l onger than the
other bol ts.
(13) I f pump i s to be repl aced, the heater hose fi t-
ti ng must be removed. Note posi ti on of fi tti ng before
removal .
INSTALLATION-4. 0L ENGINE (LHD/RHD)
(1) I f pump i s bei ng repl aced, i nstal l the heater
hose fi tti ng to the pump. Use a seal ant on the fi tti ng
such as Mopar Thread Seal ant Wi th Tefl on. Refer to
the di recti ons on the package.
(2) Cl ean the gasket mati ng surfaces. I f the ori gi -
nal pump i s used, remove any deposi ts or other for-
ei gn materi al . I nspect the cyl i nder bl ock and water
pump mati ng surfaces for erosi on or damage from
cavi tati on.
(3) I nstal l the gasket and water pump. The si l i -
cone bead on the gasket shoul d be faci ng the water
Fig. 29 Water Pump Pulley Bolts
1 WATER PUMP HUB
2 BOLTS (4)
3 PUMP PULLEY
7 - 26 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
pump. Al so, the gasket i s i nstal l ed dry. Ti ghten
mounti ng bol ts to 23 Nm (17 ft. l bs.) torque. Rotate
the shaft by hand to be sure i t turns freel y.
(4) Connect the radi ator and heater hoses to the
water pump.
(5) Posi ti on water pump pul l ey to water pump
hub.
(6) I nstal l four pump pul l ey bol ts. Ti ghten bol ts (or
nuts) to 27 Nm (20 ft. l bs.) torque.
(7) I nstal l power steeri ng pump. Refer to Group
19, Steeri ng for proper procedure and torque val ues.
(8) I nstal l the vi scous fan and shroud together.
I nstal l the four fan to i dl er pul l ey nuts and ti ghten
to 27 Nm (20 ft. l bs.).
CAUTION: When installing the accessory drive belt,
the belt MUST be routed correctly. If not, the engine
may overheat due to the water pump rotating in the
wrong direction. Refer to the Belt Removal and
Installation in this group for appropriate belt rout-
ing. You may also refer to the Belt Routing Label in
the vehicle engine compartment.
(9) I nstal l and ti ghten vi scous fan shroud bol ts to
4 Nm (31 i n. l bs.).
(10) I nstal l and tensi on the accessory dri ve bel t,
refer to Accessory Dri ve Bel t removal and i nstal l a-
ti on i n thi s group.
(11) I nstal l the el ectri c cool i ng fan/shroud assy.
(12) I nstal l and ti ghten el ectri c fan shroud bol ts to
4 Nm (31 i n. l bs.). Connect fan connector.
Fig. 30 Power Steering Pump Attachment-4.0L
1 PUMP ASSEMBLY
2 PUMP BRACKET
Fig. 31 Water Pump Remove/InstallTypical
1 HEATER HOSE FITTING
2 UPPER VENT HOLE
3 PUMP GASKET
4 WATER PUMP
5 LOWER VENT HOLE
6 LONG BOLT
7 BOLTS (3) SHORT
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 27
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(13) Fi l l cool i ng system wi th cool ant and check for
l eaks. Refer to Refi l l i ng Cool i ng System i n thi s
group.
(14) Connect battery negati ve cabl e.
(15) Start and warm the engi ne. Check for l eaks.
THERMOSTAT
REMOVAL
WARNING: DO NOT LOOSEN THE RADIATOR
DRAINCOCK WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND PRES-
SURIZED. SERIOUS BURNS FROM THE COOLANT
CAN OCCUR.
DO NOT WASTE reusabl e cool ant. I f the sol uti on
i s cl ean, drai n the cool ant i nto a cl ean contai ner for
reuse.
(1) Drai n the cool ant from the radi ator unti l the
l evel i s bel ow the thermostat housi ng.
WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS
ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES.
WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY
TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF
CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER
6094) (Fig. 12). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER
HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS.
ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVIC-
ING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS.
CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the
tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 11). If
replacement is necessary, use only an original
equipment clamp with matching number or letter.
(2) Remove radi ator upper hose and heater hose at
thermostat housi ng.
(3) Di sconnect wi ri ng connector at engi ne cool ant
temperature sensor.
(4) Remove thermostat housi ng mounti ng bol ts,
thermostat housi ng, gasket and thermostat (Fi g. 32).
Di scard ol d gasket.
(5) Cl ean the gasket mati ng surfaces.
INSTALLATION
(1) I nstal l the repl acement thermostat so that the
pel l et, whi ch i s enci rcl ed by a coi l spri ng, faces the
engi ne. Al l thermostats are marked on the outer
fl ange to i ndi cate the proper i nstal l ed posi ti on.
(a) Observe the recess groove i n the engi ne cyl -
i nder head (Fi g. 33).
(b) Posi ti on thermostat i nto thi s groove wi th
arrow and ai r bl eed hol e on outer fl ange poi nti ng
up.
(2) I nstal l repl acement gasket and thermostat
housi ng.
Fig. 32 Thermostat Removal/Installation
1 LONG BOLT
2 GASKET
3 THERMOSTAT
4 THERMOSTAT HOUSING
5 SHORT BOLT
Fig. 33 Thermostat Recess
1 GROOVE
7 - 28 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
CAUTION: Tightening the thermostat housing
unevenly or with the thermostat out of its recess
may result in a cracked housing.
(3) Ti ghten the housi ng bol ts to 20 Nm (15 ft. l bs.)
torque.
(4) I nstal l hoses to thermostat housi ng.
(5) I nstal l el ectri cal connector to cool ant tempera-
ture sensor.
(6) Be sure that the radi ator drai ncock i s ti ghtl y
cl osed. Fi l l the cool i ng system to the correct l evel
wi th the requi red cool ant mi xture. Refer to Refi l l i ng
Cool i ng System i n thi s group.
(7) Start and warm the engi ne. Check for l eaks.
RADIATOR 2. 5L
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE CYLINDER
BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN THE RADIATOR
DRAINCOCK WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND PRES-
SURIZED. SERIOUS BURNS FROM THE COOLANT
CAN OCCUR.
DO NOT WASTE reusabl e cool ant. I f sol uti on i s
cl ean, drai n cool ant i nto a cl ean contai ner for reuse.
WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS
ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES.
WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY
TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF
CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER
6094) (Fig. 12). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER
HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS.
ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVIC-
ING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS.
CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the
tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 11). If
replacement is necessary, use only an original
equipment clamp with matching number or letter.
REMOVAL
(1) Di sconnect battery negati ve cabl e.
(2) Observe the previ ous WARNINGS.
(3) Remove radi ator pressure cap.
(4) For access to radi ator drai ncock, remove radi a-
tor gri l l mounti ng screws and remove gri l l . Refer to
Group 23, Body for procedures.
(5) Attach one end of a 24 i nch l ong X 1/4 i nch I D
hose to the radi ator petcock (Fi g. 34). Put the other
end i nto a cl ean contai ner. Open petcock and drai n
radi ator.
(6) Detach power steeri ng fl ui d reservoi r from fan
shroud and l ay asi de.
(7) Di sconnect el ectri c cool i ng fan el ectri cal con-
nector, i f equi pped.
(8) Di sconnect CRS hose from radi ator fi l l er neck
and remove from shroud retai ni ng l oops.
(9) Remove the four (4) vi scous fan/dri ve assembl y
nuts from the water pump pul l ey and remove fan/
dri ve assy.
(10) Remove the four (4) fan shroud to core sup-
port mounti ng screws.
(11) Remove the el ectri c fan (i f equi pped) and
shroud assembl y from the vehi cl e (Fi g. 36).
(12) Remove radi ator upper crossmember (Fi g. 36).
(13) I f equi pped wi th ai r condi ti oni ng, separate
radi ator from condenser by removi ng condenser-to-ra-
di ator mounti ng brackets (Fi g. 35).
(14) Di sconnect upper and l ower radi ator hoses.
(15) I f equi pped, di sconnect and pl ug automati c
transmi ssi on fl ui d cool er l i nes. Qui ck Connect Fi tti ng
Rel ease Tool 6935 may be needed. I f equi pped wi th
remote transmi ssi on cool er, remove l i ne to cool er
from bracket at bottom of radi ator.
(16) Li ft radi ator strai ght up and out of engi ne
compartment taki ng care not to damage fi ns.
(17) I f radi ator i s to be repl aced, be sure to remove
and transfer any components not i ncl uded wi th
repl acement radi ator.
INSTALLATION
The radi ator i s suppl i ed wi th two al i gnment dowel s
(Fi g. 41). They are l ocated on the bottom tank and fi t
i nto rubber grommets i n the radi ator l ower cross-
member.
Fig. 34 Radiator PetcockTypical
1 RADIATOR PETCOCK
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 29
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(1) Lower radi ator i nto engi ne compartment. Posi -
ti on al i gnment dowel s i nto rubber grommets i n radi -
ator l ower crossmember (Fi g. 41).
(2) I f equi pped wi th ai r condi ti oni ng, attach con-
denser to radi ator wi th mounti ng brackets (Fi g. 35).
(3) I nstal l radi ator upper crossmember and four
mounti ng bol ts.
(4) I nstal l radi ator upper crossmember-to-i sol ator
nuts. Ti ghten nuts to 10 Nm (86 i n. l bs.) torque. I f
i sol ator-to-radi ator nuts had been removed, ti ghten
them to 5 Nm (47 i n. l bs.) torque.
(5) Connect radi ator upper and l ower hoses.
(6) I f equi pped, connect automati c transmi ssi on
fl ui d cool er l i nes. I f equi pped wi th remote cool er,
attach cool er l i ne to bracket at bottom of radi ator.
(7) I nstal l el ectri c fan (i f equi pped) and shroud
assembl y.. I nsert al i gnment tabs at bottom of fan
shroud i nto sl ots i n bracket at bottom of radi ator.
Ti ghten mounti ng bol ts to 3 Nm (31 i n. l bs.) torque.
(8) Connect el ectri c cool i ng fan el ectri cal connector.
(9) I nstal l power steeri ng reservoi r to fan shroud.
(10) I nstal l gri l l .
(11) Connect battery negati ve cabl e.
