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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND

SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING FRAMEWORK FOR


THE MINING SECTOR IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA




GREEN PAPER





DEPARTMENT OF MINING

1 February, 2003

Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper i

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACRONYMS............................................................................................................. II
1 A POLICY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT......................................1
1.1 WHY THE MINING SECTOR NEEDS THIS POLICY.................................1
1.2 STEPS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE POLICY.............................................3
1.3 DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ................................5
1.4 OUTLINE OF KEY POLICY ISSUES ............................................................7
2 PRINCIPLES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT................................12
2.1 INDUSTRY VIABILITY...............................................................................12
2.2 STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT..............................................................23
2.3 BENEFIT DISTRIBUTION...........................................................................32
3 SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING FRAMEWORK.........................................45
3.1 DEVELOPMENT PLANNING.....................................................................45
3.2 BENEFIT MANAGEMENT..........................................................................58
3.3 TRANSPARENCY.........................................................................................66
3.4 DISPUTE RESOLUTION..............................................................................69
3.5 CAPACITY BUILDING................................................................................75
4 FURTHER IMPLICATIONS............................................................................80
4.1 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ........................................................80
4.2 AMENDMENTS TO EXISTING LEGISLATION.......................................84
4.3 GUIDELINES REQUIRED FOR IMPLEMENTATION..............................87
4.4 FINANCIAL COSTS TO GOVERNMENT..................................................90

ACRONYMS
BPS Baseline Planning Study
CSDP Community Sustainable Development Plan
DEC Department of Environment and Conservation
DMCP Draft Mine Closure Policy
DPC Development Planning Committee
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EIS Environmental Impact Statement
MPPC Mining Policy and Planning Committee
MRA Mineral Resources Authority
MRDC Mineral Resources Development Company
MRSF Mineral Resources Stabilisation Fund
MSISP Mining Sector Institutional Strengthening Project
MSPC Mining Sustainability Planning Committee
MTDS Medium-Term Development Strategy
NEFC National Economic and Fiscal Commission
NSC National Steering Committee
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
OTML Ok Tedi Mining Ltd
PNG Papua New Guinea
PST Project Support Team
SPA Special Purposes Authority
SPB Sustainability Planning Branch
WMA Wildlife Management Area
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 1
1 A POLICY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
1.1 WHY THE MINING SECTOR NEEDS THIS POLICY
1.1.1. When the Independent State of Papua New Guinea (PNG) came into existence
in 1975, its mineral policy framework was widely regarded as one of the best to be
found in the developing world. This was mainly because of the way in which it
sought to reconcile the interests of the foreign investor with those of the host nation.
The National Governments aim was to encourage foreign investment in a small
number of large-scale mining projects, but then to invest its own share of the proceeds
in the creation of a diversified national economy in which the mining industry would
only play a minor part. The Government was also keen to use its mineral revenues to
develop the countrys human resources, through the provision of health and
education services, and to progressively reduce the extent of its dependence on
foreign aid to fund its overall development program.
1.1.2. For several years after Independence, foreign mining companies were
apparently keen to invest in PNG, because the country was known to possess a wealth
of mineral resources, it had a stable and democratic political system, and the
Governments policies were clear and consistent. This situation changed in the years
following the forced closure of the Bougainville copper mine in 1989. The amount of
money spent on exploration for new mineral reserves began to fall, while potential
investors began to hesitate over the development of reserves which had already been
discovered during the earlier boom in mineral exploration. There was growing
evidence of domestic discontent over the distribution and consumption of mineral
revenues, which was partly responsible for the increasing frequency of changes to the
mineral policy framework, which was in turn partly responsible for the industrys
growing reluctance to invest in the sector. Meanwhile, the environmental damage
caused by the Ok Tedi mine became the focus of a global campaign to force the
mining industry to clean up its act, and PNG acquired a new reputation as a country in
which the industry has been unusually irresponsible in this respect.
1.1.3. Despite these problems, PNG still has a mineral-dependent economy. The
hard-rock mining industry currently accounts for about 50% of the countrys exports
and 20% of its Gross Domestic Product, which is much the same as the contribution
which it made at the time of Independence. This means that the ambitions of the
policy makers at that time have not been realised. The countrys mineral wealth has
not been successfully applied to the creation of a more diversified national economy,
nor has it served to reduce the countrys dependence on foreign aid. Indeed, for all its
problems, the mining industry, along with the oil and gas industry, has continued to
function as the major engine of economic growth for the last 25 years, while most
other sectors of the economy have stagnated or declined, and the overall rate of
economic growth has barely kept pace with the rate of population growth.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 2
1.1.4. The National Governments failure to apply its own share of mineral revenues
to a broader national process of economic and social development has contributed to
the growing demand for a greater share of these revenues to be distributed to the
provinces, districts or communities which host the large-scale mining projects from
which these revenues are derived. This is often expressed as a demand for local
people to be compensated for the social and environmental impact of these mining
operations. But if the national share of mineral wealth has so far failed to contribute
to a broader national process of social and economic development, there is no obvious
reason to believe that a bigger local share of mineral wealth will contribute to a
broader local process of economic and social development. If anything, the problem
of dependency is more acute at the local level than it is at the national level. The
more that local people come to depend on a single mining project for their incomes
and general welfare, the more they are likely to lose when the mine closes. It is
therefore even more important that the local share of mineral wealth should be
effectively managed and invested for the benefit of future generations (see Box 1).
Box 1: The distribution and investment of mineral revenues.
In the 20 years from 1982 to 2001, four large-scale mining projects (Ok Tedi, Misima,
Porgera and Lihir) generated around K3.6 billion in direct benefits to PNG.
Approximately one third of this amount accrued to stakeholders within the four host
provinces, and roughly half of this one third share was captured by local landowners.
The National Government has returned more than one quarter of its mineral revenues
to the host provinces in the form of royalties, Special Support Grants, other mining
grants, the Tax Credit Scheme, and dividends on project equity [see Working Paper 2,
Chapter 6]. Over the next 10 years, it is estimated that a further K750 million should
flow to provincial and local- level governments, and a further K450 million to local
landowners and mine-affected communities, from existing mining projects. But the
National Government now finds that it is unable to meet the commitments which
it has already made to the host provinces, partly because of the changes recently made
to the fiscal regime in the mining and petroleum sectors, and partly because its other
sources of domestic revenue have been shrinking rapidly. Meanwhile, provincial
governments and landowner organisations suffer from an obvious lack of
capacity to manage their own share of the benefits or to plan their application to
the goal of sustainable development [see Working Paper 6, Chapter 7]. For
example, the Fly River Provincial Government has very little to show for over K200
million which it has derived from the Ok Tedi mine since 1984. The National
Government must find ways to develop this capacity instead of allocating more of
its own financial resources to unsustainable forms of expenditure in the host
provinces.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 3
1.1.5. Calculations of the social and economic benefits of mining for national
stakeholders are normally confined to specific forms of mineral wealth at their point
of derivation, as initial income streams, without proceeding to any assessment of the
way in which these flows of mineral wealth are subsequently utilised. If there is
growing evidence that the mineral wealth derived from successive mining projects has
not produced sustainable development outcomes, this will add weight to the argument
that the social and environmental costs of mining will not have been worth the
sacrifice, and the barriers to new mining investment are then likely to be raised. An
assessment of these social and environmental costs therefore needs to be framed by an
assessment of how to sustain the social and economic benefits of mining
throughout and beyond the life of each mine.
1.1.6. PNG is still highly prospective from a geological point of view, but the
amount of money spent on mineral exploration continues to decline (it was barely 10
million US dollars in 2001), and it is proving increasingly difficult to finance the
development of reserves which have already been identified. As three of the four
large-scale mines are due to close within the next decade, it seems that the industry
may now be in decline. This is not only, or even primarily, because PNG has the
wrong policies. Global spending on mineral exploration has been falling for the last
five years, as part of a cycle of expansion and contraction which is a familiar feature
of the mining industry. Global demand for mineral commodities will continue to
grow, and as proven reserves are depleted, spending on exploration is bound to revive.
What PNG now has is a sort of breathing space in which to review the whole of its
mineral policy framework in order to establish the conditions under which the mining
industry can make a more significant contribution to achievement of sustainable
development outcomes than it has done in the past. It is not a question of restoring
the old mineral policy framework, because the world has changed since 1975, so has
the mining industry, and so has PNG. The challenge now is to promote the more
sustainable use of the benefits still to be derived from existing mines, and a form
of investment in new projects which will produce more sustainable outcomes in
the future.
1.2 STEPS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE POLICY
1.2.1. The recently published report of the Mining, Minerals and Sustainable
Development Project [see Working Paper 1] has rightly said that a sustainable
development policy for the mining sector will not be worthy of the name unless it is
developed through a democratic and participatory process. Papua New Guinea has
too many laws and policies which have been drafted in haste, without proper public
consultation, and which then create more problems than they solve. This Green Paper
is part of a process of public consultation which has already begun, but which has not
yet been completed [see Working Paper 7, Chapter 1].
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 4
1.2.2. This Green Paper is the result of a process of consultation and analysis which
began in March 2002, when a National Steering Committee (NSC) was established
to supervise the work of a team of consultants engaged by the Department of Mining
under the terms of the Mining Sector Institutional Strengthening Project. The NSC
has comprised representatives of those national government agencies whose support is
essential for the successful implementation of a Sustainable Development Policy and
Sustainability Planning Framework for the mining sector in PNG. These agencies or
their representatives comprise one of the two main groups of primary stakeholders
in this policy process.
1.2.3. The first stage in the actual process of consultation was to collect information
and ideas from a variety of project area stakeholders around each of the four large-
scale mining projects which are currently operating in PNG Ok Tedi, Porgera,
Misima and Lihir [see list of organisations consulted]. These people were understood
to be the second group of primary stakeholders who had to be consulted over the
development of a new policy and planning framework because of their familiarity
with the everyday operation and impact of large-scale mining projects.
1.2.4. After this first round of fieldwork, a national workshop was convened in June
2002 to present the initial findings and recommendations to some of the project area
stakeholders and to discuss policy issues and options with them. This was
immediately followed by a second national workshop to discuss a draft policy and
planning framework with members of the NSC. The principal outcome of this second
workshop was an instruction by the NSC for the Department of Mining to proceed
with the development of the Sustainable Development Policy and Sustainability
Planning Framework for presentation at the Mining and the Community II
conference to be held in Madang in September 2002.
1.2.5. In preparation for this conference, the consultants identified ten key policy
issues [see Section 1.4] which had emerged from the first round of consultation with
project area stakeholders, and began a second round of consultation with members of
the NSC about the range of policy options available to address these issues, and the
likely reaction of individual Government agencies to some of these options. The
results of this second round of consultation were presented to participants in the
Madang conference, including a number of secondary stakeholders who had not
previously been engaged in the policy process, as well as a significant proportion of
the primary stakeholders who had already been consulted. On the third day of the
conference, participants divided into six working groups to examine the options
available to address one or more of the ten key policy issues which had already been
identified. The results of this exercise were duly incorporated into the first draft of
the Green Paper which was produced immediately after the conference.
1.2.6. A separate meeting was then arranged in Port Moresby with representatives of
several non-government organisations , especially those which had not been
represented at the Madang conference. The purpose of this meeting was to explain
the policy process, and to flag the next stage of public consultation which would
follow from production of a Green Paper.
1.2.7. A Green Paper is not a statement of government policy, but a public
discussion paper which:
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 5
is produced and distributed by government;
describes one or more policy issues to be addressed;
outlines a number of proposals for dealing with these issues; and
invites public comment on the merits of these proposals.
1.2.8. This Green Paper puts forward a number of issues, proposals, and arguments
which are primarily the outcome of consultation with what are here called the
primary stakeholders in the formation and implementation of a Sustainable
Development Policy and Sustainability Planning Framework for the mining sector in
PNG. The next stage in the policy process is a period of wider public consultation,
with both primary and secondary stakeholders, over the content of the Green Paper.
The Department of Mining will take full account of the results of this second round of
consultation before drafting a White Paperfor approval by the National Executive
Council and the National Parliament. The White Paper will be a statement of
government policy, and will be accompanied by recommendations for the amendment
of existing legislation.
1.2.9. A total of eight Working Papers (see Box 2) have been produced by the team
of consultants engaged by the Department of Mining to produce this Green Paper.
The Green Paper makes reference to the findings and recommendations of the
Working Papers at several points. However, responsibility for the views expressed in
these papers rests with the individual authors, and not with the Department of Mining
or any other organisation or institution involved in the policy process. While the
Working Papers have been used to guide the proposals contained in the Green Paper,
this does not mean that all of the findings and recommendations contained in the
Working Papers have been referenced or adopted.
Box 2: Working Papers produced as background material for the Green Paper.
1. Implications of the Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development Project.
2. Benefit Stream Analysis.
3. Business Development, Training and Employment.
4. Public Infrastructure and Cost Analysis.
5. Landowner Equity Case Studies.
6. Institutional Analysis.
7. Analysis of Ten Key Policy Issues.
8. International Best Practice in Sustainable Development.
1.3 DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
1.3.1. According to the World Commission on Environment and Development
(1987):
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 6
1.3.2. This definition of sustainable development was foreshadowed in the Fourth
Goal of PNGs National Constitution (1975), which is:
for Papua New Guineas natural resources and environment to be conserved
and used for the collective benefit of us all, and be replenished for the benefit of
future generations.
It might be argued that this goal does not apply to the use of mineral resources,
because these are non-renewable, and therefore cannot be replenished. This is
why people sometimes say that mining is unsustainable.
1.3.3. However, the first of three Directive Principles appended to the Fourth Goal is
clearly meant to cover the development of mineral resources. This calls for:
wise use to be made of our natural resources and the environment in and on the
land or seabed, in the sea, under the land, and in the air, in the interests of our
development and in trust for future generations.
1.3.4. The wise use of mineral resources should also pay due consideration to the
other two Directive Principles attached to the Fourth National Goal, which call for:
the conservation and replenishment, for the benefit of ourselves and posterity, of
the environment and its sacred, scenic and historical qualities; [and for] all
necessary steps to be taken to give adequate protection to our valued birds,
animals, fish, insects, plants and trees.
1.3.5. In its application to the mining sector, the Fourth Goal can thus be read as a
call:
for Papua New Guineas mineral resources to be used wisely, for the collective
benefit of us all, in the interests of our development, and for the benefit of
future generations, without compromising the capacity of our natural
ecosystems to supply the needs of those future generations.
This is a definition of the way in which mining should contribute to sustainable
development in Papua New Guinea.
1.3.6. There is now widespread acceptance of the idea that sustainable development
has three distinct aspects -- economic, social and environmental -- but there is still
some argument about the way in which each of these so-called pillars of
sustainability should be defined and measured. For present purposes, it is suggested
that:
Mining contributes to the sustainability of national economic development if it
creates a lasting addition to the stock of national capital whose value is greater
than that of the natural capital which is removed or depleted in the process, or if it
serves to improve the standard of living and quality of life of the national
population to an extent which would not have been possible if this natural capital
had not been exploited.
Mining contributes to the sustainability of national social development if mineral
wealth is used in ways which add to the stock of human capital within the country
(by improving the health and education of the population), and if the social impact
of mining does not entail a loss of social capital (by weakening the norms,
values and institutions which hold the host society together).
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 7
1.3.7. It is not possible to make a similar statement about the contribution of mining
to the sustainability of the natural environment, because mining (like many other
economic activities) normally does entail a certain amount of environmental damage,
which means a reduction in the supply of natural goods and services from local
ecosystems. That is why the environmental or ecological sustainability of mining
needs to be defined and measured in terms of the limits imposed on the extent of such
damage or disruption over different time scales.
1.3.8. The report of the Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development Project
argues that the conventional distinction between the economic, social and
environmental aspects of sustainable development needs to be supplemented by
recognition of a fourth aspect, which it calls transparent and democratic
governance [see Working Paper 1, Chapter 3]. If mining has a negative impact on
the governance of the countries in which it occurs, then it is unlikely to make a
positive contribution to the other three pillars of sustainable development. This
argument is also consistent with the values embodied in Papua New Guineas
National Constitution.
1.3.9. The Second Goal of the National Constitution, which is concerned with the
values of Equality and Participation, includes a Directive Principle which calls for:
every effort to be made to achieve an equitable distribution of incomes and
other benefits of development among individuals and throughout the various
parts of the country.
If mineral resources are to be used for the collective benefit of us all, then all four
pillars of sustainable development need to be established in each part of the country
where mining occurs, and for each section of the national population which
experiences the impact of mineral exploration and development. The Constitution
does not countenance the sort of trade-off in which the country as a whole is allowed
to benefit at the expense of a minority of its citizens. Sustainability and equity are
therefore two sides of the same coin.
1.4 OUTLINE OF KEY POLICY ISSUES
1.4.1. Through the initial process of consultation described in Section 1.2 [above], the
Department identified ten key issues and questions which need to be addressed in a
Sustainable Development Policy for the mining sector (see Box 3). Issues 1-5 are
primarily concerned with the principles which should guide relationships between
stakeholders in the production, distribution, investment and consumption of the
nations mineral wealth. These Principles for Sustainable Development are
discussed in Part 2 of this Green Paper. Issues 6-10 are primarily issues of practice
or implementation which are framed as role-and-responsibility issues for the
different stakeholders. The Sustainability Planning Framework is understood to
be a set of proposals or measures to address this second set of issues, as described in
Part 3 of this Green Paper.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 8
1.4.2. Although the division between Parts 2 and 3 of this Green Paper is partly based
on a distinction between statements of principle and proposals for action or
implementation, each of the ten issues involves some questions of principle, some
questions of policy, and some problems of action or implementation. Questions of
principle are addressed at greater length in Part 2 than in Part 3, while problems of
implementation are addressed at greater length in Part 3 than in Part 2. The overall
aim is to spell out the practical implications of adopting certain principles or
policies, because it is much easier to produce broad statements of principle than to
show how sustainable development outcomes can be achieved in practice, given the
institutional constraints on the successful implementation of government policies [see
Working Paper 6].
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 9
Box 3: Ten key policy issues for the mining sector in PNG
1. The industry viability issue asks: What principles should govern relationships
between private investors, the National Government, and civil society in order
for the mining industry to be sustained in a form which makes the most effective
possible contribution to sustainable development?
2. The stakeholder engagement issue asks: How should project area
stakeholders in the mining sector be identified and classified, and how should
their interests be accommodated throughout the different stages of the mining
project cycle, from exploration through to closure and beyond?
3. The collective benefit issue asks: What principles should guide negotiations
about the distribution of mineral wealth between people who belong to the
current generation of the national population in order for mineral wealth to make
the most effective possible contribution to sustainable development?
4. The future generations issue asks: What principles should guide negotiations
about the distribution of mineral wealth between the current generation and
future generations of the national population in order for mineral wealth to make
the most effective possible contribution to sustainable development?
5. The decentralisation issue asks: What principles should guide negotiations about
the distribution of mineral revenues between different levels of government in
order for mineral revenues to make the most effective possible contribution to
sustainable development?
6. The project planning issue asks: What should be the roles and responsibilities of
developers, government agencies, and other stakeholders in planning the
contribution of individual mining projects to sustainable development in PNG
throughout the different stages of the mining project cycle?
7. The benefit management issue asks: What should be the roles and
responsibilities of developers, government agencies, and other stakeholders in
managing the investment of mineral wealth for purposes of sustainable
development in the provinces or areas which host major mining projects?
8. The transparency issue asks: What should be the roles and responsibilities of
developers, government agencies, and other stakeholders in disseminating
information about the distribution and management of mineral wealth in
order for mineral wealth to make the most effective possible contribution to
sustainable development?
9. The dispute resolution issue asks: What should be the roles and responsibilities
of developers, government agencies, and other stakeholders in resolving disputes
arising from the development of major mining projects in order for the mining
industry to make the most effective possible contribution to sustainable
development?
10. The capacity building issue asks: What should be the roles and responsibilities
of developers, government agencies, and other stakeholders in building the
capacity of national and local institutions to manage the mining industry and
mineral wealth for the achievement of sustainable development outcomes?
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 10
1.4.3. This Green Paper could have been arranged to deal with each of the four
aspects or pillars of sustainable development as a separate issue, in which case
there would have been one part dealing with ecological sustainability, one with
economic sustainability, one with social sustainability, and one with questions of
good governance. However, this way of dividing up the problem of sustainable
development encourages the belief that each aspect can be addressed without
reference to the others, which is clearly not the case. Each of the ten key issues which
have emerged from the process of consultation with the primary stakeholders involves
a mixture of ecological, economic, social and political problems. The analysis of each
issue aims to highlight the way in which these problems are related to each other.
1.4.4. The four aspects of sustainable development are reflected in ten cross-cutting
hot button issues which are discussed at various points in the Green Paper and in
the Working Papers on which it is based. These cross-cutting issues national
economic development, local economic development, good governance,
environmental management, social impact, community participation, poverty
alleviation, gender equity, mine closure, and future generations are understood
to be topics of major concern for some of the stakeholders in the policy process.
(Although the future generations issue is one of the ten key issues already listed in
Box 3, analysis of this issue has been absorbed into a broader analysis of benefit
distribution in Part 2 of the Green Paper.) The Green Paper and supporting
documentation have been made available in a form which enables the reader to
quickly locate the points at which each of these cross-cutting issues is addressed.
1.4.5. There are some issues which would certainly count as distinctive policy issues
in some countries, but which are not included in either the list of key policy issues or
the list of hot button issues addressed in this Green Paper because they are not
considered to be major issues for the mining sector in PNG at this point in time. For
example, the abuse of human rights in mine-affected communities is not treated as a
problem in its own right because it is not a problem which arises from a fundamental
imbalance of power between these communities and the agents of the State. While
there have been incidents of violent conflict over the development of major mining
projects, these are due to the absence or failure of the institutions which ought to
resolve disputes between project area stakeholders. And if men abuse the rights of
women in mine-affected communities, this is best addressed as a problem of gender
equity which demands some affirmative action as part of the project planning process.
1.4.6. Given the nature of the process of consultation by which the ten key policy
issues have been identified [see Section 1.2], it also needs to be recognised that these
are primarily issues which have arisen from the development of large-scale mining
projects. This is not to deny the existence of a large population of small-scale and
artisanal gold miners whose activities involve significant environmental risks and
health hazards. However, the Department of Mining has established a separate
program of action to address these issues, and does not believe that a new policy is
required to make this program more effective (see Box 4). The presence of artisanal
miners also poses a distinctive set of problems for the developers of large-scale mines
at all stages of the mining project cycle, from exploration through to closure. A
Sustainable Development Policy for the mining sector should focus on the
management of these problems by means on an integrated project planning
framework which includes the process of mine closure planning.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 11
Box 4: Management of the small-scale mining sector in PNG.
