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Anglo-Eastern Group

Shipboard Procedures Manual

Ch: SBP 201A 321 !ate: 010"10 #e$ision: % Prep: P&C Appr: M' Page 1 o( )
321 *CE +A,*GA-*.+
3211 GE+E#A' G/*!E'*+ES
Ice must always be avoided if there is an alternative and safer route available, even
if this means large alterations of course and deviation from the original intended
route. It is recommended to go around the ice rather than through it.
When due to the extent of ice cover, ice cannot be avoided and passage through
ice becomes inevitable for the vessel to reach her destination, the following factors
must be taken into consideration before any operations in ice are attempted:
The type / form / stage of development of the ice likely to be encountered.
The time of year, weather and air / sea temperatures
vailability of ice!breaker.
"essel#s ice class in relation to the type of ice expected.
ny current defects in hull / machinery / e$uipment
The draught of the vessel with regard to propeller / rudder immersion
vailability / detail of ice reports / ice!routing broadcasts from coast radio stations.
Ice experience of the deck!officers.
"essel#s speed is a %&'T "IT( factor when operating in ice as it affects the force
of impact. )orce of impact varies as the s$uare of the speed of the vessel and is
directly proportionate to the displacement of the vessel. The implication is that in
case of a vessel striking heavy ice at 4 knots, the force of impact would be sixteen
times more than what would have been if the vessel was at a speed of 1 knot. A
large vessel will experience more damage when striking heavy ice than a small
vessel at same speed.
The depth of water over the propeller tips should always be borne in mind when
operating in ice and the vessel should be so ballasted and trimmed that the
propeller is completely submerged and is as deep as possible. "essel must be at
least at her lightest ice!drafts and may re$uire to be ballasted even more than her
lightest ice drafts as re$uired by the prevalent ice conditions. s a general rule,
vessel#s handle much better in ice when loaded than when light.
When transiting through ice infested areas *especially hard ice/ ice floes+ at night or
in conditions of reduced visibility, speed must be reduced or vessel stopped until
the visibility improves and the navigator can see and identify ice ahead of the
vessel. ,se of searchlights during hours of darkness is very helpful in the search
for leads when in the pack ice, and also to look for floating ice in relatively open
waters. t night searchlights to be trained in an arc of -. degrees on either side of
the bow.
/reparations for entering ice must be made well in advance and all personnel
informed of the approximate time of entry. %ain 0ngine must be on the
manoeuvring status prior entering the ice. %aster and 0ngine room must be
informed immediately on sighting ice visually or by radar.
1eep a very sharp lookout at all times for ice bergs, growlers, leads and open water
when navigating in ice infested waters. dditional look outs must be posted, hand
steering engaged and both steering motors must be switched on well before
entering ice. n abundance of patience is necessary and do not try to increase
speed in open waters where bergy bits have been reported. lookout to be posted
to constantly observe for bergy bits and growlers through binoculars
Anglo-Eastern Group
Shipboard Procedures Manual
Ch: SBP 201A 321 !ate: 010"10 #e$ision: % Prep: P&C Appr: M' Page 2 o( )
)ollow the recommended ice!route if practicable. Ice!breaker availability is delayed
if vessel becomes fast in ice away from the recommended route.
When transiting through narrow straits or an enclosed gulf, avoid going close to the
lee shore as the ice ad2acent to the lee shore will be under pressure and hence
harder that towards the windward side.
&ne ma2or problem encountered by vessels in colder climates is of ice accretion.
Ice accretion can be due to spray hitting the vessel with the air temperature being
at least minus 3 degree 4entigrade. It could also be due to free5ing rain/snow,
super cooled fog or seas entering the vessel and free5ing up. )ree5ing spray is the
single most important cause of severe ice accretion on deck which can be very
dangerous. The effect of free5ing spray can be minimi5ed by slowing down in
heavy seas so as to reduce spray from bow or steaming down wind 4onsider
taking shelter in a harbour or downwind of a land mass, if possible. If serious ice
accretion is taking place, periodically recalculate estimated 6%, allowing for
estimated weight of ice. The cost of delays incurred to remove ice from a ship after
arriving port can far exceed any time gained by maintaining a schedule.