Fig. 35 Condenser-to-Radiator Mounting Brackets
1 CONDENSER TO RADIATOR MOUNTING BRACKETS
Fig. 36 Radiator Removal/Installation2.5L Engines
1 ELECTRIC FAN/SHROUD ASSEMBLY
2 UPPER CROSSMEMBER
3 ISOLATOR
4 RADIATOR
5 LOWER CROSSMEMBER
6 U-NUT
7 - 30 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(12) Fi l l cool i ng system wi th correct cool ant. Refer
to the Cool ant secti on of thi s group.
(13) I nstal l pressure cap.
(14) Check and adjust automati c transmi ssi on
fl ui d l evel (i f equi pped).
(15) Start engi ne and vi sual l y check for l eaks.
RADIATOR 4. 0L
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE CYLINDER
BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN THE RADIATOR
DRAINCOCK WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND PRES-
SURIZED. SERIOUS BURNS FROM THE COOLANT
CAN OCCUR.
DO NOT WASTE reusabl e cool ant. I f sol uti on i s
cl ean, drai n cool ant i nto a cl ean contai ner for reuse.
WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS
ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES.
WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY
TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF
CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER
6094) (Fig. 12). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER
HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS.
ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVIC-
ING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS.
CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the
tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 11). If
replacement is necessary, use only an original
equipment clamp with matching number or letter.
REMOVAL
(1) Di sconnect battery negati ve cabl e.
(2) Observe the previ ous WARNINGS.
(3) Remove radi ator pressure cap.
(4) For access to radi ator drai ncock, remove radi a-
tor gri l l mounti ng screws and remove gri l l . Refer to
Group 23, Body for procedures.
(5) Attach one end of a 24 i nch l ong X 1/4 i nch I D
hose to the radi ator petcock (Fi g. 38). Put the other
end i nto a cl ean contai ner. Open petcock and drai n
radi ator.
(6) Di sconnect el ectri c cool i ng fan el ectri cal con-
nector, i f equi pped.
(7) I f equi pped, remove two el ectri c cool i ng fan
mounti ng bol ts. Li ft cool i ng fan strai ght up unti l
al i gnment tabs at the bottom are cl ear of sl ots i n
bracket at bottom of radi ator (Fi g. 39).
(8) Remove the two mechani cal (non-el ectri cal ) fan
shroud mounti ng bol ts. Li ft shroud strai ght up unti l
al i gnment tabs at the bottom are cl ear of sl ots i n
bracket at bottom of radi ator (Fi g. 39). Pl ace shroud
over mechani cal fan.
(9) I f equi pped, di sconnect and pl ug automati c
transmi ssi on fl ui d cool er l i nes. Qui ck Connect Fi tti ng
Rel ease Tool 6935 may be needed. I f equi pped wi th
remote transmi ssi on cool er, remove l i ne to cool er
from bracket at bottom of radi ator.
Fig. 37 Radiator Alignment DowelsTypical
1 ALIGNMENT DOWEL
2 RADIATOR
3 AIR CONDITIONING CONDENSER
4 GROMMET
Fig. 38 Radiator PetcockTypical
1 RADIATOR PETCOCK
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 31
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(10) Di sconnect radi ator upper and l ower hoses
cl amps. Di sconnect radi ator upper and l ower hoses.
(11) Mark the posi ti on of the hood l atch stri ker on
the radi ator crossmember and remove hood l atch
stri ker.
(12) Remove two radi ator upper crossmember to
i sol ator nuts (Fi g. 39).
(13) Remove four radi ator upper crossmember
bol ts and remove upper crossmember.
(14) I f equi pped wi th ai r condi ti oni ng, separate
radi ator from condenser by removi ng condenser-to-ra-
di ator mounti ng brackets (Fi g. 40).
(15) Li ft radi ator strai ght up and out of engi ne
compartment taki ng care not to damage fi ns.
INSTALLATION
The radi ator i s suppl i ed wi th two al i gnment dowel s
(Fi g. 41). They are l ocated on the bottom tank and fi t
i nto rubber grommets i n the radi ator l ower cross-
member.
(1) Lower radi ator i nto engi ne compartment. Posi -
ti on al i gnment dowel s i nto rubber grommets i n radi -
ator l ower crossmember (Fi g. 41)
(2) I f equi pped wi th ai r condi ti oni ng, attach con-
denser to radi ator wi th mounti ng brackets (Fi g. 40).
(3) I nstal l radi ator upper crossmember and four
mounti ng bol ts.
(4) I nstal l radi ator upper crossmember-to-i sol ator
nuts. Ti ghten nuts to 10 Nm (86 i n. l bs.) torque. I f
i sol ator-to-radi ator nuts had been removed, ti ghten
them to 5 Nm (47 i n. l bs.) torque.
(5) I nstal l hood l atch stri ker. Note previ ousl y
marked posi ti on.
(6) Connect radi ator upper and l ower hoses.
(7) I f equi pped, connect automati c transmi ssi on
fl ui d cool er l i nes. Refer to Group 21, Transmi ssi ons
for procedures. I f equi pped wi th remote cool er, attach
cool er l i ne to bracket at bottom of radi ator.
Fig. 39 Radiator Removal/Installation4.0L Engines
1 (LHD)
2 (RHD)
3 VISCOUS FAN SHROUD
4 ELECTRIC FAN MODULE
5 ISOLATOR
6 RADIATOR
7 LOWER CROSSMEMBER
8 U-NUT
9 UPPER CROSSMEMBER
7 - 32 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(8) I nstal l el ectri c cool i ng fan (i f equi pped). I nsert
al i gnment tabs at bottom of fan shroud i nto sl ots i n
bracket at bottom of radi ator. Ti ghten mounti ng bol ts
to 3 Nm (31 i n. l bs.) torque.
(9) Connect el ectri c cool i ng fan el ectri cal connector.
(10) I nstal l mechani cal cool i ng fan shroud. I nsert
al i gnment tabs at bottom of shroud i nto sl ots i n
bracket at bottom of radi ator. Ti ghten mounti ng bol ts
to 3 Nm (31 i n. l bs.) torque.
(11) Cl ose radi ator drai ncock.
(12) I nstal l gri l l .
(13) Connect negati ve battery cabl e.
(14) Fi l l cool i ng system wi th correct cool ant. Refer
to the Cool ant secti on of thi s group.
(15) I nstal l pressure cap.
(16) Check and adjust automati c transmi ssi on
fl ui d l evel (i f equi pped).
ELECTRIC COOLING FAN 2. 5L
The el ectri c fan modul e i s onl y to be servi ced as an
assembl y.
REMOVAL
(1) Di sconnect battery negati ve cabl e.
(2) Di sconnect CRS hose from radi ator fi l l er neck
and pul l through (remove) the shroud retai ni ng
l oops.
(3) Detach power steeri ng reservoi r from fan
shroud and l ay asi de.
(4) Remove the four vi scous fan/dri ve assembl y
mounti ng nuts from the water pump studs and
remove vi scous fan assembl y.
(5) Di sconnect cool i ng fan el ectri cal connector.
(6) Remove the four upper fan shroud to radi ator
crossmember mounti ng screws (Fi g. 42).
(7) Li ft fan and shroud assy. from vehi cl e
(8) Detach fan harness from shroud.
(9) Remove four fan modul e to shroud phi l l i ps
head screws (Fi g. 43) and remove modul e from
shroud.
INSTALLATION
(1) Posi ti on fan modul e i n shroud so that the har-
ness exi ts the motor at the 12 ocl ock posti on (Fi g.
43).
(2) I nstal l and ti ghten fan modul e to shroud
screws to 3 Nm (31 i n. l bs.).
(3) Route fan harness through the shroud and
attach to shroud at correct posi ti on.
(4) Lower fan and shroud assembl y i nto pl ace,
maki ng sure the shroud al i gnment tabs rest i n thei r
correspondi ng l ower radi ator sl ots.
(5) I nstal l upper fan shroud screws and ti ghten to
3 Nm (31 i n. l bs.).
Fig. 40 Condenser to Radiator Mounting Brackets
4.0L Engine
1 CONDENSER TO RADIATOR MOUNTING BRACKETS
Fig. 41 Radiator Alignment DowelsTypical
1 ALIGNMENT DOWEL
2 RADIATOR
3 AIR CONDITIONING CONDENSER
4 GROMMET
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 33
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(6) Connect fan el ectri cal connector.
(7) I nstal l power steeri ng reservoi r to shoud.
(8) I nstal l vi scous fan dri ve assy. to water pump
hub and ti ghten nuts to 27 Nm (20 ft. l bs.)
(9) Connect battery negati ve cabl e.
ELECTRIC COOLING FAN 4. 0L
REMOVAL
The auxi l i ary cool i ng fan i s attached to the radi a-
tor upper crossmember behi nd the radi ator.
(1) Remove the two fan mounti ng bol ts from radi -
ator upper crossmember (Fi g. 44).
(2) Di sconnect the el ectri c fan connector.
(3) Li ft fan strai ght up and out of vehi cl e.
INSTALLATION
(1) Al i gn l ower retai ni ng tabs of fan shroud wi th
sl ots i n bracket at bottom of radi ator. Push fan down
i nto posi ti on.
(2) Ti ghten the mounti ng bol ts to 4 Nm (31 i n.
l bs.) torque.
Fig. 42 Fan Shroud Removal/Installation
1 ELECTRIC FAN/SHROUD ASSEMBLY
2 UPPER CROSSMEMBER
3 ISOLATOR
4 RADIATOR
5 LOWER CROSSMEMBER
6 U-NUT
Fig. 43 Fan Module Orientation and Mounting
1 FAN MOTOR HARNESS AT 12 OCLOCK POSITION
2 MOUNTING SCREWS (4)
3 FAN CONNECTOR
7 - 34 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(3) Connect auxi l i ary cool i ng fan el ectri cal connec-
tor.
BLOCK HEATER
REMOVAL
Refer to correct i l l ustrati on (Fi g. 45) (Fi g. 46) when
servi ci ng bl ock heater.
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE CYLINDER
BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN THE RADIATOR
DRAINCOCK WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND PRES-
SURIZED. SERIOUS BURNS FROM THE COOLANT
CAN OCCUR.
