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Project

in
Science
Mary Brain Grace R. Cabuang
IV Fuchsia
Mrs. Jenifer M. Meguel



What is Earth?
Earth is the third planet from the Sun. It is the densest and
fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System.
It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial
planets. It is sometimes referred to as the world or the Blue
Planet.

Earth formed approximately 4.54 billion years ago, and life appeared on its surface within its first
billion years. Earth's biosphere then significantly altered the atmospheric and other basic physical
conditions, which enabled the proliferation of organisms as well as the formation of the ozone
layer, which together with Earth's magnetic field blocked harmful solar radiation, and permitted
formerly ocean-confined life to move safely to land. The physical properties of the Earth, as well as
its geological history and orbit, have allowed life to persist.
Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid segments, or tectonic plates, that migrate across the
surface over periods of many millions of years. Over 70% percent of Earth's surface is covered with
water,with the remainder consisting of continents and islands which together have many lakes and
other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. Earth's poles are mostly covered with ice
that is the solid ice of the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice that is the polar ice packs. The
planet's interior remains active, with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the
magnetic field, and a thick layer of relatively solid mantle.
Earth gravitationally interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon. During
one orbit around the Sun, the Earth rotates about its own axis 366.26 times, creating 365.26 solar
days, or one sidereal year.[note 6] The Earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23.4 away from the
perpendicular of its orbital plane, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface with a
period of one tropical year (365.24 solar days).The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. It began
orbiting the Earth about 4.53 billion years ago (bya). The Moon's gravitational interaction with Earth
stimulates ocean tides, stabilizes the axial tilt, and gradually slows the planet's rotation.
The planet is home to millions of species of life, including humans. Both the mineral resources of
the planet and the products of the biosphere contribute resources that are used to support a global
human population. These inhabitants are grouped into about 200 independent sovereign states,
which interact through diplomacy, travel, trade, and military action.


What is Moon?
The Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth
[d][7]
and the fifth
largest moon in the Solar System. It is the largest natural satellite
of a planet in the Solar System relative to the size of
its primary,
[e]
having 27% the diameter and 60% the density of
Earth, resulting in
1
81 (1.23%) its mass. Among satellites with
known densities, the Moon is the second densest, after Io, a
satellite of Jupiter.
The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face with its near side marked
by dark volcanicmaria that fill between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact
craters. It is the most luminous object in the sky after the Sun. Although it appears a very bright white, its
surface is actually dark, with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. Its prominence in
the sky and its regular cycle of phases have, since ancient times, made the Moon an important cultural
influence on language, calendars, art and mythology. The Moon's gravitational influence produces
theocean tides and the minute lengthening of the day. The Moon's current orbital distance, about thirty
times the diameter of Earth, causes it to appear almost the same size in the sky as the Sun, allowing it to
cover the Sun nearly precisely in totalsolar eclipses. This matching of apparent visual size is a coincidence.
The Moon's linear distance from Earth is currently increasing at a rate of 3.820.07 cm per year, but this
rate is not constant.
[8]

The Moon is thought to have formed nearly 4.5 billion years ago, not long after Earth. Although there have
been several hypotheses for its origin in the past, the current most widely accepted explanation is that the
Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body.
The Moon is the only celestial body other than Earth on which humans have set foot. The Soviet
Union's Luna programme was the first to reach the Moon with unmanned spacecraft in 1959; the United
States' NASA Apollo program achieved the only manned missions to date, beginning with the first manned
lunar orbiting mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, and six manned lunar landings between 1969 and 1972, with the
first being Apollo 11. These missions returned over 380 kg of lunar rocks, which have been used to develop
a geological understanding of the Moon's origins, the formation of its internal structure, and its subsequent
history.
After the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited by only unmanned spacecraft. Of these,
orbital missions have dominated: Since 2004, Japan, China, India, the United States, and the European
Space Agency have each sent lunar orbiters, which have contributed to confirming the discovery of lunar
water ice in permanently shadowed craters at the poles and bound into the lunar regolith. The post-Apollo
era has also seen two rover missions: the final Soviet Lunokhod mission in 1973, and China's
ongoing Chang'e 3 mission, which deployed its Yutu rover on 14 December 2013.
Future manned missions to the Moon have been planned, including government as well as privately funded
efforts. The Moon remains, under the Outer Space Treaty, free to all nations to explore for peaceful
purposes.

What is Sun?
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is almost
perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven
with magnetic fields.
[12][13]
It has a diameter of about
1,392,684 km (865,374 mi),
[5]
around 109 times that of Earth,
and its mass (1.98910
30
kilograms, approximately 330,000
times the mass of Earth) accounts for about 99.86% of the total
mass of the Solar System.
[14]
Chemically, about three quarters of
the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen, while the rest is mostlyhelium. The remainder (1.69%, which
nonetheless equals 5,600 times the mass of Earth) consists of heavier elements,
including oxygen, carbon, neon and iron, among others.
[15]