The positions of all known icebergs, growlers and ice edge must be plotted and
updated regularly. Ice 7eports and Ice 4harts must be obtained on a regular basis.
ll relevant navigational, meteorological and environmental data must be received
regularly and checked.
The 8avigation marks may be out of place or removed in winter conditions. lso be
wary of distances taken by radar from the coast when fixing positions in ice
infested conditions.
7efer to and follow the relevant national / international codes for vessel#s transit in
convoy with ice!breaker or when manoeuvring with ice!breaker assistance. If
navigating in ice in a convoy, as a general rule do not approach the vessel ahead
closer than half a mile. &ne mile may be better, depending on the circumstances
and %aster#s discretion. %aintain continuous communication with vessel ahead and
the ice!breaker.
Transmit a danger message if ice is encountered in un!specified areas, as re$uired
by '&(' 4hapter ".
void large / excessive movements of the rudder when proceeding through fast ice
or pack ice under pressure, as it reduces the forward thrust provided by the
propeller. 1eep engine room regularly informed of situation and of expected
'ound all tanks / holds / voids twice daily or more fre$uently if damage is
/rior to entering the ice infested areas, all sea water strainers must be cleaned
because if a filter is slightly clogged the flow will be reduced and ice will form more
$uickly in the strainers. 'team heating system to all sea chests must be kept in
operation. ,se low sea suctions when operating in ice. 1eep an eye on suction and
discharge pressures of '.W pumps and carry out back flushing of suction filter as
and when clogged.
The bridge window wash water line must be shut with drains kept open in winter
conditions. 8ever attempt to start the system in sub!free5ing temperatures. 0nsure
individual heating to bridge windows remains 9on# at all times to prevent icing.
Anglo-Eastern Group
Shipboard Procedures Manual
Ch: SBP 201A 321 !ate: 010"10 #e$ision: % Prep: P&C Appr: M' Page 3 o( )
:eaters for 4lear!view screens must remain 9on# at all times and to be left running
0nsure whistle / horn heaters remain 9on# at all times in winter conditions. 6yro
repeaters and magnetic standard compasses should be covered, when not
7adar scanners must be kept turning at all times in winter conditions *in port, the
brilliance control may be set down to minimum, unless scanner can be rotated in
the stand!by mode.+ 7adars must be suitable for operation in sub 5ero
temperatures and in severe ice conditions
7efer to 4anadian 4oast 6uard Ice /ublications, 'ailing ;irections and %ariner#s
:andbook for more information on ice and navigation in ice.
ll relevant checks as per <Winter/ 4old weather precautions/ 4hecklist *;!-=+> and
<Ice 8avigation/ Winteri5ed "essels *;!-?+> must be carried out prior entering the
Training specifically addressing navigation in ice must be provided to @ridge watch
keeping &fficers and 7atings prior entering ice infested waters.
3212 P#.CE!/#ES -. A,.*! *CEBE#GS A+! G#.0'E#S
6ive a wide berth to all icebergs as there are usually smaller pieces of ice
around them, which may extend as much as one nautical mile or more.
/referably make a small course alteration of 3 to = degrees or so well in time
rather than a large alteration when the iceberg is very close.
/ass the icebergs to the windward side to avoid contact with growlers or
other ice debris which breaks away from the ice bergs and usually drift
When navigating in open waters infested with ice!bergs, bergy bits, growlers
etc., exercise extreme caution, bearing in mind growlers are bad radar
'can the radars on low ranges to detect smaller pieces of ice. %ake 2udicious
use of the anti!sea clutter control to avoid suppressing weak echoes, and use
trails function to pick up targets giving intermittent echoes. 1eep one radar on
longer ranges to get early warning.
3213 P#.CE!/#ES 01E+ P#.CEE!*+G -1#./G1 PAC& *CE
When passage through pack ice becomes unavoidable, attempt it in da2light and
good $isibilit2.