DO NOT WASTE reusabl e cool ant. I f sol uti on i s
cl ean, drai n cool ant i nto a cl ean contai ner for reuse.
(1) Drai n cool ant from radi ator and engi ne cyl i n-
der bl ock.
(2) Unpl ug power cord from bl ock heater.
(3) Loosen screw i n center of bl ock heater (Fi g. 45)
(Fi g. 46).
(4) Remove bl ock heater from cyl i nder bl ock.
INSTALLATION
(1) Thoroughl y cl ean the engi ne core hol e and the
bl ock heater seat.
(2) I nsert bl ock heater assembl y i nto core hol e
wi th el ement l oop poi nti ng Up.
(3) Seat bl ock heater fl ush agai nst bl ock face.
Ti ghten mounti ng screw to 3.6 Nm (32 i n. l bs.)
torque.
(4) Fi l l cool i ng system wi th cool ant. Pressuri ze
system and i nspect for l eaks.
(5) Pl ug power cord i nto bl ock heater. Route cord
away from movi ng parts, l i nkages and exhaust sys-
tem components. Secure cord i n pl ace wi th ti e-straps.
ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS
Correct dri ve bel t tensi on i s requi red to ensure
opti mum performance of the bel t dri ven engi ne acces-
sori es. There are di fferent types of adjustment
gauges for checki ng ei ther a serpenti ne or a V-type
bel t. Refer to the i nstructi ons suppl i ed wi th the
Fig. 44 Auxiliary Cooling FanRemove/Install
Typical
1 ELECTRIC COOLING FAN
2 MOUNTING BOLT
3 ELECTRIC COOLING FAN CONNECTOR
4 MOUNTING BOLT
Fig. 45 Heater and Cord 2.5L 4-Cylinder Engine
1 POWER CORD LOCATION
2 BLOCK HEATER
Fig. 46 Heater and Cord4.0L 6-Cylinder Engine
1 POWER CORD LOCATION
2 BLOCK HEATER
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 35
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
gauge. Use the correct gauge when checki ng bel t ten-
si on. Pl ace gauge i n the mi ddl e of the secti on of bel t
bei ng tested (between two pul l eys) to check tensi on.
Do not al l ow the gauge (or gauge adapter) to contact
anythi ng but the bel t.
BELT SCHEMATICS
The bel t routi ng schemati cs are publ i shed from the
l atest i nformati on avai l abl e at the ti me of publ i ca-
ti on. If anything differs between these schemat-
ics and the Belt Routing Label, use the
schematics on Belt Routing Label. Thi s l abel i s
l ocated i n the engi ne compartment.
Refer to (Fi g. 47) (Fi g. 48) (Fi g. 49) (Fi g. 50) for
proper bel t routi ng on vehi cl es wi th conventi onal l eft
hand dri ve. Refer to (Fi g. 51) (Fi g. 52) for proper bel t
routi ng on vehi cl es wi th ri ght hand dri ve (RHD). Or,
refer to the Bel t Routi ng Label l ocated i n the vehi cl e
engi ne compartment.
BELT REPLACEMENT OR ADJUSTMENT LEFT
HAND DRIVE
Bel t tensi on i s adjusted at the power steeri ng
pump bracket and i dl er pul l ey assembl y.
(1) Di sconnect negati ve battery cabl e from battery.
(2) Loosen i dl er pul l ey bol t at the power steeri ng
bracket (Fi g. 53).
(3) Loosen adjusti ng bol t unti l bel t can be removed
from pul l eys.
(4) Remove bel t.
INSTALLATION
(1) Check condi ti on of al l pul l eys.
CAUTION: When installing the serpentine acces-
sory drive belt, the belt MUST be routed correctly. If
not, the engine may overheat due to the water
pump rotating in the wrong direction. Refer to (Fig.
47) (Fig. 48) (Fig. 49) (Fig. 50) for correct belt rout-
ing.
Fig. 47 Models with 2.5L EngineWith A/C
Fig. 48 Models with 2.5L EngineWithout A/C
Fig. 49 Models with 4.0L EngineWithout A/C
Except RHD
7 - 36 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(2) I nstal l new bel t.
(3) Usi ng serpenti ne bel t tensi on gauge, ti ghten
adjusti ng bol t unti l bel t reaches proper tensi on. Refer
to Bel t Tensi on at the rear of thi s secti on for proper
bel t tensi on.
(4) After bel t i s tensi oned correctl y, ti ghten i dl er
pul l ey bol t to 47 Nm (35 ft. l bs.)
(5) After i dl er pul l ey has been ti ghtened i nto posi -
ti on, recheck bel t tensi on. Adjust i f necessary.
BELT REPLACEMENT OR ADJUSTMENT RIGHT
HAND DRIVE (4. 0L)
(1) Di sconnect negati ve battery cabl e from battery.
(2) Loosen l ower al ternator mounti ng bol t and nut.
(3) Loosen upper al ternator mounti ng nut.
(4) Loosen adjusti ng bol t at upper al ternator bracket
(Fi g. 54) unti l bel t can be removed from pul l eys.
(5) Remove bel t.
INSTALLATION
(1) Check condi ti on of al l pul l eys.
Fig. 50 Models With 4.0L EngineWith A/CExcept
RHD
Fig. 51 Models With 4.0L EngineWith A/CWith
RHD
Fig. 52 Models With 4.0L EngineWithout A/C
With RHD
Fig. 53 Power Steering Pump Bracket and Idler
Pulley
1 ADJUSTING BOLT
2 IDLER PULLEY BOLT
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 37
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
CAUTION: When installing the serpentine acces-
sory drive belt, the belt MUST be routed correctly. If
not, the engine may overheat due to the water
pump rotating in the wrong direction. Refer to (Fig.
51) (Fig. 52) for correct belt routing.
(2) I nstal l new bel t.
(3) Usi ng serpenti ne bel t tensi on gauge, ti ghten
adjusti ng bol t unti l bel t reaches proper tensi on. Refer
to Bel t Tensi on at the rear of thi s secti on for proper
bel t tensi on.
(4) Ti ghten al ternator upper and l ower mounti ng
bol ts.
(5) After generator and adjust bracket have been
ti ghtened i nto posi ti on, recheck bel t tensi on. Adjust i f
necessary.
COOLING SYSTEM FANS
REMOVAL
Some engi nes have the mechani cal fan/vi scous fan
dri ve assembl y mounted di rectl y to the water pump
hub (Fi g. 55). I t may al so be mounted to a hub/bear-
i ng attached to an al umi num bracket on the ri ght
front si de of engi ne (Fi g. 56).
(1) Loosen but do not remove at thi s ti me, the four
fan hub mounti ng nuts (Fi g. 55) (Fi g. 56).
(2) Remove accessory serpenti ne dri ve bel t. Refer
to Bel t Servi ce i n the Engi ne Accessory Dri ve Bel t
secti on of thi s group.
(3) Some model s wi th certai n engi nes may requi re
the removal of the fan shroud to remove the vi scous
fan dri ve. The fan shroud and fan bl ade/vi scous fan
dri ve shoul d be removed from the vehi cl e as one
assembl y.
(4) Remove four fan hub mounti ng nuts (Fi g. 55)
(Fi g. 56) and remove fan/vi scous fan dri ve assembl y
from vehi cl e.
(5) After removi ng fan bl ade/vi scous fan dri ve
assembl y, do not pl ace thermal vi scous fan dri ve i n
hori zontal posi ti on. I f stored hori zontal l y, si l i cone
fl ui d i n vi scous fan dri ve coul d drai n i nto i ts beari ng
assembl y and contami nate l ubri cant.
INSTALLATION
(1) Assembl e fan bl ade to vi scous fan dri ve.
Ti ghten mounti ng bol ts to 27 Nm (20 ft. l bs.) torque.
(2) Posi ti on mounti ng fl ange of fan bl ade/vi scous
fan dri ve assembl y onto hub. I nstal l four nuts and
ti ghten to 24 Nm (18 ft. l bs.) torque. Ti ghten the
fi rst two nuts 180 degrees apart. Then ti ghten l ast
two nuts.
CAUTION: When installing a serpentine accessory
drive belt, the belt MUST be routed correctly. If not,
the engine may overheat due to the water pump
rotating in the wrong direction. Refer to appropriate
Engine Accessory Drive Belt Schematic in this
group for correct belt routing.
Fig. 54 Generator Belt Tension Adjust Bracket
1 TENSION ADJUSTMENT BOLT
2 UPPER ALTERNATOR NUT
Fig. 55 Water Pump Mounted Cooling Fan
1 THERMAL VISCOUS FAN DRIVE
2 (4) FAN BLADE-TO-VISCOUS DRIVE BOLTS
3 (4) FAN HUB-TO-PUMP PULLEY STUDS
4 WATER PUMP
5 WATER PUMP PULLEY
6 FAN BLADE
7 (4) FAN HUB-TO-PUMP PULLEY NUTS
7 - 38 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(3) I nstal l accessory dri ve bel ts. Tensi on bel ts to
speci fi cati ons. Refer to the Speci fi cati ons secti on at
the end of thi s group.
VISCOUS FAN DRIVE REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
Refer to Cool i ng System Fan for removal and
i nstal l ati on procedures of the vi scous dri ve uni t.
Viscous Fan Drive Fluid Pump Out Requirement:
After i nstal l i ng a new vi scous fan dri ve, bri ng the
engi ne speed up to approxi matel y 2000 rpm and hol d
for approxi matel y two mi nutes. Thi s wi l l ensure
proper fl ui d di stri buti on wi thi n the dri ve.
CLEANING AND INSPECTION
RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP
CLEANING
Cl ean the radi ator pressure cap usi ng a mi l d soap
and water onl y.
INSPECTION
Vi sual l y i nspect the pressure val ve gasket on the
cap. Repl ace cap i f the gasket i s swol l en, torn or
worn. I nspect the area around radi ator fi l l er neck for
whi te deposi ts that i ndi cate a l eaki ng cap.
RADIATOR
CLEANING
Cl ean radi ator fi ns Wi th the engi ne col d, appl y col d
water and compressed ai r to the back (engi ne si de) of
the radi ator to fl ush the radi ator and/or A/C con-
denser of debri s.
