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ElectricalSafety ElectricalSafety

INSY 6010
Fall 2003
Introduction Introduction
~ 1000 accidental electrocutions/year
1 in 4 are industry or farm related
Electricity is invisible
Degree of complacency
~ 1000 accidental electrocutions/year
1 in 4 are industry or farm related
Electricity is invisible
Degree of complacency
Electric Current Electric Current
Flow of electrons
Voltage
Resistance
Amperes
Ohms Law--> I = E/R
Flow of electrons
Voltage
Resistance
Amperes
Ohms Law--> I = E/R
Types ofElectricalHazards Types ofElectricalHazards
Contact with bare conductors
Live overhead lines
7,200 Volts
Types ofElectricalHazards Types ofElectricalHazards
Contact with bare conductors
Electrical systems open for repair
12,000 Volts
Types ofElectricalHazards Types ofElectricalHazards
Poor or failed (decayed) insulation
Types ofElectricalHazards Types ofElectricalHazards
Equipment failure
161,000 Volt
Substation
Types ofElectricalHazards Types ofElectricalHazards
Equipment failure
Types ofElectricalHazards Types ofElectricalHazards
Static electricity
ElectricalHazard: Static Electricity ElectricalHazard: Static Electricity
Motion of two or more objects
Dissimilar materials
Transfer of electrons
Charges the surface only
Motion of two or more objects
Dissimilar materials
Transfer of electrons
Charges the surface only
Static Electricity Hazards Static Electricity Hazards
Potential of 15,000 volts
Sparks
Ignition source for fires
Concern for handling sensitive electronic
components (ESD)
Potential of 15,000 volts
Sparks
Ignition source for fires
Concern for handling sensitive electronic
components (ESD)
Static Charge Situations Static Charge Situations
Transfer of liquid fuels
High-velocity flow of liquid
Flow of dust or small objects in a pipe
Conveyor belts made of certain materials
Nylon or wool carpet in the area of certain
materials
Transfer of liquid fuels
High-velocity flow of liquid
Flow of dust or small objects in a pipe
Conveyor belts made of certain materials
Nylon or wool carpet in the area of certain
materials
ControlofElectricalHazards ControlofElectricalHazards
Insulation of Electrical Equipment
Insulation of Personnel
Grounding
Encapsulation
Enclosure (Isolation)
Ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFI)
Insulation of Electrical Equipment
Insulation of Personnel
Grounding
Encapsulation
Enclosure (Isolation)
Ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFI)
Insulation ofElectrical Insulation ofElectrical
Equipment Equipment
One of the best ways to prevent shocks
Three functions:
prevent leakage of current
separate the conductor and worker
prevent overheating in conjunction with cooling
systems (blown air, chilled water, etc)
One of the best ways to prevent shocks
Three functions:
prevent leakage of current
separate the conductor and worker
prevent overheating in conjunction with cooling
systems (blown air, chilled water, etc)
Insulation ofPersonnel Insulation ofPersonnel
Ways to insulate personnel:
ladders and other equipment used
mats
gloves
shoes
Remove all metallic objects from body
Remove /secure loose clothing
Ways to insulate personnel:
ladders and other equipment used
mats
gloves
shoes
Remove all metallic objects from body
Remove /secure loose clothing
Grounding Grounding
Earth maintains relatively even charge, zero
reference potential
Completes electrical loop in most cases
Creates electrical hazard if human is in loop
Ground wire usually reduces this risk
Isolation of structures also reduces risk
Earth maintains relatively even charge, zero
reference potential
Completes electrical loop in most cases
Creates electrical hazard if human is in loop
Ground wire usually reduces this risk
Isolation of structures also reduces risk
Encapsulation Encapsulation
Embed electrical units in casing
Isolates the unit from malfunction and
personnel
Embed electrical units in casing
Isolates the unit from malfunction and
personnel
Enclosure :Isolation: Enclosure :Isolation:
Power to equipment shut off (LOTO)
Temporary restraints
Permanent restraints
Power to equipment shut off (LOTO)
Temporary restraints
Permanent restraints
Ground Ground::Fault Circuit Interrupter Fault Circuit Interrupter
:GFI: :GFI:
Provides protection against line-to-ground
contact
Detects the flow of current to the ground
When current is detected the circuit is
opened
Provides protection against line-to-ground
contact
Detects the flow of current to the ground
When current is detected the circuit is
opened
Ground Ground::Fault Circuit Fault Circuit
Interrupter:GFI: Interrupter:GFI:
Electric Shock Electric Shock
Human body
Electrical circuit
Current flow
Ground fault current
Human body
Electrical circuit
Current flow
Ground fault current
PhysiologicalEffects of PhysiologicalEffects of
Electric Shock Electric Shock
Central Nervous System: contains tiny
electrical voltages used as signals to brain
Large currents freeze muscles which can:
Not allow victim to release the source
Stop breathing
Stop heart
Skin provides some resistance to shock
Central Nervous System: contains tiny
electrical voltages used as signals to brain
Large currents freeze muscles which can:
Not allow victim to release the source
Stop breathing
Stop heart
Skin provides some resistance to shock
Current to ShockComparison Current to ShockComparison
1 mA or less: Not felt
3 mA - 10 mA: Painful shock
10 mA - 15 mA: 2.5% of population freeze
15 mA - 30 mA: 50% of population freeze
30 mA - 50 mA: Breathing difficulty
50 mA - 100 mA: Possible heart fibrillation
100 mA - 200 mA: Certain heart fibrillation
200 mA & up: Severe burns; heart stop
1 mA or less: Not felt
3 mA - 10 mA: Painful shock
10 mA - 15 mA: 2.5% of population freeze
15 mA - 30 mA: 50% of population freeze
30 mA - 50 mA: Breathing difficulty
50 mA - 100 mA: Possible heart fibrillation
100 mA - 200 mA: Certain heart fibrillation
200 mA & up: Severe burns; heart stop
::: :::::Volt Myth Volt Myth
ordinary 110-volt circuits are safe.