It is estimated that there are as many as 60,000 small-scale and artisanal gold
miners in PNG, although many of them only work on a part-time basis. Between
them, they produce approximately 70,000 ounces of gold each year which is exported
through legitimate channels, and perhaps half as much again which is exported
without licence. At current prices, this means that their production is worth more than
the combined value of the copra, tea and rubber industries, or roughly half the value
of the coffee industry. Their activities are known to pose a variety of environmental
and physical hazards, most notably those arising from the use of mercury. However,
while there is always room for improvement, this sub-sector is already managed and
regulated more effectively in PNG than in most other developing countries, despite
the limited amounts of revenue which it contributes to the Governments coffers. The
Government has also received (and continues to receive) donor support for its
management regime, and is about to embark on a major program of environmental
education for artisanal miners which is funded by the European Union.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 12
2 PRINCIPLES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
2.1 INDUSTRY VIABILITY
What principles should govern relationships between private investors, the National
Government, and civil society in order for the mining industry to be sustained in a
form which makes the most effective possible contribution to sustainable
development?
2.1.1 Principles for a viable industry
2.1.1.1. The mining industry currently accounts for about 50% of the countrys
exports and 20% of its Gross Domestic Product. The National Government derives
more than 20% of its domestic revenues from taxes levied directly on the industry
(see Table 1), and the industrys linkages to the rest of the national economy probably
mean that it is responsible for about one third of domestic revenues from all
sources. These figures take no account of the independent contribution of the oil
industry to national exports and government revenues. But even if there were no oil
industry, they would still mean that PNG has a mineral-dependent economy and a
government whose budget is substantially dependent on the collection of mineral
revenues.
Table 1: Direct mineral revenues (K000) derived from four large-scale mining
projects.
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total
Ok Tedi 63.5 127.9 114.5 98.8 163.5 215.2 230.6 1013.9
Misima 102.7 58.5 15.2 44.3 26.0 33.2 27.7 307.5
Porgera 172.9 125.5 103.9 111.0 123.6 112.3 101.8 850.8
Lihir 40.2 54.2 49.6 60.7 204.7
Total 339.1 311.8 233.5 294.3 367.2 410.3 420.7 2377.0
Internal revenue 1261.2 1413.2 1613.1 1444.4 2332.0 1962.0 1926.0 11951.9
% from 4 mines 26.9% 22.1% 14.5% 20.4% 15.7% 20.9% 21.8% 20.3%

Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 13
2.1.1.2. During the course of the next decade, government revenues derived,
directly or indirectly, from the mining and petroleum sectors are projected to fall to
less than 20% of their current levels if no new major projects are developed. The
Misima, Porgera and Ok Tedi mines will have closed, and current oil reserves will
have been exhausted. Even if the Gas-to-Queensland Project and the Ramu Nickel
Project proceed to development in the next 5 years, government revenues from the
mining and petroleum sectors are still projected to fall to less than 40% of their
current levels by 2012. Since direct and indirect revenues from these two sectors
account for 40-50% of the Governments total revenues from domestic sources, and
there is no prospect of any increase in revenues from other sources, the Government
can expect an average annual decline of 3-4% in its domestic revenues over the next
decade. This poses problems of macro-economic planning and management which
are clearly beyond the scope of a Sustainable Development Policy for the mining
sector. However, these projections or scenarios have to be taken into account in the
design of such a policy.
2.1.1.3. The projected decline of the mining industry, and the consequent decline in
government revenues from the mining sector, is not entirely due to the past failings of
government policy. The average rate of return on mining investment is at
historically low levels. The costs of mining in PNG are already high by international
standards, partly because of perceptions of political risk, but also because of the
physical terrain and the lack of economic infrastructure. Any further increase in the
total cost of mining as a result of changes to government policy will pose a further
threat to the sustainability of a local industry whose viability is already questionable.
The mining industry will not be able to make a continuing contribution to the
sustainable development of the country as a whole, or the sustainable development of
those areas or communities where mining projects are located, if the industry itself
proves to be unsustainable.
2.1.1.4. During the 1990s, the PNG Government was continually changing the
fiscal regime which applied to the mining industry. These changes added to the
uncertainty of the investment climate, and were partly responsible for the rapid
decline in mineral exploration activity during this decade. They were imposed during
a period when gold and copper prices were falling, while the risk of investment was
seen to have risen as a result of the Bougainville rebellion and the growing problems
of law and order in both urban and rural areas. The National Government made these
changes in an effort to sustain its own share of mineral revenues while dispensing a
larger share to landowning communities and provincial governments as the price of
their support for the development of major mining projects. The companies found
that they also had to spend more to purchase local political support for their
operations, regardless of any increase in the amount which they paid in tax to the
Government. The Government has since made a series of policy decisions which are
intended to stabilise the fiscal regime in the hope of attracting new investment to the
sector [see Section 2.1.3]. Any subsequent increase in the overall rate of tax on the
mining industry would only make sense if the Government were to assume that there
is no realistic prospect of new mining projects being developed over the course of
the next decade.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 14
2.1.1.5. Discussion of the mining industrys contribution to national economic
development has mainly been concerned with the total share of mineral wealth which
ought to be appropriated by the Government as mineral revenues, and on the way in
which these revenues should be divided between input-based taxes (such as import
duties), output-based taxes (such as royalties), and profit-based taxes (such as
corporate income tax). It has not taken sufficient account of the way in which these
revenues are subsequently redistributed, managed or invested. And it has not taken
sufficient account of the other ways in which mineral wealth is captured and used by
national beneficiaries, without first passing through the Governments accounts. As a
result, arguments about the fiscal regime have become a zero-sum game between the
National Government and the mining industry, in which each side can only gain at the
expense of the other. These arguments need to be transformed into a more productive
dialogue about the principles which should govern relationships between private
investors and all national beneficiaries (including the Government), and the way in
which the industry and the Government should agree to divide the costs of achieving
sustainable development outcomes for the nation as a whole [see Working Paper
8].
2.1.1.6. It is sometimes argued that PNG should leave its mineral resources in the
ground until it has developed the capacity to manage the process of resource
development more effectively and apply its mineral wealth to the pursuit of
sustainable development. This argument is partly based on a misunderstanding of the
relationship between mineral resources and mineral reserves. The nation cannot
know what mineral resources are available for development without a process of
mineral exploration to determine the existence of its mineral reserves (see Box 5).
The Government does not have the resources or capacity to undertake this process of
exploration, and private investors will not do so unless they are assured of the right to
develop the reserves which they discover. The decline in mineral exploration over the
past decade means that PNGs mineral reserves are now contracting, when they might
otherwise have been expanding. Yet PNG has accumulated experience and expertise
in the management of mineral exploration and development which may rapidly be lost
if these activities grind to a halt. These capacities are unlikely to be sustained and
renewed if there is no mining industry and no mineral wealth to be managed.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 15
Box 5: Mineral resources, mineral wealth, and mineral revenues.
Mineral resources are located in the earths crust in quantities which can only be
guessed at. Mineral reserves are those mineral resources whose existence and
estimated volume have been established by a process of exploration which is largely
financed by private companies, but partly subsidised by governments (through
geological surveys). Economic reserves are those mineral reserves which are
deemed to be worth developing at current market prices. For the purpose of this
Green Paper, mineral reserves are held to exclude oil and gas reserves.
Mineral wealth is the combination of incomes, revenues and benefits which are
derived from mineral resources through the process of exploration and development.
A nations mineral wealth is the combination of incomes, revenues and benefits
which national stakeholders derive from the exploration and development of their
countrys mineral resources.
Mineral revenues comprise the share of mineral wealth which is appropriated by
governments through various forms of taxation. Direct mineral revenues are
collected directly from the mining industry and its employees. Indirect mineral
revenues are collected from other industries or individuals whose own incomes are
derived from goods and services supplied to the mining industry.
2.1.1.7. It may be argued that PNG can no longer afford to worry about the viability
of the large-scale mining industry, because it cannot hope to create the conditions
required for new investment to take place, or because the industry is responsible for
unacceptable levels of environmental damage, or because the flow of mineral wealth
creates a culture of corruption and dependency, at both the national and the local
level, which can never be reconciled with the values of sustainable development.
However, these arguments need to be balanced by consideration of the social,
economic and environmental impacts of any alternative form of large-scale
development which might be expected to replace the incomes presently derived from
major mining projects (see Box 6). If these alternatives are unrealistic or
unacceptable, it is necessary to ask whether the economic activities of smallholders
(including small-scale alluvial miners) can sustain the levels of public expenditure
which people are still demanding, or whether it would be better for the Government
and the country to be even more dependent on foreign aid for the flow of public goods
and services.
Box 6: The choice between extractive industry and agricultural development.
It may be argued that PNG should accept the inevitable decline and eventual
extinction of its large-scale mining industry and plan for the replacement of mineral
exports and revenues by additional agricultural exports and revenues. But what would
this mean in practice? In 2001, the area planted to oil palm was 111,773 hectares, and
the value of palm oil exports was K347 million. The value of gold and copper exports
in that year was K2,974 million. In order for palm oil exports to replace the value of
gold and copper exports, almost 1 million hectares (or 10,000 square kilometres) of
forest would have to be cleared and planted to oil palm. Even the most ardent
supporters of large-scale agricultural development would concede that this is not a
feasible prospect for the medium term, given the constraints imposed by the
prevalence of customary land tenure.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 16
2.1.1.8. Many of the costs incurred by the developers of major mining projects in
PNG, and many of the benefits which national stakeholders derive from these
projects, have not been given sufficient public recognition, either in this country or
overseas. The Government is aware of the need to reduce the indirect costs of
mining which are currently borne by the industry but which do not contribute to
sustainable development, while recognising and rewarding those companies which
incur additional indirect costs (or which internalise more of their external costs) in
the pursuit of sustainable development objectives (see Box 7). But the Government
can hardly expect the industry to internalise more of its social and environmental
costs, or to sustain the range of social and economic benefits which it provides to the
people of PNG, unless the Government itself can support a realistic calculation of the
way in which these costs and benefits are distributed between the different
stakeholders involved in the mining sector.
Box 7: The direct, indirect and hidden costs of mining.
Direct costs are those which are necessarily incurred by mining companies in the
process of discovering, producing and selling mineral commodities with the
techniques or technologies which are currently available.
Indirect costs are those which companies incur through the payment of taxes to the
host government, the purchase of risk insurance, the mitigation of environmental
damage, the management of community affairs, and so on and so forth.
Hidden (or external) costs are those borne by other stakeholders (including the
natural environment) which do not figure in a companys bottom line.
2.1.1.9. The worlds biggest mining companies are under considerable pressure to
demonstrate their commitment to sustainable development in all of the countries
where they operate [see Working Paper 1, Chapter 2]. Their social licence to
operate is being questioned by a variety of stakeholders based in the developed
countries which consume most of their products. This means that the industry has
an incentive to support and comply with sustainable development policies adopted by
the governments of developing countries, even if these governments have only limited
capacity to implement or enforce such policies. The PNG Government now has an
opportunity to redevelop its former reputation as the owner of a mineral policy
framework which ranks with the best in the world. This means that the Government
needs to show a sceptical foreign audience that its policies are for the good of the
country, and not just for the good of the industry. At the same time, the Government
will encourage all investors in the mining industry to follow international standards of
best practice in demonstrating the extent of their own commitment or contribution
to sustainable development, both for the areas where they operate or for the country as
a whole.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 17
2.1.1.10. The Governments reputation as a regulator of the mining industry has
suffered as a consequence of its insistence on taking an equity stake in large-scale
mining projects. It is one thing to promote investment in the mining sector and to tax
the profits made by mining companies. But when the Government participates in the
development of mineral resources as a joint venture partner, it can no longer claim to
act as a neutral arbiter in disputes between the mining industry and elements of civil
society. If the Government intends to exercise its constitutional responsibility to
ensure that the industry contributes to sustainable development at both the local and
the national scale, it should not be seen to compromise its independence by
investing directly in the industry on its own account. It should instead make sure that
civil society is fully engaged in an informed debate about the design and
implementation of a Sustainable Development Policy.
2.1.2 Scope of Sustainable Development Policy
2.1.2.1. The Department proposes to remove the distinction currently drawn in policy
and legislation between large-scale mining projects, with a projected capital
development cost of more than US$75 million, and projects of medium or small scale,
and replace this with a distinction between major and small-scale mining projects. A
major mining project may either be defined as one whose projected capital
development cost exceeds US$10 million or as one which is classified as a Level 3
Activity under the terms of the Environment Act (2000) because it may result in
serious environmental harm. The Sustainable Development Policy is intended to
apply to major mining projects defined by one or other of these criteria.
2.1.2.2. The Department therefore proposes that Development Forums should be
convened, Mining Development Contracts should be signed, and Special Mining
Leases should be issued for all major mining projects. It also proposes that a single
tax regime should apply to all such projects, and that the State should abandon its
option to purchase an equity stake in such projects, except insofar as a limited option
is exercised on behalf of landowning groups or communities with customary rights
over the relevant mining lease areas [see 2.3.4.1].
2.1.2.3. This proposal is not intended to create additional barriers to investment in
medium-scale mining projects, but to simplify and harmonise those aspects of the
national policy framework that apply to mining projects which involve a certain level
of investment or a certain degree of environmental impact. The Department will seek
to ensure that this framework has the flexibility to accommodate wide variations in
the scale, impact and local circumstances of each major mining project, without
compromising any of the general principles established by the Sustainable
Development Policy.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 18
2.1.3 Fiscal stabilisation
2.1.3.1. The fiscal regime for the mining and petroleum sectors was the subject
of a major review in 2000. This concluded that the overall level of tax would need
to be reduced and stabilised to encourage further foreign investment in both sectors.
The Government is aware that mining is a risky business, and it is now committed to
the maintenance of a competitive fiscal regime for both sectors which is sufficient to
attract new capital for exploration and development. The Department of Mining
believes that the mining industry can only contribute to sustainable development if
mining projects can be developed within a predictable financial environment which
makes adequate allowance for long-term profits to be made on substantial capital
investments.
2.1.3.2. The 2001 and 2002 Budgets contained a number of measures which had the
effect of reducing the effective rate of tax on the mining industry from 72.3 percent to
52.6 percent. The 2003 Budget contained a number of measures intended to stimulate
new investment in the mining sector. These were:
the abolition of the Additional Profits Tax, which was considered by the industry
to be one of the most significant of the remaining disincentives to investment;
further relaxation of the so-called ring- fence in order to allow the developers of
existing projects to deduct exploration expenditures in other parts of the country
from their liability to company tax, and to allow a double (200%) deduction of
exploration expenditures which result in the development of a new mining project;
allowance for accelerated depreciation of all assets used in the development of a
new mining project, which will raise the net present value of the project and
simplify the administration of the tax regime; and
removal of the maximum 20- year time limit on loss carry forward, which will also
simplify the administration of the tax regime.
2.1.3.3. The Department favours the complete abandonment of the States current
option to purchase a 30% interest in a new mining venture at the sunk cost of
exploration. The Department believes that the existence of this option has been one of
the two most significant disincentives to mineral exploration (along with the
Additional Profits Tax). The exercise of this option ties up limited government funds
which can be better spent on the achievement of broader development goals and
creates an enduring conflict of interest between the Governments roles as regulator
and investor. A degree of national ownership can still be secured through a
requirement for 5 percent of a projects equity to be offered to the public through the
Port Moresby Stock Exchange, and separate provision can still be made for local
communities to purchase a 5 percent share of project equity [see Section 2.3.4].
2.1.3.4. The Department will maintain its support for a fiscal regime which places
more weight on profit-based taxes than on those forms of taxation which add to the
industrys operating costs. This can be justified as a contribution to sustainable
development because it has the effect of encouraging a more efficient exploitation of
mineral resources and minimising resource wastage by lowering the cut-off grade at
which the processing of mineral ores ceases to be an economic proposition.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 19
2.1.3.5. The Resource Contracts Fiscal Stabilisation Act (2000) restricts the
Governments right to impose additional taxes on new resource projects after the
development agreements have been signed. The 2001 Budget also contained an
undertaking that mining companies would henceforth have the right to negotiate fiscal
stability clauses into their Mining Development Contracts with the State. It is
proposed that fiscal terms will remain fixed, either for a period of 20 years after a
contract has been signed or for the period of initial project financing, whichever is the
shortest. The 2003 Budget includes a requirement for the developers of new projects
to pay a premium of 2 per cent of company tax payable to the Government if they
wish to make use of the provisions of the Fiscal Stabilisation Act.
2.1.3.6. In order to ensure that the costs of mine closure and environmental
rehabilitation are covered in a manner which contributes to sustainable
environmental outcomes, the Department proposes to establish a financial surety
mechanism under the terms of a separate Mine Closure Policy [see Section 3.1.8]. It
is envisaged that payments made by developers to a rehabilitation trust will be tax-
deductible.
2.1.3.7. The Department is proposing a number of changes to the way in which
mineral revenues are distributed between national stakeholders in order to
promote the achievement of sustainable development outcomes [see Section 2.3].
These proposals do not entail any addition to the tax burden imposed on developers,
but are intended to create an operating environment which should be more secure in
the long term, and should therefore have the effect of reducing the operators costs.
2.1.4 Mutual accountability
2.1.4.1. The Department is aware of the growing public pressure on the mining
industry to improve its own standards of social and environmental performance, to
demonstrate a greater commitment to the values of corporate social responsibility, and
to make provision for independent audits of its contribution to sustainable
development. The Department is also aware that many of the mining companies
which are based in developed countries are now wary of investing in developing
countries whose own problems of governance make it difficult for the foreign investor
to demonstrate this kind of commitment.
2.1.4.2. The Department will henceforth expect any mining company proposing to
invest in the development of a major mining project in PNG to include in its Proposal
for Development a clear statement of the principles or standards of best practice for
which it is prepared to be held accountable if the proposal is approved (see Box 8). In
return, the investor will be expected to hold the PNG Government accountable for
upholding the principles and standards of good governance to which it is committed
by its own laws and policies, and by its ratification of numerous international
conventions. It is proposed that an agreement by the Government and the proponent
to hold each other accountable for adherence to these standards and principles should
be included as an annex to the Mining Development Contract, and that this annex
should be a public document.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 20
Box 8: Derivation of principles or standards of best practice for sustainable
development.
There are several sources for the principles or standards for which the Government of
PNG and investors in major mining projects should be held jointly and mutually
accountable in their development agreements. Aside from the National Constitution,
these include:
international conventions ratified by the National Government, such as those
which are derived from the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, or those
which are derived from the World Summit on Sustainable Development;
inter- governmental initiatives, such as the OECD Guidelines for Multinational
Enterprises, the International Organisation for Standardisations standard ISO
14001, the Global Reporting Initiative developed by the Coalition for
Environmentally Responsible Economies, and the Global Compact sponsored by
the United Nations;
the so-called safeguard policies of the World Bank group, notably those relating
to Natural Habitats, Environmental Assessment, Indigenous Peoples, and
Involuntary Resettlement.; and
voluntary codes of practice adopted by industry peak bodies, such as the
International Council on Mining and Metals or the Minerals Council of Australia.
2.1.4.3. The Department therefore proposes a revision of the standard template for
Mining Development Contracts to include a draft version of this public annex, and
welcomes suggestions from the industry or from other interested parties on the form
which this might take. The Department is also keen to ensure that the draft makes
adequate provision for third party audit of the extent to which each of the main
parties has adhered to its own set of standards and principles.
2.1.5 Environmental management
2.1.5.1. The environmental damage caused by the disposal of waste and tailings
from the Ok Tedi mine has done enormous damage to the international reputation of
the mining industry in PNG, and to the international reputation of the PNG
Government for responsible environmental management. However, the Department
of Mining does not believe that the series of planning decisions which led to the
present configuration of the Ok Tedi mine is one that could have been repeated under
the current environmental planning framework, nor is it likely to be repeated in future.
The Department considers that all the other major mining projects which are currently
operating in PNG have been subjected to a far more rigorous process of impact
assessment under the provisions of the Environmental Planning Act (1978), and that
the operators have managed the approved method of waste and tailings disposal with
due diligence. Nevertheless, there is always room for improvement as the frontiers of
scientific knowledge move forward.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 21
2.1.5.2. The impact of the Ok Tedi mine on the Fly River catchment is widely cited
as a case in point by those who argue that all responsible governments and mining
companies should commit themselves to abandon the practice of riverine tailings
disposal. The PNG Government has approved this practice in the case of the Porgera
and Tolukuma mines, and the resulting impact on the respective river systems and
catchments has been far less severe than in the case of Ok Tedi. It is important to
remember that this approval was based on consideration of PNGs peculiar
geophysical environment, in which the combination of high rainfall and geological
instability makes for a situation in which the construction of tailings dams or other
methods of terrestrial storage can pose unacceptable long-term hazards. The
Department believes that specific techniques or technologies for waste and tailings
disposal cannot be evaluated in abstraction from such environmental considerations,
and notes that the specific nature of PNGs geophysical environment has advantages,
as well as disadvantages, because local ecosystems which have been damaged by
mining operations have the capacity to regenerate at much higher rates than in the
case of stable but dry environments where large-scale mining operations have left a
far more devastating legacy. Nevertheless, the Department accepts that the practice of
riverine tailings disposal is one that should not henceforth be contemplated except in
the most exceptional circumstances, and that any evaluation of tailings disposal
options should always be guided by the application of the precautionary principle,
which means planning for the worst-case scenario.
2.1.5.3. There is also a certain amount of negative publicity attached to the practice of
submarine tailings disposal, although this commonly fails to recognise the
significance of the distinction between disposal of tailings into shallow coastal waters
and the practice of deep sea tailings displacement, which is the method of disposal
approved for the Misima and Lihir mines in PNG. This latter practice is approved in
many countries apart from PNG, and those parts of PNGs coastline which adjoin the
Bismarck and Solomon Seas are especially conducive to this practice because of the
steep slope of the seabed. Nevertheless, the Department is aware of the need to
ensure that approval of this practice continues to be based on the most rigorous
scientific assessment of its environmental impact, and will work with the Department
of Environment and Conservation to ensure that the latest scientific evidence is given
due consideration in any future process of Environmental Impact Assessment for a
major mining project which proposes to adopt it.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 22
2.1.5.4. There has been a good deal of debate, at a global scale, on the question of
whether mineral exploration and development should be permitted in areas of high
conservation value, especially those which are officially designated as protected
areas and recognised as such by the World Conservation Union. Although the
Department of Environment and Conservation has an established interest in the
identification of areas with high biodiversity values, the Governments capacity to
restrict development activities in such areas is constrained by the prevalence of
customary land tenure. The only type of protected area currently found on customary
land in PNG is a Wildlife Management Area (WMA) gazetted under the Fauna
(Protection and Control) Act, whose designation and management remains the
responsibility of its customary owners. Those WMAs which have already been
gazetted have widely variable conservation values from a strictly scientific point of
view, and the customary owners of these areas might or might not wish to exclude
them from any prospect of mining. The only way for the Government to exercise
effective control over land use options on customary land is for all relevant
government agencies to be party to an integrated land use planning framework for
which the Department of Planning and Rural Development would most likely be the
responsible central agency. Even so, the customary owners will have the final say in
the matter. The Department of Mining therefore considers that the best guarantee of
environmental protection on customary land lies with a process of negotiation which
makes full provision for the prior and informed consent of the customary owners to
mineral exploration or resource development [see Section 2.2.6].