INSPECTION
The radi ator cool i ng fi ns shoul d be checked for
damage or deteri orati on. I nspect cool i ng fi ns to make
sure they are not bent or crushed, these areas resul t
i n reduced heat exchange causi ng the cool i ng system
to operate at hi gher temperatures. I nspect the pl asti c
end tanks for cracks, damage or l eaks.
I nspect the radi ator neck for damage or di storti on.
WATER PUMP
CLEANING
Cl ean the gasket mati ng surface. Use cauti on not
to damage the gasket seal i ng surface.
INSPECTION
I nspect the water pump assembl y for cracks i n the
housi ng, Water l eaks from shaft seal , Loose or rough
turni ng beari ng or I mpel l er rubbi ng ei ther the pump
body or ti mi ng chai n case/cover.
FAN BLADE
CLEANING
Cl ean the fan bl ades usi ng a mi l d soap and water.
Do not use an abrasi ve to cl ean the bl ades.
INSPECTION
WARNING: DO NOT ATTEMPT TO BEND OR
STRAIGHTEN FAN BLADES IF FAN IS NOT WITHIN
SPECIFICATIONS.
CAUTION: If fan blade assembly is replaced
because of mechanical damage, water pump and
viscous fan drive should also be inspected. These
components could have been damaged due to
excessive vibration.
(1) Remove fan bl ade assembl y from vi scous fan
dri ve uni t (four bol ts).
(2) Lay fan on a fl at surface wi th l eadi ng edge fac-
i ng down. Wi th ti p of bl ade touchi ng fl at surface,
repl ace fan i f cl earance between opposi te bl ade and
surface i s greater than 2.0 mm (.090 i nch). Rocki ng
moti on of opposi te bl ades shoul d not exceed 2.0 mm
(.090 i nch). Test al l bl ades i n thi s manner.
Fig. 56 Bracket Mounted Cooling Fan
1 WATER PUMP (2.5L ENGINE)
2 HUB/BEARING (4.0L ENGINE)
3 PULLEY NUTS
4 PULLEY
5 BRACKET
XJ COOLING SYSTEM 7 - 39
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
(3) I nspect fan assembl y for cracks, bends, l oose
ri vets or broken wel ds. Repl ace fan i f any damage i s
found.
COOLING SYSTEM HOSES
INSPECTION
I nspect the hoses at regul ar i nterval s. Repl ace
hoses that are cracked, feel bri ttl e when squeezed or
swel l excessi vel y when the system i s pressuri zed.
The use of mol ded repl acement hoses i s recom-
mended. When performi ng a hose i nspecti on, i nspect
the radi ator l ower hose for proper posi ti on and con-
di ti on of the spri ng.
SPECIFICATIONS
BELT TENSION
Bel t tensi on must be adjusted. Refer to the fol l ow-
i ng Bel t Tensi on chart for speci fi cati ons.
DESCRIPTION Nf Lbs. ft.
New Serpentine Belt* 800-900 180-200
Used Serpentine Belt 623-712 140-160
* Belt is considered new if it has been used 15
minetes or less.
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
DESCRIPTION Nm Ft. In.
Lbs. Lbs.
Trans. Auxiliary Oil
CoolerScrews
2 18
Block HeaterScrew 4 20
Condenser-to-Radiator
Bolts
6 55
Electric Cooling FanBolts 3 31
Fan Blade Assy to Viscous
Fan DriveBolts 24 18
Fan ShroudBolts 3 31
Isolator-to-Crossmember
Nuts
10 86
Isolator-to-RadiatorNuts 5 47
RadiatorBolts
4.0L Engine 8 70
2.5L Engine 6 55
Thermostat HousingBolts 20 15
Viscous Fan Drive Assy. to
DESCRIPTION Nm Ft. In.
Lbs. Lbs.
Water Pump or Hub
BearingNuts
27 20
Water PumpBolts 23 17
SPECIAL TOOLS
COOLING
Hose Clamp Tool6094
Cooling System Pressure Tester7700A
3/8 Quick Connect Release Tool6935
7 - 40 COOLING SYSTEM XJ
CLEANING AND INSPECTION (Continued)
WIRING DIAGRAMS
CONTENTS
page page
AIR CONDITIONING-HEATER . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42-1
AIRBAG SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-43-1
ANTI-LOCK BRAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-35-1
AUDIO SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-47-1
CHARGING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-20-1
COMPONENT INDEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-02-1
CONNECTOR LOCATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-90-1
CONNECTOR PIN-OUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-80-1
FRONT LIGHTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-50-1
FUEL/IGNITION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30-1
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-01-1
GROUND DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-15-1
HORN/CIGAR LIGHTER/POWER OUTLET . . 8W-41-1
INSTRUMENT CLUSTER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40-1
INTERIOR LIGHTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-44-1
JUNCTION BLOCK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-12-1
OVERHEAD CONSOLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-49-1
POWER DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-1
POWER DOOR LOCKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-61-1
POWER MIRRORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-62-1
POWER SEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-63-1
POWER WINDOWS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-60-1
REAR LIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-51-1
REAR WINDOW DEFOGGER. . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-48-1
SPLICE INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-70-1
SPLICE LOCATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-95-1
STARTING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-21-1
TRAILER TOW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-54-1
TRANSMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM . . . . . 8W-31-1
TURN SIGNALS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-52-1
VEHICLE SPEED CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-33-1
VEHICLE THEFT SECURITY SYSTEM . . . . . 8W-39-1
WIPERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-53-1
XJ WIRING DIAGRAMS 8W - 1
8W-01 GENERAL INFORMATION
INDEX
page page
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
CIRCUIT FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
CIRCUIT INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
CONNECTOR INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD)
SENSITIVE DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS . . . . . . . . . . 7
SECTION IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
SPLICE LOCATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
SYMBOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
TAKE OUTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
INTERMITTENT AND POOR CONNECTIONS. . . . . 8
TROUBLESHOOTING TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
TROUBLESHOOTING WIRING PROBLEMS. . . . . . 9
SERVICE PROCEDURES
CONNECTOR AND TERMINAL
REPLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
CONNECTOR REPLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
DIODE REPLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
TERMINAL REPLACEMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
TERMINAL/CONNECTOR REPAIR- AUGAT
CONNECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
TERMINAL/CONNECTOR REPAIR-MOLEX
CONNECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
TERMINAL/CONNECTOR REPAIRTHOMAS
AND BETTS CONNECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
WIRING REPAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
SPECIAL TOOLS
WIRING/TERMINAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
INTRODUCTION
Dai ml erChrysl er wi ri ng di agrams are desi gned to
provi de i nformati on regardi ng the vehi cl es wi ri ng
content. I n order to effecti vel y use Dai ml erChrysl er
wi ri ng di agrams to di agnose and repai r a Dai ml er-
Chrysl er vehi cl e, i t i s i mportant to understand al l of
thei r features and characteri sti cs.
Di agrams are arranged such that the power (B+)
si de of the ci rcui t i s pl aced near the top of the page,
and the ground (B-) si de of the ci rcui t i s pl aced near
the bottom of the page.
Al l swi tches, components, and modul es are shown
i n the at rest posi ti on wi th the doors cl osed and the
key removed from the i gni ti on.
Components are shown two ways. A sol i d l i ne
around a component i ndi cates that the component i s
compl ete. A dashed l i ne around a component i ndi -
cates that the component bei ng shown i s not com-
pl ete. I ncompl ete components have a reference
number to i ndi cate the page where the component i s
shown compl ete.
I t i s i mportant to real i ze that no attempt i s made
on the di agrams to represent components and wi ri ng
as they appear on the vehi cl e. For exampl e, a short
pi ece of wi re i s treated the same as a l ong one. I n
addi ti on, swi tches and other components are shown
as si mpl y as possi bl e, wi th regard to functi on onl y.
XJ 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION 8W - 01 - 1
The System shown here is an EXAMPLE ONLY. It does not represent the actual circuit shown in the WIRING
DIAGRAM SECTION.
8W - 01 - 2 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
The System shown here is an EXAMPLE ONLY. It does not represent the actual circuit shown in the WIRING
DIAGRAM SECTION.
XJ 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION 8W - 01 - 3
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
CIRCUIT INFORMATION
Each wi re shown i n the di agrams contai ns a code
whi ch i denti fi es the mai n ci rcui t, part of the mai n
ci rcui t, gage of wi re, and col or (Fi g. 1).
CIRCUIT FUNCTIONS
Al l ci rcui ts i n the di agrams use an al pha/numeri c
code to i denti fy the wi re and i ts functi on. To i denti fy
whi ch ci rcui t code appl i es to a system, refer to the
Ci rcui t I denti fi cati on Code Chart. Thi s chart shows
the mai n ci rcui ts onl y and does not show the second-
ary codes that may appl y to some model s.
Fig. 1 Wire Code Identification
1 COLOR OF WIRE (LIGHT BLUE WITH YELLOW TRACER)
2 GAUGE OF WIRE (18 GAUGE)
3 PART OF MAIN CIRCUIT (VARIES DEPENDING ON
EQUIPMENT)
4 MAIN CIRCUIT IDENTIFICATION
WIRE COLOR CODE CHART
COLOR CODE COLOR
STANDARD
TRACER
COLOR
BL BLUE WT
BK BLACK WT
BR BROWN WT
DB DARK BLUE WT
DG DARK GREEN WT
GY GRAY BK
LB LIGHT BLUE BK
LG LIGHT GREEN BK
OR ORANGE BK
PK PINK BK or WT
RD RED WT
TN TAN WT
VT VIOLET WT
WT WHITE BK
YL YELLOW BK
* WITH TRACER
CIRCUIT IDENTIFICATION CODE CHART
CIRCUIT FUNCTION
A BATTERY FEED
B BRAKE CONTROLS
C CLIMATE CONTROLS
D DIAGNOSTIC CIRCUITS
E DIMMING ILLUMINATION CIRCUITS
F FUSED CIRCUITS
G MONITORING CIRCUITS (GAUGES)
H OPEN
I NOT USED
J OPEN
K POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE
L EXTERIOR LIGHTING
M INTERIOR LIGHTING
N NOT USED
O NOT USED
P POWER OPTION (BATTERY FEED)
Q POWER OPTIONS (IGNITION FEED)
R PASSIVE RESTRAINT
S SUSPENSION/STEERING
T TRANSMISSION/TRANSAXLE/
TRANSFER CASE
U OPEN
V SPEED CONTROL, WIPER/WASHER
W OPEN
X AUDIO SYSTEMS
Y OPEN
Z GROUNDS
8W - 01 - 4 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
SECTION IDENTIFICATION
The wi ri ng di agrams are grouped i nto i ndi vi dual
secti ons. I f a component i s most l i kel y found i n a par-
ti cul ar group, i t wi l l be shown compl ete (al l wi res,
connectors, and pi ns) wi thi n that group. For exam-
pl e, the Auto Shutdown Rel ay i s most l i kel y to be
found i n Group 30, so i t i s shown there compl ete. I t
can, however, be shown parti al l y i n another group i f
i t contai ns some associ ated wi ri ng.
