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SHARK

CAT
MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION ACTION
Dermal muscles:
1. superficial fascia



2. deep fascia
MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION ACTION
Parietal or Somatic Muscles:
1. Myotomes

2. Myosepta
3. Lateral Septum
4. Dorsal longitudinal bundles
5. Lateral longitudinal bundle
6. Ventral longitudinal bundle
7. Linea alba
Fin Musculature:
8. Muscle of the pelvic fin
(abductor, levator, or extensor)
Fascia of myotomes & iliac
process of the pelvic girdle

Abductor, levator, or
extensor of the fin
9. Extensor/levator muscle
(pectoral fin)
Scapular process of the pectoral
girdle and adjacent fascia
Pterygiophores Extensor/ levator
10. Ventral flexor or depressor mass pterygiophores Flexor
11. Branchial muscles
Operate the gill arches
and jaw
Constrictor Series:
12. Superficial constrictor
(6 dorsal, 6 ventral)

Compress gill pouches,
force water out, close the
gill slit and the mouth
13. Raphe
14. epihyoidean muscle Fascia and otic capsule hyomandibula
15. craniomaxillaris
(dorsal constrictor)
Otic capsule
Palatoquadrate
cartilage

16. quadratomandibularis
Rear part of platoquadrate
cartilage
Meckels cartilage
17. preorbitalis
Midventral surface of the
chondocranium

18. adductor mandibulae
(= quadratomandibularis + preorbitalis)
Close the lower jaw
19. intermandibularis muscle Midventral raphe mandible
20. mandibularis
21. interhyoideus
Levator Series:
22. levator maxillae superioris

Otic capsule

Palatoquadrate
cartilage

Raise the upper jaw
23. cucullaris
Fascia of the dorsal longitudinal
bundle
Epibranchial cartilage of
the last gill arch &
scapular process of
pectoral girdle
Levator scapulae
24. levator arcuum
(all levator series)
Raise gill arches
Interarcual Series:
25. gill cartilages

26. interarcual muscle Draw arches together
Hypobranchial muscle:
27. common coracoarcuals

Coracoid bar

Fascia above the rear
edge of mandibularis


28. coracomandibular
(geniocoracoid and geniohyoid)

29. coracohyoids basihyal
30. thyroid gland
31. coracobranchials Ceratohyal cartilage
3. cutaneous maximus
4. platysma
move lips, cheeks, eyelids,
ears, etc.
5. lumbodorsal fascia
6. linea alba
Abdominal muscles:
7. external oblique

Lumbodorsal fascia and
posterior ribs

extensive neurosis which
passes to the linea alba

Constrictor of abdomen
8. internal oblique
2
nd
sheet of lumbodorsal
fascia and border of pelvic
girdle
linea alba by the extensive
aponeurosis
Compressor of the abdomen
9. transversus abdominis
2
nd
sheet of lumbodorsal
fascia and border of pelvic
girdle
linea alba by the extensive
aponeurosis
Compressor of the abdomen
10. rectus abdominis
Anterior end of pubic
symphysis
Sternum and costal
cartilages
-Retracts ribs and sternum
-compress abdomen
Epaxial Muscles:
11. multifidus spinae

12. sarcopspinalis
Chest Muscles:
13. pectoantibranchialis

manubrium

Flat tendon on the fascia of
the forearm

Draws arm toward the chest
14. pectoralis major
Sternum and median ventral
raphe
Humerus Draws arm toward the chest
15. pectoralis minor sternum Humerus Draws arm toward the chest
16. xiphihumeralis Xiphoid process of sternum Humerus Draws arm toward the chest
Throat and Neck Muscles:
17. external jugular vein