2.1.6 Establishment of Mineral Resources Authority
2.1.6.1. The Department of Mining has received no significant increase in funding in
kina terms since 1992. The rapid devaluation of the kina means that the real value of
the budget is around 25% of what it was a decade ago, and it now accounts for less
than 0.5% of the value of the countrys mineral exports. As a consequence, staffing is
half what it was in 1992. This means that the Departments capacity to service and
regulate the mining industry has been greatly reduced.
2.1.6.2. A proposal has therefore been put forward to replace the Department with a
statutory corporation to be known as the Mineral Resources Authority (MRA),
which will be funded directly by a tax-creditable levy on non-alluvial mine
production. The mission of the MRA will be to effectively regulate and promote a
healthy, sustainable mineral industry for the long term benefit of Papua New
Guinea.
2.1.6.3. There is no reference to sustainable development in the corporate
development objectives of the Department as it is currently constituted. But the
implementation of a Sustainable Development Policy for the mining sector will
be one of the key functions of the MRA. This is essential to counter any public
perception that the process of corporatisation will create an entity which functions as
an agent of the mining industry rather than the public interest.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 23
2.1.6.4. All references to the role of the Department of Mining in this Green
Paper should be understood as references to the role of the MRA once the
Government approves the proposal to establish this new body. However, the
Department proposes to finalise and implement the Sustainable Development Policy,
even in the event that the Government does not approve the process of
corporatisation.
2.2 STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT
How should project area stakeholders in the mining sector be identified and
classified, and how should their interests be accommodated throughout the different
stages of the mining project cycle, from exploration through to closure and beyond?
2.2.1 Principles for stakeholder engagement
2.2.1.1. The main vehicle for stakeholder engagement in the negotiation and
development of major mining projects in PNG is the Development Forum prescribed
under Section 3 of the Mining Act (1992), which was initially devised (in 1988) as a
mechanism for resolving disputes over the development of the Porgera mine. The
Development Forum acknowledges the right of the host provincial government and
representatives of the local landowning community to play an active role in
negotiating agreements over the distribution of mine-related benefits before the
National Government approves the development of the project. It is an institution
which has received international recognition as a model for local participation in the
development process. However, it is not sufficient, by itself, as a means to
accommodate the interests of all project area stakeholders throughout the different
stages of the mining project cycle.
2.2.1.2. Project area stakeholders are understood to include the developer (or
proponent) of the mining project, the host provincial government(s) and local- level
government(s), and the communities or people of the project area. A Sustainable
Development Policy should establish which types of local community or which
groups of local people are to be engaged in the development process. This
determination should be based on an understanding of the ways in which different
groups or communities are affected by the process of development, and therefore have
different interests in the negotiation and achievement of sustainable development
outcomes.
2.2.1.3. The National Government recognises that it has a particular responsibility to
facilitate the process of communication between project area stakeholders
throughout the different stages of the mining project cycle, and will ensure that the
Department of Mining (or its successor) is provided with the authority and the
resources to exercise this responsibility. A Sustainable Development Policy for the
mining sector should spell out the ways in which the subject of sustainable
development is to become the focal point for this process of communication.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 24
2.2.1.4. The National Government should play an active role in the process of
stakeholder identification, especially the identification of local groups and
communities whose interests need to be articulated and accommodated, from the
earliest stages of mineral exploration. The National Government should also accept
responsibility for providing clear guidance to private companies on the question of
how to identify and relate to local groups and communities during the period of
exploration, without imposing an additional cost burden which will act as a
disincentive to exploration.
2.2.1.5. The Government recognises, as a matter of principle, that the development of
mineral resources located under customary land should not take place without the
prior and informed consent of the customary owners of that land. The Government
is prepared to extend this principle to all groups or communities whose customary
land is likely to suffer significant damage from the development of a major mining
project, as part of the negotiation to compensate them for such damage. The
Government believes that application of the principle of prior and informed consent
by the owners of customary land is essential to the process of minimising the
environmental damage caused by major mining projects.
2.2.1.6. The priority which the National Government assigns to the interests of
groups or communities with customary title to land affected by large-scale mining
operations is due to the fact that these are the people who will have to live with the
long-term legacy of mining. At the same time, the Government recognises that it has
a special duty to safeguard the interest of future generations , even within these
landowning communities, because it cannot necessarily assume that members of the
present generation will always do so.
2.2.1.7. The Government will seek to ensure that all project area stakeholders pay due
respect to the local customs and traditions of the project area, but will not
countenance the use of arguments in defence of local custom to exclude the
participation of any significant section of the local population -- especially the poor,
weak or vulnerable in the process of planning or negotiating the development of a
major mining project. The Government will also do its best to ensure that institutions
established to represent the interests of local communities in the development process
are truly representative of those interests.
2.2.2 Landholders and landowning communities
2.2.2.1. The Department proposes to retain the use of the term landholder, rather
than landowner, to refer to individuals who hold rights either to customary land
or to land leased from the State. This usage is broadly consistent with that already
contained in Section 2 of the Mining Act (1992). The point is to emphasise that
individuals hold rights to the use of customary land by virtue of their membership of
customary groups, and the phrase customary landowner should therefore be
understood to refer to such landowning groups , and not to their individual members.
A minor amendment to Section 2 of the Mining Act would serve to clarify this point.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 25
2.2.2.2. The Department proposes to recognise three types of customary landowning
community whose component groups or individual members are to be counted as
stakeholders in the development of a major mining project:
mining lease communities are those which include groups owning customary
land within one of the areas leased to the project developer;
mine-affected communities comprise mining lease communities and other
landowning communities whose members are directly affected by the
development of a major mining project;
project area communities comprise mine-affected communities and other
landowning communities whose members can have a positive or negative impact
on the viability of mining operations by virtue of the geographical location of their
land.
The assumption here is that the project area communities associated with a major
mining project include all the communities directly affected by that project, and that
these mine-affected communities include all the mining lease communities.
2.2.2.3. Where a company holds an Exploration Licence, but has not yet been granted
approval for the development of a major mining project, the Department will
recognise:
exploration licence communities as those which include groups owning
customary land within the relevant licence area; and
potential mining lease communities as those which include groups owning
customary land within the areas proposed for inclusion in a development lease.
It is assumed that all exploration licence communities will become mine-affected
communities or project area communities once a project has been approved for
development.
2.2.2.4. The Department is aware that major mining projects are liable to create other
types of community, whose members are not bound together by their common
ownership of customary land in the area affected by the project. Notable amongst
these would be the mining community whose members are defined by their
dependence on wages derived from employment on the project, or the community of
people who migrate into the area to secure some benefit from the project, even if
this benefit does not take the form of employment with the mining company or its
contractors. Both of these could be described as mine-affected or project area
communities. However, the Department proposes to restrict the use of the word
community to landowning communities, as previously defined [see 2.2.2.2]. This
is partly to avoid confusion, and partly because of a recognition that most Papua New
Guineans retain a strong attachment to one landowning community or another, and
would recognise that the interests of those who are the customary owners of land in
the area affected by a major mining project should take precedence over the interests
of those who are not. The outsiders who come to reside in the area because of the
development of the project can still be recognised as project area stakeholders with
a specific interest in sustainable development outcomes, without being formally
recognised as members of specific communities.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 26
2.2.2.5. The Department is aware that the social and economic impact of a major
mining project may be such as to weaken the ties that traditionally unite the members
of mine-affected communities. In this context, use of the word community is
intended to underline the Departments intention to ensure that landowner
representatives, be they individuals or organisations, are actually held accountable
to the wider landowning community for their role in negotiating the conditions, or
distributing the benefits, of mineral resource development.
2.2.3 Development Forum
2.2.3.1. The Department proposes to require the application of a Development Forum
to all major mining projects [as defined in 2.1.2.1], and to require the Minister to
invite the representatives of the relevant local- level government(s) and any other
persons or organisations which the Minister considers would be affected by the
mining project if the application is granted. These requirements are consistent with
Section 115 of the Organic Law on Provincial Governments and Local-level
Governments (1995) and follow the example already set by Section 48 of the Oil and
Gas Act (1998). The Department intends to manage the Forum process in a way that
is responsive to the size and complexity of the proposed project. This should
enable the Department to avoid undue delays in the decision making process for
smaller projects, while ensuring that larger projects, or those which are likely to have
significant environmental impacts, are subject to more thorough scrutiny.
2.2.3.2. Once the Environment Act (2000) becomes effective, the Department
believes that the process of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for a major
mining project will provide sufficient basis for the Minister for Mining to determine
the identity of the mine-affected communities and any other persons or
organisations who might be affected by the project for the purpose of deciding who
should be represented in a Development Forum. It should be noted that the EIA
process under the Environment Act involves a process of public consultation
following on from the submission of an Environmental Impact Statement by the
project proponent.
2.2.4 Community and group identification
2.2.4.1. The Department is aware of the many disputes which have previously
arisen as a result of failure to properly identify the external boundaries and internal
organisation of exploration licence communities during the early stages of mineral
exploration. It proposes to reduce the risk of such disputes by introducing a
requirement for the holder of an Exploration Licence to conduct a preliminary
Community and Group Identification Study before engaging in physical activities
which are likely to entail either the compensation or employment of local landholders.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 27
2.2.4.2. The Department will establish guidelines for the conduct of such a study.
The Exploration Coordination Branch of the Development Coordination Division
will:
provide advice to licence holders on the interpretation and application of these
guidelines, and on the engagement of appropriate consultants to conduct the study;
and
bring the results of the study to the attention of the Mining Warden, who will still
be responsible, under Section 108 of the Mining Act, to determine the identity and
interests of the landholders or other persons affected by any proposal for the grant
or extension of a mining tenement.
2.2.4.3. The Department does not expect this kind of study to involve any detailed
land investigations, the collection of genealogies, or similarly time-consuming (and
expensive) activities. The guidelines will make it quite clear that this is a
preliminary exercise whose aim is to establish the basic ground rules for
interaction between the holder of an Exploration Licence and licence area
communities. It may therefore be regarded as a precondition for any later land
investigations in areas proposed for inclusion in a development lease, or as a scoping
study for any subsequent process of Social Impact Assessment required by the
Environment Act.
2.2.4.4. The Department is aware of the need to ensure that the results of any study
which seeks to identify the boundaries of landowning groups or communities should
be subject to public review and public agreement by the members of those
communities, and should, where possible, involve the active participation of
community members in the conduct of the study. However, the Department is also
aware that some of the knowledge held by landowning groups or individual
landholders within such communities is regarded as property which is not fit for
public consumption or dissemination. This issue will be dealt with in the formulation
of the relevant guidelines and in the training provided to staff of the Exploration
Coordination Branch who will be responsible for providing advice on their
application. The guidelines will place considerable emphasis on the engagement of
local government councillors, village court officials, and local land mediators in the
process of community and group identification.
2.2.4.5. The Department believes that compensation payments should not be made
to individual landholders by the holder of an Exploration Licence until the
Community and Group Identification Study has been completed and subject to public
audit by community members and representatives. The Department will work with
the licence holder and community representatives to ensure that compensation for any
damage caused before the study is completed will eventually be paid to the rightful
claimants.
2.2.4.6. The initial survey of exploration licence communities, together with
subsequent land investigations in areas proposed for inclusion in a development lease,
will provide the basis for the Ministers identification of such persons as he thinks
will fairly represent the views of the mining lease communities in the Development
Forum. The Department proposes to establish separate guidelines for the conduct of
lease area land investigations [see 4.3.4], and will provide advice to developers and
other stakeholders on the application of these guidelines.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 28
2.2.5 Social mapping
2.2.5.1. The Department of Mining is aware of the requirement, under Section 47 of
the Oil and Gas Act, for:
the holder of a Petroleum Prospecting Licence or a Petroleum Retention Licence
to undertake a preliminary social mapping study and landowner identification
study of the customary land owners of the land comprised in the licence area
before entering the area; and
the applicant for a Petroleum Development Licence to submit, along with the
application, the results of a full-scale social mapping study and landowner
identification study of the customary owners of land which is likely to be
affected by the development.
2.2.5.2. In the 4 years which have elapsed since passage of the Oil and Gas Act, the
Department of Petroleum and Energy has yet to establish a regulation to specify the
content, purpose and mutual relationship of such studies. When this work is
completed, the Department of Mining will have the option to decide:
whether any part of this regulation may be used as the basis for its own guidelines
on the conduct of what are here called Community and Group Identification
Studies; and if so
whether these should be designated as Social Mapping Studies (or Landowner
Identification Studies) under the terms of a Sustainable Development Policy for
the mining sector.
2.2.5.3. This decision will need to take account of some important differences
between the conditions of exploration and development in the mining and
petroleum sectors :
The costs of exploration are normally much higher in the petroleum sector, and
the companies engaged in exploration may therefore be expected to spend more
money on the conduct of social surveys without this acting as a disincentive to
exploration.
The area covered by the development licences for a major petroleum project tends
to be larger than the area covered by the leases issued for development of a major
mining project, which means that the number of groups and individuals who stand
to benefit from the development of a major petroleum project also tends to be
larger.
It is easier to determine the extent of the impact of a mining operation on different
landowning communities, and to arrange the distribution of compensation and
benefits in a way that reflects this differential impact.
Much of the work of landowner identification in the oil and gas sector is
concerned with the incorporation of land groups under the Land Groups
Incorporation Act (1974), but the Department of Mining does not propose to
follow the Department of Petroleum and Energy in treating land group
incorporation as a precondition for the distribution of cash benefits to mining lease
communities unless it can be satisfied that this process will always produce the
most transparent and equitable outcomes.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 29
2.2.6 Prior and informed consent
2.2.6.1. The Department believes that the current mineral policy framework provides
assurance that a major mining project on customary land cannot proceed without the
prior consent of mining lease communities, and that the process of Environmental
Impact Assessment under the Environment Act will ensure that it cannot proceed
without the prior consent of other communities that would be affected by the project.
However, the Department is aware that this will not always count as prior and
informed consent unless the representatives and other members of these
communities have access to independent professional advice before a permit is
granted by the Minister for Environment and a Development Forum is convened by
the Minister for Mining.
2.2.6.2. The Department of Mining will liaise with other relevant government
agencies to establish a register of consultants who may be called upon to provide
financial, legal or environmental advice to these landowning communities. The
developers will be expected to bear the cost of these consulting services, but the
Department will set a limit to the cost which will normally be proportional to the scale
of the proposed project. The choice of consultants will be made by mutual agreement
between the Department, the developers, and community representatives. Where a
Development Planning Committee (DPC) has been established for the purpose of
commissioning a Baseline Planning Study of the proposed project [see Section 3.1.4],
the DPC may be called upon to authorise the arrangement and agree to the relevant
terms of reference.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 30
2.2.7 Engagement of additional stakeholders
2.2.7.1. The Department is aware that the number and identity of the local
stakeholders involved in the development of a major mining project is liable to
change during its period of operation, especially if the mine operates for several
decades. For example:
unforeseen changes to the design and consequential impact of mining operations
may create a new class of mine-affected communities;
members of project area communities which do not count as mine-affected
communities may exert increasing pressure to obtain a share of the project
benefits;
people employed by the mining company or its contractors may become members
of a new mining community which did not exist before the project was approved
for development;
female members of mining lease or mine-affected communities who took little or
no part in the original project negotiations may be empowered as a result of its
subsequent impact on their lives; and
community members who were children or had not yet been born when the project
was approved for development may articulate new demands as they become adult
members of their communities.
The Department proposes to deal with such changes through the inclusion of a review
mechanism in guidelines for a Community Sustainable Development Planning
process during the operational life of the project [see 3.1.6.1].
2.2.8 Future generations
2.2.8.1. At the point when a major mining project is approved for development, the
future generations of people who have a stake in its development are normally
understood to include the children of adult stakeholders. Many of these children will
reach adulthood and should become stakeholders in their own right during the lifetime
of the project. But there will still be future generations of stakeholders at the
point of mine closure, some of whom will still be children, while others will not yet
have been born. These people are not in a position to articulate their own interests in
the negotiation of project development, so other stakeholders must act as their
guardians or advocates in this process.
2.2.8.2. It is sometimes argued that the interests of future generations coincide with
those of the natural environment, which is also unable to speak for itself, and that both
types of interest should therefore be protected or advocated in the same way. This
argument is commonly based on a belief that the social and economic benefits of
mining do not last as long as the environmental damage which it causes. This might
be true of some mining projects, but does not necessarily apply to all of them. While
those who advocate the cause of environmental protection have every right to do so in
respect of the mining industry as a whole, all members of the current generation who
receive some of the mineral wealth created by any mining project should be
responsible to ensure that future generations secure some benefit from the
development of that project.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 31
2.2.8.3. Unlike other stakeholders, the State has a constitutional responsibility to
safeguard the interests of future generations of the national population [see 1.3.2].
Different government departments exercise this responsibility in different ways. The
Department of Mining believes that its primary responsibility is to ensure that all
project area stakeholders are aware of their own responsibilities in this respect. The
Department is especially concerned to ensure that:
mineral wealth is shared with members of landowning communities in ways
which are consistent with customary institutions governing the inheritance of all
forms of wealth;
community leaders and members are properly advised on the best ways to invest
mineral wealth for the ultimate benefit of future generations; and
the membership and entitlements of future generations are clearly and consistently
identified in the deeds of any trust fund established for their benefit.
The Department welcomes the collaboration of other stakeholders, including non-
government organisations, in the pursuit of these aims.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 32
2.3 BENEFIT DISTRIBUTION
What principles should guide negotiations about the distribution of mineral wealth
between people who belong to the current generation of the national population, and
then between the current generation and future generations of the national
population, in order for mineral wealth to make the most effective possible
contribution to sustainable development?
What principles should guide negotiations about the distribution of mineral revenues
between different levels of government in order for mineral revenues to make the
most effective possible contribution to sustainable development?
2.3.1 Principles of benefit distribution
2.3.1.1. There are four key principles which presently inform the distribution of
mineral wealth between national stakeholders:
The compensation principle says that people who suffer damage to their property,
standard of living or quality of life as a direct result of an economic activity
should receive a share of the wealth created by that activity which is more than
enough to compensate them for their losses.
The insurance principle says that people who have the motivation, capacity and
opportunity to disrupt or halt an economic activity should receive a share of the
wealth created by that activity which is more than enough to prevent or discourage
them from doing so.
The fairness (or equity) principle says that wealth should be divided between the
people who are entitled to a share of it in proportions which reflect the extent of
their own material needs or the extent of their capacity to use it in ways which
meet the needs of other people who are also entitled to a share of it.
The derivation principle says that a national government should transfer some of
the revenue which it derives from an economic activity to the lower levels of
government responsible for the area where the activity occurs so that these lower
levels of government will have an incentive to support that activity.
2.3.1.2. The Department of Mining believes that the derivation principle should not
be applied to mineral revenues collected by the National Government if derivation
grants to provincial and local- level governments are to be justified as an incentive for
specific regions to raise the volume of their export production. That is because there
is very little which provincial or local- level governments can do to promote mineral
exploration and development in their respective areas. If derivation grants are
justified only because they discourage provincial or local- level governments from
creating new obstacles for the process mineral exploration and development, then this
represents an application of the insurance principle, not the derivation principle.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 33
2.3.1.3. The conversion of a certain proportion of the National Governments mineral
revenues into derivation grants for the provincial governments which host a major
mining project has sometimes been justified by reference to the fairness principle. In
this case, the argument is based on the tendency for mineral exploration and
development to occur in the most remote and least developed parts of the country.
In these places, mining represents the first, best, and perhaps the last big chance to
catch up with other parts of the country which are less remote and more developed.
The implication of this argument is that the National Government should adjust the
proportion of mineral revenues which it transfers to a provincial government in the
form of derivation grants to reflect the extent of underdevelopment in the province or
district where the source of those revenues is located. This would mean that
derivation grants based on mineral revenues were being used as a way of
implementing a policy to develop the less developed areas of the country.
2.3.1.4. The Department does not believe that the fairness principle can sensibly be
applied to the distribution of mineral revenues between provincial governments
(whether or not they are the governments of mining provinces) in isolation from the
broader policy framework which covers all of the financial relationships between
the different levels of government. However, the distribution of mineral revenues
between the different levels of government has been partially obscured in the national
accounts, because these fail to treat mineral royalties as a form of national
government revenue. This is apparently because the 1995 Organic Law on Provincial
Governments and Local-level Governments (unlike the previous Organic Law) treats
mineral royalties as being similar in nature to the timber royalties payable to the
owners of the trees from which they are derived. Once mineral royalties have been
returned to the realm of inter- governmental finance, it should be possible to show how
the distribution of special grants to mining provinces is related to the overall
distribution of national government grants to all provinces. This is a task for the
National Economic and Fiscal Commission.
2.3.1.5. Application of the fairness principle to the distribution of mineral revenues
should not confuse the entitlements of a provincial government with those of the
people who belong to the project area from which those revenues are derived. The
reasons for allocating a certain proportion of mineral wealth to mining lease
communities, mine-affected communities, or project area communities do not
automatically count as reasons for transferring a certain proportion of the National
Governments mineral revenues to a provincial government which is responsible for
those communities.
2.3.1.6. Application of the compensation principle to mine-affected communities
dictates that no group of people within these communities should lose more than they
gain from the development of a major mining project and that includes the members
of future generations . It is therefore imperative that any process or procedure
adopted for the purpose of determining the amount and type of compensation to be
paid to members of mine-affected communities should take full account of the risk
that some people might indeed lose more than they gain, and should incorporate some
sort of guarantee that this will not occur.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 34
2.3.1.7. It is sometimes argued that mining lease communities receive a share of
mineral wealth which is out of all proportion to the amount which they ought to
receive by way of compensation for costs which they incur as a result of mining. The
discrepancy between the value of the benefits which accrue to these communities and
those which accrue to other mine-affected communities can be cited as a breach of
the fairness principle, or even (in some cases) the compensation principle. But the
traditional owners of mining lease areas believe that their entitlements flow from their
claim to customary ownership of mineral resources contained within their customary
land, and the Governments policies on the distribution of royalties have lent
increasing weight to this claim, despite the Governments insistence that mineral
resources are still the property of the State. There is a high risk that any reduction in
the value of benefits already committed or promised to mining lease communities will
pose a threat to the viability of mining operations on their land. The State has good
reason to preserve the value of such benefits through application of the insurance
principle.