SYMBOLS
I nternati onal symbol s are used throughout the wi r-
i ng di agrams. These symbol s are consi stent wi th
those bei ng used around the worl d
GROUP TOPIC
8W-01 thru
8W-09
General Information and Diagram
Overview
8W-10 thru
8W-19
Main Sources of Power and Vehicle
Grounding
8W-20 thru
8W-29
Starting and Charging
8W-30 thru
8W-39
Powertrain/Drivetrain Systems
8W-40 thru
8W-49
Body Electrical items and A/C
8W-50 thru
8W-59
Exterior Lighting, Wipers, and Trailer
Tow
8W-60 thru
8W-69
Power Accessories
8W-70 Splice Information
8W-80 Connector Pin Outs
8W-90 Connector Locations (including
grounds)
8W-95 Splice Locations
XJ 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION 8W - 01 - 5
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Wiring Diagram Symbols
8W - 01 - 6 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
CONNECTOR INFORMATION
CAUTION: Not all connectors are serviced. Some
connectors are serviced only with a harness. A typ-
ical example might be the Supplemental Restraint
System connectors. Always check parts availability
before attempting a repair.
IDENTIFICATION
I n-l i ne connectors are i denti fi ed by a number, as
fol l ows:
I n-l i ne connectors l ocated on the engine com-
partment harness are C100 seri es numbers.
Connectors l ocated on the instrument panel
harness are C200 seri es numbers.
Connectors l ocated on the body harness are
C300 seri es numbers.
J umper harness connectors are C400 seri es
numbers.
Grounds and ground connectors are i denti -
fi ed wi th a G and fol l ow the same seri es number-
i ng as the i n-l i ne connector.
Component connectors are i denti fi ed by the compo-
nent name i nstead of a number. Mul ti pl e connectors
on a component use a C1, C2, etc. i denti fi er.
LOCATIONS
Secti on 8W-90 contai ns connector/ground l ocati on
i l l ustrati ons. The i l l ustrati ons contai n the connector
name (or number)/ground number and component
i denti fi cati on. Connector/ground l ocati on charts i n
Secti on 8W-90 reference the i l l ustrati on number for
components and connectors.
Secti on 8W-80 shows each connector and the ci r-
cui ts i nvol ved wi th that connector. The connectors
are i denti fi ed usi ng the name/number on the Di a-
gram pages.
SPLICE LOCATIONS
Spl i ce Locati on charts i n Secti on 8W-70 show the
enti re spl i ce, and provi de references to other secti ons
the spl i ce serves.
Secti on 8W-95 contai ns i l l ustrati ons that show the
general l ocati on of the spl i ces i n each harness. The
i l l ustrati ons show the spl i ce by number, and provi de
a wri tten l ocati on.
NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS
Throughout thi s group addi ti onal i mportant i nfor-
mati on i s presented i n three ways; Notes, Cauti ons,
and Warni ngs.
NOTES are used to hel p descri be how swi tches or
components operate to compl ete a parti cul ar ci rcui t.
They are al so used to i ndi cate di fferent condi ti ons
that may appear on the vehi cl e. For exampl e, an
up-to and after condi ti on.
CAUTIONS are used to i ndi cate i nformati on that
coul d prevent maki ng an error that may damage the
vehi cl e.
WARNINGS provi de i nformati on to prevent per-
sonal i njury and vehi cl e damage. Bel ow i s a l i st of
general warni ngs that shoul d be fol l owed any ti me a
vehi cl e i s bei ng servi ced.
WARNING: ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES FOR
EYE PROTECTION.
WARNING: USE SAFETY STANDS ANYTIME A PRO-
CEDURE REQUIRES BEING UNDER A VEHICLE.
WARNING: BE SURE THAT THE IGNITION SWITCH
ALWAYS IS IN THE OFF POSITION, UNLESS THE
PROCEDURE REQUIRES IT TO BE ON.
WARNING: SET THE PARKING BRAKE WHEN
WORKING ON ANY VEHICLE. AN AUTOMATIC
TRANSMISSION SHOULD BE IN PARK. A MANUAL
TRANSMISSION SHOULD BE IN NEUTRAL.
WARNING: OPERATE THE ENGINE ONLY IN A
WELL-VENTILATED AREA.
WARNING: KEEP AWAY FROM MOVING PARTS
WHEN THE ENGINE IS RUNNING, ESPECIALLY THE
FAN AND BELTS.
WARNING: TO PREVENT SERIOUS BURNS, AVOID
CONTACT WITH HOT PARTS SUCH AS THE RADIA-
TOR, EXHAUST MANIFOLD(S), TAIL PIPE, CATA-
LYTIC CONVERTER, AND MUFFLER.
WARNING: DO NOT ALLOW FLAME OR SPARKS
NEAR THE BATTERY. GASES ARE ALWAYS
PRESENT IN AND AROUND THE BATTERY.
WARNING: ALWAYS REMOVE RINGS, WATCHES,
LOOSE HANGING JEWELRY, AND LOOSE CLOTH-
ING.
TAKE OUTS
The abbrevi ati on T/O i s used i n the component
l ocati on secti on to i ndi cate a poi nt i n whi ch the wi r-
i ng harness branches out to a component.
XJ 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION 8W - 01 - 7
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD) SENSITIVE
DEVICES
Al l ESD sensi ti ve components are sol i d state and a
symbol (Fi g. 2) i s used to i ndi cate thi s. When han-
dl i ng any component wi th thi s symbol compl y wi th
the fol l owi ng procedures to reduce the possi bi l i ty of
el ectrostati c charge bui l d up on the body and i nad-
vertent di scharge i nto the component. I f i t i s not
known whether the part i s ESD sensi ti ve, assume
that i t i s.
(1) Al ways touch a known good ground before han-
dl i ng the part. Thi s shoul d be repeated whi l e han-
dl i ng the part and more frequentl y after sl i di ng
across a seat, si tti ng down from a standi ng posi ti on,
or wal ki ng a di stance.
(2) Avoi d touchi ng el ectri cal termi nal s of the part,
unl ess i nstructed to do so by a wri tten procedure.
(3) When usi ng a vol tmeter, be sure to connect the
ground l ead fi rst.
(4) Do not remove the part from i ts protecti ve
packi ng unti l i t i s ti me to i nstal l the part.
(5) Before removi ng the part from i ts package,
ground the package to a known good ground on the
vehi cl e.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
When di agnosi ng a probl em i n an el ectri cal ci rcui t
there are several common tool s necessary. These tool s
are l i sted and expl ai ned bel ow.
Jumper Wi re - Thi s i s a test wi re used to con-
nect two poi nts of a ci rcui t. I t can be used to bypass
an open i n a ci rcui t.
WARNING: NEVER USE A JUMPER WIRE ACROSS
A LOAD, SUCH AS A MOTOR, CONNECTED
BETWEEN A BATTERY FEED AND GROUND.
Vol tmeter - Used to check for vol tage on a ci r-
cui t. Al ways connect the bl ack l ead to a known good
ground and the red l ead to the posi ti ve si de of the
ci rcui t.
CAUTION: Most of the electrical components used
in todays vehicle are solid state. When checking
voltages in these circuits use a meter with a 10-me-
gohm or greater impedance rating.
Ohmmeter - Used to check the resi stance
between two poi nts of a ci rcui t. Low or no resi stance
i n a ci rcui t means good conti nui ty.
CAUTION: - Most of the electrical components used
in todays vehicle are Solid State. When checking
resistance in these circuits use a meter with a
10-megohm or greater impedance rating. In addi-
tion, make sure the power is disconnected from the
circuit. Circuits that are powered up by the vehicle
electrical system can cause damage to the equip-
ment and provide false readings.
Probi ng Tool s - These tool s are used for probi ng
termi nal s i n connectors (Fi g. 3). Sel ect the proper
si ze tool from Speci al Tool Package 6807, and i nsert
i t i nto the termi nal bei ng tested. Use the other end
of the tool to i nsert the meter probe.
INTERMITTENT AND POOR CONNECTIONS
Most i ntermi ttent el ectri cal probl ems are caused
by faul ty el ectri cal connecti ons or wi ri ng. I t i s al so
possi bl e for a sti cki ng component or rel ay to cause a
probl em. Before condemni ng a component or wi ri ng
assembl y check the fol l owi ng i tems.
Connectors are ful l y seated
Spread termi nal s, or termi nal push out
Termi nal s i n the wi ri ng assembl y are ful l y
seated i nto the connector/component and l ocked i n
posi ti on
Di rt or corrosi on on the termi nal s. Any amount
of corrosi on or di rt coul d cause an i ntermi ttent prob-
l em
Damaged connector/component casi ng exposi ng
the i tem to di rt and moi sture
Wi re i nsul ati on that has rubbed through causi ng
a short to ground
Some or al l of the wi ri ng strands broken i nsi de
of the i nsul ati on coveri ng.
Wi ri ng broken i nsi de of the i nsul ati on
Fig. 2 Electrostatic Discharge Symbol
Fig. 3 Probing Tool
1 SPECIAL TOOL 6801
2 PROBING END
8W - 01 - 8 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION XJ
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
TROUBLESHOOTING TESTS
Before begi nni ng any tests on a vehi cl es el ectri cal
system use the Wi ri ng Di agrams and study the ci r-
cui t. Al so refer to the Troubl eshooti ng Wi ri ng Prob-
l ems i n thi s secti on.