18. submaxillary salivary gland
19. lymph glands
20. sternomastoid
Median raphe and
manubrium of sternum
Skull (lambdoidal ridge onto
the mastoid process)
-turn the head
-depress head on neck
21. sternohyoid First costal cartilage Body of hyoid bone Draw the hyoid posteriorly
22. cleidomastoid
Interchangeable
(clavicle)
Interchangeable
(mastoid process)
-pulls clavicle craniad
-turns head
-lowers head on neck
23. cephalobranchial
(#24 + #25)
Clavicle and fibers of the
clavotrapezius
Ulna Flexor of the forearm
24. clavotrapezius
25. clavobranchialis
(clavodeltoid)

26. masseter Zygomatic arch
Posterior half of the lateral
surface of the mandible
Elevator of the lower jaw
27. temporal
Side of the skull
(superior nuchal line to
zygomatic process)
Coronoid process of the
mandible
Elevator of the jaw
28. digastrics
Jugular and mastoid process
of the skull
mandible Depressor of the lower jaw
29. mylohyoid mandible Median raphe
-Raises floor of the mouth
-brings hyoid forward
30. geniohyoid Mandible near the symphysis Body of the hyoid Draws the hyoid forward
31. sternothyroid sternum
Thyroid cartilage of the
larynx
Pulls the larynx posteriorly
32. thyrohyoid Thyroid cartilage Posterior horn of the hyoid Raises the larynx
Back and Shoulder Muscles:
33. Latissimus dorsi

-Neural spines of the last
thoracic and most lumbar
vertebrae
-lumbodorsal fascia

Tendon on the medial
surface of the humerus

Pulls the forelimb dorsally
and caudally
34. Spinotrapezius
Spines of the thoracic
vertebrae
Fascia of the scapula
Draws the scapula dorsad and
caudad
35. Acromiotrapezius
Neural spines of cervical and
1
st
thoracic vertebrae
-Metacromion process
-spine of the scapula
-fascia of spinotrapezius
-draws scapula dorsad
-holds two scapula together
36. Clavotrapezius
-superior nuchal line
-median dorsal line of neck
clavicle
Draws the clavicle dorsad and
craniad
37. levator scapulae ventralis
transverse process of the
atlas and occipital bone
-metacromion process
-neighboring fascia
Draws the scapula craniad
38. rhomboideus
-Neural spines of the
vertebrae
-adjacent ligaments
Vertebral border of the
scapula
Draws scapula dorsad
39. rhomboideus capitis Superior nuchal line scapula
Draws the scapula craniad
and rotates it
40. splenius Middorsal line and fascia Superior nuchal line Raises or turns the head
41. supraspinatus Supraspinous fossa
Greater tuberosity of the
humerus
Extends the humerus
42. acromiodeltoid Acromion process
Surface of other muscles of
the shoulder
Raise and rotates the
humerus
43. spinodeltoid Spine of the scapula Deltoid ridge of the humerus
Raise and rotates the
humerus
44. infraspinatus
Surface of the infraspinous
fossa of the scapula
Greater tuberosity of the
humerus
Rotates the humerus
45. teres major
-axillary border of the scapula
-fascia of the neighboring
muscles
Medial surface of the
humerus
Rotates and lowers the
humerus
46. teres minor Axillary border of the scapula Grater tuberosity Assists the infraspinatus
47. subscapularis Subscapular fossa
Lesser tuberosity of the
humerus
Pulls the humerus medially
48. serratus ventralis
-slips of 9 or 10 ribs
-transverse process of the last
5 cervical vertebrae
Scapula near the ventral
border
Draws the scapula craniad,
ventrad, and agains the
thoracic wall
49. serratus dorsalis
Aponeurosis from the median
dorsal line
Last ribs Draw the ribs forward
50. scalene Ribs
Transverse process of the
cervical vertebrae
-Draw the ribs forward
-bend the neck
51. external intercostals Brings the ribs forward
52. internal intercostals Draw ribs back
53. semispinalis dorsi
54. longissimus
Transverse process of the
vertebrae