2.3.1.8. The fairness principle, as formulated here, puts as much emphasis on the
capacity to make wise use of mineral wealth as it does on the extent of material
need which might be indicated by a previous condition of underdevelopment or
economic backwardness. But people who live in less developed areas may not be able
to make wise use of a sudden increase in material wealth, especially if this arrives in
the form of unearned cash incomes, and may then be more vulnerable to the effects of
mine closure if they have since become accustomed to rely on such incomes to supply
their basic needs. A major mining project will not contribute to the alleviation of
poverty in its immediate area of impact if the immediate benefits create an
unsustainable dependency on the existence of the mine itself.
2.3.1.9. The benefits which a major mining project brings to project area
communities should not be regarded as compensation for the lack of alternative
development opportunities before, during, or after the period of construction and
operation. Nor should the full range of benefits be regarded as compensation for the
negative environmental impact of the project. These ways of thinking confuse the
compensation principle with the other principles which ought to apply to the
distribution and use of mineral wealth. If members of the current generation treat all
the benefits of mining as a form of compensation, they will not appreciate the need to
invest a proportion of these benefits in the creation of other forms of wealth which
will outlast the limited lifespan of a mine.
2.3.1.10. The isolation of the Development Forum from the process of planning for
sustainable development has encouraged all the participants to treat the mineral
wealth derived from each new mining project as if it were a lottery prize. While they
have argued over the immediate division of the spoils, they have neglected the
question of how to create new incentives and opportunities for sustaining this
benefit beyond the point of mine closure. The problem is not just to decide the right
and proper way to divide up a large pile of money at one moment in time, but also to
plan the distribution of benefits through the different stages of the project cycle in
order to match the available resources with the needs and capacities of the recipients.
This point applies no less to the different levels of government than it does to the
members of landowning communities.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 35
2.3.1.11. Members of mine-affected communities have been persuaded to invest a
proportion of their benefits in future generation trusts, but these presently account
for less than 5% of the total value of the benefits which they have received from
large-scale mining projects which are currently operating. Some of the other assets
which they have purchased or acquired may also yield some benefit for future
generations, but no attempt has yet been made to assess the value or sustainability of
these investments. Members of these local communities are unlikely to be convinced
of the need to invest a higher proportion of their incomes for the benefit of future
generations unless they can see that the Government is also investing an equivalent
proportion of its own share of mineral revenues for this purpose. While the
Government consumes its own share of the windfall in recurrent expenditure, local
landholders will have some reason to follow suit. The Government should therefore
demonstrate its own commitment to the achievement of sustainable development
outcomes in order to persuade local communities to follow its example.
2.3.2 Compensation payments
2.3.2.1. Compensation payable to members of mining lease communities and other
mine-affected communities should be divided into two main categories, comprising
those forms of compensation which are payable:
to individual landholders (or their households) in respect of damage to their
livelihoods; and
to landowning groups (or communities) in respect of damage to their land.
Land compensation (unlike livelihood compensation) should be treated as a fund
from which provision needs to be made for the welfare of future generations of
landowning groups or communities.
2.3.2.2. While the Department strongly recommends that a proportion of land
compensation be set aside in trust for the benefit of future generations, it recognises
that the current generation will normally expect a proportion to be paid in cash.
Although land compensation is understood to be compensation to the landowning
group, rather than the individual landholder who is a member of that group, the
Department believes, on the basis of past experience, that money paid to clan agents,
block executives, or incorporated land groups is likely to be used in ways which
violate the fairness principle. In these circumstances, it is preferable that land
compensation should be treated in the same way as livelihood compensation, which
means that cash payments should be made directly to landholders in a manner which
is both transparent and fair to all concerned.
2.3.2.3. Generally speaking, the Department will encourage the recipients of land
compensation to convert a portion of their entitlement into benefits which are paid in
kind, rather than in cash, or to use part of it to purchase shares in the mining venture
under the Community Participation Option [see 2.3.4.1], or to hold some of it in
trust for future generations . However, the Department does not propose a
requirement in policy or law for any portion of land compensation to be applied for
the benefit of future generations, because the State has a stronger case for imposing
this kind of requirement on the royalty grant [see 2.3.3.4].
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 36
2.3.2.4. The Department does not believe that the guidelines published by the
Valuer-General are sufficient in themselves to determine the types and amounts of
livelihood compensation which ought to be paid to landholders. That is because the
guidelines are primarily designed to assess the replacement value of various types of
object, and not the long-term impact of mining operations on local livelihoods. Since
Section 154 of the Mining Act makes reference to loss or damage foreseen to be
suffered by the landholders, the Department believes that compensation agreements
should be formulated in light of the Environmental Impact Statement submitted by
a project proponent under the terms of the Environment Act, and by the subsequent
process of Environmental Impact Assessment.
2.3.2.5. Where the development of a major mining project entails the relocation or
resettlement of some or all of the members of a mining lease community, the
Department will require the developer to make a separate compensation agreement
with the people who are relocated or resettled. This agreement should include a
commitment on the part of the developer to submit relocation or resettlement plans to
the Development Planning Committee established for the project as part of the
Community Sustainable Development Planning process [see 3.1.5.2]. The
Department will expect these plans to conform to the benchmark principles
established in the World Banks safeguard policy on resettlement (Operational
Directive 4.30).
2.3.2.6. The Department is aware of the work which has been done by the PNG
Chamber of Mines and Petroleum to establish a standard format for compensation
agreements in light of existing policy and legislation. Insofar as the adoption of a
Sustainable Development Policy results in the amendment of those parts of the
Mining Act which deal with questions of compensation, the Department will consult
with the Chamber to produce a revised version of this standard format, and will then
endorse its application to specific mining projects.
2.3.3 Royalty grants
2.3.3.1. The Department does not propose any change to the policy of effectively
repatriating all mineral royalties to their province of origin in the form of a grant
which is equivalent to the amount of the royalties which the State has collected
through its legal ownership of mineral resources. However, it proposes that this
royalty grant should not be regarded as a form of derivation grant to the
province.
2.3.3.2. The Department does not propose any change to the proportions in which the
royalty grant derived from current mining operations is distributed between
provincial governments, local- level governments, and customary land groups.
However, it proposes a new way of thinking about the principles which should
inform the distribution of this grant, as indicated in the rest of this section.
2.3.3.3. The Department does not propose any change to the current requirement for
mining lease communities to receive a minimum of 20% of the royalty grant
derived from a mining operation, but it does propose a change to the way in which the
rightful recipients ought to be identified.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 37
2.3.3.4. The Department proposes to regard this minimum 20% share as a form of
additional land compensation, but it recognises that the recipients are inclined to
regard it as partial acknowledgment of their customary ownership of mineral
resources, while developers are inclined to regard it as a form of social insurance for
their mining operations. An additional land compensation payment can be justified as
a precaution against the unanticipated impact of mining operations on the
welfare of future generations of those landowning groups whose land is lost or
damaged [see 2.3.2.3].
2.3.3.5. If this share of the royalty grant is understood to be a form of additional land
compensation, then it should be distributed to the customary groups which own the
land which is lost or damaged in any mining lease area, in accordance with the
extent of the loss or damage which they incur as a result of mining operations. This
represents a change from the current policy of distributing the royalty grant to the
customary groups which own the land allocated to Mining Leases or Special Mining
Leases, in accordance with the amount of land which they own within the lease area.
This means that the customary owners of land permanently lost through the creation
of a waste dump on a Lease for Mining Purposes should have the same entitlement to
a share of the royalty grant as the customary owners of land permanently lost through
the excavation of a pit on a Special Mining Lease. This represents an application of
the fairness principle.
2.3.3.6. Even where the fairness principle is properly applied to the distribution of
land compensation and a royalty grant between the members of mining lease
communities in respect of a single mining project, it is recognised that this can lead to
wide variations in the amounts which such communities receive, on a per capita
basis, from different mining projects, even if their land is subject to the same amount
of loss or damage. This is due to variations in the relationship between:
the value of mine output (from which royalties are derived);
the areas of land allocated to mining leases; and
the population of the groups which are the customary owners of such land.
While the Department believes that this is an issue which needs to be considered in
the context of a Development Forum, the issue is too complex to warrant any further
application of the fairness principle to produce a standard method of reducing such
inequalities.
2.3.3.7. If it is agreed, at a Development Forum, that the share of the royalty grant
allocated directly to mining lease communities should exceed the 20% level specified
in the Mining Act, the Department proposes a requirement under the Act for the
balance to be held in trust for future generations .
2.3.3.8. The proportion of the royalty grant which accrues to provincial
governments (rather than local- level governments) should henceforth be regarded as:
compensation to the provincial government itself for the additional administrative
and staffing costs entailed in hosting a mining project in its operational phase (an
application of the compensation principle);
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 38
a contribution to the cost of improving government services to those local
communities in the province which do not count as project area communities,
and might therefore be disadvantaged as a result of provincial government
expenditure commitments in the project area (an application of the fairness
principle);
a fund with which to provide a set of incentives or opportunities which will
discourage these provincial outsiders from migrating into the project area in
order to capture some of the advantages of living there, and thus causing
additional problems for the project area stakeholders (an application of the
insurance principle).
It is proposed that a minimum of 20% of the royalty grant derived from a major
mining project should be allocated to provincial governments for these purposes.
2.3.3.9. It is proposed that the balance or remainder of not less than 20% and not
more than 60% of the royalty grant (henceforth known as the Royalty Wedge)
should be allocated to all mine-affected communities as a fund which is managed in
accordance with a Community Sustainable Development Plan [see Section 3.1.2].
The benefits derived from this fund should be distributed between the population of
these mine-affected communities in accordance with the extent and duration of any
negative impact of mining operations on the land and livelihoods of both current and
future generations, and might therefore be regarded as a form of compensation.
However, this fund should not be used for the purpose of making any cash payments
to individuals, households or customary groups, but should be regarded as a means to
create new incentives and opportunities for sustainable development throughout
the life of the mine and beyond mine closure. This is the principal means by which
the royalty grant will be applied for the benefit of the future generations of mine-
affected communities.
2.3.4 Landowner equity
2.3.4.1. The Department and the mining industry both take the view that equity
participation by mining lease or mine-affected communities can be a useful way of
ensuring ongoing community support for a mining project, and can therefore be
justified by reference to the insurance principle [see Working Paper 5]. The
Department therefore favours retention of a Community Participation Option
whereby the relevant communities may receive a free carry of 5% of exploration
costs, but would then be required to fund their 5% share of development costs once
the project is approved for development. However, if the State chooses to abandon
the option to take up equity in mining projects [see 2.1.3.3], the Department
acknowledges a responsibility to advise the relevant communities of the potential
risks and benefits of doing so.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 39
2.3.4.2. The community share of development costs may be funded through:
concessional loans from international financial institutions secured with the
assistance of the State;
commercial loans for which the developer would provide a guarantee; or
finance secured by the developer acting on behalf of the community.
Repayment of these loans should be made from a fixed proportion of the land
compensation, royalties or dividends which accrue to the community in question.
2.3.4.3. Where the exercise of the Community Participation Option is subsidised by
the State, the Department proposes to regard the subsidy in the same way as the share
of the royalty grant allocated to landowning communities during the course of
mining operations. This means that the dividends paid on these shares, or the income
subsequently realised from their sale, should be used or distributed in the same way as
the royalty grant which is made under the relevant project agreements.
2.3.5 Tax Credit and Development Levies
2.3.5.1. The Department believes that the intended beneficiaries of development
projects funded under the Tax Credit Scheme should be clearly specified in terms
recognised by the Sustainable Development Policy.
2.3.5.2. It is proposed that Tax Credit expenditures by developers within the current
standard limit of 0.75% of assessable income should be made for the benefit of all the
project area communities associated with the relevant mining project in accordance
with a Community Sustainable Development Plan. It is recognised that such
expenditures are primarily motivated by the insurance principle, because they are
intended to win the support of those communities whose members might otherwise
threaten to disrupt mining operations. But the fairness principle should also be
applied to the distribution of such benefits between the population of these project
area communities.
2.3.5.3. The National Government may wish to negotiate with resource developers
over the application of additional Tax Credit to national infrastructure projects
with a much wider range of beneficiaries. Maintenance work on the Highlands
Highway would be one obvious example. Such applications have a potential
advantage for both the mining industry and the National Government if they serve to
demonstrate the use of mineral wealth to meet national investment priorities. But it
needs to be made quite clear that this kind of expenditure does not count as a grant
from the National Government to lower levels of government or to project area
communities.
2.3.5.4. It is further proposed that expenditures controlled by developers under the
Tax Credit Scheme should be progressively converted into tax-creditable
Development Levies during the operational life of a major mining project. This
arrangement would only apply to expenditures earmarked for the benefit of project
area communities or the population of the province hosting the project. The
Department believes that this arrangement has several merits:
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 40
It is largely consistent with Section 98 of the Organic Law on Provincial
Governments and Local-level Governments, but it does not entail any addition to
the total tax burden on developers.
It answers the criticism often made of tax credit schemes in the mining sector, that
they make developers responsible for performing the functions of government
(and thus make government dependent on mining company expertise) in way that
is unsustainable after mine closure.
It enables developers to take advantage of the provision in the latest Tax Credit
guidelines for capacity-building projects to be tax-creditable, while meeting the
requirement (under Section 98) for developers to build provincial and local- level
government capacity to make good use of Development Levies.
It provides an additional revenue stream to local- level governments or their
instrumentalities which can be paid directly by developers without first passing
through the national or provincial treasury, but which can also be insulated from
the political process through the trust provisions of Section 98.
It provides a source of funding which is liable to grow substantially in the final
phase of a mining operation, which tends to be the most profitable phase, and this
can be applied to the maintenance of project area infrastructure and services after
the point of mine closure.
It is proposed that this arrangement be known as the Tax Credit Conversion
Scheme, and that Development Levies paid under this scheme to local- level
governments or their instrumentalities should also be managed in accordance with a
Community Sustainable Development Plan.
2.3.5.5. Although Development Levies are not currently payable by developers of
major mining projects approved before the passage of the Organic Law on Provincial
Governments and Local-level Governments, the Department believes that the merits
of the Tax Credit Conversion Scheme are sufficient to warrant its application to
existing projects, as well as new projects, once any legal impediments have been
removed and suitable institutional arrangements have been put in place.
2.3.5.6. The Department is aware of the need to establish a process by which to
decide when and how Tax Credit expenditures would be converted into Development
Levies in respect of any particular mining project [see 3.2.5.5].
2.3.6 Special Support Grants
2.3.6.1. The Department believes that Special Support Grants to provincial
governments which host a major mining project represent an unwarranted application
of the derivation principle to inter-governmental financing, and should be removed as
soon as possible. Grants of this kind can only be justified during a mines
construction phase, or during a transition phase following mine closure, because they
can serve the same three purposes which are served by the provincial governments
share of mineral royalties during the operational phase [see 2.3.3.8].
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 41
2.3.6.2. The Department recognises that the sudden elimination of Special Support
Grants currently paid to provincial governments in respect of existing projects will
have a dramatic effect on provincial plans and budgets, even if the recipients should
already be planning for this eventuality at the point of mine closure. If no change is
made to the current arrangements for the distribution of mineral royalties derived
from existing projects, there are two options for mitigating this negative impact:
Special Support Grants could be removed in stages over a period of 3-4 years.
Immediate withdrawal of Special Support Grants could be offset by an allowance
for developers to spend an additional 0.25% of their gross revenues on Tax Credit
projects for the benefit of the provincial population resident outside of the mining
project area.
2.3.6.3. The second of these options would have the effect of raising the standard
limit of Tax Credit expenditures in the host province to 1% of the developers gross
revenues. This option has the advantage of allowing a fixed proportion of Tax Credit
to be allocated for the benefit of the provincial population as a whole under the Tax
Credit Conversion Scheme, which means that it would be converted into
Development Levies payable to the provincial government, rather than the local- level
governments representing the people of the mining project area. This would increase
the conformity of the Tax Credit Conversion Scheme with the spirit of the Organic
Law on Provincial Governments and Local-level Governments, while the
simultaneous elimination of Special Support Grants would still mean a net saving to
the National Government equivalent to the value of Tax Credit expenditures currently
allowed under the Income Tax Act.
2.3.7 Business development, training and employment
2.3.7.1. The Department does not propose any change to the current policy of
distinguishing areas of preference for the distribution of business development
advice, mine supply contracts, or training and employment opportunities arising from
the development of major mining projects [see Working Paper 3]. However, the
Department recognises that such forms of affirmative action are also forms of market
distortion, that they are likely to entail additional costs for the developer, and that they
may be inconsistent with the fairness principle if the preferred areas already have
higher levels of social and economic development than other parts of the country
before the start of mine construction. When these matters are raised in a Development
Forum, the Department therefore proposes to use the most recent and reliable District
Development Index for Papua New Guinea to guide the discussion.
2.3.7.2. The Department proposes to distinguish areas of preference in terms which
are consistent with the classification of stakeholders already presented in Section 2.1
[above]. This means that preference should ideally be given to: (a) mining lease
communities; then (b) other mine-affected communities; then (c) other project area
communities; and then (d) the whole of the population of the province or provinces
which contain some project area communities. In practice, it will not be necessary to
make so many distinctions unless a mining project is of exceptional size and duration,
is located close to a provincial boundary, or has a complex set of supply lines and
downstream impacts.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 42
2.3.7.3. Where developers are committed to giving preferential treatment to mine-
affected communities or project area communities in their own business development
plans or in their training and employment programs, the Department expects that these
plans and programs will be integrated into the Community Sustainable
Development Plans for these communities.
2.3.8 Project area infrastructure
2.3.8.1. Developers will still be expected to meet the full cost of constructing,
maintaining, and eventually removing any infrastructure which is essential to mining
operations. The Department will continue to support the efforts of developers to
reduce these costs within the limits set by the demands of safety, efficiency, and
sustainability. The Department will therefore continue to support the practice of
commuter (or fly-in-fly-out) mining where this offers significant cost advantages,
because that will normally enable a project to operate for a longer period and to
provide more benefits to the nation as a whole. However, the Department will also
expect a project proponent to demonstrate that savings of this kind are not being made
at the expense of the natural environment or the long-term development of the project
area.
2.3.8.2. The Department is aware that much of the infrastructure required for the
development of a major mining project provides significant benefits to project area
communities, even where the developer pays the full cost of its construction and
maintenance during the operational life of the project [see Working Paper 4]. In some
cases, these benefits could be enhanced, and could prove to be more sustainable in the
period following mine closure, if the needs and capacities of project area communities
were taken into account in the design of the relevant facilities. But the Department is
also aware that these gains could entail some additional costs, and these additional
costs ought to be shared either by the Government or by the communities who stand
to receive the additional benefit. The Department will therefore expect a Proposal
for Development to include an assessment of the costs and benefits of alternative
plans for project infrastructure, not only for the developer, but also for project area
communities, and not only for the life of the project, but also for the period following
mine closure. If additional costs are to be incurred in the achievement of greater
benefits and more sustainable outcomes for project area communities, the question of
how to meet these costs will be addressed through the Development Forum and the
Community Sustainable Development Plan [see Section 3.1].
2.3.8.3. These proposals should be regarded as supplements, rather than alternatives,
to what is said about Works and Facilities in Clause 5 of the Mining Development
Contract template.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 43
2.3.9 Wise use of national government revenues
2.3.9.1. The balance of mineral revenues retained by the National Government is
treated as part of its consolidated revenue and spent in accordance with the priorities
established through the Governments planning and budgeting process. The question
of whether and how this process contributes to the achievement of sustainable
development outcomes for the nation as a whole is a question which lies beyond the
scope of a Sustainable Development Policy to be proposed and implemented by the
Department of Mining. However, it is important to establish a connection between
the way in which the National Government makes use of its own share of mineral
wealth on behalf of the national population and the way in which it seeks to influence
or control the use which provincial governments or landowning communities make of
the portions which are allocated for their use or benefit.
2.3.9.2. The National Governments ability to persuade other stakeholders to accept
and apply a new set of principles to the distribution and use of mineral wealth in
mining provinces is constrained by the widespread belief that it has failed to use its
own share of this wealth for the achievement of sustainable development outcomes
for both present and future generations of the national population. It has been
suggested that the effective abolition of the Mineral Resources Stabilisation Fund
(MRSF) in 1999 is evidence of this failure.
2.3.9.3. Stabilisation funds are primarily intended to control the rate at which
revenues derived from a particular source can actually be spent by the government.
This kind of control is warranted when the revenues in question are highly
unpredictable. Revenues from the mining and petroleum sectors are unpredictable
because of the volatility of commodity prices and the element of chance and risk
attached to the discovery and development of new reserves. Since the PNG economy
is so dependent on the export of a range of commodities, including mineral
commodities, whose world market prices vary widely from one year to the next, the
sterilisation of mineral revenues has been justified as a means to prevent the
Government from spending too much money in the good years, and then being forced
to borrow more money in the bad years in order to maintain the levels of expenditure
to which it is already committed.
2.3.9.4. The MRSF was not intended to be a sort of trust fund in which the
Government would save money for the benefit of future generations , nor was it
meant to contribute to the achievement of any specific development outcomes. It
should not therefore be seen as part of a policy governing the distribution and
consumption of mineral wealth, but as a form of discipline which the National
Government imposed on its own behaviour. The decision to abandon this form of
control was a condition of the Structural Adjustment Program agreed between the
Government of PNG and the World Bank in 1998. This decision seems to have been
based on the argument that a mineral stabilisation fund is only warranted when
mineral revenues are on an upward trend, and when the existence of the fund acts as
an effective constraint on excessive public borrowing and spending.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 44
2.3.9.5. The Department of Mining does not propose to engage in a debate about the
conditions under which a mineral stabilisation fund should be established, or how its
effectiveness should be evaluated. However, since the Department is responsible for
promoting additional investment in the mining sector, and that is likely to mean an
increase in the volatility or unpredictability of government revenues, there is a strong
case to be made for special measures to stabilise government expenditures, even in
the absence of a stabilisation fund [see Working Paper 8].
2.3.9.6. The question of how the National Government makes use of its mineral
revenues, along with all its other revenues, is currently addressed within the
framework of the Medium Term Development Strategy (MTDS). The Department
of Mining believes that the MTDS needs to be based on a clear recognition of the
extent of the Governments current and future dependence on such revenues, and on
the existence of a more specific strategy to reverse the downward trend in mineral
exploration and development. The Department therefore believes that the MTDS
should be clearly linked to the National Governments fiscal strategy, in order to
provide a model for those provincial and local- level governments which play host to
major mining projects, but which are presently unable to link their expenditure plans
to their receipt of mineral revenues.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 45
3 SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING FRAMEWORK
3.1 DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
What should be the roles and responsibilities of developers, government agencies, and
other stakeholders in planning the contribution of individual mining projects to
sustainable development throughout the different stages of the mining project cycle?
3.1.1 Basic principles of project planning
3.1.1.1. The re is a broadly defined need for a fully integrated project planning
framework, involving all relevant government agencies and project area
stakeholders, through all the stages of the mining project cycle, with roles and
responsibilities clearly specified, reflecting the resources and capacities of those
involved, with appropriate incentives or sanctions for implementation. Since the goal
is to maximise sustainable development outcomes from each major mining project,
the Government proposes to call this the Sustainability Planning Framework. This
integrated project planning framework should be related to broader national policies
for environmental planning, integrated land-use planning, and sustainable
development planning.