TESTING FOR VOLTAGE POTENTIAL
(1) Connect the ground l ead of a vol tmeter to a
known good ground (Fi g. 4).
(2) Connect the other l ead of the vol tmeter to the
sel ected test poi nt. The vehi cl e i gni ti on may need to
be turned ON to check vol tage. Refer to the appropri -
ate test procedure.
TESTING FOR CONTINUITY
(1) Remove the fuse for the ci rcui t bei ng checked
or, di sconnect the battery.
(2) Connect one l ead of the ohmmeter to one si de
of the ci rcui t bei ng tested (Fi g. 5).
(3) Connect the other l ead to the other end of the
ci rcui t bei ng tested. Low or no resi stance means good
conti nui ty.
TESTING FOR A SHORT TO GROUND
(1) Remove the fuse and di sconnect al l i tems
i nvol ved wi th the fuse.
(2) Connect a test l i ght or a vol tmeter across the
termi nal s of the fuse.
(3) Starti ng at the fuse bl ock, wi ggl e the wi ri ng
harness about si x to ei ght i nches apart and watch
the vol tmeter/test l amp.
(4) I f the vol tmeter regi sters vol tage or the test
l amp gl ows, there i s a short to ground i n that gen-
eral area of the wi ri ng harness.
TESTING FOR A SHORT TO GROUND ON FUSES
POWERING SEVERAL LOADS
(1) Refer to the wi ri ng di agrams and di sconnect or
i sol ate al l i tems on the suspected fused ci rcui ts.
(2) Repl ace the bl own fuse.
(3) Suppl y power to the fuse by turni ng ON the
i gni ti on swi tch or re-connecti ng the battery.
(4) Start connecti ng the i tems i n the fuse ci rcui t
one at a ti me. When the fuse bl ows the ci rcui t wi th
the short to ground has been i sol ated.
TESTING FOR A VOLTAGE DROP
(1) Connect the posi ti ve l ead of the vol tmeter to
the si de of the ci rcui t cl osest to the battery (Fi g. 6).
(2) Connect the other l ead of the vol tmeter to the
other si de of the swi tch or component.
(3) Operate the i tem.
(4) The vol tmeter wi l l show the di fference i n vol t-
age between the two poi nts.
TROUBLESHOOTING WIRING PROBLEMS
When troubl eshooti ng wi ri ng probl ems there are
si x steps whi ch can ai d i n the procedure. The steps
are l i sted and expl ai ned bel ow. Al ways check for non-
factory i tems added to the vehi cl e before doi ng any
di agnosi s. I f the vehi cl e i s equi pped wi th these i tems,
di sconnect them to veri fy these add-on i tems are not
the cause of the probl em.
(1) Veri fy the probl em.
Fig. 4 Testing for Voltage Potential
Fig. 5 Testing for Continuity
1 FUSE REMOVED FROM CIRCUIT
XJ 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION 8W - 01 - 9
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
(2) Veri fy any rel ated symptoms. Do thi s by per-
formi ng operati onal checks on components that are
i n the same ci rcui t. Refer to the wi ri ng di agrams.
(3) Anal yze the symptoms. Use the wi ri ng di a-
grams to determi ne what the ci rcui t i s doi ng, where
the probl em most l i kel y i s occurri ng and where the
di agnosi s wi l l conti nue.
(4) I sol ate the probl em area.
(5) Repai r the probl em.
(6) Veri fy proper operati on. For thi s step check for
proper operati on of al l i tems on the repai red ci rcui t.
Refer to the wi ri ng di agrams.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
WIRING REPAIR
When repl aci ng or repai ri ng a wi re, i t i s i mportant
that the correct gage be used as shown i n the wi ri ng
di agrams. The wi res must al so be hel d securel y i n
pl ace to prevent damage to the i nsul ati on.
(1) Di sconnect battery negati ve cabl e
(2) Remove 1 i nch of i nsul ati on from each end of
the wi re.
(3) Pl ace a pi ece of heat shri nk tubi ng over one
si de of the wi re. Make sure the tubi ng wi l l be l ong
enough to cover and seal the enti re repai r area.
(4) Spread the strands of the wi re apart on each
part of the exposed wi re (exampl e 1). (Fi g. 7)
(5) Push the two ends of wi re together unti l the
strands of wi re are cl ose to the i nsul ati on (exampl e
2) (Fi g. 7)
(6) Twi st the wi res together (exampl e 3) (Fi g. 7)
(7) Sol der the connecti on together usi ng rosi n core
type sol der onl y. Do not use acid core solder.
(8) Center the heat shri nk tubi ng over the joi nt,
and heat usi ng a heat gun. Heat the joi nt unti l the
tubi ng i s ti ghtl y seal ed and seal ant comes out of both
ends of the tubi ng.
(9) Secure the wi re to the exi sti ng ones to prevent
chafi ng or damage to the i nsul ati on
(10) Connect battery and test al l affected systems.
TERMINAL/CONNECTOR REPAIR-MOLEX
CONNECTORS
(1) Di sconnect battery.
(2) Di sconnect the connector from i ts mati ng hal f/
component.
(3) I nsert the termi nal rel easi ng speci al tool 6742
i nto the termi nal end of the connector (Fi g. 8).
(4) Usi ng speci al tool 6742 rel ease the l ocki ng fi n-
gers on the termi nal (Fi g. 9).
(5) Pul l on the wi re to remove i t from the connec-
tor.
(6) Repai r or repl ace the connector or termi nal , as
necessary.
TERMINAL/CONNECTOR REPAIR THOMAS
AND BETTS CONNECTORS
(1) Di sconnect battery.
(2) Di sconnect the connector from i ts mati ng hal f/
component.
Fig. 6 Testing for Voltage Drop
Fig. 7 Wire Repair
1 EXAMPLE 1
2 EXAMPLE 2
3 EXAMPLE 3
8W - 01 - 10 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION XJ
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
(3) Push i n the two l ock tabs on the si de of the
connector (Fi g. 10).
(4) I nsert the probe end of speci al tool 6934 i nto
the back of the connector cavi ty (Fi g. 11).
(5) Grasp the wi re and tool 6934 and sl owl y
remove the wi re and termi nal from the connector.
(6) Repai r or repl ace the termi nal .
(7) I nstal l the wi re and termi nal i n the connector.
Ful l y seat the termi nal i n the connector.
(8) Push i n the si ngl e l ock tab on the si de of the
connector (Fi g. 12).
TERMINAL/CONNECTOR REPAIR- AUGAT
CONNECTORS
(1) Di sconnect battery.
(2) Di sconnect the connector from i ts mati ng hal f/
component.
(3) Push down on the yel l ow connector l ocki ng tab
to rel ease the termi nal s (Fi g. 13).
(4) Usi ng speci al tool 6932, push the termi nal to
remove i t from the connector (Fi g. 14).
(5) Repai r or repl ace the connector or termi nal as
necessary.
(6) When re-assembl i ng the connector, the l ocki ng
wedge must be pl aced i n the l ocked posi ti on to pre-
vent termi nal push out.
Fig. 8 Molex Connector Repair
1 CONNECTOR
2 SPECIAL TOOL 6742
Fig. 9 Using Special Tool 6742
1 CONNECTOR
2 SPECIAL TOOL 6742
Fig. 10 Thomas and Betts Connector Lock Release
Tabs
1 LOCK TABS
Fig. 11 Removing Wire Terminal
1 SPECIAL TOOL 6934
XJ 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION 8W - 01 - 11
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
CONNECTOR REPLACEMENT
(1) Di sconnect battery.
(2) Di sconnect the connector that i s to be repai red
from i ts mati ng hal f/component
(3) Remove the connector l ocki ng wedge, i f
requi red (Fi g. 15)
(4) Posi ti on the connector l ocki ng fi nger away from
the termi nal usi ng the proper pi ck from speci al tool
ki t 6680. Pul l on the wi re to remove the termi nal
from the connector (Fi g. 16) (Fi g. 17).
(5) Reset the termi nal l ocki ng tang, i f i t has one.
(6) I nsert the removed wi re i n the same cavi ty on
the repai r connector.
(7) Repeat steps four through si x for each wi re i n
the connector, bei ng sure that al l wi res are i nserted
i nto the proper cavi ti es. For addi ti onal connector pi n-
out i denti fi cati on, refer to the wi ri ng di agrams.
(8) I nsert the connector l ocki ng wedge i nto the
repai red connector, i f requi red.
(9) Connect connector to i ts mati ng hal f/compo-
nent.
(10) Connect battery and test al l affected systems.
CONNECTOR AND TERMINAL REPLACEMENT
(1) Di sconnect battery.
(2) Di sconnect the connector (that i s to be
repai red) from i ts mati ng hal f/component.
(3) Cut off the exi sti ng wi re connector di rectl y
behi nd the i nsul ator. Remove si x i nches of tape from
the harness.
Fig. 12 Single Lock Tab
1 SINGLE LOCK TAB
Fig. 13 Augat Connector Repair
1 LOCKING TAB
2 CONNECTOR
Fig. 14 Using Special Tool 6932
1 SPECIAL TOOL 6932
2 CONNECTOR
Fig. 15 Connector Locking Wedge
1 CONNECTOR
2 CONNECTOR LOCKING WEDGE TAB
8W - 01 - 12 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
(4) Stagger cut al l wi res on the harness si de at 1/2
i nch i nterval s (Fi g. 18).
(5) Remove 1 i nch of i nsul ati on from each wi re on
the harness si de.
(6) Stagger cut the matchi ng wi res on the repai r
connector assembl y i n the opposi te order as was done
on the harness si de of the repai r. Al l ow extra l ength
for sol dered connecti ons. Check that the overal l
l ength i s the same as the ori gi nal (Fi g. 18).
(7) Remove 1 i nch of i nsul ati on from each wi re.
(8) Pl ace a pi ece of heat shri nk tubi ng over one
si de of the wi re. Be sure the tubi ng wi l l be l ong
enough to cover and seal the enti re repai r area.
(9) Spread the strands of the wi re apart on each
part of the exposed wi res.
(10) Push the two ends of wi re together unti l the
strands of wi re are cl ose to the i nsul ati on.