110-volt circuits can kill
Statistics prove more deaths from 110-volt
than 220-volt or 440-volt
Environment and characteristics of shock
usually indicate seriousness
ordinary 110-volt circuits are safe.
110-volt circuits can kill
Statistics prove more deaths from 110-volt
than 220-volt or 440-volt
Environment and characteristics of shock
usually indicate seriousness
Wiring Wiring
A typical 110-volt circuit has 3 wires
hot
neutral
ground
Shorting
A typical 110-volt circuit has 3 wires
hot
neutral
ground
Shorting
Wiring Dangers Wiring Dangers
Jump ground wire to neutral wire
create low voltages on exposed parts of
equipment
Reversed polarity
Open ground
Jump ground wire to neutral wire
create low voltages on exposed parts of
equipment
Reversed polarity
Open ground
Correctly wired ::: Correctly wired ::: ::volt volt
circuit circuit
Electric
power source
Fuse or
breaker
Hot wire (black)
Neutral wire (white)
Ground
Ground wire (green or bare)
Wire Fires Wire Fires
One of most common causes of fires of
electrical origin are wires
Wire diameters must be of proper size
One of most common causes of fires of
electrical origin are wires
Wire diameters must be of proper size
Over Over::current Protection current Protection
Devices Devices
If current exceeds a given limit, power is
shut off.
circuit breakers
If current exceeds a given limit, power is
shut off.
circuit breakers
Over Over::current Protection current Protection
Devices Devices
If current exceeds a given limit, power is
shut off.
common devices:
fuses
circuit breakers
arc-fault protection: typically associated with
high voltage situations (new technology used in
submarines) sensing light flash, or pressure
surge.
If current exceeds a given limit, power is
shut off.
common devices:
fuses
circuit breakers
arc-fault protection: typically associated with
high voltage situations (new technology used in
submarines) sensing light flash, or pressure
surge.
Over Over::current Protection current Protection
arc-fault protection:
typically associated
with high voltage
situations (new
technology used in
submarines) sensing
light flash, or
pressure surge.
arc-fault protection:
typically associated
with high voltage
situations (new
technology used in
submarines) sensing
light flash, or
pressure surge.
Over Over::current Protection current Protection
Devices Devices
If current exceeds a given limit, power is
shut off.
fuses
If current exceeds a given limit, power is
shut off.
fuses
Test Equipment Test Equipment
Safety managers should
have access to several
pieces of test equipment
Circuit Tester
(voltmeter)
Receptacle Wiring
Tester
Continuity Tester
(ohmmeter)
Safety managers should
have access to several
pieces of test equipment
Circuit Tester
(voltmeter)
Receptacle Wiring
Tester
Continuity Tester
(ohmmeter)
Frequent Violations ofthe Frequent Violations ofthe
NationalElectricalCode NationalElectricalCode
Grounding of portable tools & appliances
Exposed live parts
Improper use of flexible cords
Marking of disconnects
Connection of plugs to cords
Grounding of portable tools & appliances
Exposed live parts
Improper use of flexible cords
Marking of disconnects
Connection of plugs to cords
Fire Hazards Fire Hazards
Most people think electrocution when they
think of electrical hazards
Electrical codes deal with fire hazards
Fuses and circuit breakers main purpose is
fire prevention
Most people think electrocution when they
think of electrical hazards
Electrical codes deal with fire hazards
Fuses and circuit breakers main purpose is
fire prevention
Hazardous Locations Hazardous Locations
National Electrical Code
Class - major classification, material
Division - relates to the extent of the hazard
National Electrical Code
Class - major classification, material
Division - relates to the extent of the hazard
Classes and Divisions of Classes and Divisions of
Hazardous Locations Hazardous Locations
Class I - flammable gases or vapors
Division 1 and 2 - extent of hazard
Class II - combustible dust
Division 1 and 2 - extent of hazard
Class III - easily ignitable fibers or flyers
Division 1 and 2 - extent of hazard
Class I - flammable gases or vapors
Division 1 and 2 - extent of hazard
Class II - combustible dust
Division 1 and 2 - extent of hazard
Class III - easily ignitable fibers or flyers
Division 1 and 2 - extent of hazard
Safety Precautions for Safety Precautions for
ElectricalHazards ElectricalHazards
Be sure power is off
Proper LOTO procedures
Properly qualified
Proper protective equipment
Always test the system
Do not wear conducting material
Be sure power is off
Proper LOTO procedures
Properly qualified
Proper protective equipment
Always test the system
Do not wear conducting material
Safety Precautions for Safety Precautions for
ElectricalHazards Con:t: ElectricalHazards Con:t:
Proper grounding and bonding
Inspect insulation
Never stand on wet or damp floors
Use right kind of fire extinguishing agent if
needed
Proper grounding and bonding
Inspect insulation
Never stand on wet or damp floors
Use right kind of fire extinguishing agent if
needed
Safety Precautions for Safety Precautions for
ElectricalHazards Con:t: ElectricalHazards Con:t:
Explosion proof devices
Lightning protection
Basic first aid and CPR
Proper enclosure for bare conductors
Rope man to evacuate worker from source
Use a checklist to ensure compliance
Explosion proof devices
Lightning protection
Basic first aid and CPR
Proper enclosure for bare conductors
Rope man to evacuate worker from source
Use a checklist to ensure compliance
Questions : Comments Questions : Comments