3.1.1.2. If sustainable development planning for mine-affected and project area
communities is to be an activity which is integrated with the district and local- level
plans required under the terms of the Organic Law on Provincial Governments and
Local-level Governments, and also integrated with the management and mitigation of
environmental impacts under the terms of the Environment Act, then the relationship
between these three activities needs to be clarified before the Sustainable
Development Policy is finalised and implemented, and a new institutional framework
needs to be established for this planning function. The aim should be to avoid all
unnecessary duplication of activities by constructing a single framework under
which all relevant plans can be related to each other. A model of this planning
framework is presented in Figure 1 and discussed throughout the rest of this chapter.
3.1.1.3. The planning provisions of the Organic Law have largely been ignored by
provincial governments, and are not properly monitored or enforced by the National
Government. Most of the government officials responsible for provincial, district and
local- level planning do not have the necessary training, equipment or logistical
support to do their job properly. It is unreasonable to expect the provincial and
district planning system, as it currently exists, to cope with the potential impacts and
benefits of a major mining project. The Sustainability Planning Framework must
therefore take account of the planning and implementation capacity of provincial
and local- level governments and aim to build this capacity through the different
stages of the mining project cycle [see Working Paper 6, Chapter 7].
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 46
Figure 1: The project planning process under the Sustainability Planning Framework.















3.1.1.4. The National Government is currently unable to meet all of the commitments
which it has already made to other stakeholders in respect of existing mining projects,
and there is no sign that it is going to recover this ability any time soon. Provincial
governments are in the same position. The institution of the Development Forum
therefore needs to be amended in such a way as to include a planning mechanism
which will prevent the participants, and most especially the representatives of
government agencies, from making promises which they cannot keep. This means
that they must plan to avoid making unsustainable commitments under the project
development agreements which emerge from the Development Forum.
3.1.1.5. The National Government should be responsible to ensure that lessons learnt
from the planning of one major mining project are applied to the planning of
other projects which have not yet reached the same stage in the project planning
cycle. In order for this to happen, there needs to be greater clarity about the
respective roles of the Department of Mining and the Department of Planning and
Rural Development in the implementation of a Sustainability Planning Framework for
the mining sector.
LICENCE AREA
COMMUNITY
IDENTIFICATION
OCIAL MAPPING
LEASE AREA
LAND
INVESTIGATION
BASELINE
PLANNING
STUDY
ENVIRONMENTAL
(AND SOCIAL) IMPACT
ASSESSMENT
PROJECT
DEVELOPMENT
FORUM
PROVINCIAL,
DISTRICT,
AND LOCAL-
LEVEL PLANS
COMMUNITY
SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
PLANS
ENVIRONMENTAL
(AND SOCIAL)
MONITORING
FUNCTION
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 47
3.1.1.6. There is at present no formal requirement for the developer of a major mining
project to document its own understanding of the best way to achieve sustainable
development outcomes for the host province and project area communities. The
Sustainability Planning Framework needs to establish forms of communication
between the developer and other project area stakeholders which will enhance the
role which all parties should play in the project planning process.
3.1.1.7. The Government subscribes to the principle of subsidiarity, which states
that decisions should be taken at the level of government which is most responsive
and accountable to the people or communities most directly affected by those
decisions. This means that local-level governments and local community
organisations should be active participants and partners in the process of planning
for sustainable development outcomes throughout the mining project cycle.
3.1.1.8. The Government is aware that members of landowning communities often
have unrealistic expectations about the long-term benefits of mining, or about the
willingness and ability of other stakeholders to sustain a certain level of benefits
beyond the point of mine closure. When these expectations are not met, the resulting
sense of disappointment and frustration can cause major problems in the relationship
between local communities and other project area stakeholders. The full engagement
of local communities in the project planning process is the best way to moderate
these expectations and avoid these problems.
3.1.1.9. Developers are required to plan for the limitation or mitigation of social and
environmental impacts under the terms of the Environment Act and its associated
regulations and guidelines. A Sustainable Development Policy for the mining sector
needs to address this aspect of the mineral policy framework without confusing the
roles and responsibilities of the Department of Mining with those of the Department
of Environment and Conservation. The Department of Mining believes that the
current instruments of environmental policy are generally adequate for the
assessment, management and mitigation of the environmental impacts of mining, as
defined in the narrow (physical) sense. However, there are some problems with the
Governments capacity and willingness to implement its own environmental policies,
and these need to be addressed.
3.1.1.10. The relationship between the assessment, management and mitigation of
social and economic impacts and the process of planning for the sustainable social
and economic development of the host province and project area communities needs
to be clarified. Developers and national government agencies alike often remain
ignorant of resource province development constraints and opportunities until well
into the life of a project because of the limited sectoral and geographical coverage of
socio-economic impact studies. The process of social and economic impact
assessment should be clearly related to negotiations over the distribution of project
benefits through the Development Forum and to a process of planning which covers
the whole of the mining project cycle.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 48
3.1.1.11. In 2000, the Department of Mining and (what was then) the Office of
Environment and Conservation produced a Draft Mine Closure Policy (DMCP)
which seeks to apply the Fourth Goal of the National Constitution to the problem of
mine closure planning. The DMCP was the outcome of a process of consultation
between relevant government agencies and other stakeholders. It contains a number
of general principles or provisions which could be incorporated into a broader
Sustainable Development Policy for the mining sector. It also deals with more
specific issues relating to the legal, technical, and environmental aspects of mine
closure and rehabilitation. A Sustainable Development Policy for the mining sector
needs to determine the relationship between mine closure plans and all the other types
of plan which ought to be included in the Sustainability Planning Framework. This
determination should take account of international experience which points to the
difficulty of implementing mine closure laws and policies, even in developed
countries, when such laws and policies are too ambitious in their scope.
3.1.2 Community Sustainable Development Plans
3.1.2.1. The Department proposes to establish a process of Community Sustainable
Development Planning for all major mining projects, and to treat this as the keystone
or centrepiece of the Sustainability Planning Framework for the mining sector. This
process will:
consolidate a range of activities already required of different stakeholders under
the existing policy framework and a number of existing government and industry
initiatives for which there is no clear mandate or rationale in current policy;
bridge the gap which currently separates the planning capacities and activities of
the developers from those of provincial and local- level governments by creating
an institution which will transfer the relevant skills and responsibilities from one
side to the other during the course of the mining project cycle in each mining
province.
3.1.2.2. A Community Sustainable Development Plan (CSDP) should be a plan for
the sustainable development of mine-affected communities or project area
communities [see 2.2.2.2] through the different stages of the mining project cycle
following project approval. Each CSDP will be formally integrated with the
provincial, district and local- level planning and budgeting process in the host province
under the joint supervision of the Department of Planning and Rural Development and
the Department of Mining.
3.1.2.3. The Community Sustainable Development Planning process should be a
multi-stakeholder process involving all of the primary stakeholders involved in the
development of a major mining project. This process should not be coordinated by
the developer, because that would only serve to reinforce the dependency of other
project area stakeholders on the developers own planning capacities. But it cannot be
coordinated by any of the other project area stakeholders until they have developed
their own capacity to plan for the application of mineral wealth to sustainable
development outcomes. Coordination of the process should therefore be the
responsibility of the National Government, and the Department of Mining will
ensure that this becomes a central function of its Development Coordination
Division.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 49
Box 9: Why Community Sustainable Development Plans?
The proposed CSDPs are broadly equivalent to the Social and Economic
Development Plans proposed in the Ramu Project Memorandum of Agreement and
the Draft Mine Closure Policy. The change of name is justified by four
considerations:
Such plans should be recognised as plans for sustainable development because
they are meant to guide the implementation of the Sustainable Development Policy
at the project level.
They should be recognised as community plans because the boundary which
separates project area communities from other local communities will not
necessarily coincide with the planning and administrative boundaries previously
recognised by the Government.
They should also be recognised as community plans because mine-affected
communities or project area communities should be directly involved in their
production and implementation.
The mining industry now has an incentive to support and resource Community
Sustainable Development Plans of the kind proposed here, because this is strongly
recommended by the report of the Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development
Project [see Working Paper 1, Chapter 13].
3.1.2.4. The CSDPs are to be plans for the expenditure of funds derived from two
different sources:
the proportion of the royalty grant which is known as the Royalty Wedge, and thus
earmarked for the benefit of all mine-affected communities [see 2.3.3.9]; and
the proportion of Tax Credit expenditures or Development Levies which is
earmarked for the benefit of all project area communities under the Tax Credit
Conversion Scheme [see 2.3.5.2 and 2.3.5.4].
In respect of any given mining project, the combination of the two may be called the
Project Area Development Fund. However, CSDPs should be based on a
recognition of the difference between the two components, both in terms of their
underlying rationale and their intended beneficiaries.
3.1.2.5. Since the population and distribution of mine-affected communities and
project area communities is bound to vary with the size, duration, impact and
geographical situation of different mining projects, it is recognised that some mining
projects will need to have more than one CSDP. In the case of the Porgera project,
for example, the Department would anticipate the production of one CSDP for the
people of the Porgera and Paiela local- level government areas, another for the
downstream communities along the Strickland River, a third for the communities
along the road corridor linking Porgera to Mount Hagen, and a fourth for those along
the Hides transmission line. In such cases, careful consideration will need to be given
to the allocation of the Project Area Development Fund between the different plans.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 50
3.1.2.6. It is proposed that all CSDPs (like district and local- level government plans)
should be rolling 5-year plans which are subject to annual review, but (unlike current
district and local- level government plans) should also be based on a budgetary process
which clearly matches planned expenditures with forecast revenues.
3.1.3 Development Planning Committees
3.1.3.1. The Department proposes the establishment of one or more Development
Planning Committees (DPCs) for each major mining project to supervise the
implementation of the Sustainability Planning Framework for that project and to take
specific responsibility for the production, implementation, monitoring and evaluation
of its Community Sustainable Development Plan (or Plans). All of the primary
stakeholders involved in the development and eventual closure of the mine should be
represented on the DPC.
3.1.3.2. The current models for this institution would be the Mine Closure Planning
Committees already established for the Misima and Ok Tedi projects, and the
Program Development and Management Committee which has been established to
supervise the Western Province Capacity Building Project. For most projects, the
Department would not support the simultaneous existence of a DPC and a Mine
Closure Planning Committee, but anticipates a process by which a DPC may either
become a Mine Closure Planning Committee within a certain period of anticipated
closure or establish a Mine Closure Sub-Committee to address specific closure issues
[see Section 3.1.8].
3.1.3.3. The Department will normally expect to establish a separate DPC for each
CSDP. In the case of the Ok Tedi project, for example, the Department would
envisage the establishment of a DPC for each of the six regions which have Mine
Continuation Agreements with OTML. Where a project has more than one DPC, the
relationship between them will need to be established in consultation with the project
area stakeholders.
3.1.3.4. Each DPC should be jointly chaired by the relevant Project Coordinator in
the Department of Mining (or its successor) and a representative of the national
government agency responsible for planning matters (currently the Department of
Planning and Rural Development). This arrangement should ensure that CSDPs are
consistent with the relevant provincial, district and local-level plans during the
period of mine construction and operation, and are absorbed into these government
plans after mine closure. In those cases where the boundaries of the project area
happen to coincide with those of a single district or local- level government area, the
CSDP could be identical to the relevant district or local- level plan during the period of
mine construction and operation. However, it will still be necessary to establish a
DPC in order to plan for the application of the Project Area Development Fund [see
3.1.2.4], whose size will greatly exceed any other revenues available to the relevant
local- level governments, and to enable non-government stakeholders to participate in
the planning and decision- making process.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 51
3.1.3.5. If each DPC is jointly chaired by the national government agency responsible
for planning matters, it can also assume responsibility for ensuring that any benefits
which the mining project provides to a host provincial government for use outside
of the project area are properly reflected in the relevant provincial, district and local-
level plans. Since the project developer and the provincial government will both be
represented on the DPC, this responsibility can easily be extended to include any
benefits provided to the provincial government under the Tax Credit Conversion
Scheme. In this respect, the DPC will function as an agent of the National
Government [see 3.1.3.8].
3.1.3.6. Each DPC will be free to extend membership to secondary stakeholders
who wish to participate and who have a specific commitment to the local planning
process. Such secondary stakeholders might include civil society organisations based
outside the project area, private companies aside from those engaged in the
development of the project, or donor agencies which are prepared to fund some aspect
of the planning process.
3.1.3.7. It is proposed that DPCs should meet at least once a year to review and
approve CSDPs and to carry out their other functions. These meetings should take
place within the project area, or at least within the host province. The Quarterly
Review Meetings currently convened by the Project Coordinators in the Department
of Mining should henceforth be regarded as meetings of a DPC or one of its sub-
committees. Where other project- level committees have been set up to address issues
which fall within the remit of the Community Sustainable Development Planning
process and involve a number of project area stakeholders, these could also be
designated as sub-committees of the relevant DPC if the stakeholders agree to this
arrangement.
3.1.3.8. The Department is aware that its Project Coordinators do not have the time or
the expertise to coordinate the production of CSDPs for review and approval by the
DPCs. Nor does it expect that the necessary human resources will be available in the
Department of Planning and Rural Development. This function will therefore be
assigned to the Sustainability Planning Branch which the Department proposes to
establish within the Development Coordination Division, and additional technical
support for this activity will initially be secured through an extension of the Mining
Sector Institutional Strengthening Project. At the same time, the Department also
expects that project developers will be able to build the planning capacities of other
project area stakeholders under the provisions of the Tax Credit Scheme.
3.1.3.9. The work of the DPCs will be supervised and coordinated, at the national
level, by a Mining Sustainability Planning Committee (MSPC) which will also be
jointly chaired by the national government agencies responsible for Mining and
Planning. The Sustainability Planning Branch of the Department will act as the
secretariat to the MSPC [see Section 4.1.3].
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 52
3.1.4 Baseline Planning Studies and Development Forums
3.1.4.1. If the Community Sustainable Development Planning process is to inform the
negotiation of realistic and sustainable benefit-sharing agreements by the parties to the
Development Forum, the process should begin before the Development Forum is
convened. The Department therefore proposes that a Baseline Planning Study (BPS)
be produced for each major mining project at the feasibility stage of project
development.
3.1.4.2. It is proposed that a Development Planning Committee should be
established for the purpose of commissioning and evaluating a BPS. This means that
a DPC would perform a role similar to that of the Liaison Committee which the
Department used to convene for the purpose of commissioning a Socio-Economic
Impact Study.
3.1.4.3. Once a DPC is established for this purpose, the responsibility for project
coordination will pass from the Exploration Coordination Branch to the Development
Coordination Branch of the Departments Development Coordination Division.
3.1.4.4. In order for a DPC to represent the views of other project area
stakeholders in the evaluation of a BPS, the Department will need to take account of
the results of any previous Community and Group Identification Study (or Social
Mapping Study) conducted in the area of the Exploration Licence held by the project
proponent.
3.1.4.5. The Department will expect the proponent to cover the cost of engaging
consultants to produce the BPS, but the DPC will be responsible for ensuring that the
study conforms with the guidelines established by the Government. The DPC will
also be responsible for ensuring that the study contains a more precise identification
of the project area stakeholders who should be represented in the Development
Forum, and that the Forum itself pays due consideration to the overall
recommendations of the study.
3.1.4.6. The geographical scope of a BPS will not be confined to the project area
envisaged in the proponents feasibility study, but will extend to the boundaries of the
host district(s) (in the case of a medium- scale project) or the host province(s) (in the
case of a large-scale project). This requirement is meant to ensure that the
Community Sustainable Development Planning process is integrated with the relevant
provincial, district or local- level plans which have already been put in place before the
BPS is commissioned.
3.1.4.7. The Department proposes to regard a BPS as the equivalent of the cost and
benefit analysis which the National Economic and Fiscal Commission (NEFC) is
supposed to carry out under Subsection 116(2) of the Organic Law on Provincial
Governments and Local-level Governments. In other words, the Department does not
see any reason why the NEFC should be expected to carry out a separate cost and
benefit analysis once the BPS has been completed.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 53
3.1.4.8. Once a Development Forum has been concluded, the DPC will be
responsible for ensuring that the first CSDP (for mine-affected communities) is
prepared during the projects construction phase, and is therefore ready for
implementation when the Royalty Wedge becomes available after the first year of
mining operations.
3.1.5 Responsibilities of developers
3.1.5.1. While the Department will not expect a project developer to coordinate the
Community Sustainable Development Planning process or to bear the full cost of
producing CSDPs, the developer will be expected to provide specific inputs to the
process which are either based on its own plans and projections or on its
commitments under the Mining Development Contract, the Development Forum, or
an approved Environmental Impact Statement.
3.1.5.2. These specific inputs should include:
a rolling 5-year forecast model of the total amount of revenue which is expected to
accrue to the Project Area Development Fund, based on projected mine output,
forecast commodity prices, and the benefit-sharing agreements which have been
negotiated through the Development Forum;
a rolling 5-year plan for expenditures within the project area under the Tax Credit
Scheme, including a justification for such expenditures by reference to the
principles set out in Section 2.3.1 [above];
business development plans, training and localisation plans, relocation and
resettlement plans, food security programs, AIDS and health awareness programs,
and any other plans or programs for the management of community affairs which
are intended to benefit or support project area communities;
environmental management plans produced in accordance with the permit granted
by the Director for Environment and Conservation; and
mine closure plans required under the terms of the Governments Mine Closure
Policy.
3.1.5.3. A developer will also be expected to produce a rolling 5- year forecast of the
amount of revenue which is expected to accrue to a host provincial government, for
use outside the mining project area, and plans for any Tax Credit Scheme
expenditures to be made outside the project area (but within the province), in order to
inform the relevant provincial, district and local- level plans. The DPC will be
responsible to ensure that this has been done when it monitors the content of these
plans.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 54
3.1.6 Planning guidelines
3.1.6.1. The Department is aware of the need to produce guidelines for the
production, evaluation and implementation of CSDPs. These guidelines should
include, amongst other things:
mechanisms for the integration and eventual absorption of CSDPs into the
provincial, district and local-level planning processes specified by the Organic
Law on Provincial Governments and Local-Level Governments, in accordance
with priorities established by the National Governments Medium- Term
Development Strategy;
procedures for periodic review of the definition and representation of mine-
affected and project area communities, and other project area stakeholders, in
the planning process;
procedures for dealing with development planning issues (such as problems of
food security or the spread of HIV/AIDS) whose significance may not yet be
recognised by project area stakeholders;
procedures and criteria for the appraisal of specific development projects, with
specific reference to poverty alleviation, gender equity and environmental impact;
provision for socio-economic aspects of mine closure (especially food security
and resettlement issues) to be dealt with from the earliest post-approval stages of
the mining project cycle; and
strategies for supporting livelihood and enterprise development programs for
project area communities which reduce dependency on the mining economy both
up to and after closure.
3.1.6.2. These guidelines should be incorporated into a Community Sustainable
Development Planning Handbook for distribution to project area stakeholders in
order to facilitate their participation in the design, appraisal, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation of CSDPs.
3.1.6.3. Separate guidelines will need to be established for the production and
evaluation of Baseline Planning Studies and then integrated with the guidelines for
the production, evaluation and implementation of CSDPs. The BPS guidelines should
include:
a set of standard indicators for the assessment of social and economic conditions
in the host province(s) or district(s) which can be used to establish a qualitative
and quantitative baseline for subsequent development plans;
procedures for the identification of those project area stakeholders whom the
Minister should invite to a Development Forum;
a model or template for the construction of mutually agreeable but sustainable
benefit-sharing agreements or Integrated Benefit Packages to be negotiated at a
Development Forum; and
a standard financial model which can be used to assess the medium- and long-term
impact of these Forum agreements.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 55
3.1.7 Integration of development planning and environmental protection
3.1.7.1. There is an option for CSDPs to integrate the social, economic and
environmental aspects of sustainable development planning for mine-affected and
project area communities within a single institutional framework. This option would
make sense if the primary stakeholders (including the relevant national government
agencies) could agree on a common approach to the problem of linking the values or
functions of environmental protection and development planning. This does not seem
likely under current circumstances, except perhaps in the specific context of mine
closure planning.
3.1.7.2. Part of the difficulty of achieving such integration in the short-term is that the
Environment Act has not yet been implemented, the process of Environmental Impact
Assessment under that Act has not yet been tested in practice, and little progress has
yet been made in the formulation of additional guidelines or policies for which the
Act does make provision.
3.1.7.3. The Department of Mining is well aware of the resource constraints which
limit the capacity of the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) to carry
out its appointed tasks. However, the two Departments have a long history of
dialogue and collaboration in dealing with the social and environmental impacts of
major mining projects, which is currently institutionalised in the Social and
Environmental Monitoring Committees established for each project. The
Department of Mining expects that this kind of institutional collaboration will
continue to provide a forum for integrating the values of environmental protection
into the development planning process.
3.1.7.4. The Department of Mining believes that the Community Sustainable
Development Planning process proposed in this Green Paper should greatly reduce the
need for the DEC to concern itself with monitoring the socio-economic impacts of
major mining projects. The reason is that many of these impacts need to be addressed
by a process of development planning which the DEC has no mandate or capacity to
coordinate.
3.1.7.5. Where a project has already been approved for development under the terms
of the Environmental Planning Act (1978), and the developer is required to implement
an approved Environmental Management and Monitoring Program, the functions
of the Social Monitoring Committee (currently chaired by the DEC) should be split
between the Environmental Monitoring Committee (also chaired by the DEC) and the
Development Planning Committee (on which the DEC will be represented). This will
mean a further reduction in the total number of committees sitting on each project.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 56
3.1.7.6. Where a new project is proposed for development under the Environment
Act, and the proponent is required to submit an Environmental Impact Statement
(EIS) as part of the process of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) coordinated
by the DEC, there should be some relationship between the EIS and the Baseline
Planning Study proposed here as the precondition of the Development Forum. This
could take the form of a requirement for the BPS to be attached as an appendix to the
EIS, which would have the advantage of the subjecting it to the process of public
consultation prescribed by the Environment Act. However, the Department of Mining
is mindful of the period of time which might elapse between the submission and final
approval of an EIS, and will therefore seek to avoid any arrangement which
complicates the EIA process.
3.1.7.7. Since Baseline Planning Studies will cover much of the ground previously
covered in Socio-Economic Impact Studies, it can be argued that the social
element of the EIA process should focus on the conservation of cultural heritage
values and customary social institutions in a projects area of impact. This focus is
consistent with the general emphasis of the Environment Act (and previous
environmental legislation) on the limitation or mitigation of environmental harm. If
this argument is accepted, it should be reflected in the guidelines which the DEC is
presently drafting for the process of social impact assessment under the
Environment Act. These guidelines will need to be aligned with the proposed
Baseline Planning Study guidelines in order to avoid further confusion or duplication.