(11) Twi st the wi res together.
(12) Sol der the connecti on together usi ng rosi n
core type sol der onl y. Do not use acid core solder.
(13) Center the heat shri nk tubi ng over the joi nt
and heat usi ng a heat gun. Heat the joi nt unti l the
tubi ng i s ti ghtl y seal ed and seal ant comes out of both
ends of the tubi ng
(14) Repeat steps 8 through 13 for each wi re.
(15) Re-tape the wi re harness starti ng 1-1/2 i nches
behi nd the connector and 2 i nches past the repai r.
(16) Re-connect the repai red connector.
(17) Connect the battery, and test al l affected sys-
tems.
TERMINAL REPLACEMENT
(1) Di sconnect battery.
(2) Di sconnect the connector bei ng repai red from
i ts mati ng hal f. Remove connector l ocki ng wedge, i f
requi red (Fi g. 19).
(3) Remove connector l ocki ng wedge, i f requi red
(Fi g. 19).
(4) Posi ti on the connector l ocki ng fi nger away from
the termi nal usi ng the proper pi ck from speci al tool
ki t 6680. Pul l on the wi re to remove the termi nal
from the connector (Fi g. 20) (Fi g. 21).
(5) Cut the wi re 6 i nches from the back of the con-
nector.
(6) Remove 1 i nch of i nsul ati on from the wi re on
the harness si de.
(7) Sel ect a wi re from the termi nal repai r assem-
bl y that best matches the col or wi re bei ng repai red.
Fig. 16 Terminal Removal
1 CONNECTOR
2 FROM SPECIAL TOOL KIT 6680
Fig. 17 Terminal Removal Using Special Tool
1 FROM SPECIAL TOOL KIT 6680
2 CONNECTOR
Fig. 18 Stagger Cutting Wires
1 REPAIR SIDE WIRES
2 STAGER CUTS
3 HARNESS WIRES
XJ 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION 8W - 01 - 13
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
(8) Cut the repai r wi re to the proper l ength and
remove 1 i nch of i nsul ati on.
(9) Pl ace a pi ece of heat shri nk tubi ng over one
si de of the wi re. Make sure the tubi ng wi l l be l ong
enough to cover and seal the enti re repai r area.
(10) Spread the strands of the wi re apart on each
part of the exposed wi res.
(11) Push the two ends of wi re together unti l the
strands of wi re are cl ose to the i nsul ati on.
(12) Twi st the wi res together.
(13) Sol der the connecti on together usi ng rosi n
core type sol der onl y. Do not use acid core solder.
(14) Center the heat shri nk tubi ng over the joi nt
and heat usi ng a heat gun. Heat the joi nt unti l the
tubi ng i s ti ghtl y seal ed and seal ant comes out of both
ends of the tubi ng.
(15) I nsert the repai red wi re i nto the connector.
(16) I nstal l the connector l ocki ng wedge, i f
requi red, and reconnect the connector to i ts mati ng
hal f/component.
(17) Re-tape the wi re harness starti ng 1-1/2 i nches
behi nd the connector and 2 i nches past the repai r.
(18) Connect battery, and test al l affected systems.
DIODE REPLACEMENT
(1) Di sconnect the battery.
(2) Locate the di ode i n the harness, and remove
the protecti ve coveri ng.
(3) Remove the di ode from the harness, pay atten-
ti on to the current fl ow di recti on (Fi g. 22).
Fig. 19 Connector Locking Wedge Tab (Typical)
1 CONNECTOR
2 CONNECTOR LOCKING WEDGE TAB
Fig. 20 Terminal Removal
1 CONNECTOR
2 FROM SPECIAL TOOL KIT 6680
Fig. 21 Terminal Removal Using Special Tool
1 FROM SPECIAL TOOL KIT 6680
2 CONNECTOR
Fig. 22 Diode Identification
1 CURRENT FLOW
2 BAND AROUND DIODE INDICATES CURRENT FLOW
3 DIODE AS SHOWN IN THE DIAGRAMS
8W - 01 - 14 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION XJ
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
(4) Remove the i nsul ati on from the wi res i n the
harness. Onl y remove enough i nsul ati on to sol der i n
the new di ode.
(5) I nstal l the new di ode i n the harness, maki ng
sure current fl ow i s correct. I f necessary refer to the
appropri ate wi ri ng di agram for current fl ow.
(6) Sol der the connecti on together usi ng rosi n core
type sol der onl y. Do not use acid core solder.
(7) Tape the di ode to the harness usi ng el ectri cal
tape maki ng, sure the di ode i s compl etel y seal ed
from the el ements.
(8) Re-connect the battery, and test affected sys-
tems.
SPECIAL TOOLS
WIRING/TERMINAL
Probing Tool Package 6807
Terminal Pick 6680
Terminal Removing Tool 6932
Terminal Removing Tool 6934
XJ 8W - 01 GENERAL INFORMATION 8W - 01 - 15
SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued)
8W-02 COMPONENT INDEX
Component Page
1-2 And 3-4 Sol enoi d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-31
2-3 Sol enoi d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-31
A/C Compressor Cl utch Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42
A/C Compressor Cl utch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42
A/C- Heater Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42
A/C Hi gh Pressure Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42
A/C Low Pressure Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42
Ai rbag Control Modul e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-43
Ai rbags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-43
Ambi ent Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-49
Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-47
Automati c Shut Down Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Back-Up Lamp Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-51
Back-Up Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-51
Battery Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-20
Bl end Door Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42
Bl ower Motor Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42
Bl ower Motor Resi stor Bl ock . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42
Bl ower Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42
Brake Lamp Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-33
Brake Warni ng Pressure Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Camshaft Posi ti on Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Cargo Lamp/Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-44
Center Hi gh Mounted Stop Lamp . . . . . . . . . 8W-51
Ci gar Li ghter Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-41
Ci gar Li ghter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-41
Ci rcui t Breakers (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-12
Cl ockspri ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30, 33, 41, 43
Cl uster I l l umi nati on Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Cl utch I nterl ock Swi tch Jumper . . . . . . . . 8W-12, 21
Cl utch I nterl ock Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-12, 21
Combi nati on Fl asher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-52
Compass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-49
Control l er Anti -Lock Brake Rel ay . . . . . . . . . 8W-35
Control l er Anti -Lock Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-35
Courtesy Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-44
Crankshaft Posi ti on Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Data Li nk Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Dayti me Runni ng Lamp Modul e . . . . . . . . . . 8W-50
Dome Lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-44
Dome Lamps Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-44
Door Jamb Swi tches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-39, 44
Door Lock Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-61
Duty Cycl e Evap/Purge Sol enoi d . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Engi ne Cool ant Temperature Gauge . . . . . . . 8W-40
Engi ne Cool ant Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . 8W-30
Engi ne Oi l Pressure Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Engi ne Starter Motor Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-21
Engi ne Starter Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-21
Evap Leak Detecti on Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Extended I dl e Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Component Page
Fog Lamp Rel ays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-50
Fog Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-50
Front Fog Lamp Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-44, 50
Front Wi per Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-53
Fuel I njectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Fuel Pump Modul e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Fuel Pump Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Fuses (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-12
Fuses (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10
Fusi bl e Li nk A11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10
Fusi bl e Li nk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-20
G Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-35
Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-20
Grounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-15
Headl amp Beam Sel ect Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-50
Headl amp Del ay Modul e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-50
Headl amp Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-50
Headl amps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-50
Heated Seat Backs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-63
Heated Seat Cushi ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-63
Heated Seat Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-63
Heated Seat Swi tches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-63
Heater Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42
Horn Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-41
Horn Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-41
Horns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-41
I dl e Ai r Control Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
I gni ti on Coi l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
I gni ti on Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10
I ndi cators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
I nput Speed Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-31
I nstrument Cl uster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
I ntake Ai r Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Juncti on Bl ock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-12
Li cense Lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-51
Li ftgate Lock Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-61
Li ftgate Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-44
Lock-Up Sol enoi d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-31
Mani fol d Absol ute Pressure Sensor . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Odometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Output Speed Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-31
Overhead Modul e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-49
Oxygen Sensor Downstream Rel ay . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Oxygen Sensor Upstream Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Oxygen Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Park Brake Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Park/Neutral Posi ti on Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-31
Park/Turn Si gnal Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-50, 52
Power Ampl i fi er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-47
Power Di stri buti on Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10
Power Lock/Wi ndow Swi tches . . . . . . . 8W-60, 61, 62
XJ 8W - 02 COMPONENT INDEX 8W - 02 - 1
Component Page
Power Mi rror Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-62
Power Mi rrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-48, 62
Power Outl et . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-41
Power Seat Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-63
Power Seat Swi tches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-63
Power Steeri ng Pressure Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Power Wi ndow Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-60
Powertrai n Control Modul e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
PRNDL I l l umi nati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-44
Radi ator Fan Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42
Radi ator Fan Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-42
Radi o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-47
Rai l Coi l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Rear Washer Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-53
Rear Wi ndow Defogger Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-48
Rear Wi ndow Defogger Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-48
Rear Wi ndow Defogger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-48
Rear Wi per Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-53
Rear Wi per/Washer Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-53
Red Brake Warni ng I ndi cator . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Seat Bel t Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Seat Heat I nterface Modul e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-63
Sentry Key I mmobi l i zer Modul e . . . . . . . . . . 8W-39
Shi ft Lock Sol enoi d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-31
Si de Marker Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-50, 52
Speakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-47
Speed Control Swi tches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-33
Speedometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Component Page
Spl i ce I nformati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-70
Tachometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Tai l /Stop Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-51
Throttl e Posi ti on Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Torque Converter Cl utch Sol enoi d . . . . . . . . . 8W-31
Trai l er Tow Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-54
Trai l er Tow El ectri c Brake Provi si on . . . . . . . 8W-54
Trai l er Tow Rel ays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-54
Transfer Case Swi tch I l l umi nati on . . . . . . . . 8W-44
Transfer Case Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Transmi ssi on Control Modul e . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-31
Transmi ssi on Range Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-31
Transmi ssi on Sol enoi d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-31
Tri p Reset Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Turn Si gnal Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-51, 52
Turn Si gnal /Hazard Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-52
Underhood Lamp/Mercury Swi tch . . . . . . . . . 8W-44
Vehi cl e Speed Control Servo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-33
Vehi cl e Speed Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-30
Vi sor/Vani ty Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-44
Vol t Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Washer Fl ui d Level Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-40
Wheel Speed Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-35
Wi ndow Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-60
Wi ndow Swi tches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-60
Wi ndshi el d Washer Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-53
Wi pe/Wash Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-53
Wi per Motor Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-53
8W - 02 - 2 8W - 02 COMPONENT INDEX XJ
8W-10 POWER DISTRIBUTION
Component Page
A/C Compressor Cl utch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-14
A/C Compressor Cl utch Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-14
Automati c Shut Down Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7
Bl ower Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-13
Bl ower Motor Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7, 13
Brake Lamp Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-20
Brake Warni ng Pressure Swi tch . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-9
Cargo Lamp/Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-17
Center Hi gh Mounted Stop Lamp . . . . . . . 8W-10-20
Ci gar Li ghter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-12
Ci gar Li ghter Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-9, 12
Ci rcui t Breaker 28 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-9
Ci rcui t Breaker 29 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-12
Ci rcui t Breaker 30 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-9
Combi nati on Fl asher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-19
Compass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-18
Control l er Anti -Lock Brake . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-16, 20
Data Li nk Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-18
Dayti me Runni ng Lamp Modul e . . . . . . . . 8W-10-14
Dome Lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-18
Dome Lamps Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-18
Dri ver Door Jamb Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-10
Engi ne Starter Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7, 16
Engi ne Starter Motor Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-16
Fog Lamp Rel ay No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-20
Fuel I njector No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
Fuel I njector No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
Fuel I njector No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
Fuel I njector No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
Fuel I njector No. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
Fuel I njector No. 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
Fuel Pump Modul e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-19
Fuel Pump Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-19
Fuse 1 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-12
Fuse 2 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-12
Fuse 2 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7, 9
Fuse 3 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7, 9
Fuse 4 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7, 12
Fuse 5 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7, 13
Fuse 6 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7, 13
Fuse 7 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7, 14
Fuse 8 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-10
Fuse 8 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7, 15
Fuse 9 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-10
Fuse 9 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7, 14
Fuse 10 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-10
Fuse 10 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7, 16
Fuse 11 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-10
Fuse 11 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7, 16
Fuse 12 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-11
Fuse 12 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-8, 16
Fuse 13 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-16
Fuse 13 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-8, 16
Fuse 14 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-16
Fuse 15 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-12
Fuse 16 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-8, 17
Fuse 17 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-9
Fuse 17 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-8, 17
Component Page
Fuse 18 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-9
Fuse 18 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
Fuse 19 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-11
Fuse 19 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-8, 18
Fuse 20 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-12
Fuse 20 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-8, 19
Fuse 21 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-12
Fuse 21 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
Fuse 22 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-11
Fuse 22 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-8, 19
Fuse 23 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-8, 20
Fuse 24 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-11
Fuse 25 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-11
Fuse 25 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-8, 20
Fuse 26 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-11
Fuse 26 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-8, 20
Fuse 27 (JB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-10
Fuse 27 (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-14
Fusi bl e Li nk A11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7
G108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-9
Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-7
Headl amp Del ay Modul e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-14
Headl amp Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-10, 14, 18
Hi gh Note Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-12
Horn Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-12
I gni ti on Coi l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
I gni ti on Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-9, 10, 11
I nstrument Cl uster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-10, 17
Juncti on Bl ock . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17
Left Courtesy Lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-17
Left Fog Lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-20
Left Tai l /Stop Lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-20
Left Vi sor/Vani ty Lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-18
Low Note Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-12
Overhead Modul e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-18
Oxygen Sensor 1/1 Upstream . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
Oxygen Sensor 1/2 Downstream . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
Oxygen Sensor Downstream Rel ay . . . . . . 8W-10-17
Oxygen Sensor Upstream Rel ay . . . . . . . . 8W-10-17
Park Brake Swi tch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-9
Passenger Power Lock/Wi ndow Swi tch . . . 8W-10-10
Power Ampl i fi er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-20
Power Di stri buti on Center . . 8W-10-2, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13,
14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20
Powertrai n Control Modul e . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15, 19
Radi ator Fan Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-13
Radi ator Fan Rel ay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-13
Radi o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-17
Rai l Coi l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-15
Rear Wi ndow Defogger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-16
Rear Wi ndow Defogger Rel ay . . . . . . . . 8W-10-11, 16
Ri ght Courtesy Lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-17
Ri ght Fog Lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-20
Ri ght Tai l /Stop Lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-20
Ri ght Vi sor/Vani ty Lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-18
Sentry Key I mmobi l i zer Modul e . . . . . . . . 8W-10-14
Transmi ssi on Control Modul e . . . . . . . . . . 8W-10-17
Underhood Lamp/Mercury Swi tch . . . . . . . 8W-10-17
XJ 8W - 10 POWER DISTRIBUTION 8W - 10 - 1
16
19 18 20
17
11
13 15 14
12 2
4 5 3
1
7
10 8 9
6
13
12 14
11
10 2
4
8 5
6
POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER
MOTOR
STARTER
ENGINE
RELAY
D
C
RELAY
FUEL
PUMP
DOWN
SHUT
AUTOMATIC
RELAY
B
LAMP
FOG
RELAY
NO. 1
RELAY
CLUTCH
A/C
COMPRESSOR
RELAY
CONTROLLER
ANTI-LOCK
BRAKE
RELAY
LAMP
FOG
NO. 2
A
FUSES
8
14 7
6
7
30A
13
5
6
40A
12
4
5
40A
11
3
4
50A
10
2
3
40A
9
1
2
40A
8
21
15
16
17
18
19
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 15
14
13
20A
12
40A
11
10
20A
9
20A
F21 15A F27 10A
1 2
F24
F23 15A
4 3
F26 20A F20 15A F17 20A
F16 15A F19 20A F25 15A
5 6
F22 15A
8 7
9 10
12 11
14 13
15 16
18 17
20 19
21 22
24 23
GENERATOR BATTERY
M1 M2
30A
6
9 8 10
7
1
3 5 4
2 12
14 15 13
11
17
20 18 19
16
FAN
RADIATOR
RELAY
RELAY
OXYGEN
SENSOR
DOWNSTREAM
UPSTREAM
SENSOR
OXYGEN
RELAY
F18 15A
30A
8W - 10 - 2 8W-10 POWER DISTRIBUTION XJ
J008W-7 XJD01002
FUSES
FUSE NO. AMPS FUSED CIRCUIT FEED CIRCUIT
1
- - -
A1 12RD 40A
2
3
40A A2 12PK/BK
A7 10RD/BK 50A
4
F141 12LG/RD 40A
5
6
40A A111 12RD/LG
7
30A
A3 14RD/WT
8
10
20A
A4 12BK/PK
9
20A
A10 12RD/DG
30A
11
A20 12RD/DB
40A
12
-
20A
13
14
-
-
15
M1 20PK
F99 18RD
L9 20BK/PK
F34 18TN/BK
15A
16
17
20A
20A
18
19
15A
-
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A0 6RD
A17 16RD/BK
A3 14RD/WT
A17 16RD/BK
26
10A F1 20DB/GY A17 16RD/BK
20
15A F142 18DG/WT A999 16RD
21
15A A61 14DG/BK A0 6RD
22
15A F32 20PK/DB A0 6RD
23
24
15A F61 20WT/OR A0 6RD
25
20A F75 16VT A0 6RD
A41 16YL
A0 6RD
ABS
27
DRL
30A A16 14RD/LG A0 6RD
15A A142 18DG/OR A999 16RD
4.0L
- - -
XJ 8W-10 POWER DISTRIBUTION 8W - 10 - 3
XJD01003 J008W-7
B5
B3
B1
B4
B2
FUSED IGNITION SWITCH OUTPUT (ST-RUN) F20 18WT
C13 18DB/OR A/C COMPRESSOR CLUTCH RELAY CONTROL
A17 16RD/BK FUSED B(+)
-
A/C COMPRESSOR CLUTCH RELAY OUTPUT C3 16DB/BK
-
FUNCTION CAVITY CIRCUIT
D8
D5
D2
D6
D4
A999 16RD
- -
A16 14RD/LG FUSED B(+)
K51 18DB/YL
FUSED IGNITION SWITCH OUTPUT (ST-RUN) F12 18DB/WT
AUTOMATIC SHUT DOWN RELAY CONTROL
FUNCTION CAVITY CIRCUIT
A999 16RD
CLUTCH
COMPRESSOR
A/C
RELAY
T41 20BK/WT
B17
ABS RELAY CONTROL G83 18GY/BK
FUSED IGNITION SWITCH OUTPUT (RUN) F15 20DB/WT
- -
GROUND Z1 20BK
B18
B20
B16
B19
FUNCTION CAVITY CIRCUIT
G19 20LG/OR ABS WARNING INDICATOR DRIVER
T141 20YL IGNITION SWITCH OUTPUT (START)
C8
PARK/NEUTRAL POSITION SWITCH SENSE T41 20BK/WT
C10
- -
ENGINE STARTER MOTOR RELAY OUTPUT T40 16BR
PARK/NEUTRAL POSITION SWITCH SENSE
FUSED B(+) ENGINE STARTER MOTOR RELAY F45 20YL/RD
C9
C7
C6
C8
FUNCTION CAVITY CIRCUIT
A41 16YL FUSED B(+)
RELAY
BRAKE
ANTI-LOCK
CONTROLLER
RELAY
AUTOMATIC
SHUT
DOWN
RELAY
ENGINE
STARTER
MOTOR
AUTOMATIC SHUT DOWN RELAY OUTPUT
B19
Z1 20BK GROUND
4.0L M/T
4.0L ABS EXCEPT DRL LHD 4.0 A/T
EXCEPT 4.0L M/T
2.5L, 4.0L M/T, RHD 4.0L A/T
LHD 4.0L M/T EXCEPT ABS EXCEPT DRL
C10
Z1 20BK GROUND
C10
Z1 20BK GROUND
4.0L A/T
C10
8W - 10 - 4 8W-10 POWER DISTRIBUTION XJ
J008W-7 XJD01004
CIRCUIT CAVITY FUNCTION
C2
C1
C3
C5
FUEL PUMP RELAY CONTROL K31 18BR
F12 18DB/WT FUSED IGNITION SWITCH OUTPUT (ST-RUN)
A61 14DG