The Sun formed about 4.6 billion
[a]
years ago from the gravitational collapse of a region within a
large molecular cloud. Most of the matter gathered in the center, while the rest flattened into an orbiting
disk that would become the Solar System. The central mass became increasingly hot and dense,
eventually initiating thermonuclear fusion in its core. It is thought that almost all stars form by this process.
The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star (G2V) based on spectral class and it is informally designated as
a yellow dwarf because its visible radiation is most intense in the yellow-green portion of thespectrum, and
although it is actually white in color, from the surface of the Earth it may appear yellow because
ofatmospheric scattering of blue light.
[16]
In the spectral class label, G2 indicates its surface temperature, of
approximately 5778 K (5505 C), and V indicates that the Sun, like most stars, is a main-sequence star,
and thus generates its energy bynuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. In its core, the Sun fuses
620 million metric tons of hydrogen each second.
Once regarded by astronomers as a small and relatively insignificant star, the Sun is now thought to be
brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way, most of which are red dwarfs.
[17][18]
The absolute
magnitude of the Sun is +4.83; however, as the star closest to Earth, the Sun is the brightest object in the
sky with an apparent magnitude of 26.74.
[19][20]
The Sun's hot corona continuously expands in space
creating the solar wind, a stream of charged particles that extends to theheliopause at roughly
100 astronomical units. The bubble in the interstellar medium formed by the solar wind, the heliosphere, is
the largest continuous structure in the Solar System.
[21][22]

The Sun is currently traveling through the Local Interstellar Cloud (near to the G-cloud) in the Local
Bubble zone, within the inner rim of the Orion Arm of the Milky Way.
[23][24]
Of the 50 nearest stellar
systems within 17 light-years from Earth (the closest being a red dwarf named Proxima Centauri at
approximately 4.2 light-years away), the Sun ranks fourth in mass.
[25]
The Sun orbits the center of the Milky
Way at a distance of approximately 2400026000 light-years from the galactic center, completing one
clockwise orbit, as viewed from the galactic north pole, in about 225250 million years. Since the Milky Way
is moving with respect to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) in the direction of the
constellation Hydra with a speed of 550 km/s, the Sun's resultant velocity with respect to the CMB is about
370 km/s in the direction of Crater orLeo.
[26]





Movement
of the
Earth

Movement of the Earth around the Sun

In astronomy, the Earth's orbit is the motion of the Earth around the Sun, from an average distance of 149.59787 million
kilometers away. A complete orbit of the Earth around the Sun occurs every 365.2563666 mean solar days (1 sidereal year).
[nb 1]
This
motion gives an apparent movement of the Sun with respect to the stars at a rate of about 1/day (or a Sun or Moon diameter every
12 hours) eastward, as seen from Earth. On average it takes 24 hoursa solar dayfor Earth to complete a full rotation about its
axis relative to the Sun so that the Sun returns to the meridian.
Movement of the Moon around the Earth

The Moon completes its orbit around the Earth in approximately 27.32 days (a sidereal month). The Earth and Moon orbit about
their barycentre (common centre of mass), which lies about 4600 km from Earth's centre (about three quarters of the Earth's radius).
On average, the Moon is at a distance of about 385000 km from the centre of the Earth, which corresponds to about 60 Earth radii.
With a mean orbital velocity of 1.023 km/s,
[1]
the Moon moves relative to the stars each hour by an amount roughly equal to
its angular diameter, or by about 0.5. The Moon differs from most satellites of other planets in that its orbit is close to the plane of
the ecliptic, and not to the Earth's equatorial plane. The lunar orbit plane is inclined to the ecliptic by about 5.1, whereas the
Moon's spin axis is inclined by only 1.5.
Phases of the
M
o
o
n





Gibbous Moon


Waning and Waxing Gibbous Moon
A gibbous moon is one of the phases of the Moon, when the size of the illuminated portion is greater
than half but not a full Moon.




New Moon


New moon is the first phase of the Moon, when it lies closest to the Sun in the sky as seen from the
Earth.


Full Moon


A full moon is the lunar phase that occurs when the Moon is completely illuminated as seen from
the Earth. This occurs when the Moon is in opposition with the Sun (when it is on the opposite side of
the Earth from the Sun; more precisely, when the ecliptic longitudes of the Sun and Moon differ by 180
degrees).


Last Quarter


A last quarter moon looks half-illuminated. It rises around midnight, appears at its highest in
the sky at dawn, and sets around noon.


First Quarter



A first quarter moon shows half of its lighted hemisphere half of its day side to Earth.


Half Moon


First and Last Quarters occur when the Sun and Moon are about 90 degrees apart in the sky. In fact,
the two "half Moon" phases are called First Quarter and Last Quarter because they occur when the
Moon is, respectively, one- and three-quarters of the way around the sky from New Moon.


Crescent Moons

Waning and Waxing Crescent Moon
A crescent is the shape of the lit side of a spherical body (most notably the Moon) that appears to be
less than half illuminated by the Sun as seen by the viewer. Eastward pointing horns (pointing to the left,
as seen from the Northern hemisphere) indicate a waxing crescent, whereas westward pointing horns
(pointing to the right, as seen from the Northern hemisphere) indicate a waning crescent.

Solar Eclipse


Solar Eclipse is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and
Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.


Lunar Eclipse

A total penumbral lunar eclipse dims the moon in direct proportion to the area of the suns
disk blocked by the earth. This comparison shows the southern shadow penumbral lunar
eclipse of January 1999 (left) to the same moon outside of the shadow (right) demonstrates
this subtle dimming.