3.1.8 Integration of Sustainable Development Policy and Mine Closure Policy
3.1.8.1. There is a good deal of overlap, and a certain amount of inconsistency,
between the Draft Mine Closure Policy and the Sustainable Development Policy
foreshadowed in this Green Paper. This situation has arisen because the Draft Mine
Closure Policy was drafted before the decision was made to draft a Sustainable
Development Policy for the mining sector. The relationship between the two policies
will need to be clarified before they are both finalised. The main point at issue is the
relationship between Mine Closure Plans and Community Sustainable
Development Plans.
3.1.8.2. One option is to remove all reference to socio-economic or development
planning issues from the Mine Closure Policy and leave such issues to be covered
under the Sustainable Development Policy. The Mine Closure Policy would thus
become part of the Governments environmental policy and planning framework,
and Mine Closure Plans would essentially be plans for decommissioning, site
rehabilitation, and the management of long-term biophysical impacts.
3.1.8.3. A second option is to maintain the requirement for developers to address
socio-economic issues in the Mine Closure Plans which they submit to the
Government (and other stakeholders) under the Mine Closure Policy, but to treat these
as one of several inputs which developers are expected to make to a Community
Sustainable Development Planning process which is prescribed in the Sustainable
Development Policy, as well as a separate process by which the Government
regulates the biophysical impact of mining operations.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 57
3.1.8.4. A third option is to use the Mine Closure Policy, and the associated process
of Mine Closure Planning, as a way of integrating socio-economic and biophysical
issues within a single multi-stakeholder planning process which begins when all
stakeholders (including the members of mine-affected communities) are willing and
able to participate in such a process. Under this option, the area of overlap between
the two policies might be confined to the last few years of a mining operation, but it
would then be all the more important to ensure their mutual consistency.
3.1.8.5. The choice between these options should be guided by the following
considerations:
The Department does not propose the establishment of a Mine Closure Planning
process to run parallel to the Community Sustainable Development Planning
process. This could only lead to a waste of time and resources on all sides.
Recent experience has shown that a focus on mine closure issues can serve to
galvanise the interest and concern of national government agencies which might
otherwise be reluctant to engage with sustainable development issues in the
mining sector. The institutions and networks which have already been established
to develop and implement the Mine Closure Policy should be regarded as the
foundation for a broader Sustainable Development Policy.
The Department is aware that an attempt to engage project area communities in a
multi-stakeholder planning process which deals explicitly with mine closure,
rather than sustainable development, may give rise to additional political
conflict in some circumstances. This is especially the case if a Mine Closure
Forum, similar in constitution to the original Development Forum, is convened to
initiate the process.
There should be some avenue for communication between the National
Government and the operators of a major mining project about contingency plans
for premature closure resulting from the incidence of civil unrest in the project
area. The Department is aware that this issue may not be suitable for inclusion in
a multi-stakeholder planning process, but it still needs to be covered by a Mine
Closure Policy, even if it is not covered by a Sustainable Development Policy.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 58
3.2 BENEFIT MANAGEMENT
What should be the roles and responsibilities of developers, government agencies, and
other stakeholders in managing the investment of mineral wealth for purposes of
sustainable development in the provinces or areas which host major mining projects?
3.2.1 Basic principles of benefit management
3.2.1.1. There is a broadly defined need for an integrated benefit management
regime for provinces and areas which host major mining projects, involving all
relevant stakeholders, through all the stages of the mining project cycle, with roles
and responsibilities clearly specified, reflecting the resources and capacities of those
involved, with appropriate incentives or sanctions for implementation. However, this
benefit management regime can only be partially integrated so long as there are
different institutional arrangements required for the benefit streams allocated to
different groups or classes of stakeholders.
3.2.1.2. A Sustainability Planning Framework for major mining projects should
include provision for the effective implementation of Community Sustainable
Development Plans (CSDPs) through the management of Project Area
Development Funds. In principle, a single institution should be established to
manage all the benefits which the National Government and the host provincial
government agree to allocate for this purpose in respect of each major mining project.
In practice, it may be necessary to allow for the existence of more than one institution
in order to accommodate the diverse interests of different communities or groups
within the project area.
3.2.1.3. There is a general lack of conditionality, transparency and accountability in
the way that provincial governments have been using their own share of mineral
revenues. The basic principles of project activity cycle management have been
ignored. Standard accounting and financial management practices have not been
followed. The provincial public service has commonly been politicised and
demoralised. The National Government must take steps to address these problems
within the Sustainability Planning Framework.
3.2.1.4. The management of landowner companies and landowner trust funds is a
subject of widespread concern, both within and outside the mining sector. The
Government must accept a measure of responsibility for ensuring that the principles
of transparency and accountability are applied to such organisations, especially in the
period following the closure of a major mining project, when the developer can no
longer be expected to play a supervisory role.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 59
3.2.1.5. As a matter of principle, any organisation established to manage the
distribution, and above all the investment, of mineral wealth should have the legal and
institutional characteristics which are necessary to insure it against the acts of
misappropriation or plunder which have unfortunately been characteristic of many
such organisations in PNG. This means, amongst other things, that resource flows
should be transparent and accountable, and management should be accountable to all
the stakeholders. In particular, any persons or organisations that function as trustees
for other stakeholders should be made aware of the responsibilities which are
attached to this role, and must be held accountable to the beneficiaries for their
performance.
3.2.1.6. Most of the organisations involved in the distribution, management and
expenditure of the nations mineral wealth seem to incur transaction or overhead
costs which are much too high. In some cases, it is difficult or impossible to establish
the proportion of the relevant benefit streams which is consumed in this manner. But
these costs clearly limit the proportion of mineral wealth which is left to be spent on
the achievement of sustainable development outcomes. Transaction costs therefore
need to be calculated and publicised in a more transparent fashion, and steps need to
be taken to reduce the level of duplication, waste and inefficiency involved in these
forms of expenditure.
3.2.1.7. As in the case of project planning [see 3.1.1.5], there needs to be greater
clarity about the respective roles of the Department of Mining and the Department of
Planning and Rural Development in the management of mineral wealth within a
Sustainability Planning Framework for the mining sector. That is because the
National Government is responsible to ensure that examples of good management
are duplicated where possible, while opportunities for mismanagement and
misappropriation are not repeated as a result of the failure to learn from past
mistakes.
3.2.1.8. The Government should clarify its understanding of the role of corporate
trust funds, social funds, or foundations in the management of mineral wealth for
sustainable development in areas affected by major mining projects. The institution
of the Tax Credit Scheme can be taken as an admission of the Governments own lack
of capacity to manage the distribution and investment of mineral wealth for the
benefit of people in the host province and the project area. However, it is important to
establish the separation of public revenues and expenditures from the dispensations
made by developers on their own account, as acts of charity or enlightened self-
interest.
3.2.2 Management of Project Area Development Funds
3.2.2.1. Community Sustainable Development Plans for project area communities
will not produce sustainable development outcomes unless the funds available for
their implementation are properly managed. The level of funding available for this
purpose is so far in excess of the level of funding normally available to local- level
governments as to warrant the establishment of a separate institution to manage
these resources during the operational life of a major mining project.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 60
3.2.2.2. The Department proposes that this institution should normally be a Special
Purposes Authority (SPA) established under Part VII of the Local-level
Governments Administration Act (1997). The current model for such an institution is
the Porgera-Paiela SPA, more commonly known as the Porgera Development
Authority. Under the terms of the Act, an SPA is an instrumentality of one or more
local- level governments, but is also accountable to the Minister responsible for
Provincial and Local Government Affairs (currently known as the Minister for Inter-
Governmental Affairs).
3.2.2.3. Since the Department recognises that the number of mine-affected and
project area communities attached to a large-scale mining project may sometimes
warrant the creation of more than one Community Sustainable Development Plan for
that project [see 3.1.2.5], it is also aware of the possible need to establish more than
one SPA to manage the Project Area Development Funds allocated for the benefit of
those communities. This is most likely to be the case if the project area communities
are distributed between a number of local- level government areas, and the local- level
governments are unable to agree to the establishment of a single SPA to manage the
benefits allocated to these communities.
3.2.2.4. The Department recognises that the establishment of an SPA for this purpose
will not be justified if:
the district administration and local- level government(s) responsible for the
project area have demonstrated (to the satisfaction of relevant central government
agencies) a capacity to manage the benefits derived from a medium- scale project;
or
a local- level government refuses to consent to its establishment; or
agreement has already been reached to establish an alternative institution (such as
the Ramu Foundation) which has very similar functions, powers and
responsibilities; or
the level of benefits yet to be derived from a mining project which is nearing
closure would not warrant the time and effort required to establish a new
institution to manage such benefits.
3.2.2.5. There may also be cases where the developers of an existing project have
already secured the agreement of other primary stakeholders to establish an institution
(such as the Ok Tedi Foundation) which manages the supply of benefits to project
area communities beyond the formal requirements of government policy. While the
Community Sustainable Development Planning process should take account of such
an arrangement, an SPA should be established for the specific purpose of managing
those Project Area Development Funds (which are essentially government
revenues) whose allocation is required by the Sustainable Development Policy.
3.2.2.6. In the planning and negotiation of any future mining project, the Department
will ensure that the establishment of an SPA is one of the matters addressed at the
Development Forum, provided that this has been given due consideration in the
Baseline Planning Study. The Baseline Planning Study guidelines will therefore
need to make provision for such an assessment.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 61
3.2.2.7. Where an SPA is established for the purpose of managing all or part of a
Project Area Development Fund:
the money to be spent by the SPA should be paid directly into its account, either
by the project developer (in the case of the Royalty Wedge or Development
Levies) or by the National Government (in the case of any portion of a Special
Support Grant or other grant which the Government has agreed to allocate to the
project area);
any spending in the project area which is controlled by the developer under the
Tax Credit Scheme should be partly or wholly managed under a contractual
relationship between the developer and the SPA.
These arrangements are consistent with the proposed Tax Credit Conversion Scheme
[Section 2.3.5] and with the role of the Development Planning Committee in the
production and implementation of CSDPs for the project area [Section 3.1.3].
3.2.2.8. The Department is aware of the argument that some of the SPAs established
(or purportedly established) outside of the mining sector have been used as vehicles
for the misappropriation of public funds. The Department therefore proposes to
undertake a review of the status and current operations of the two SPAs which have
already been established within the mining sector (in the Porgera and Lihir project
areas) in order to assess their planning, budgeting and financial management
procedures. This will form the basis for:
developing general guidelines for the operation and management of SPAs;
determining the feasibility of establishing SPAs in other mining project areas; and
recommending strategies for the engagement of SPAs in implementation of the
Tax Credit Scheme.
The Department aims to complete this exercise before the Sustainable Development
Policy is finalised.
3.2.2.9. Guidelines established for the operation and management of SPAs in the
mining sector will need to make adequate provision for these institutions to be wound
up, or for their role to be reviewed, after mine closure. During the course of the
mining project cycle, it is understood that an SPA will initially be responsible for
management of the Royalty Wedge, will then assume increasing responsibility for the
management of Tax Credit expenditures and Development Levies payable under the
Tax Credit Conversion Scheme, but might end up as the manager of a trust fund
which has been set up to absorb a portion of these revenues in order to pay for the
maintenance of local infrastructure or public services once mining operations have
ceased.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 62
3.2.2.10. Under the institutional framework established for implementation of the
Sustainability Planning Framework, the Sustainability Planning Branch of the
Department will be expected to:
strengthen and extend the role of SPAs in the management of Project Area
Development Funds in accordance with Community Sustainable Development
Plans; and
collaborate with the Department of Provincial and Local Government Affairs in
the monitoring and evaluation of their performance.
3.2.3 Integration of development planning and benefit management functions
3.2.3.1. In those cases where an SPA (or a single institution with similar functions,
powers and responsibilities) is established to manage a Project Area Development
Fund, there is an option for the DPC to be identical to the Board of the SPA (or to
the Board of a similar institution). This would have the obvious advantage of
reducing the number of institutions involved in implementation of the Sustainability
Planning Framework at the project level, while producing more incentives and
opportunities for staff of the SPA to be directly engaged in the Community
Sustainability Planning Process.
3.2.3.2. However, this arrangement also has a number of potential disadvantages:
It would remove the checks and balances implied in an arms- length relationship
between the bodies responsible for development planning and benefit
management.
It would mean that the Department of Provincial and Local Government Affairs
could not be represented on the DPC, because its role under the Local-level
Governments Administration Act precludes representation on the Board of an
SPA.
Additional difficulties may arise from any requirement for a body which is co-
chaired by the national departments responsible for Planning and Mining to be
held accountable to one or more local- level governments.
The arrangement may be unacceptable to the Boards of those SPAs which have
already been established in the mining sector.
There might be no need to establish separate SPAs for each of the six groups of
communities which have entered into a Mine Continuation Agreement with
OTML, even if the value of community participation in the planning process
warrants the existence of six DPCs [see 3.1.3.3].
3.2.3.3. The legal and institutional form of the relationship between DPCs and the
Boards of SPAs in each major project area is a matter which will be addressed in the
proposed review of the status and current operations of the two SPAs which have
already been established within the mining sector [see 3.2.2.8].
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 63
3.2.4 Management of benefits for landholders and landowning groups
3.2.4.1. The Department is aware that its right to insist on specific arrangements for
the management of compensation payments made to landholders or landowning
groups is limited by the fact that these are not grants made by the Government, but
are the agreed entitlements of people who suffer loss or damage caused by the actions
of the companies which are responsible for making the payments.
3.2.4.2. However, the Department acknowledges responsibility for:
advising the parties to a compensation agreement on the most appropriate methods
for ensuring that cash payments reach the individuals or households for whom
they are intended; and
providing additional advice to landowning groups and communities on the
establishment of institutions and processes for saving or investing a portion of
their land compensation, or else holding it in trust for future generations [see
2.3.2.2].
It is proposed that Project Coordinators will perform the first of these tasks, while the
second will be performed by the Sustainability Planning Branch.
3.2.4.3. The Department proposes to institutionalise the arrangement by which
developers have been given responsibility for the actual distribution of royalty grants
to members of mining lease communities on behalf of the State, but will expect any
cash payments to be made in accordance with the procedures established for the
payment of land compensation. Where a portion of the royalty grant is invested in the
purchase of project equity or saved in a trust fund, the Department will not expect the
developer to manage such benefits on behalf of the recipients, but will require a
separate arrangement to be made through the Development Forum.
3.2.4.4. The Department is concerned by the diversity of trust arrangements which
have already been put in place to manage a relatively small proportion of the
compensation and benefits allocated to landowning groups and communities around
existing projects. The Department therefore proposes to undertake a review of these
arrangements which will recommend strategies to ensure:
the suitability and sustainability of trust deed objectives;
board compliance with the trust deed; and
monitoring of trust fund management up to and after the point of mine closure.
This will complement the proposed review of existing SPAs [see 3.2.2.8], and should
also be completed before the Sustainable Development Policy is finalised.
3.2.4.5. The Department does not presently anticipate any role for SPAs in the
management of the royalty grant allocated directly to mining lease communities, even
where part of that grant is held in trust for future generations or for other purposes,
since this would create a risk of confusion between this portion of the royalty grant
and the Royalty Wedge which is allocated to Project Area Development Funds.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 64
3.2.4.6. The review of current trust arrangements will include the arrangements by
which the Mineral Resources Development Company (MRDC) and its subsidiary
companies manage the landowner equity stake in mining projects which are already
operational. The Department is aware of the legal obstacles to any fundamental
change in these current arrangements, but will use the findings of this review to
examine alternatives to the assumption of MRDCs right to manage the equity stake in
a future mining project which is acquired under the Community Participation Option
[see 2.3.4.1]. The Department is also aware of the need to ensure that any alternative
arrangement offers greater protection for the long-term interest of the beneficiaries.
3.2.5 Management of provincial government benefits
3.2.5.1. Under the proposals set out in Section 2.3 [above], the benefits which a host
provincial government (rather than any local- level governments) will derive directly
from a major mining project during its period of operation will consist of:
a share of the royalty grant from the National Government which is not less than
20%, and not more than 60%, of the value of mineral royalties derived from that
project; plus
Tax Credit expenditures with a value of 0.25% of the developers gross earnings,
which are gradually converted into Development Levies with the same value
under the Tax Credit Conversion Scheme; or
an interim Special Support Grant which will be phased out within a period of 4
years.
These proposals do not preclude the negotiation of other special grants by the
National Government to a host provincial government during the periods before and
after the operational life of a major mining project.
3.2.5.2. Since these proposals imply a considerable reduction in the amount of money
derived from a major mining project which is added to the normal budget of the host
provincial government, there will be less of an imperative to make special
arrangements to prevent this money from being spent in ways which prove to be
unsustainable after mine closure. However, it will still be important to ensure that the
provincial government makes its own contribution to the task of integrating the
provincial and district planning process with the Community Sustainable
Development Planning process. While this may be achieved, to some extent, through
its participation in the relevant Development Planning Committee, the DPC will not
have the authority or capacity to implement or monitor the distribution of mine-
related benefits outside the project area.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 65
3.2.5.3. The relevant DPC will be responsible to ensure that a developer plans its Tax
Credit expenditures throughout a host province in ways which are consistent with the
relevant provincial and district plans [see 3.1.3.5]. A separate mechanism is required
to monitor and evaluate the extent to which
Tax Credit expenditures by the developer outside the project area, and
provincial government spending of its own share of the royalty grant or any
other mine-related grant made by the National Government
have in fact been made in accordance with provincial and district plans which
incorporate the principles of sustainable development. It is proposed that the Mining
Sustainability Planning Committee, acting on advice from the Departments
Sustainability Planning Branch, should be responsible for making this determination.
3.2.5.4. The ability of the Sustainability Planning Branch to provide relevant
advice to the MSPC will be a function of its additional responsibility to support the
role of Provincial Management Teams in the management of provincial government
benefits. This will include the provision of advice on:
monitoring and evaluation of Tax Credit expenditures throughout the province;
planning livelihood and enterprise development programs to reduce dependency
on the mining economy both up to and after mine closure; and
establishment of trust arrangements for the receipt and management of the
provincial governments share of Development Levies received under the Tax
Credit Conversion Scheme.
3.2.5.5. The MSPC will then be responsible to determine:
the nature of any physical or value-for-money audits of provincial benefits to be
undertaken by staff of the Sustainability Planning Branch in association with
Provincial Management Teams;
the extent to which the provincial government has adopted the basic principles of
project activity cycle management in spending its share of the royalty grant; and
the manner and timing of the conversion of Tax Credit into Development Levies
for any part of the Tax Credit Conversion Scheme which is applied to parts of
the province which lie outside the project area.
3.2.5.6. Where a Special Purposes Authority is established to manage the share of
Development Levies which are held in trust for local- level governments under the
Tax Credit Conversion Scheme, there is an option to extend this role to the
management of any additional share of Development Levies which are held in trust
for the provincial government. Pursuit of this option would be consistent with the
more specialised role of the SPA as a trust fund manager in the period following mine
closure [see 3.2.2.9], but might not be consistent with the requirement for SPAs to be
accountable to local- level governments rather than provincial governments.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 66
3.3 TRANSPARENCY
What should be the roles and responsibilities of developers, government agencies, and
other stakeholders in disseminating information about the distribution and
management of mineral wealth in order for mineral wealth to make the most
effective possible contribution to sustainable development?
3.3.1 The basic need for transparency
3.3.1.1. The institutions of transparency and accountability are essential to the
governance of the mining sector. If a government has a policy relating to the
distribution and management of mineral wealth, it should also have a policy relating
to the dissemination of information on this subject. The PNG Government is
currently failing to make much of an impact on the debate between the mining
industry and its most vocal critics because it cannot show that the benefits of mining
are being effectively managed to achieve the goal of sustainable development. As a
result, the Government is vulnerable to criticism about the social and environmental
costs which it is prepared to accept by way of a trade-off in the achievement of this
goal.
3.3.1.2. The Government believes that the mining industry has generally done a good
job of reporting the environmental impact of its operations in PNG, and that the
current policy framework makes adequate provision for independent audit of such
reports. But greater provision needs to be made for the independent and public audit
or certification of the overall contribution which the developers of large-scale
mining projects make to the sustainable development of host provinces and project
area communities.
3.3.1.3. The Government recognises the importance of collecting, updating and
disseminating information on the redistribution of mineral revenues to host
provinces, as well as the flow of benefits provided by developers on their own
account. This kind of information is not to be collected and distributed for its own
sake. The point is to provide a more effective safeguard against the
misappropriation or mismanagement of the national share of mineral wealth.
3.3.1.4. The principles of transparency and accountability need to be reconciled with
the principles of privacy and confidentiality. However, the principle of commercial
confidentiality should not be used as a pretext for creating a cosy relationship between
developers and the national government agencies to which they submit their reports,
because this will only encourage other stakeholders to believe that the Government is
privately acting to protect and advance the interests of the industry. What is required
is an overall improvement in the quality of public reporting by both parties.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 67
3.3.1.5. The Government should also take responsibility for raising the level of
transparency and accountability within local communities. It cannot be assumed that
communities have effective ways to control the behaviour of their leaders or
representatives. Melanesian culture favours the production and protection of secret
knowledge in forms which may be inappropriate for the purpose of dealing with the
distribution and management of mineral wealth. Even where institutions are put in
place for regular community consultation, community representatives often fail to
report back to their communities, and need to be made aware of their responsibility to
do so.
3.3.1.6. Transparency is a two-way street. As matter of principle, all stakeholders
engaged in the process of Community Sustainable Development Planning, or in the
management of mineral wealth for the benefit of people in the province or area which
hosts a major mining project, should agree to be held accountable for spreading false
rumours or misinformation. Rumour and gossip are very powerful forces in
Melanesian culture. Those stakeholders who have the capacity to enlighten others
also have the responsibility not to mislead them.
3.3.2 Transparency at the project level
3.3.2.1. The Community Sustainable Development Planning process will include
provision for annual reporting of all expenditures made out of Project Area
Development Funds, including those made under the Tax Credit Scheme. Guidelines
for the production of annual reports will include provision for physical audit of any
items of expenditure above a limit to be determined by the Mining Sustainability
Planning Committee. Where feasible, photographs of these items will be included in
the reports.
3.3.2.2. The Department will expect developers to maintain records of all
compensation payments made to members of mining lease and mine-affected
communities. Where developers have been given responsibility for the payment of
royalty grants to members of mining lease communities, the Department will expect
them to keep records of such payments in the format which is used to record land
compensation payments. The Department will establish the standard format to be
used in recording all of these payments, and will expect developers to submit copies
of their records in electronic form on a quarterly basis.