0nter the ice!edge at lo3 speed to reduce the initial impact, and at as nearly as
right-angles to the ice as is practicable. The point of entry should be carefully
selected after scanning the ice even if it means sailing for some distance so that
entry can be made where ice conditions are least and best suitable for the vessel.
Anglo-Eastern Group
Shipboard Procedures Manual
Ch: SBP 201A 321 !ate: 010"10 #e$ision: % Prep: P&C Appr: M' Page 4 o( )
&nce ice has been entered, speed can be increased to maintain headway as
re$uired depending upon ice conditions and the vessel#s ice class. lways try to
3or5 3ith the ice and not against it
void hard ice and larger floes. 8ever try to force through 6ulti-2ear ice. %ulti!year
ice is hard because all the brine has leeched out and the porous pockets closed.
lways avoid going through areas where multi year ice is present and instead go
around it.
When contact with hard ice and large floes is inevitable, use hel6 and engine so
as to minimi5e impact and avoid damage.
&nce in pack ice, constant alteration of course will be re$uired to pic5 up leads.
@eware of the danger of the stern swinging into ice floes during a turn.
s a general rule, vessel must be 5ept 6o$ing, otherwise ice will stop her and she
can be beset. If beset, there is an additional risk of damage to propeller or rudder
when efforts are made to free the vessel especially when using stern power.
If vessel becomes fast in ice, consider the possibility of (re7uentl2 running
engines as is necessary to keep the area astern clear of broken ice and to prevent
ice from compacting astern, until help arrives.
3214 P#.CE!/#ES 01E+ G.*+G AS-E#+ *+ *CE
4aution must be exercised when going astern in ice because of risk of damage to
rudder and propeller.
;o not force ice astern when backing the vessel off in the lead formed in its wake.
)irst ensure that the stern area is clear of broken ice and keep in mind the
possibility of damaging the stern gear and/or hull when going astern, and stern
possibly canting into the ice.
1eep minimum stern!way when backing *with rudder amidships+ and make sure
that vessel is not backing directly into any hard ice with stern and propeller.lways
keep rudder amidships when backing in ice.
While trying out main 0ngine in ice, always physically check that the stern area is
clear of dangerous ice. 6ive few bursts of head 0ngine %ovement to clear the ice
before giving any movement astern.
321) P#.CE!/#ES 01E+ BESE- *+ *CE
Wait for the ice breaker assistance.
If ice breaker assistance is not available and vessel is re$uired to free herself using
own power, go full ahead and full astern on the engine alternately throwing the
helm hard!a!port and hard!a! starboard in order to swing the vessel. This may
loosen the ship a bit after a while when )ull head movement can be given in order
to try to move through the ice. The helm must be put amidships in case the vessel
starts moving astern.
nother way to free the vessel would be to pump and transfer ballast from side to
side alternately so as to produce list and loosen the ice, or even pump ballast to
change the trim. This procedure is normally not used in larger vessels but could be
employed if there is no other way to free the vessel.
321% #AMM*+G A+! BAC&*+G *+ *CE
Anglo-Eastern Group
Shipboard Procedures Manual
Ch: SBP 201A 321 !ate: 010"10 #e$ision: % Prep: P&C Appr: M' Page ) o( )
In this procedure, the ice is rammed with the bow while moving ahead in order to
break it by shear impact and weight. The vessel is then backed into the broken ice
astern. This procedure is repeated and a slow progress can be made through a
patch of heavier ice so as to reach open water or an area where ice is less heavy.
)or ramming ice, vessel would need to gather momentum $uickly and engine room
must be informed when this maneuver is being attempted so that $uicker
acceleration of rpm can be given.
This is a dangerous procedure which should be used with utmost discretion as it
could easily result in a heavy damage to the vessel. It should never be attempted
particularly in hard ice by vessels with low or no ice class and e$uipped with a
bulbous bow.
3218 A+C1.#*+G *+ *CE
nchoring in packed ice is not recommended because of risk of damage or
dragging due to the movement of the ice field. Instead of anchoring, use helm and
engine to maintain position. 1eep using engines and helm from time to time to
prevent vessel from getting beset and also to keep the stern clear.

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