55. iliocostalis
Upper Arm muscles:
56. triceps branchii

Distal end of humerus

Lateral surface of the ulna
-strengthens the elbow joint
-rotates the ulna
57. epitrochlearis
(extensor antibranchii)
Latissimus dorsi olecranon
-strengthens the elbow joint
-rotates the ulna
58. biceps branchii Glenoid fossa radius Flexor of the forearm
59. branchialis
Lateral surface of the
humerus
ulna With the biceps
Forearm Muscles:
60. extensor carpi ulnaris

-Lateral epicondyle of the
humerus
-semilunar notch of the ulna

Proximal end of the 5
th

metacarpal


Extends fifth digit and ulnar
side of the wrist
61. extensor digitorum lateralis
Lateral surface of the
humerus above the
epicondyle
tendon Extends three or four digits
62. extensor digitorum communis
Above extensor digitorum
lateralis
Tendon Extends three or four digits
63. brachioradialis
(supinator longus)
Middle of humerus
-Lower end of radius
-adjacent ligaments
Rotates hand to supine
position
64. extensor carpi radialis Humerus near the extensors
Second and third
metacarpals
Extends hand
65. pronator teres
Medial epicondyle of the
humerus
radius
Rotates radius to prone
position
66. flexor carpi radialis
Medial epicondyle of the
humerus
Second and third
metacarpals
Flexes these metacarpals
67. Palmaris longus
Medial epicondyle of the
humerus
Flat tendon Flexor of digits
68. Flexor profundus digitorum Ulna and humerus Basal phalanges General flexor of the fingers
69. Flexor carpi ulnaris
Medial epicondyle of the
humerus
Pisiform bone of the wrist Flexes ulnar side of the wrist
Thigh Muscles:
70. Tensor fasciae latae

-ilium
-neighboring fascia

Fascia lata

Tightens the fascia lata

71. Biceps femoris Tuberosity of the ischium
-patella and tibia
-fascia of the shank
-abductor of the thigh
-flexor of the shank
72. caudofemoralis
Transverse processes of the
2
nd
and 3
rd
caudal vertebrae
Muscle passes ventrally
-abductor of the thigh
-extensor of the shank
73. gluteus maximus
-fascia
-transverse processes of the
last sacral and 1st caudal
vertebrae
-fascia lata
-greater trochanter
Abductor of the thigh
74. gluteus medius
-adjacent fascia
-crest of the ilium
-lateral surface of the ilium
-transverse processes of the
last sacral and 1
st
caudal
vertaebrae
Strong tendon on the
greater trochanter of the
femur
Abductor of the thigh
75. sartorius
Crest and ventral border of
the ilium
-Proximal end of the tibia,
patella, fascia
-ligaments between
-Adductor and rotator of the
thigh
-extensor of the shank
76. vastus lateralis
-greater trochanter
-surface of the femur

77. rectus femoris Ilium near the acetabulum
78. vastus medialis femur
79. vastus intermedius Surface of the femur
Patella and adjacent
ligaments
Extensor of the shank
80. gracilis Ischial and pubic symphysis
Aponeurosis which passes to
the tibia
Adductor of the leg
81. adductor longus pubis femur Adductor of the thigh
82. adductor femoris pubis femur Adductor of the thigh
83. semimembranosus ischium
-Medial epicondyle of the
femur
-proximal end of the tibia
Extensor of the thigh
84. semitendinosus Ischial tuberosity tibia Flexor of the shank
85. tenuissimus
Transverse processes of the
2
nd
caudal vertebrae
Fascia of the shank
Shank Muscles:
86. tibialis anterior

Proximal parts of the tibia and
fibula

Strong tendon inserted on
the 1
st
metatarsal

Flexor of the foot
87. extensor digitorum longus
Lateral epicondyle of the
femur
Stout tendon on each digit Extensors of the digits
88. peroneus fibula Metatarsals and digits
Extensors and flexors of the
foot
89. gastrocnemius
-surface fascia
-femur
-tendon and fascia of the
plantaris
calcaneus Extensor of the foot
90. soleus fibula Calcaneus
With the gastrocnemius
-extensor of the foot
91. plantaris
-Patella
-femur
Thick tendon attached to a
digit
Flexor of the digits
92. flexor digitorum longus
-tibia
-fibula
-adjacent fascia
Flexor of the digits
93. tibialis posterior
-tibia
-fibula
-adjacent fascia
Scaphoid and medial
cuneiform of the ankle
Extensor of the foot