3.3.2.3. Since the royalty grants paid to members of mining lease communities are
grants from the public purse, are made for the benefit of groups rather than
individuals, and for the benefit of future as well as current generations, the
Department believes that all members of these communities should be entitled to
know the amount and timing of each payment and the identity of the recipient, and
will expect the developers to make this information available to them. The
Department is aware that some of the recipients may feel that the security of their
persons and property will be put at risk by the distribution of such information, but it
believes that measures can be put in place to minimise such risks. The Department
does not propose to release such detailed information to the general public, but will
release summary annual reports of the amounts paid out in royalty grants and all
forms of compensation to each of the mining lease communities in PNG.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 68
3.3.2.4. The Department is aware of public concern over the apparent lack of
transparency in the management of mining project equity held in trust for mining
lease communities by the Mineral Resources Development Company (MRDC). The
Department will therefore request the directors of MRDC and the relevant subsidiary
companies to publish all information relating to distribution of income from this
source which cannot be construed as a breach of trust.
3.3.3 Transparency at the national level
3.3.2.5. The Department proposes to establish a standard format for the operator of
each major mining project in PNG to report the amounts paid annually:
to the National Government and any lower levels of government by way of taxes
and levies of all kinds;
to national and foreign companies for the supply of goods and services to the
project;
to citizens and non-citizens in the form of wages and salaries (net of payroll tax);
to landholders or landowning groups by way of compensation; and
to other organisations or individuals by way grants or donations.
3.3.2.6. The Department proposes to collaborate with the PNG Chamber of Mines
and Petroleum to establish a method of reporting which captures the full range of
costs incurred by the operators, including the cost of environmental protection and the
management of community affairs, and the full extent of their direct contribution to
the Governments revenues. The Department will also consult with the Chamber and
with any other interested parties to establish the most cost-effective way of compiling
and disseminating this information to the general public.
3.3.2.7. The Department of Mining proposes to collaborate with the Internal Revenue
Commission, the Department of Treasury, and the National Economic and Fiscal
Commission, to establish a standard format for reporting:
the amounts of government revenue which are derived directly from major
mining projects through different forms of taxation in each calendar year; and
the amounts which are actually transferred each year from the National
Government to lower levels of government through different forms of grant
related to the existence of these projects.
For this purpose, inter- governmental transfers will be understood to include all
expenditures made under the proposed Tax Credit Conversion Scheme [see Section
2.3.5], but not the royalty grants provided to mining lease communities.
3.3.2.8. In the event of any inconsistency between the figures supplied by the
industry and the Internal Revenue Commission regarding the amounts paid to the
National Government in different forms of taxation, the Department will convene a
meeting of industry and government representatives to reconcile these figures. Once
this has been done, the role of the relevant government agencies should be to check
and verify the figures supplied by the industry before they are placed in the public
domain.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 69
3.3.2.9. Responsibility for establishing a common framework for tracking flows of
mineral wealth through government accounts will be vested in a sub-committee of the
Mining Sustainability Planning Committee. The MSPC will be responsible for
authorising the annual publication of this information. The National Economic and
Fiscal Commission will be responsible for verification of the information pertaining to
inter- governmental transfers of mineral wealth.
3.3.4 Methods of dissemination
3.3.4.1. Information pertaining to the distribution of mineral wealth derived from
each major mining project, together with the content of the Community Sustainable
Development Plan(s) pertaining to that project, will be posted to the Departments
official website. This task will be the responsibility of the Departments Minerals
Information Branch.
3.3.4.2. The Department will expect the operators of each major mining project to
carry the cost of publishing hard copies of the information pertaining to that project
for distribution to project area stakeholders.
3.4 DISPUTE RESOLUTION
What should be the roles and responsibilities of developers, government agencies, and
other stakeholders in resolving disputes arising from the development of major
mining projects in order for the mining industry to make the most effective possible
contribution to sustainable development?
3.4.1 Arguments caused by mining projects
3.4.1.1. Dispute resolution is a major issue for the implementation of a Sustainability
Planning Framework for the mining sector in PNG because the prospect of social
disorder and periodic outbreaks of violent social conflict in the vicinity of major
mining projects is one of the main disincentives to investment in the sector.
3.4.1.2. The social, economic and environmental impact of major mining projects
includes a wide range of occasions for argument between project area stakeholders,
which can sooner or later embroil other primary or secondary stakeholders from
outside the project area. Many of these arguments seem at first sight to revolve
around claims for compensation for the environmental damage caused by mining
operations, but turn out, on closer inspection, to be concerned with the principles
which ought to govern the distribution and management of mineral wealth. These
disputes need to be dealt with in a manner which combines the principles of fairness,
efficiency and transparency with the achievement of sustainable development
outcomes.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 70
3.4.1.3. In many cases, the distribution of increasing amounts of mineral wealth to
provincial governments and local communities has had the effect of increasing the
number and intensity of disputes between individuals and groups who feel themselves
to be entitled to a share of this wealth. In the case of local communities, the sudden
access of mineral wealth is also likely to undermine the authority of individuals and
institutions which have traditionally been responsible for the resolution of social
conflict. The National Government therefore needs to take responsibility for
supporting traditional forms of dispute resolution or finding alternative
mechanisms which are acceptable to the disputing parties.
3.4.2 Alternatives to litigation
3.4.2.1. The Department believes that far too much time and money is being spent on
the resolution of disputes about the distribution and management of mineral wealth by
means of litigation in the national courts. The formal court system is already
overburdened with other matters, and lawyers are the only stakeholders who seem to
secure any lasting benefit from excessive litigation. The Department will therefore
use its best efforts to ensure that such disputes are resolved by other means which are
less costly for the disputing parties.
3.4.2.2. Some people might argue that the number of disputes arising from the
development of mining (and also petroleum) projects is sufficient to justify the
establishment of a special tribunal or authority perhaps even an Ombudsman to
deal with them. Several points can be made about this kind of suggestion:
PNG already has an Ombudsman who deals with complaints about the abuse of
State power, but many (if not most) of the disputes in the mining sector arise from
a lack of government capacity to manage a complex set of relationships between
other stakeholders, and an Ombudsman cannot create government capacity where
it is lacking.
Given the National Governments current financial situation, there is no realistic
prospect of securing additional government funds for the creation of a new
judicial institution, or even the addition of new functions to one which already
exists.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 71
There are cases in developed countries where an industry has established and
funded an independent Ombudsman to investigate public complaints about the
abuse of that industrys market power, but this kind of institution would not be an
appropriate way of dealing with most of the disputes which afflict the PNG
mining sector, even if the industry were willing and able to support it.
Non-government organisations could play an important role in resolving some of
these disputes, but they are not likely to succeed if the Government is unable to
create greater public understanding and acceptance of its own laws and policies.
The range of disputes which presently afflicts the mining sector (and also the
petroleum sector) is too great for any single institution to deal with all of them
effectively, even if additional human and financial resources were to be made
available.
The Department therefore believes that the best way forward is to clarify the roles and
responsibilities of different institutions for dealing with different kinds of dispute, and
to build their capacity to do so when this can be done with a modest amount of
additional resources.
3.4.3 Disputes over customary land rights
3.4.3.1. Some disputes about the distribution mineral wealth are disputes between
landowning communities, landowning groups, or individual landholders about the
nature and extent of their rights to customary land within the areas covered by an
Exploration Licence or a development lease. Once a project has been approved for
development, these may turn into disputes between organisations or associations
established by members of different groups or communities.
3.4.3.2. The Department believes that disputes about the ownership of customary
land, and hence about the distribution of entitlements to compensation or benefits
which flow from this customary ownership, should, wherever possible, be heard and
resolved on the land which is the subject of dispute. Where many community
members are witness to the process, it is much harder for individuals to press false or
vexatious claims.
3.4.3.3. The Departments Project Coordinators will be responsible to ensure that all
areas proposed for inclusion in a development lease are declared as Land Mediation
Areas under the Land Disputes Settlement Act before a Development Forum is
convened and the project is approved for development. The appointment of local
Land Mediators will normally be made in consultation with local councillors and
village court officials during or immediately after the conduct of a lease area land
investigation at the expense of the project proponent. Any areas identified as being
subject to dispute during the course of the investigation will then be referred to the
Land Mediators as soon as they are appointed.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 72
3.4.3.4. Once a project has been approved for development, Project Coordinators will
provide support for Land Mediators to mediate any further disputes over rights to
customary land within the areas leased to the developer. Since these are defined as
disputes to which the developer is not itself a party, the Department will also expect
the Lands Officer(s) employed by the developer to provide advice and support for the
process of mediation where this is requested by the Land Mediators.
3.4.4 Other disputes within or between project area communities
3.4.4.1. The social impact of a major mining project normally includes a degree of
social disruption which entails an increase in the frequency and intensity of disputes
between the people of the project area. Many of these disputes are not concerned with
the distribution of land rights between customary landholders or landowning groups,
but may still be concerned with the distribution of mineral wealth derived from the
possession of such rights. Other disputes arise from interaction between customary
landholders and immigrants to the area who may or may not be employed by the
mining company or its contractors. Nor can the incidence of disputes between groups
or communities be clearly distinguished from the increase in violent behaviour or
criminal activity which tends to accompany the unequal distribution of disposable
cash incomes within the projects area of impact.
3.4.4.2. Wherever possible, these local- level disputes should initially be dealt with by
the Village Courts. An assessment of the capacity of these institutions should be
included in the Baseline Planning Study for a major mining project, and then
reviewed through the Community Sustainable Development Planning process.
However, the Department is aware that Village Courts alone will not have the
capacity to manage all the different forms of social conflict in the project area, and
that this responsibility will therefore need to be shared with the local police force and
with the security staff employed by the developer.
3.4.4.3. It is sometimes difficult for the mining company to maintain an appearance
of neutrality in the management of social conflict within the project area, simply
because of the obligation placed on the company to employ substantial numbers of
local people who may be party to a local dispute. However, companies are commonly
obliged to intervene because the Governments law enforcement agencies do not have
the resources to do the job by themselves. The Department will therefore expect each
developer to formulate a local conflict management strategy to be implemented by
its Loss Control Department, and to include this with its other inputs to the
Community Sustainable Development Planning process.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 73
3.4.4.4. The Department does not think it is appropriate for a developer to include
any subsidy or support for police operations within its local conflict management
strategy. Mining companies should not be expected to bear the risk of being seen to
use the Governments apparatus of law enforcement for their own purposes,
especially if this might lay them open to accusations of human rights abuse. If the
police do not have the resources to carry out their tasks within a project area, the
supply of additional resources should be the responsibility of the agency which is
charged with management of the Project Area Development Fund, and which is
therefore accountable to the local- level government(s) responsible for the area.
Provision for such addit ional expenditure should therefore be made by the
Community Sustainable Development Plan(s) approved by the Development Planning
Committee.
3.4.4.5. Where the members of one or more local communities are engaged in a
dispute over the distribution or management of mineral wealth which could not be
addressed by a Village Court, and for which the developer is also unable to provide
any solution, the Department will encourage the parties to refer the matter to
mediation before they consider taking it to a higher court [see Section 3.4.7].
3.4.5 Compensation claims against developers
3.4.5.1. Where members of a mining lease community are in dispute with a developer
over the implementation of a compensation agreement, or where they are demanding
compensation for damage not previously foreseen or covered by an existing
agreement, the Department will seek to mediate the dispute through the office of the
Mining Wardens or other staff of its Regulation Division. This is to avoid any
perception of bias on the part of the Project Coordinators, whose role involves more
frequent communication or association with the developer.
3.4.5.2. Officers of the Department of Environment and Conservation may also be
expected to play a role in the settlement of such disputes, either under the existing
legislation for which the Department is responsible, or (in the case of new projects)
under the terms of the Environment Act. However, the DEC is even more likely than
the Department of Mining to experience difficulty in performing this role because of
its own lack of resources.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 74
3.4.5.3. The Department is aware that disputes of this kind are the ones most likely to
attract the interest of non-government organisations because they provide an
opportunity for non- government organisations to act as advocates for the rights of
local or indigenous communities against the power which is commonly attributed to
large mining companies. The Department does not place any restriction on the right
of project area stakeholders, including members of landowning communities, to seek
support or advice from organisations based outside the project area. The
Departments main concern is to ensure that these secondary stakeholders are
properly informedabout the facts and issues at stake, that they act in a responsible
manner in their dealings with project area stakeholders, and that they accept some
measure of accountability for their actions. In any particular case, the Department
will expect the relevant Project Coordinator to brief the representatives of any
organisation which has been invited to support members of a landowning community
engaged in a dispute with the project developer. In return, it will expect the
representatives of that organisation to provide the relevant Project Coordinator with a
report of their findings and any proposals or recommendations for further action by
the Department.
3.4.6 Role of Development Planning Committees
3.4.6.1. Many disputes over the distribution and management of mineral wealth are
likely to be disputes over the interpretation or implementation of Development
Forum agreements. The Community Sustainable Development Planning process is
intended to provide an ongoing forum for the resolution of such disputes. Each
Development Planning Committee would have the freedom and authority to establish
a separate institutional mechanism (a sub-committee, for example) to deal with those
disputes which are not resolved through the planning process itself.
3.4.6.2. The Porgera project already has a multi-stakeholder Law and Order
Committee which is convened by the Departments Project Coordinator. The
Department proposes to treat this committee, and any similar committees established
for other major projects, as a sub-committee of the Development Planning Committee.
It is understood that the range of disputes or issues addressed by such a body would
not necessarily be confined to those which arise from Development Forum
agreements or which involve the distribution and management of mineral wealth. But
all issues of public order in a project area are relevant to a process of sustainable
development planning.
3.4.7 Role of external mediators
3.4.7.1. Development Forum agreements normally include a clause which allows for
a dispute between the parties to be referred to arbitration under the Arbitration Act.
However, the process of arbitration can be as clumsy as any process of litigation, and
has rarely been used to settle disputes of this kind.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 75
3.4.7.2. Experience has shown that independent mediators with relevant expertise
or experience can do a better job of resolving disputes between the primary
stakeholders in the development of a mining project, and also in the exploration phase
which precedes the process of development. Some of these individuals would be
expected to figure in the register of consultants who may be called upon to provide
financial, legal or environmental advice to landowning communities before a
Development Forum is convened [see 2.2.6.2]. The Department therefore proposes to
expand this register to include a list of potential mediators. The Department will
welcome the inclusion in this register of non-government organisations which
specialise in conflict resolution or the practice of restorative justice.
3.4.7.3. A request for the services of an external mediator may either be lodged by a
Development Planning Committee, or one of its sub-committees, or by mutual
agreement of the disputing parties. The choice of mediators will then be made by
mutual agreement between the Department and the disput ing parties.
3.4.7.4. During the operational life of a project, the Department will normally expect
that payment for the services of an external mediator will be made from the Project
Area Development Fund, subject to authorisation by the Development Planning
Committee. In the earlier stages of the mining project cycle, the Department will ask
the developer, or the holder of the relevant Exploration Licence, to bear the cost of
mediation. Where the dispute arises after mine closure, the cost may be attributed to a
mine closure bond or trust established under the Mine Closure Policy, but the
feasibility of doing so will depend on the nature of the dispute.
3.5 CAPACITY BUILDING
What should be the roles and responsibilities of developers, government agencies, and
other stakeholders in building the capacity of national and local institutions to
manage the mining industry and mineral wealth for the achievement of sustainable
development outcomes?
3.5.1 The capacity for sustainable development
3.5.1.1. Provincial governments, local-level governments, and community
organisations suffer from an obvious lack of capacity to manage the benefits which
they derive from major mining projects to plan for their application to the goal of
sustainable development [see Working Paper 6, Chapter 7]. Where their performance
should be supervised and audited by national government agencies, the latter have
also shown a lack of capacity to carry out the task. The ability of developers to
manage the distribution of benefits to local communities is itself constrained by the
lack of provincial and local- level government capacity. The National Government
therefore needs to establish and maintain a mechanism whereby developers can claim
a Tax Credit for building this capacity.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 76
3.5.1.2. The current mineral policy framework places too much emphasis on the role
which developers should play in building national and local capacity to participate
directly in a mining project, whether as employees or contractors, rather than the
capacity to participate in a broader process of sustainable development in areas
which will probably only host a major mining project for a limited period of time, and
will then be faced with the need to find an alternative livelihood which still represents
an advance on the social and economic conditions which prevailed before mining
began [see Working Paper 3, Chapter 5].
3.5.1.3. The National Government cannot reasonably expect developers to take on
this broader role without setting clear guidelines on the way that it ought to be
performed, and then taking its own share of responsibility for planning, funding and
managing the capacity-building process for provincial and local institutions. The
Sustainability Planning Framework should therefore make clear provision for a
process of human capital formation which is clearly linked to the different phases of
the mining project cycle.
3.5.1.4. National government agencies cannot rely on mining companies to build
national government capacity to implement a Sustainable Development Policy or
Sustainability Planning Framework. This would not only place an unacceptable
burden on the industry, but would also expose the Government to criticism for the
extent of its dependence on an industry which it is meant to regulate. This is
especially true of the Governments role in regulating the social and environmental
impacts of major mining projects, where the resources currently available to key
government agencies (most notably the Department of Environment and
Conservation) are clearly inadequate. Provision therefore needs to be made for
engagement of foreign aid agencies in building the capacity of national institutions.
3.5.2 Tax Credit Conversion Scheme
3.5.2.1. Section 98 of the Organic Law on Provincial Governments and Local-level
Governments states that developers shall provide to the National Government,
Provincial Governments and Local- level Governments, expertise and professional
advice as to the use of development levies which are payable to provincial and local-
level governments. The Tax Credit Conversion Scheme proposed elsewhere in this
Green Paper [see Sections 2.3.5 and 2.3.6] is intended to enable the developers of
major mining projects to pay Development Levies to provincial and local- level
governments (or their instrumentalities) and build their capacity to make wise use of
these funds without adding to the overall cost of project development. In order for
this intention to be realised, it will be necessary:
to amend the Organic Law to allow for Development Levies themselves to be tax-
creditable; and
to ensure that the guidelines for Tax Credit expenditures under the Income Tax Act
allow for credit to be claimed on projects which build the capacity of provincial
and local- level governments.
The Department strongly supports both of these policy measures.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 77
3.5.2.2. The Department proposes to produce a set of guidelines which specify the
nature of the expertise and professional advice which will be counted as part of a
tax-creditable project to build the capacity of all three levels of government, rather
than being counted as part of the input which the developer will be obliged to make
to the Community Sustainable Development Planning process [see Section 3.1.5].
These guidelines will need to be approved by the Mining Sustainability Planning
Committee. The MSPC will also be responsible for approving specific capacity-
building projects proposed under the Tax Credit Conversion Scheme, because this
will be part of the wider process of determining when and how Tax Credit
expenditures will be converted into Development Levies [see 3.2.5.5].
3.5.2.3. The Western Province Capacity Building Project provides a model of the
sort of project which the MSPC might be expected to approve under the Tax Credit
Conversion Scheme. Oversight of this project is vested in a Program Development
and Management Committee which should henceforth be regarded as a sub-
committee of the MSPC. While the National Government agreed to fund this project
out of a 25% share of the royalty grant and a 25% share of the Special Support Grant
allocated to the Fly River Provincial Government, the Provincial Government has
diverted the second of these amounts to other purposes. As a result, OTML has been
obliged to make up the shortfall out of its own budget, but receives no credit for this
subsidy. The funding of such a project under the Tax Credit Conversion Scheme
would insulate its budget from the political process and remove the need for a
corporate subsidy which may not be sustained.
3.5.3 Community institutions and human capital formation
3.5.3.1. Although the Department supports the use of Tax Credit expenditures to
build the planning and management capacities of local community institutions
engaged in the Community Sustainable Development Planning process [see 3.1.3.8],
it will still expect this kind of expenditure to be limited to the early stages of a mining
operation. As responsibility for the implementation of a Community Sustainable
Development Plan is increasingly passed to a Special Purposes Authority (or
equivalent institution), along with the Development Levy which will partly fund its
implementation, so the SPA itself will increasingly assume responsibility for building
the capacity of other community institutions engaged in the planning process.
3.5.3.2. The Department will include the design of capacity-building projects for
community institutions, especially womens groups, in its own guidelines for the
production, evaluation and implementation of Community Sustainable
Development Plans (CSDPs). These guidelines will not assume that all such
projects are to be funded under the Tax Credit Conversion Scheme, but will make
allowance for the fact that some activities will continue to be funded out of a
developers Community Affairs budget, or by a body like the Ok Tedi Development
Foundation, while others may receive the support of secondary stakeholders such as
non-government organisations or donor agencies.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 78
3.5.3.3. The proponents of major mining projects are currently required to include
Training and Localisation Plans in their Proposals for Development, and specific
commitments to train and employ people from mine-affected or project area
communities are normally included in a Mining Development Contract. Capacity
building for local landowner companies is also a standard feature of the Business
Development Programs which are also required under the standard Mining
Development Contract. However, the Department is aware of the need to place more
emphasis on training or educating the members of project area communities to take
advantage of economic opportunities which are not dependent on the existence of a
mine which must eventually close.
3.5.3.4. The developer of a large-scale mining project with a relatively long lifespan
may reasonably be expected to support a broader program of training for regional
economic development. The mining industry as a whole should also have an interest
in promoting the continued employment of skilled mineworkers who are made
redundant by the closure of any major mining project. However, the Government
must also accept some responsibility for ensuring that the mineral wealth derived
from each project is partly invested in the formation of human capital which will be
able to produce new kinds of wealth after mine closure, both for the province and the
landowning communities which formerly hosted the mine. Developers may help the
Government to achieve this goal through expenditures approved under the Tax Credit
Scheme, but a broader set of mutual commitments should be incorporated either into
Development Forum agreements or into Mining Development Contracts [see Working
Paper 3, Chapter 6].
3.5.4 Mining Sector Institutional Strengthening Project
3.5.4.1. The overall aim of the Mining Sector Institutional Strengthening Project
(MSISP) is to build the capacity of the Department of Mining and the Internal
Revenue Commission to manage the development of the mining industry and the
distribution of mineral wealth in PNG. The production of this Green Paper, and the
eventual adoption and implementation of a Sustainable Development Policy for the
mining sector, is one component of the MSISP.
3.5.4.2. The MSISP makes provision for the appointment of a Sustainable
Development Training Coordinator for a period of 2 years to assist the Department
to train the staff of the Development Coordination Division for the further development
and implementation of the Sustainable Development Policy and Sustainability Planning
Framework in the countrys major mining project areas. The consultant appointed to
this position will also play a key role in the preparation of the guidelines and the
conduct of the reviews proposed as part of the process of finalising the Sustainable
Development Policy. The Department is proposing a further extension of the MSISP
to provide technical support to the Sustainability Planning Branch within the
Development Coordination Division to implement the Sustainable Development
Policy and Sustainability Planning Framework over a 5-year period [see Section 4.1].
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 79
3.5.4.3. It is proposed that the staff of the Sustainability Planning Branch should have
a number of capacity building functions built into their duty statements. In particular,
they will be expected to:
collaborate with provincial and local- level governments hosting major mining
projects to improve core skills in public administration, planning and financial
management;
collaborate with developers to support civil society groups (especially womens
groups) in mine-affected areas to improve their planning and financial
management capacity, and their capacity to secure resources for priority
community programs and projects; and
conduct training workshops in the application of all guidelines approved by the
Mining Sustainability Planning Committee (MSPC).
3.5.4.4. In addition, all staff of the Development Coordination Division will be
expected to collaborate with staff of other national government agencies represented on
the MSPC in the process of implementing the Sustainable Development Policy and
Sustainability Planning Framework. This process of collaboration will also serve to
build the capacity of these other agencies.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 80
4 FURTHER IMPLICATIONS
4.1 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
4.1.1 Progress to implementation
4.1.1.1. The Department proposes to accomplish the finalisation and implementation
of the Sustainable Development Policy in two phases:
In the first phase (to end of 2003), the Sustainable Development Policy will be
finalised and approved (as a White Paper) by the National Executive Council and
the National Parliament, appropriate changes will be made to existing legislation,
and a set of institutional arrangements (the Sustainability Planning Framework)
will be put in place to implement the Policy.
In the second phase (2004-2008), the Department proposes to extend the Mining
Sector Institutional Strengthening Project, under which the Policy has been
developed, with additional donor support for implementation of the Policy in each
of PNGs mining provinces. This sub-project will be called the Planning for
Sustainable Development Project.
4.1.2 Completion of Sustainable Development Policy
4.1.2.1. The Department proposes a period of public consultation over the contents
of this Green Paper, beginning in February 2003 and lasting for at least 4 months.
During this period, the Department will:
collate and review all written comments on the Green Paper from both primary
and secondary stakeholders;
ensure that there is a further process of consultation with existing project area
stakeholders, especially members and representatives of mine-affected
communities.
The primary focus of this second round of consultation at the project area level will be
the development of strategies and guidelines for the Community Sustainable
Development Planning process.
4.1.2.2. As part of the process of further consultation at the project area level, the
Department will undertake reviews of:
the actual and potential role of Special Purposes Authorities in the management
of benefits for mine-affected and project area communities [see 3.2.2.8];
trust fund arrangements for the management of landowner benefits derived
from major mining projects [see 3.2.4.4];
the contribution of corporate trust funds, social funds, or foundations to
sustainable development in areas affected by large-scale mining projects [see
3.2.1.8]; and
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 81
the current operation and management of the Tax Credit Scheme in each major
project area.
These reviews will form the basis for developing additional strategies and guidelines
for the management of mineral wealth (or mine-related benefits) at the provincial
and local level.
4.1.2.3. The Department proposes to use resources already available under the
Mining Sector Institutional Strengthening Project to coordinate and facilitate this
process of consultation and review. At the same time, it will be seeking additional
donor support to implement the Planning for Sustainable Development Project as
an extension of the MSISP, once the Policy has been approved by the National
Parliament [see Working Paper 6, Chapter 8].
4.1.2.4. Oversight of this process will be vested in a Mining Policy and Planning
Committee (MPPC), which will be constituted in the same way as the National
Steering Committee which has overseen the development of this Green Paper. The
MPPC will be responsible for review and approval of successive drafts of the White
Paper and any consequential drafting instructions before these are presented to the
National Executive Council. It will also be expected to provide advice to the
Department on the further process of consultation with project area stakeholders in the
preparation of strategies and guidelines for implementation of the Sustainable
Development Policy.
4.1.3 Framework for implementation
4.1.3.1. When the White Paper has been approved by the National Executive Council
(and in anticipation of its subsequent approval by the National Parliament), the
Department of Mining (or the Mineral Resources Authority) will proceed to establish
an institutional framework for implementation of the Sustainable Development
Policy. The core elements of this framework are shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Institutional arrangements for Sustainability Planning Framework.









MINING SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING COMMITTEE
SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING
BRANCH OF DOM OR MRA
TECHNICAL SUPPORT GROUP
FUNDED BY DONOR AGENCIES
PROJECT-LEVEL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING COMMITTEES
MINISTER FOR MINING MINISTER FOR PLANNING
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 82
4.1.3.2. It is proposed that national coordination of the Sustainability Planning
Framework should be vested in a Mining Sustainability Planning Committee
(MSPC) which will inherit the functions of the Mining Policy and Planning
Committee once the Sustainable Development Policy comes into effect. This body,
like the Development Planning Committees established for each major mining project,
should be jointly chaired by the national government agencies responsible for Mining
and Planning. The model for this arrangement is the Mining and Petroleum Policy
Committee which was established at the time of Independence, which was jointly
chaired by the Secretary for Finance and the Secretary for Minerals and Energy, and
which reported to the National Executive Council through their respective Ministers.
If the Government approves the establishment of the Mineral Resources Authority,
the relevant legislation will need to make provision for the establishment of this body,
in the same way that Division 2 of Part III of the current Mining Act specifies the
composition and responsibilities of the Mining Advisory Board.
4.1.3.3. The MPSC will be responsible for:
establishment and supervision of Development Planning Committees (or Mine
Closure Planning Committees) for each major mining project;
approval, implementation and periodic review of guidelines or regulations
pertaining to implementation of the Sustainable Development Policy [see Section
4.3];
advice to the Minister for Mining on the mobilisation of Development Forums
for new mining projects;
advice to the Ministers for Mining and Planning on the relationship between
Community Sustainable Development Planning for project area communities
and provincial, district or local-level planning under the Organic Law on
Provincial Governments and Local-level Governments;
determination of the rate at which Tax Credit expenditures are converted into
Development Levies under the Tax Credit Conversion Scheme as this applies to
each major project [see 3.2.5.5 and 3.5.2.2];
arrangement of an independent review of the Planning for Sustainable
Development Project to determine the future of national government assistance
to mining provinces and project area communities.
4.1.3.4. The Sustainability Planning Branch (SPB) of the Development
Coordination Division in the Department of Mining (or the Mineral Resources
Authority) will act as the secretariat to the MSPC. The SPB will be responsible for:
advice to other stakeholders on the establishment of a Development Planning
Committee, commissioning of a Baseline Planning Study, and mobilisation of a
Development Forum for a new mining project;
preparation, in consultation with project area stakeholders, of Community
Sustainable Development Plans for each project;
assistance to Special Purposes Authorities (SPAs) and other local- level
institutions in the management of benefits for mine-affected and project area
communities in accordance with CSDPs;
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 83
assistance to the Department of Provincial and Local Government Affairs in
the establishment and supervision of SPAs in the mining sector;
collaboration with project developers to support civil society groups (especially
womens groups) in mining project areas to improve their planning and financial
management capacity, and their capacity to secure resources for priority
community programs and projects;
conduct of training workshops in the application of all guidelines or regulations
pertaining to implementation of the Sustainable Development Policy;
collaboration with provincial and local- level governments hosting major mining
projects to improve core skills in public administration, planning and financial
management;
support for the role of Provincial Management Teams in the management of
benefits for provincial governments in accordance with provincial and district
development plans; and
development of a Management Information System to facilitate planning,
monitoring and reporting on the progress of Community Sustainable Development
Plans and provincial, district and local- level government plans in mining project
areas.
4.1.3.5. The Sustainability Planning Branch will be the institutional location of the
Project Support Team (PST) which is engaged to implement the Planning for
Sustainable Development Project. The PST should comprise:
a Project Manager with specialist skills in development planning and
administration;
a Public Infrastructure and Services Project Officer;
a Livelihood and Enterprise Development Project Officer;
a Community and Public Works Engineer; and
an Office Manager.
It is expected that the PST will carry out the functions of the Sustainability Planning
Branch with the assistance of a donor- funded Technical Support Group during the
5-year period of project implementation.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 84
4.2 AMENDMENTS TO EXISTING LEGISLATION
4.2.1 Mining Act
4.2.1.1. The Mining Act will need to be amended in a variety of ways to make it
consistent with other legislation enacted since 1992, to reflect the establishment of the
Mineral Resources Authority as successor to the Department of Mining, and to reflect
changes in the administration or regulation of the mining sector which fall outside of
the scope of the Sustainable Development Policy proposed in this Green Paper. The
amendments proposed here are those which are directly related to the proposals
put forward elsewhere in this document. The main focus here is on the changes
which need to be made to current provisions of the Act, rather than the addition of
new divisions or sections. That is because there are many proposals in this Green
Paper which, once endorsed as Government policy, could be accommodated by means
of regulations or guidelines under the more general provisions of the Act.
Regulations or guidelines should generally be preferred as instruments of policy if
their content is likely to be subject to periodic revision or refinement. Consideration
should then be given to amendment of Section 170 of the Act to include mention of
the regulations which are likely to be required to give effect to the main provisions of
the Sustainable Development Policy [see Section 4.3].
4.2.1.2. Consideration will be given to the inclusion of some general statement about
the contribution of mining to the sustainable development of the nation, the host
province, and project area communities in Section 1 of the Act. This may be done by
reference to the Acts compliance with constitutional requirements [see Section 1.3].
4.2.1.3. The Act does not presently define a Special Mining Lease, a Mining
Development Contract, or a Development Forum in a way which is inconsistent
with the proposal for all major (rather than large-scale) mining projects to be
subject to these institutions [see 2.1.2.2]. However, if Mining Leases are no longer to
be issued for medium-scale projects [see 2.1.2.1], then consideration will be given
to amendment of those parts of the Act which deal with the grant of Mining Leases
and Alluvial Mining Leases.
4.2.1.4. Section 3 of the Act, which requires the Minister to convene a Development
Forum before the grant of a Special Mining Lease, will be amended to make it
consistent with Section 115 of the Organic Law on Provincial Governments and
Local-level Governments. The amendment is expected to follow the example already
set by Section 48 of the Oil and Gas Act, by requiring the Minister to invite the
representatives of the relevant local- level government(s) and any other persons or
organisations which the Minister considers would be affected by the mining project if
the application is granted [see 2.2.3.1]. This section of the Act might also be
extended to include a statement of the preconditions which need to be met before a
Development Forum is convened, or the matters to be addressed by a Development
Forum, but these are issues which might better be left to regulations or guidelines.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 85
4.2.1.5. Consideration may be given to the addition of a section or sections to
Division 1 of Part V, which specifies the conditions attached to the grant of an
Exploration Licence, to require the holder to conduct a Community and Group
Identification Study as an initial condition of exploration activities [see 2.2.4.1], in
the same way that Section 47 of the Oil and Gas Act requires the holder of a
Petroleum Prospecting Licence to undertake a preliminary social mapping study
and landowner identification study [see 2.2.5.1]. This requirement could be
extended to include other types of study, such as detailed land investigations.
However, experience with the implementation of the Oil and Gas Act indicates that
this kind of requirement should be couched in very general terms in the legislation,
while the designation, content and timing of specific studies should be left to
regulations or guidelines [see 4.3.4].
4.2.1.6. Consideration will be given to amendment of Sections 106, 108 and 165 of
the Act to clarify the Departments intention to ensure that the grant of an Exploration
Licence over customary land is conditional on the prior consent of exploration
licence communities, and the grant of a Special Mining Lease over customary land is
conditional on the prior and informed consent of mining lease communities [see
Section 2.2.6].
4.2.1.7. Section 154 of the Act will be amended to reflect the distinction between
land compensation, which is payable to landowning groups or communities in
respect of customary land, and livelihood compensation, which is payable to
individual landholders [see 2.3.2.1]. Since this amendment will need to recognise the
distinction between individual landholders and the groups or communities which
count as the owners of customary land, the definition of landholder in Section 2
of the Act will also need to be amended, and a definition of landowning groups or
landowning communities will need to be included [see Section 2.2.2.].
4.2.1.8. Consideration will also be given to the further amendment of Section 154:
to make explicit reference to the process of Environmental Impact Assessment
under the terms of the Environment Act in the formulation of compensation
agreements relating to the development of a major mining project [see 2.3.2.4];
and
to require a separate agreement for the relocation or resettlement of some or all
of the members of a mining lease community affected by the development of a
major mining project [see 2.3.2.5].
4.2.1.9. Consideration will be given to amendment of Sections 161 and 163 to reflect
the Departments intention to establish a standard procedure for reporting the costs
and benefits associated with the development of major mining projects, and especially
the distribution of mineral revenues collected by the Government itself [see Section
3.3.3]. The emphasis on confidentiality in Section 163 should be counter-balanced
by an explicit commitment to the principle of transparency.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 86
4.2.1.10. Subsection 98(6) of the Organic Law on Provincial Governments and
Local-level Governments indicates that the Mining Act should make provision for the
rates, management, sharing arrangement, and application of any Development
Levies to be paid by the developers of major mining project. This should be done by
means of a Part or Section of the Act which reflects those parts of the Sustainable
Development policy which relate to the calculation, management and use of the
Development Levies payable either to provincial governments or to local- level
governments under the proposed Tax Credit Conversion Scheme [see 2.3.5.4, 2.3.6.3,
3.1.2.4, 3.1.3.5, 3.2.2.9, 3.2.5.5, 3.3.2.1, 3.3.2.9, 3.5.2.1].
4.2.1.11. Since the Government no longer proposes to draft the Mining (Royalties)
Act foreshadowed in the Mining Act, a separate Part should be added to the Mining
Act to express the principles pertaining to the distribution of the royalty grant
derived from a major mining project [see Section 2.3.3]. If the Act is to contain a
separate Part which makes provision for the management and application of
Development Levies, then the Part which deals with the royalty grant should also
make provision for the management and application of that grant [see 3.1.2.4,
3.2.2.9, 3.2.4.3, 3.2.5.3, 3.3.2.3, 3.3.2.9].
4.2.2 Organic Law on Provincial Governments and Local-level Governments
4.2.2.1. The proposals contained in this Green Paper are intended to take all possible
advantage of the current provisions of the Organic Law, because it is recognised that
the amendment of constitutional laws is likey to be a more complex and time-
consuming process than the amendment of ordinary legislation. However, there are to
respects in which amendment of the Organic Law would seem to be advisable.
4.2.2.2. In order for the Tax Credit Conversion Scheme to operate in the manner
proposed in this Green Paper [see 2.3.5.4], Subsection 98(2) of the Organic Law
should be amended by removal of the words out of its own cost. This will enable
Development Levies to be treated as tax-creditable payments to provincial or local-
level governments [see 3.5.2.1].
4.2.2.3. In order for the National Government to proceed with its stated intention of
eliminating the payment of Special Support Grants to provincial governments which
host a major mining project, Subsection 97(1) should be amended to remove the
requirement for such grants to be paid under existing agreements.
4.2.2.4. If any clause in the Organic Law is to be amended, there is an argument that
Sections 97-99 should be reviewed in their entirety. However, the justification for
such a review is not to be found entirely in the requirements of a Sustainable
Development Policy for the mining sector.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 87
4.2.3 Other legislation
4.2.3.1. Amendments to the Resource Contracts Fiscal Stabilisation Act and the
Income Tax Act will be required to incorporate the measures announced in the 2003
Budget [see Section 2.1.3]. Since these measures have already been announced, it is
expected that the relevant amendments will be formulated by means of a process
which is distinct from the process of finalising and implementing the Sustainable
Development Policy for the mining sector.
4.2.3.2. There is a possibility that the proposed review of the actual and potential role
of Special Purposes Authorities in the management of benefits for mine-affected and
project area communities [see 4.1.2.2] will result in proposals to amend Part VII of
the Local-level Governments Administration Act in order to provide additional legal
safeguards for the efficiency, transparency and accountability of such bodies [see
3.2.2.8]. Any such proposals will obviously need to be drafted in close consultation
with the Department of Provincial and Local Government Affairs.
4.3 GUIDELINES REQUIRED FOR IMPLEMENTATION
4.3.1. This Green Paper foreshadows the production of a series of guidelines which
will be required for effective implementation of the Sustainable Development Policy.
These guidelines will be subject to approval and review by the Mining
Sustainability Planning Committee once the Policy is approved for implementation.
Draft versions of these guidelines may be subject to review and approval by the
Mining Policy and Planning Committee at the same time as the draft White Paper.
4.3.2. The first priority will be the compilation of a Community Sustainable
Development Planning Handbook for distribution to project area stakeholders [see
3.1.6.2], which will include guidelines for:
the production, evaluation and implementation of Community Sustainable
Development Plans [see 3.1.6.1 and 3.5.3.2], following the principles of best
practice on activity cycle planning and management, with provision for annual
reporting of all expenditures made out of Project Area Development Funds [see
3.3.2.1]; and
the production of Baseline Planning Studies [see 3.1.6.3 and 3.2.2.6], with
clarification of their relationship to the process of Social Impact Assessment
under the Environment Act [see 3.1.7.7] and the conduct of a Development
Forum under the Mining Act.
Production of these guidelines will entail a significant level of dialogue between the
Department of Mining, the Department of Planning and Rural Development, and the
Department of Environment and Conservation, as well as a process of consultation
with project area stakeholders.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 88
4.3.3. The second priority will be the production of guidelines on the management of
mineral wealth in mining provinces and project areas, which will partly be based
on the findings of a process of review of existing institutional arrangements [see
4.1.2.2]. These guidelines will cover:
the operation and management of Special Purposes Authorities, including
their role in implementation of the Tax Credit Scheme, at each stage of the mining
project cycle, including the period following mine closure [see Section 3.2.2];
the management of trust funds established to hold any portion of mineral
revenues allocated to provincial or local- level governments or to landowning
groups and communities, including those established to receive Development
Levies under Section 98 of the Organic Law;
the role of corporate trust funds, social funds, or foundations in the
management of mineral wealth for sustainable development in mine-affected
areas; and
the expertise and professional advice which developers are required (by the
Organic Law) to provide to provincial or local- level governments on the use of
any Development Levies imposed on major mining projects, making due
provision for the need to inform the provincial, district and local- level planning
process [see Section 3.5.2].
Production of these guidelines will entail a significant level of dialogue between the
Department of Mining, the Department of Provincial and Local Government Affairs,
the Department of Planning and Rural Development, the Department of Treasury, and
the Internal Revenue Commission, as well as a process of consultation with project
area stakeholders. A clear connection needs to be established between these
guidelines and the Tax Credit guidelines established under the Income Tax Act [see
3.5.2.1].
4.3.4. The third priority will be the production of guidelines for a number of
activities to be undertaken by companies engaged in mineral exploration or in
the development of major mining projects under the terms of the Sustainable
Development Policy. These will include guidelines for:
the production of Community and Group Identification Studies [see Section
2.2.4] or Social Mapping Studies [see Section 2.2.5];
the conduct of lease area land investigations [see 2.2.4.6];
the content of compensation agreements with landowning groups and
communities [see 2.3.3.6]; and
the format to be used in recording and reporting payments made to the National
Government and other stakeholders [see 3.3.2.5].
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 89
4.3.5 The Department will expect the Chamber of Mines and Petroleum to play an
important role in organising the industrys input to the production of these guidelines.
The Department will also consult with the industry over the production of additional
guidelines or codes of practice which reflect the industrys experience in the design
and implementation of Business Development Programs or Training and
Localisation Plans , as required under existing Mining Development Contracts [see
Working Paper 3, Chapter 6]. These additional guidelines may be regarded as part of
the industrys input to the production of guidelines for the Community Sustainable
Development Planning Process [see Section 3.1.5].
4.3.6. The standard templates for Mining Development Contracts between the State
and the proponents of major mining projects, and for the Memoranda of Agreement
between the parties to a Development Forum, may also be regarded as guidelines
whose production is primarily the responsibility of the Department of Mining (or its
successor). The Department proposes to revise these templates to reflect the
proposals contained in this Green Paper. This process of revision will be undertaken
within the context of negotiations over the development of specific projects. Those
revisions which pertain directly to the issues covered by the Sustainable Development
Policy will also be subject to approval and review by the Mining Sustainability
Planning Committee.
4.3.7. The standard template for a Mining Development Contract will need to be
amended in two key respects:
The template should be extended to include a draft annex which contains a
statement of the principles or standards of best practice to which the State
and the project proponent are prepared to hold each other accountable, and
for which they are prepared to accept a third party audit of their compliance [see
Section 2.1.4].
The clauses which pertain to the developers responsibility for Environmental
Management and Protection, Training and Localisation and Local
Business Development should be revised and absorbed into a separate Part
which documents the responsibilities of the developer to contribute to the
sustainable development of the nation, the host province, and project area
communities, in accordance with the recommended amendment to Section 1 of the
Mining Act [see 4.2.1.2]. This part of the template should also make provision for
an assessment of the costs and benefits of alternative plans for project area
infrastructure [see Section 2.3.8].
4.3.8. A standard template for a Memorandum of Agreement between the parties to
a Development Forum will need to be drafted in such a way as to embody several
features of the Sustainable Development Policy, especially those which relate the
Community Sustainable Development Planning process and the other aspects of the
Sustainability Planning Framework. The Department proposes to use the Ramu
Project Memorandum of Agreement as the staring point for the construction of this
template.
4.3.9. If the Mining Act is not amended to make explicit provision for the
establishment, composition and operation of the Mining Sustainability Planning
Committee [see 4.1.3.2], the Department will establish a separate set of guidelines to
achieve the same purpose.
Sustainable Development Policy Green Paper 90
4.4 FINANCIAL COSTS TO GOVERNMENT
4.4.1. Government approval for establishment of the Mineral Resources Authority
will create the financial latitude required to fund the staffing and operations of the
Project Support Team (or the Sustainability Planning Branch of the Development
Coordination Division) out of the Authoritys general revenue stream [see 2.1.6.2].
4.4.2. If the National Government does not approve establishment of the MRA as
corporate successor to the Department of Mining, it is very unlikely, in current fiscal
circumstances, that funding from general government revenues will be made available
for the creation of new public service positions.
4.4.3. An alternative option (with or without the establishment of the MRA) is to
fund the staffing and operations of the Project Support Team out of a planning and
management levy on Project Area Development Funds [see 3.1.2.4]. This can be
justified by reference to the role of the Project Support Team in the formulation and
implementation of Community Sustainable Development Plans.
4.4.4. It is not recommended that funding be sought from a levy on provincial
government benefit streams derived from the mining sector if the National
Government accepts and implements the proposal to remove Special Support Grants
in their current form [see Section 2.3.6]. A levy on provincial government
entitlements would only be warranted if these were to remain at their current levels,
and if the Project Support team were to play a greater role in the management of these
benefit streams than is presently envisaged [see Section 3.2.5].
4.4.5. It is not recommended that funding be sought by any additional tax or levy
on the mining industry itself, since this would run counter to the Governments
stated intention to stabilise the fiscal regime [see Section 2.1.3].
4.4.6. The application of foreign aid to fund the staffing and operations of the Project
Support Team should be regarded as a last resort, because this source of funding is
unlikely to be sustained in the long term, and the implementation of a Sustainable
Development Policy requires the existence of a permanent institutional capacity
within the government system. Donor funding is already being sought for the
provision of technical support to the Project Support Team in the short and medium
term [see 3.5.4.2].