CHICKEN
MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION ACTION
Thorax and Abdomen:
1. pectoralis major

carina of the sternum, furcula,
and sternal ribs

Proximal ventral surface of the
humerus

primary depressor of wing in
downstroke
2. supracoracoideus
carina of the sternum, furcula,
and sternal ribs
Proximal ventral surface of the
humerus
primary elevator of wing in
upstroke
3. external oblique
-Ventral borders of the ilium
and pubis, 7
th
rib
Median raphe between the
sternum and the anus
Compresses the abdomen
4. internal oblique
Ventral borders of the ilium
and pubis
Caudal border of the last
vertebral and sternal rib
Compresses the abdomen
5. serratus anteior
Lateral surface of the distal
vertebral ribs
Ventral surfaces of the scapula
Aids in inspiration expands the
chest
6. scaleneus
Transverse processes of the
11
th
and 12
th
cervical
vertebrae
Anterior and lateral surface of
the cervical ribs
Draws cervical rib forward
7. depressor caudae



Wings:
8. patagialis longus

Distal coracoids bone and
pectoralis muscle

Cranial (forward) surface of the
carpal bones

Flexes elbow, extends the carpus,
tenses patagium of the wing
9. biceps branchii
Near the glenoid fossa and
proximal head of thr humerus
Proximal anterior surface of the
radius
Flexes elbow, extends the carpus,
tenses patagium of the wing
10. triceps branchii
From the neck of the scapula
and proximal humerus
Olecranon process of the
proximal ulna
Flexes the shoulder, extends the
elbow
11. expansor secondariorum
Tendon from the
coacobranchialis
Follicles of the secondary
feather
Expands the secondary feather
12. deltoideus Proximal calvicle
Deltoid tuberosity of the
(proximal) humerus
Flexes shoulder, rotates wing
outward
13. teres major
Lateral caudal surfaces of
scapula bone
Proximal ventral surface of the
humerus
Elevates and adducts the wing
14. latissimus dorsi
Supraspinous ligament of the
thoracic spine
Proximal surface of the
humerus
Adducts and flexes the wing,
moving it backward and dorsally
Legs:
15. iliotibialis
Fascia over the synsacrum at
the midline and the ilium
Fascia over the proximal tibia at
the tibial crest (patellar
ligament)
Flexes the hip, extends the knee
and lower leg
16. sartorius
Spinous processes of the
lumbodorsal area
Fascia over the proximal tibia at
the tibial crest (patellar
ligament)
Flexes the hip and extends the
knee
17. semitendinosus
Crest and lateral surface of
the ilium and ischium
By ligament to the caudal
surface of the femur
Extends the thigh
18. semimembranosus Lateral surface of the ischium
Caudal surface of the
tibiotarsus
Extends the thigh, flexes the knee
19. ambiens Ilium and proximal pubis
Fascia over the proximal tibia at
the tibial crest (patellar
ligament)
Flexes the thigh
20. adductor longus
Ventral border of the ilium
and pubis
Medial condyle of the distal
femur
Adducts and extends the thigh
21. caudofemoralis
Ventral surface of the
pygostyle area
Caudal surface of the
tibiotarsus
Flexes the thigh, moves the tail
laterally
22. gastrocnemius
By 3 heads- posterior, lateral,
and medial- from the distal
femur and proximal
tibiotarsus
Tarsometatarsus and phalanges
of the foot via the Achilles
tendon
Flexes the knee,
Extends the foot
23. quadriceps femoris



Pelvic and Tail:
24. levator coccygis

25. lateralis caudae



26. levator caudae